12 views

save

- ass1.1
- Comparing Fractions
- Tips for Math Calculation
- Method of Multiplication
- Trach
- Worksheet Day 1
- Mtap Reviewer 1
- "Who Has" - Whole Number Math Game
- Directions for Multiplying Numbers (3rd Grade Math Level)
- Some Studies on Semirings and Ordered Semirings
- m&mfractions
- using halves stg 5 and 6
- solution
- 2012 Year8 Yearly
- Area-5
- PI in the sky (14)
- Neutrosophic Duplet Semi-Group and Cancellable Neutrosophic Triplet Groups
- M18-01
- SM-15701-DI-I
- a2h 4 4 notes assignment
- Bai Bao Cm Dl Fermat Lon_andrew Wiles
- 5040 (Number) - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- EXPANSION OF xn IN SMARANDACHE TERMS OF PERMUTATIONS
- C-loops and control statement-7
- Year 5 Maths Revision
- Compass Math Sample
- TCS Solution
- ISI MOCK
- maths 15
- Notes
- Smarandache Curves According to q-Frame in Euclidean 3-Space
- Neutrosophic Units of Neutrosophic Rings and Fields
- Pest Analysis Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps: A Case Study for Food Industry
- On Geodesics of the Tangent and Normal Surfaces Defined by TN-Smarandache Curve According to Frenet Frame
- An Inventory Model under Space Constraint in Neutrosophic Environment: A Neutrosophic Geometric Programming Approach
- A Revisit to NC-VIKOR Based MAGDM Strategy in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
- On Neutrosophic Crisp Semi Alpha Closed Sets
- Neutrosophic Triplet Normed Ring Space
- On Smarandache Curves of Involute-evolute Curve According to Frenet Frame in Minkowski 3-space
- Bi-level Linear Programming Problem with Neutrosophic Numbers
- Rough Neutrosophic Multisets Relation with Application in Marketing Strategy
- Neutrosophic Crisp Bi-Topological Spaces
- Fuzzy Neutrosophic Alpha m-Closed Sets in Fuzzy NeutrosophicTopological Spaces
- Multi-Objective Portfolio Selection Model with Diversification by Neutrosophic Optimization Technique
- Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Project Selection
- An OWA Distance-Based, Single-Valued Neutrosophic Linguistic TOPSIS Approach for Green Supplier Evaluation and Selection in Low-Carbon Supply Chains
- Some Generalized Dice Measures for Double-Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Their Applications
- A Neutrosophic Set Based Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Multi-Stage Fault Template Data
- Fundamental Homomorphism Theorems for Neutrosophic Extended Triplet Groups
- Different Methodologies in Treating Uncertainty
- Some Generalized Dice Measures for Double-Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Their Applications
- Research on Construction Engineering Project Risk Assessment with Some 2-Tuple Linguistic Neutrosophic Hamy Mean Operators
- Different Forms of Triangular Neutrosophic Numbers, De-Neutrosophication Techniques, and their Applications
- Design of Fuzzy Cognitive Model of Mutual Influence and Connectivity of Innovative Technologies
- Dual Generalized Nonnegative Normal Neutrosophic Bonferroni Mean Operators and Their Application in Multiple Attribute Decision Making
- Fixed Point Theorem for Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space
- Smarandache Curves of Bertrand Curves Pair According to Frenet Frame
- SINGLE-VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC HYPERGRAPHS
- A Generalization of Surfaces Family with Common Smarandache Asymptotic Curves in Galilean Space
- A Forecasting Model Based on Multi-Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Two-Factor, Third-Order Fuzzy Fluctuation Logical Relationships

**by Ion mUacenoiu, Department of Mathematics, University ofCraiova,
**

1100, Romania

Letp be a prime number. In [5] is defined the function Sp as Sp:N* ----+N*,Sp(a)=k, where k is

the smallest positive integer so that pa is a divizor for kL

A Smarandache function of first kind is defined for each 11 EN* in [1], as nurnericaI function

* *

Sn:N ----+ N ,so that:

i) if n = u

i

, where u = 1 or u = p, then S1/( a) = k, k being the smallest positive integer with the

property that k! = M. u

ia

.

1

'1') l'f n pil pi2 .. , _pir then

= I . 2 . r '

It is proved that:

S n (a + b) :::; S1/ (a) . Sn ( b)

In [2] is proved that:

i) the function Sn is monotonously increasing,

ii) the sequence of functions {S i} is monotonously increasing.

p ieN"

iii) for p, q - prime nurnbers such that: p < q ~ S p < Sq and p' i < q ~ S / < Sq. where i EN

iv) if n<p, then Sn < S p-

In [3] it is proved:

i) for p ~ 5, Sp > max{Sp_l,Sp+l}

ii) for p,q - prime numbers, i,j EN

*

p < q and i:::; j ~ S i < S J

P q

iii) the sequence of functions {S n teN" is generaly increasing boundled

*

iv) if n=p:l. p;2 . .... /;, there are k"k

2

", ... ,k

m

E{1,2, ... ,r} so that for ~ c h tEI,m there IS

*

q, EN so that

*

and for each lEN we have:

SnU) = max{sp i. (I)}.-

k k(

(

We define the set It E 1, m} as the set of active factors of n- and the others factors as the pasive

factors.

Let NpI.P2-.-Pr = {n = p{l. ... ,ir EN*}, where PI < P2 < ... < Pr are prime numbers.

Then

N

PIP2-P {N I h il . ir t· J:': }

. r = 11 E PJP2-Pr n as PI ,Pi , ... ,P

r

as ac lactors

is the S-active cone.

A Smarandache function of second kind is defined for each k EN* in [1], as the function

Sk:N* -7 N* where Sk (n) = Sn(k).

It is proved that:

Sk(a ·b) Sk(a). Sk(b)

In [4] it is proved that:

i) for k,1l EN* the formula is true

ii) all prime numbers P 5 are maximal points for Sk and

iii) the function Sk has its relative minimum values for every n = p!, where P is a prime number

and P max{3,k}

iv) the numbers kp for p prime number, k EN* and p > k, are the fixed points of Sk

v) the function Sk have the following properties:

a) Sk= 0 (nIH), for &> 0

Sk(n)

b) lim sup = k

n-+oo n

c) Sk is, "generally speaking", incresing, thus:

152

1. DEFINITION. Let g-ft = {Sm(n)\n,m EN*},

*

let A,BEP?(N )###BOT_TEXT### and a = min A,

b = min B, a * = max A, b * = max B . The set J is the set of the functions:

Sa(h),n < max{a,h}

Sak (b

k

), max {a, b} n::; max{a

k

,b

k

}

where

B * . B {}

JA:N wzth JA(n)= ai

I

0c = b

j

EBlb

j

n}

J

* * *

Sa.(b ),n> max{a ,b }

2. EXAMPLES.

) .6

6

.l

O

,12} N* g-ft d

a (3·8IO}: an :

\ , ,

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

n>13

I{6,IO,12}

{3,8,lO} S3(6) S3(6) S3(6) S3(6) S3(6) S3(6) 3

3

(6) S8(6) 3

8

(6) 8

10

(10) 310(10) SIO(12) SIO(12)

b) Let A = {1,3,5, ... ,2k+l, ... }

B = {2,4,6, ... ,2k, ... }

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 2k 2k+l

IB

A

S2(l) S2(1) S2(3) S4(3) S4(5) S6(5)

c) Let A = {5,9,lO} and g-ft with

153

n

A

IA

N·

IN·

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

S5(5) S5(5) S5(5) S5(5) S5(5) S5(5) S5(5) S5(5) S9(9)

SI (1) S2(2) S3(3) S4(4) S5(5) S6(6) S7(7) S8(8) S9(9)

It is easy to see that 11 is not the reduction of IN: and 11cN*) c IN: (N*).

N . N

3. REMARK.

The functions whitch belongs to the set I have the folowing properties:

1) if Al c A2 and nEAl, then (n) = 1;;2 (n)

1 ') if and n , then (n) = I.1fz (n)

10

n> 11

SlO(10) SlO(lO)

S1O(10) SnCn)

2) IN: (11) = Sn(n) = Sn(n), the function IN: is called the I - diagonal function and IN: CN*) is

N N N

called the diagonal of g,f{.

3) for each m EN* I{N·} = Sm for I{N·}(n) = Sm(n), '\In EN*.

. m m

3') for each m EN* = Sill for = Sn(m) = Sm(n), '\In EN*,

4) if n EA (lB, then IiCn) = = SnCn).

4. DEFINITION. For each pair m,n EN*, SmCn) and SmCn) are called the simetrical numbers

relative to the diagonal of

Sm and Sill are called the simmetrical functio:n.s relative to the I-diagonal function As a rule,

I;; and are called the sirnrnetrical functions relative to the I-diagonal [unction

5. DEFINITION. Let us consider the following rule T:I x I I, T I@ = It is easy to see

that T is idempotent, commutative and associative, so that:

i) Ii T 15f = Ii

ii) I;; T I@ = I@ T 15f

iii) (I;; T I@) T If = 15fT (I@T If), where A,B,C,D,E,F E?PCN*)###BOT_TEXT###

6. DEFINITION. Let us consider the following relative partial order relation p, where:

pclxI,

pIg <=> A c (' and Bc D.

It is easy to see that CI, T,p) is a semilattice.

1 54!

7. DEFINITION. The elements ll, v E I are p - preceded if there is wEI so that:

W pu and w pv.

8. DEFINITION. The elements u, v EI, are p - strictly preceded by w if:

i) W pll and w pv.

ii) '\Ix EI\{w} so that x pll and x pv =>x pw.

9. DEFINITION. Let us defined:

l = {(u, v) EI x Ilu, v are p-preceded}

1# = {( ll, v) E I x v are p - strictly preceded}.

It is evidently that (u, v) E 1* (v, u) Eland (ll, v) E 1# (v,u) E 1#.

10. DEFINITION. Let us consider T# = U xU, U c I and let us consider the following rule:

1.:1# 4- W, We 1, Ii 1. Ig = and the ordering partial relation r c U x U so that

Ii rIg pIi·

The structure (1#,.l,r) is called the return of semi lattice (1, T,p).

11. DEFINITION. The following set

is called the base of return (1#,.l,r).

12. REMARK. The base of return has the following properties:

i) if IB Ere => 1.'1 Ere

A B

ii) for 0:t; Xc N*,I§ Ere

iii) for Ii Ere is true the following equivalence 0:t; X nonexistence of

B * B w·

13. PROPOSITION. For IA there e.xists n EN so that Irl, (n) = (n).

Proof Because A (l B :t; 0 it results that there exists n E A 1\ B so that:

It results that for then has at least a point of contact with I-diagonal function.

155

and

14. REMARK. From the 1. it results:

b, n<b= minB

*

bk> b5:n5:b =maxB

where

b

k

= max{x EB\X 5: n}

* *

b ,n>b

a, m<a= min A

*

ak, a 5: m a = max A

rl

n

}Cm) = SmCa

m

), where am = where

ak = max{x E Alx m}

* *

a ,m>a

15. PROPOSITION. There are troe thefollowing equivalences:

liCn) = It} Cn) = SnCb

n

), IS Cn) = = SnCd

n

), liCm) = = S!llCa

m

), and

IgCm) = = S"\c

m

) where am' b

m

c,mdn are defined in the sense of 14.

then

Proof Evidently,

( I!, I g) E 1# An C :t: 0 and B n D :t: 0 If E P1J .

Because An C :t: 0' and B n D :t: 0 it exists n E An C and m E B n D. Then:

IiCn) = = SnCb

n

), Ig Cn) = = SnCd

n

)

IiCm) = I);n}(m) = SmCa

m

), Ig Cm) = Ibm}Cm) = S"'(c

m

).

Conversely, if there exist n EN* so that IiCn) = SnCb

n

) and Ig Cll) = SnCd

n

), then because

liCn) = SnCb

n

) it results n = ak = EAlai n}, so that 11 EA. Because IgCI1) = SnCd

n

) it results

I

nEC.

Therefore AnC:t: 0, thus, finally, IJ Ere. It is also proved If EPlJ in the some way.

If n 5: m, because n E An C it results that n E {x E Alx 5: m} and n E {y E qy 5: m}, therefore

n 5: am 5: m and 11 c

m

5: m.

156

This is presented in the following scheme:

n m

m

•.................

S,-!!(n) .

16. DEFINITION. The retum (L#,J..,r) o/semillatice (L,T,p)Js:

a)null"if L#={(u,u)luEL}=LlL.

b) weak, if card[,# < card(L x L \ [,#)

c) consistent, if cardL# = card(L x L - L#)

d) vigour, if cardL# > card(L x L - L#)

e) total, if L# = Lx L.

17. PROPOSITION. The retum (r,J..,r) o/the semilattice (I, T,p) is consistent.

Proof Evidently, card(g>(N*)\ card I = card[(g>(N*)-0) x C??J>(N*)- 0)] and

card(l x I) = K

Let us consider a--={(A,C)IA,Ceg.>(N*)-0,AnC=0} and Gff={(A,C)IA,CEg>(N*)-0,

AnC:;t;0}.

-- *

cardgt;" Indeed, if AnC=0 it results that CNoAuCNoC=N ; because for every

X EP(N*) - 0 ='Y = N* \ X so that Xu Y = N* then it results = card Because for

each (A,C), A,C EgJJ(N*)- 0, A n C = 0, it exist at kast two (AJ,C

l

),(A

2

,C

2

) with

Ai n C

l

:;t; 0, A2 n C

2

:;t; 0 it results card5

157

Since carddW card[ ('PJJ(N*) - 0) x ('PJJ(N*) - 0)] = finally cardIff = Because

cardl# = card(dW x and card(1 x 1)-1# = card(,ff it results that (1#,J..,r) is a return

consistent.

18. RElVIARK. Generaly, it is interesting the [olowing problems:

i) what relations, operations, structures can be defined on

ii) what relations, operations, structures can be defmed on

REFERENCES

[1] I. Balacenoiu, Smarandache Numerical Functions, S.F.J. vol.4, 1994, p.6-13.

[2] I. Balacenoiu, V. Seleacu, Some properties od Smarandache Functions of the type I, S.F.J.,

vol. 6, 1995, p.I6-20.

[3] I. Balacenoiu, The Monotony of Smarandache Functiolls of First Kind, S.N.J, vol.7, 1996, p.39-

44.

[4] 1. Balacenoiu, c. Dumitrescu, Smarandache Functions of the second kind, S.F.J., vol. 6, 1995,

p.55-58.

[5] F. Smarandache, A function in the Numbers Theory, seria st. mat. , vol.

XVIII, [asc.I, p.79-88, 1980.

- ass1.1Uploaded bypeter
- Comparing FractionsUploaded bychipppppp
- Tips for Math CalculationUploaded byMayur Sharma
- Method of MultiplicationUploaded byrohini1997
- TrachUploaded bySamit Kumar Saha
- Worksheet Day 1Uploaded byjagannivas
- Mtap Reviewer 1Uploaded byClaudio Doydoy Cartin
- "Who Has" - Whole Number Math GameUploaded byebuctot
- Directions for Multiplying Numbers (3rd Grade Math Level)Uploaded bySaile Mizam
- Some Studies on Semirings and Ordered SemiringsUploaded byInternational Journal of Engineering Inventions (IJEI)
- m&mfractionsUploaded byapi-87433144
- using halves stg 5 and 6Uploaded byapi-282689395
- solutionUploaded byLionel Carlos
- 2012 Year8 YearlyUploaded byAndrew Rong
- Area-5Uploaded byMuhammad Usman
- PI in the sky (14)Uploaded bysudo5
- Neutrosophic Duplet Semi-Group and Cancellable Neutrosophic Triplet GroupsUploaded byscience2010
- M18-01Uploaded byMarcos Vinícius Guarda
- SM-15701-DI-IUploaded bypavan kumar kvs
- a2h 4 4 notes assignmentUploaded byapi-361243725
- Bai Bao Cm Dl Fermat Lon_andrew WilesUploaded bygaloi14
- 5040 (Number) - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byVz9s
- EXPANSION OF xn IN SMARANDACHE TERMS OF PERMUTATIONSUploaded byRyanElias
- C-loops and control statement-7Uploaded byvinitajenny
- Year 5 Maths RevisionUploaded byWilsonBrendan
- Compass Math SampleUploaded byneelimakomal
- TCS SolutionUploaded bykarobikushal
- ISI MOCKUploaded byPRATIK ROY
- maths 15Uploaded byapi-230427224
- NotesUploaded byMona Sundari

- Smarandache Curves According to q-Frame in Euclidean 3-SpaceUploaded byMia Amalia
- Neutrosophic Units of Neutrosophic Rings and FieldsUploaded byMia Amalia
- Pest Analysis Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps: A Case Study for Food IndustryUploaded byMia Amalia
- On Geodesics of the Tangent and Normal Surfaces Defined by TN-Smarandache Curve According to Frenet FrameUploaded byMia Amalia
- An Inventory Model under Space Constraint in Neutrosophic Environment: A Neutrosophic Geometric Programming ApproachUploaded byMia Amalia
- A Revisit to NC-VIKOR Based MAGDM Strategy in Neutrosophic Cubic Set EnvironmentUploaded byMia Amalia
- On Neutrosophic Crisp Semi Alpha Closed SetsUploaded byMia Amalia
- Neutrosophic Triplet Normed Ring SpaceUploaded byMia Amalia
- On Smarandache Curves of Involute-evolute Curve According to Frenet Frame in Minkowski 3-spaceUploaded byMia Amalia
- Bi-level Linear Programming Problem with Neutrosophic NumbersUploaded byMia Amalia
- Rough Neutrosophic Multisets Relation with Application in Marketing StrategyUploaded byMia Amalia
- Neutrosophic Crisp Bi-Topological SpacesUploaded byMia Amalia
- Fuzzy Neutrosophic Alpha m-Closed Sets in Fuzzy NeutrosophicTopological SpacesUploaded byMia Amalia
- Multi-Objective Portfolio Selection Model with Diversification by Neutrosophic Optimization TechniqueUploaded byMia Amalia
- Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Project SelectionUploaded byMia Amalia
- An OWA Distance-Based, Single-Valued Neutrosophic Linguistic TOPSIS Approach for Green Supplier Evaluation and Selection in Low-Carbon Supply ChainsUploaded byMia Amalia
- Some Generalized Dice Measures for Double-Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Their ApplicationsUploaded byMia Amalia
- A Neutrosophic Set Based Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Multi-Stage Fault Template DataUploaded byMia Amalia
- Fundamental Homomorphism Theorems for Neutrosophic Extended Triplet GroupsUploaded byMia Amalia
- Different Methodologies in Treating UncertaintyUploaded byMia Amalia
- Some Generalized Dice Measures for Double-Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Their ApplicationsUploaded byMia Amalia
- Research on Construction Engineering Project Risk Assessment with Some 2-Tuple Linguistic Neutrosophic Hamy Mean OperatorsUploaded byMia Amalia
- Different Forms of Triangular Neutrosophic Numbers, De-Neutrosophication Techniques, and their ApplicationsUploaded byMia Amalia
- Design of Fuzzy Cognitive Model of Mutual Influence and Connectivity of Innovative TechnologiesUploaded byMia Amalia
- Dual Generalized Nonnegative Normal Neutrosophic Bonferroni Mean Operators and Their Application in Multiple Attribute Decision MakingUploaded byMia Amalia
- Fixed Point Theorem for Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric SpaceUploaded byMia Amalia
- Smarandache Curves of Bertrand Curves Pair According to Frenet FrameUploaded byMia Amalia
- SINGLE-VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC HYPERGRAPHSUploaded byMia Amalia
- A Generalization of Surfaces Family with Common Smarandache Asymptotic Curves in Galilean SpaceUploaded byMia Amalia
- A Forecasting Model Based on Multi-Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Two-Factor, Third-Order Fuzzy Fluctuation Logical RelationshipsUploaded byMia Amalia