org Central to the arguments to promote prison reforms is a human rights argument this argument is often insufficient to encourage prison reform programmes in countries with scarce human and financial resources. The detrimental impact of imprisonment, not only on individuals but on families and communities, and economic factors also need to be taken into account when considering the need for prison reforms. Human rights considerations : A sentence of imprisonment constitutes only a deprivation of the basic right to liberty and those which are naturally restricted by the very fact of being in prison. It does not entail the restriction of other human rights. Thus prison reform is necessary to ensure the human rights of prisoners protected and their prospects for social reintegration increased. Imprisonment and poverty : hen an income generating member of the family is imprisoned the rest of the family must ad!ust to this loss of income. The impact can be especially severe in poor, developing countries where the state does not provide financial assistance to the indigent and where it is not unusual for one breadwinner to financially support an e"tended family network. The family in addition to loss of the income of the sole breadwinner faces the additional costs such as the cost of a lawyer, food for the imprisoned person, transport to prison for visits and so on. hen released former prisoners are generally sub!ect to socio#economic e"clusion and are thus vulnerable to an endless cycle of poverty, marginalisation, criminality and imprisonment. Public health consequences of imprisonment : $risons have very serious health implications. $risoners hailing from poor socio#economic background are likely to have e"isting health problems due to lack of health services. Their health conditions deteriorate in prisons which are overcrowded, where nutrition is poor, sanitation inade%uate and access to fresh air and e"ercise often unavailable. $sychiatric disorders, &I' infection, tuberculosis, hepatitis ( and C, se"ually transmitted diseases, skin diseases, malaria, malnutrition, diarrhoea and in!uries including self#mutilation are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in prison. )tudies reveal that prevalence of T( can be up to *++ times higher inside the prisons. $rison staff are also vulnerable to most of the diseases of which prisoners are at risk. Detrimental social impact : Imprisonment disrupts relationships and weakens social cohesion, since the maintenance of such cohesion is based on long#term relationships. hen a member of a family is imprisoned, the disruption of the family structure affects relationships between spouses, as well as between parents and children, reshaping the family and community across generations. The benchmarks for action in prison reform: the United Nations Standards and Norms ,ver the years a considerable body of -nited .ations standards and norms related to crime prevention and criminal !ustice has emerged. Key among standards and norms that relate directly to prison reform are: / / / / -nited .ations )tandard 0inimum 1ules for the Treatment of $risoners (asic $rinciples for the Treatment of $risoners -nited .ations )tandard 0inimum 1ules for .on#Custodial 0easures 2Tokyo 1ules3 -nited .ations 1ules for the Treatment of omen ,ffenders 2(angkok 1ules3 omen $risoners and .on#custodial 0easures for

Other UN instruments relevant to the prison system: / / / -niversal 4eclaration of &uman 1ights International Covenant on 5conomic, )ocial and Cultural 1ights International Covenant on Civil and $olitical 1ights

/ The Convention against Torture and ,ther Cruel, Inhuman or 4egrading Treatment or $unishment / / -. 1ecommendations on 6ife Imprisonment Arusha 4eclaration on 7ood $rison $ractice

-.,4C believes that effective prison reform is dependent on the improvement and rationalisation of criminal !ustice policies, including crime prevention and sentencing policies, and on the care and

aiming to reduce the number of people being isolated from society for long periods. An integrated approach also takes account of areas that are typically not regarded as part of the 8criminal !ustice system8. to which certain offenders may be diverted. the development of substance dependence treatment programmes in the community or psycho#social counselling programmes. further adding to the congestion of prisons. The implementation of penal sanctions within the community. it assists some of the most vulnerable members of society to lead a life without having to relapse back into criminal behavior patterns #ocial $eintegration : )ocial reintegration initiatives should start as early as possible within the criminal !ustice process in order to have ma"imum effect. This means that diversion from the criminal !ustice process 2especially of vulnerable groups3 to appropriate treatment programmes. including ICC$1. the lack of resources for prisons in many low#income countries means that people in detention do not have access to legal advice and assistance. such as the !udiciary prosecution and police service. Thirdly. improving access to !ustice. Interventions to support former prisoners following release from prison.. "lternative !easures and #anctions : . to speed up the processing of cases. putting pressure on valuable resources. as well as assisting with the development of safeguards for pre#trial detainees. pre#trial detention is overused in most countries worldwide and in many developing countries the si. Thematic Areas of Work in the field of Prison Reform and Alternatives to Imprisonment -. can all be considered as elements of a comprehensive 8social reintegration8 policy. Prison !anagement: $rison authorities have a responsibility to ensure that the supervision and treatment of prisoners is in line with the rule of law. for e"ample. that provide for the limited use of pre#trial detention. numerous international instruments recommend a rationali. offers in the long term better protection for society. )econdly. building new prisons and maintaining them is e"pensive. including the wider use of alternatives to prison.4C9s technical assistance in the area of prison reform covers the following thematic areas: • • • • pre#trial detention: prison management: alternative measures and sanctions: social reintegration.ation in sentencing policy. and treated as such. such as independent monitoring and inspection mechanisms. pre#trial detention is the period most open to abuse in the criminal !ustice process.4C9s work in the field of penal reform. as relevant.treatment made available to vulnerable groups in the community. with respect to individuals9 human rights. although pre#trial detainees should be presumed innocent until found guilty by a court of law. reform initiatives will usually need to also encompass criminal !ustice institutions other than the prison service. Instead. only when certain conditions are present. international human rights instruments provide for a large number of very specific safeguards to ensure that the rights of detainees are not abused. instead of isolation from society and purposeful activities and programmes in prisons. This policy re%uires close coordination between criminal !ustice institutions and social protection and health services in the community and probation services where they e"ist. with the result being that they may overstay on remand. rather than being imprisoned.e of the pre#trial prisoner population is larger than that of the convicted prisoner population. 1eform of the prison system should therefore always take into account the needs relating to the reform of the criminal !ustice system as a whole and employ an integrated. trying to meet the needs of a growing number of prisoners with special needs. Pre trial detention : There are three main issues that need to be taken into consideration in the conte"t of pre#trial detention: firstly.vercrowding is the root cause of many human rights violations in prisons. conditions in pre#trial detention are often much worse than those of prisons for convicted prisoners. Thus. will all be more effective if the period in prison is used to prepare a prisoner for re#entry to society. and/or not receive a fair the particular vulnerability of pre#trial detainees. improving information management and cooperation between courts and prisons. comprise important elements of -. and that the period of imprisonment is used to prepare individuals for life outside prison following release. . practice shows it is not as . These include. continuum of care in the community for those in need. thus ensuring that services in prison are not overstretched. hen accompanied by ade%uate support for offenders. rather than through a process of isolation from it. multi#disciplinary strategy to achieve sustainable impact. that they are not ill#treated and their access to !ustice not hindered. Therefore.. hile overcrowding can be temporarily decreased by building new prisons. In addition. 1ecogni. non#custodial sanctions. supporting legal and paralegal aid programmes. This situation contradicts the provisions in international standards.