Fiber optics

Fiber optics deals with the light propagation through thin glass fibers. Fiber optics plays an important role in the field of communication to transmit voice, television and digital data signals from one place to another. The transmission of light along the thin cylindrical glass fiber by total internal reflection was first demonstrated by John Tyndall in 1870 and the application of this phenomenon in the field of communication is tried only from 1 !7. Today the applications of fiber optics are also e"tended to medical field in the form of endoscopes and to instrumentation engineering in the form of optical sensors. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF OPTICLE FIBERS or PRINCIPLE OF TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION: #rinciple$ %The basic principle of opticle fiber is Total internal reflection& Total internal reflection: & 'hen the light ray travels from denser medium to rarer medium the refracted ray bends away from the normal. 'hen the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle, the refracted ray again reflects into the same medium. This phenomenon is called Total internal reflection.&




*et, a light ray traveling from denser medium +of refractive inde" n1, to rarer medium +of refractive inde" n!, with an angle of incidence i , then the angle of refraction r can be obtained by -nell.s law. This is shown in fig(1. Therefore n1Sin i = n2Sin r 'hen the angle of incidence is increased angle of refraction also increases and for a particular angle of incidence +i /0C, the refracted ray travels along the interface of two mediums. This angle of incidence is 1nown as critical angle (0C). This is shown in fig(!. From the snell.s law

2f i3 0C , the ray reflects towards the same media. This is called total internal reflection. This is shown in fig().
When When When

+i 4 0 , , then the ray refracts into the secondary medium +i /0 ,, then the ray travels along the interface +i 30 ,, then the ray totally reflects back into the same medium

PEC #.6.6.-atyanarayana

5ame of the Faculty$

and the refracted ray :9 is again incident on the interface of core and cladding with an angle of incidence + 00<01. will be greater than the critical angle. Stren t# $e%&er: 9uffer 7ac1et is surrounded by strength member. then + 00<01. 9ecause of this arrangement fiber cable will not be damaged during pulling. *et a light ray . even through the fiber cable is made up of glasses.. *et n0. is e8ual to the critical angle of core and cladding media then the ray travels along the interface of core and cladding along the path 9=. PEC #. Therefore.: is incident on the interface of air medium and core medium with an angle of incidence 0 0 then the light ray refracts into the core medium with an angle of refraction 0 1. 9uffer 7ac1et is made of plastic and protects the fiber cable from moisture. >enerally core diameter is ?0 @m. The core is surrounded by cladding. 2f + 00<01. Outer !ac"et: Finally the fiber cable is covered by polyurethane outer 7ac1et. Claddin : : medium surrendered by core is called cladding. ACCEPTANCE AN'LE: (efinition: :cceptance angle is defined as the ma"imum angle of incidence at the interface of air medium and core medium for which the light ray enters into the core and travels along the interface of core and cladding by ma1ing total internal reflections. n1 and n! be the refractive indices of air. 2f the angle of incident at the interface of air and core 0 14 00.STRUCTURE OF AN OPTICAL FIBER: Core: : typical glass fiber consists of a central core material.6. core and cladding media. = . =ladding refractive inde" is lesser than the core refractive inde". 2t provides strength to the fiber cable. 2t improves the 8uality of transmission of light.6. The core medium refractive is always greater than the cladding refractive inde". bending. The overall diameter of cladding is 1!? @m to !00 @m Silicon Coatin : -ilicon coating is provided between buffer 7ac1et and cladding.-atyanarayana 5ame of the Faculty$ . the total internal reflection ta1es place. stretching and rolling. Buffer !ac"et: -ilicon coating is surrounded by buffer 7ac1et.

6.NU$ERICAL APERTURE: PEC #.-atyanarayana 5ame of the Faculty$ .6.

-tep inde" fiber ii.6. -ingle mode fiber ii. i.Cla))ification of O*ticle fi&er): 9ased on the refractive inde" of core medium. optical fibers are may broadly classified into four categories i. STEP IN(E+ FIBER: PEC #. :ll glass fibers. :ll plastic fibers. optical fibers are classified into two categories.-atyanarayana 5ame of the Faculty$ .6. optical fibers are classified into two categories i. Aulti mode fiber 9ased on the material used. #olymer clad silica fibers. ii. >raded inde" fiber 9ased on the number of modes of transmission. iii. iv. >lass core with plastic cladding fibers.

G( ions in the fiber material.-atyanarayana 5ame of the Faculty$ ii. This is called signal attenuation. This heat leads to loss of signal in the glass fibers. A&)or*tion Lo)) -. The atoms in the glass fiber absorb the 2C Cadiation which causes the Aechanical vibrations. Thus there is loss light due to absorption. A&)or*tion lo)): 2n fused silica fibers the B6 :bsorption is due to ioniEation of valance electrons into conduction band.ATTENUATION OF OPTICAL FIBER OR LOSSES IN OPTICAL FIBER: :ttenuation is the loss of optical power as light travels in the fiber. 2on absorption is also caused by 2ron. (i)*er)ion Lo)) i.6. %The signal power output from the optical fiber decreases e"ponentially with respect to length of the fiber. This can be e"press as follows.6. IR A&)or*tion: >lass is a good infra(red absorber. They are i. Cou*lin Lo)) and . Bendin Lo))e) i-. The B6 :bsorption cause due to the fabrication of fibers by adding some doping elements. Ion Re)onance A&)or*tion: This is caused by . A&)or*tion Lo)): There are three different mechanisms contribute to absorption losses in glass fibers. The B6 absorption pea1 occurs at 0. 2on Cesonance :bsorption ii. PEC #. The source of . These mechanical vibrations cause the heat in the glass fibers. i.1F@m. 'here D is :ttenuation coefficient The signal loss in the fibers depends upon different aspects. =opper and =hromium molecules. Scatterin Lo))e) iii. those are shown as follows. 2C :bsorption iii.G( ions is water molecules that have been trapped in the glass during the manufacturing process. B6 :bsorption loss U.

That is 2ntermodal dispersion or chromatic dispersion and Aaterial dispersion and. This is shown in the figure. 5: Aismatch ?. This distortion caused by various factors. $icro Bendin Lo)): Aicro 9ending are the small(scale bends in the core(cladding interface. Cefractive inde" profile mismatch.. Cou*lin Lo)): >enerally the optical fibers are of one 1ilometer in length. and density fluctuations. 1. i.6. the number of optical fibers are coupled together. There are few types of mismatches given below. =ore diameter Aismatch !. -ignal Kistortion PEC #. or can be due to local mechanical stresses placed on the fiber. This results broadening of the transmitted pulse. These are localiEed bends can develop during deployment of the fiber. Aicro bending can happen in the fiber manufacturing process also. Inter%odal di)*er)ion: This type of dispersion is caused when light travels in different angles in the fiber posses different velocities. These bends become a great source of power loss when the radius of curvature is less than several centimeters. For a long distance communication.6. H"amples of inhomogenities are glass composition fluctuations +which results in minute refractive inde" change. core and cladding mismatch ). lo)): Cayleigh scattering is caused by small(scale +compared with the wavelength of the light wave.e.-atyanarayana 5ame of the Faculty$ . Cayleigh scattering accounts for about IJ of attenuation in optical fiber. Aacro 9ending *oss $acro Bendin Lo)): Aacro bending happens when the fiber is bent into a large radius of curvature relative to the fiber diameter.e.. Those losses are called =oupling losses. These are shown in figure. Aacro 9ending *oss ii. Si nal di)tortion and di)*er)ion Lo))e): Kistortion in optical fiber means change of signals from one form to another form. i. inhomogenities that are produced in the fiber fabrication process. This is shown in the figure. Then the loss could occur due to mechanical misplacement. Bendin Lo)): There are two types of signal losses in bending of fibers. i.Ra/lei # )catterin 0Linear Scatterin . =ladding diameter mismatch F.

-atyanarayana 5ame of the Faculty$ . Encoder !. 3a-e uide. into binary data. Tran)%itter ). 'ith the help of specially made connector optical signals will be received by the receiver from the wave guide. information in the form of optical signals over distances with the help of repeaters. 74 (ecoder: 2t converts electric signals into the analog information. 64 Recei-er: 2t consists of three partsL they are photo detector. 1. The amplifier amplifies the electric signals as they become wea1 during the long 7ourney through the wave guide over longer distance. they are drive circuit and light source. amplifier and signal restorer. The signal restorer 1eeps the electric signals in a se8uential form and supplies to the decoder in the suitable way.. 'ith the help of specially made connector optical signals will be in7ected into wave guide from the transmitter. Krive circuit supplies the electric signals to the light source from the encoder in the re8uired form.6.OPTICAL FIBER CO$$UNICATION S1STE$:2 :n optical fiber communication system mainly consists of the fol owing parts as shown in figure. Recei-er4 ?. 24 Tran)%itter: 2t contain two parts. ob7ects etc. F.6. figures. 54 3a-e uide$ 2t is an optical fiber which carriers. (ecoder4 Repeaters Bloc" (ia ra% of O*tical Fi&er Co%%unication S/)te% 14 Encoder: Hncoder is an electronic system that converts the analog information li1e voice. PEC #. The photo detector converts the optical signal into the e8uivalent electric signals and supplies them to amplifier. The light source converts the electrical signals into optical form.

-atyanarayana 5ame of the Faculty$ .(IFFERENCE BET3EEN STEP IN(E+ FIBER AN( 'RA(E( IN(E+ FIBER: (IFFERENCE BET3EEN SIN'LE $O(E AN( $ULTI $O(E FIBERS: PEC #.6.6.

6.-atyanarayana 5ame of the Faculty$ .6.2 3 APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL FIBERS: PEC #.

-atyanarayana 5ame of the Faculty$ .A(.ANTA'ES OF OPTICAL FIBERS: PEC #.6.6.