CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE

UNDERSTANDING CELLS

Parts of Microscope and Their Functions

Technique in Using a Microscope A microscope is used to examine specimens which are too small to be seen with the naked eye. It is a very delicate and expensive instrument. It must be used with great care so as not to demage it. Do 1. Use both hands when carrying a microscope - one hand hold the limb and the other to support the base. 2. Place the microscope down gently on the table in an upright position. 3. Always keep the stage and other parts of the microscope dry.

Don't use the high power objective lens without covering the specimen with a cover slip. With the help of your fingersand a long needle. Always start viewing a specimen with the low power objective lens. Change the objective lens to a medium of high power if necessary. gently lower a cover slip on the specimen. 6. report any demage to your teacher. 4. 4. Do not trap any air bubbles! 4. Don't view slides which are wet. Place the specimen in the middle of a clean slide. 3. Don't repair the microscope. Place a drop of water on the specimen. wipe te slides with tissue paper. view the specimen with both eyes open. Technique in Mounting a Slide on a Microscope for Viewing. Use the fine adjustment knob for focusing when viewing with the high power objective lens. 5. Place the prepared slide on the stage so that the specimen to be viewed is in the middle of the hole on the stage. Don't 1. slowly lower the objective lens until it is very close to the slide. 3.4. 5. 7. 1. Use the find adjustment for the high power objective lens. 1. If you wish to stain the specimen: . turn the coarse adjustment knob towards you (raising the objective lens) until the specimen is in focus. Technique in Mounting a Specimen on a Slide.) 5. (Make sure the diaphragm is open if there is one. Fit in the low power objective lens and turn it to position. Always clean the lenses with tissue paper only to avoid scratching them. 3. 2. Looking down the eyepiece. The slide is now ready for viewing. Look down the eyepiece and adjust the mirror so that a bright view is obtained. 6. 2. Use a piece of filter papaer to wipe away any water around the cover slip. Change to the high power lens if necessary. 8. 2. Don't squint down the microscope. Placing your eye level with the stage. Fit in the eyepiece for the microscope. Place the microscope in a well-lit place such as in front of a window.

using the irrigation technique. 5. b) use a strip of filter papaer at the other end of the cover slip to draw the solution across the specimen. Each animal cell is made up of cell protoplasm (cytoplasm and nucleus) and cell membrane. Surrounding the nucleus is the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is defined as the material between the cell membrane (plasma membrane) and the nucleus envelope. The cytoplasm is thinner and more watery than the nucleus. Generally. . The protoplasm is a semi-solid or jelly-like substance. 1. 4. 3. The nucleus is the oval or round seen in the centre of a cell. 2.a) place a drop of iodine solutiion or methylene blue solutiion at one end of the cover slip.

1. . Typical plant cells are rectangular in shape.

.2. But as the cell grows older. These are called vacuoles. 4. Chloroplast builds chlorophyll. Vacoules contain cell sap which is a very dilute solution of sugar and salt in water. more and more vacuoles are formed. a green pigment. The plant cell has a rigid cell wall. A cell wall is made up of cellulose which is a form of carbohydrate. only found in plant cells. In very young cells. the vacuoles may not be seen. There are regions in the plant cell which do nt contain cytoplasm. 3. 5.

The function of cell structures are shown in the table and figure below: .1.

Table: Function of cell structures 2. The function of cell structures can be illustrated as shown in figure below: An overview of the comparison of animal and plant cells is shown below: .

4. 3. 2. water. on plants and in our body. A living thing (plant or animal) is called an organism. A living thing which can only be seen under a microscope is called a microorganism. Examples of microorganisms are: a) bacteria b) viruses.Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms 1. Microorganism are found everywhere such as in the air. c) algae d) yeasts e) amoeba . soil.

. 6. Unicellular organisms which are microscopic in size are also called unicellular microorganisms. Some are plants such as euglena. Unicellular organisms are usually found in water (ponds. chlamydomonas and pleurococcus. They are usually very active and are always moving about. 4. Each of them can carry out all the life processes that large organisms do such as moving about. rivers and sea) or on moist areas (tree trunks and in the soil). feeding and respiring. 2.Examples of microorganisms 1. An organism which consists of only one cell is called a unicellular organism. 5. paramecium and plamodium. Some unicellular organisms are animals such as amoeba. lakes. 3.

3.1. Some organisms consist of many cells. Most organisms are multicellular including large plants and animals. Multicellular organisms have different types of cell. . 4. Most multicellular microorganisms live in water such as spirogyra (plant) and hydra (animal) 5. They are multicellular organisms. each type serving a different function. 2. Multicellular organisms which are microscopic in size are referred to as multicellular microorganisms.

Unicellular and multicellular organisms carry out all the life processes in order to live. Unicellular and multicellular organisms: a) move b) need food c) need air d) grow e) reproduce f) give out waste substances g) are sensitive . 2.1. although they may be very small.

2. The simplest organism such as an amoeba consists of only one cell. All organisms including human beings are built from basic units called cells. 5.Organisation Of Cells In The Human Body 1. 4. 3. but is able to carry out all the life processes. The human body has different types of cell with each type carrying out a different function. Cells are microscopic and can only be seen under a microscope. Some examples of cells in the human body are shown below: .

A group of simillar cells performing the same function forms a tissue. Two types of tissue 2. Cells and their functions 1.6. The human body is built of four main types of tissue. Some functions carried out by cells are explained in the table below. .

Figure in the below shows the main organs in the body and their functions. Example: The leg is an organ formed from different types of tissue (see figure) to perform the same main function.1. 2. that is to move the body from place to place. An organ is made up of a group of different tissues which carry out a specific function. .

A system consists of a group of organs working together to carry out the same function. Figure in the below shows the main organs in some of the systems in the human body. 2. .1.

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The main functions of the different systems are given below.Some of the system in the human body 3. .

3.The main functions of different systems. The different systems form an organism such as a human being. 1. The human body is organised as shown in the figure below: . 2. The different systems in the body function and co-ordinate their activities so that the body functions as one whole.

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Organisation if the human body .

4. Human are able to create and learn from experience that far exceeds any other species. the skeletal system. and to develop a scientific understanding of themselves and the world. 3. the nervous system and the respiratory system. The human body is a complex system of cells most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialised functions. Human are complex made up of thousands of individual systems. Humans are unique among Earth's life forms as they have language and thought. Some of the major systems are the blood circulatory system. Humans are also unique in their profound curiosity about themselves. Humans have a better developed brain than other life forms. Humans can use this ability to create technologies and literary and artistic works on a vast scale. 5. internal coordination and reproduction. 2. protection against injury. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve. 6. Humans are endowed with intelligence which enables them to think rationally and differentiate right from wrong. . deriving energy from food. the digestive system.Human Are Complex Organisms 1.