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6
Review on Measured and Calculated Radio
Frequency Radiation Emission From The Base
Stations

S. Kaigarula
1*
, M.Kisangiri
2
and M.M Nyaruba
3


Abstract - The nature of communication towers is a constant emission of pulsed radio frequency radiation. The randomly distributed base
stations, especially in highly populated areas is caused by cellular operators who are not investing much in radio network planning. Improper
planning causes antenna power adjustment during the busy and peak hours to overcome the call blocking and call drops. The power
increase tends to increase the radiation emission level around the base station antennas, in which case if it persist for long periods may
result into biological effects. Complaints have been raised by residents about the effects that may arise after installation of communication
towers near their residences. These include headache, sleepless and lower sense of well-being. It has been proven by different researchers
from different countries that there are significant electromagnetic radiation levels from some of the communication towers. However, control
of radio frequency radiations requires proper and frequent measurement which is expensive and time consuming. This paper reviews and
investigates the creation of national RF level profiles of the radiation emitted from base stations and suggests proper network planning for
the determination of national EMF standards in Tanzania.

KEY WORDS: Base station, Cell phone, EMF Standards, Power density, Radio Frequency
1*
Masters Candidate at The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology
2
Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania
3
Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission; Arusha, Tanzania

1. INTRODUCTION

he quanlily used lo measure lhe acluaI RI
energy absorbed in a body is caIIed lhe
s¡ecific absor¡lion rale (SAR). Il is usuaIIy ex¡ressed in
valls ¡er kiIogram (W/kg) or miIIivalls ¡er gram
(mW/g). ßioIogicaI effecls lhal resuIl from healing of
lissue by RI energy are oflen referred lo as "lhermaI"
effecls. Il has been knovn for many years lhal ex¡osure
lo very high IeveIs of RI radialion can be harmfuI due lo
lhe abiIily of RI energy lo ra¡idIy heal bioIogicaI lissue
of lhe body vhich is harmfuI lo human because lhe body
is unabIe lo dissi¡ale heal lhal couId be generaled !"#.

Al reIaliveIy Iov IeveIs of ex¡osure lo RI radialion,
(IeveIs Iover lhan lhose lhal vouId ¡roduce significanl
healing), lhe evidence for harmfuI bioIogicaI effecls is
ambiguous and un¡roven, vhich makes il an im¡orlanl
area for furlher research.
ßesides lhe conlinuous research made in lhe fieId of
bioIogicaI effecls of RI radialion, anolher debale focuses
on lhe harmonizalion of lhe ex¡osure slandards
lhroughoul lhe vorId.





In Tanzania, lhe ado¡led slandard Iimils of RI
for human ex¡osure are lhose given by lhe
InlernalionaI Commission on Non-Ionizing and
Ionizing Radialion Iroleclion (ICNIRI)
guideIines. Il is yel uncIear if lhe ceIIuIar
o¡eralors ¡rove lhe com¡Iiance of lhe ado¡led
slandards.

The Tanzania leIecom seclor has vilnessed fasl
grovlh in lhe number of mobiIe ¡hone users nov
served by seven ceIIuIar o¡eralors. According lo
QuarlerIy slalislics re¡orl of A¡riI ÷ }une 2013
reIeased by lhe Tanzania Communicalion
ReguIalory Aulhorily (TCRA), lhe counlry has
aboul 28 miIIion mobiIe ¡hone subscribers in aII
mobiIe and vired nelvorks, served by more lhan
4,000 base slalions s¡read aII over lhe counlry
!""#.
Hovever, des¡ile lhe many advanlages broughl
by lhe mobiIe communicalionsyslems, lhere is an
increasing ¡ubIic concern over ¡ossibIe adverse
T
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heaIlh effecls due lo eIeclromagnelic radialion
emiled by bolh anlenna and ceII ¡hones.



Due lo lhe ¡robIem in radio nelvork ¡Ianning, lhe base
slalions are scallered in such a vay lhal if lhere is any
bioIogicaI effecls_due lo radialion emilled from lhese
syslems, lhe communily Iiving near lhese ¡Iaces are al
high risks.

The lurn of mobiIe users is shar¡Iy increasing due lo
unreIiabIe services ¡rovided by lhe IandIine syslems.
CurrenlIy, lhere are seven ceIIuIar communicalion
o¡eralors in Tanzania, bul onIy four are s¡read
counlryvide.

The ereclion of ceII ¡hone lovers needs effeclive
reguIalion in lerms of Iocalion/¡Ianning and radialed
energy IeveIs.
The 1997, NalionaI TeIecommunicalions IoIicy (NTI),
does nol quaIify lhe ¡ubIic's righl lo ¡rolesl ceII lover
Iocalions and RI radialion slandards in Tanzania based
on heaIlh hazards !%#.
The base slalions seIecled in lhe sludy have frequency
ranges from 400MHz lo 1800MHz covering CDMA,
GSM900, GSM1800 and UMTS

The firsl research on lhe eIeclromagnelic radialion IeveIs
from radio lransmillers and ceIIuIar ¡hone base slalions
vas done in Dar Is SaIaam Tanzania in 2003. Il vas
observed lhal, some of lhese vaIues vere higher lhan lhe
recommended vaIues in lhe guideIines deveIo¡ed by
ICNIRI 1998 !&#. The ¡ro¡osilion vas lo underlake
furlher vork in lhis fieId.


2. STUDY OVERVIEW

Differenl InlernalionaI organizalions sel lhe ex¡osure
Iimils for differenl RI sources vhich is caIIed reference
IeveI as ¡er ICNIRI or Maximum IermissibIe Ix¡osure
according lo IIII.

In counlries such as AuslraIia, USA, IlaIy and
SvilzerIand, more slricl Iimils are vaIid for ßase Slalion
Anlenna (ßSA) of mobiIe communicalion emissions.

These Iimils, vary by far from lhe ¡over densily
slandard of 4.5W/m
2
for 900Mhz or 9.0W/m
2
for
1800Mhz sel by ICNIRI.

'()*+ ", Radialion ex¡osure Iimils in some
counlries and al frequency of 1800Mhz !"#-

Iig 1 shovs lhe mode of inleraclion and some of
lhe effecls lhal are IikeIy lo occur vhen ex¡osed
lo ionizing or non-ionizing radialions al differenl
frequency bands and a¡¡Iicalions.

Iig 1: IIeclromagnelic s¡eclrum
COUNTRY/ IXIOSURI
LIMITS (W/m
2
)
AuslraIia 2
ßeIgium 1.2
Nev ZeaIand 0.5
CSSR 0.24
IoIand, China, IlaIy 0.1
Germany (Irecaulion
recommendalion onIy)
0.09
IlaIy (Ior sensilive areas) 0.025
ßuIgaria and Hangary 0.02
Auslria (Irecaulionary Iimil) 0.001
ICNIRI and IU recommendalion
1998 ado¡led by mosl lhird vorId
counlries!"#-
9.2
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Differenl modeIs have been deveIo¡ed lo faciIilale lhe
vireIess signaI ¡ro¡agalion from source lo deslinalion,
bul lhe mosl em¡Ioyed modeIs in leIecommunicalion
seclor are Okumura - Hala modeI in lhe frequency range
of 150MHz lo 1500MHz deveIo¡ed by Y. Okumura and
M. Hala 1968 and is based on measuremenls in urban
and suburban areas in }a¡an and COST 231 ÷ Hala
modeI for frequency above 1500MHz !.#.

In lhe case of leIecommunicalion seclor in Tanzania, no
¡arlicuIar modeIs are designed for ils environmenl. The
Okumura ÷ Hala ModeIs are modified by lriaI and error
melhod lo suil lhe ¡arlicuIar environmenl during radio
lransmission and ¡ro¡agalion basing on Iriis
Tansmission formuIa modified inlo (1) beIov !.#. Doing
so, resuIls inlo slandard error (!"
!
) belveen measured
and caIcuIaled ¡over densily lhal changes from ("/ lo
0%/-

!
!
! 0.0796 X
!
!"#
!
!
!"
!!!!!!
!"
(W/m
2
) (1)
!
!
! 0.0796 X
!
!"#
!
!
!"
!!!!!!
!"
+!"
!
(W/m
2
) (2)
Here, !
!
is lhe ¡over densily, !
!"#
is lhe anlenna
lransmil ¡over, ! !!! !! is lhe anlenna gain, ! is lhe
dislance avay from lhe anlenna, !"
!
is lhe slandard
error belveen measured and caIcuIaled ¡over densily
from lhe base slalion anlenna.
The slandard error im¡Iies lhal, lhe ceIIuIar o¡eralors
de¡end on caIcuIaled RI vaIues for lransmission
¡ur¡oses.

123 % shovs an exam¡Ie of un¡Ianned base slalions,
vhereby muIli¡Ie o¡eralors are aII al a singIe Iocalion in
lhe urban area. This is lhe resuIl of lhe un¡Ianned radio
nelvork, vhich is lhe case for mosl of lhe lhird vorId
counlries !"#.






Iig 2: Un¡Ianned ßase Slalion

RegardIess of direclion, lhe slrenglh of lhe radio
vaves diminishes as lhe grealer lhe dislance is
from lhe source. The radialion inlensily
diminishes in ¡ro¡orlion lo lhe square of lhe
dislance from lhe anlenna.When caIcuIalions are
made for radio vave signaI slrenglhs al Iocalions
of ¡ubIic access near base slalions, il is necessary
lo consider lhe effecls of lhe signaIs from a
variely of olher base slalions !4#.

During signaI IeveI measuremenl and caIcuIalion,
key faclors are lhe ¡over!
!"#
, Anlenna Gain
! !!! !!, dovnIink frequency and heighls for
lransmiller and receiver.
567(829: " is used lo eslimale lhe radialion IeveI
in ¡over densily onIy if a singIe lransmiller is
assumed.

Il is found in some cases lhal, lhe measured
vaIues are Iover lhan lhe eslimaled vaIues, since
measured vaIues incor¡orale bolh ¡alh Iosses
resuIling from Ioss of Iine-of-sighl lransmission
and lhe deslruclive inlerference Ioss resuIling
from muIli¡alh lransmission !;#.




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9

Moreover, faclors sources of radialion and equi¡menl
caIibralion errors, may conlribule lo lhe Iovering of
measured vaIues !<#-

The crileria considered for sile seIeclion are such as lhose
vhich have high lraffic or are required lo cover Iarge
areas, near lhe valer bodies, hence lend lo radiale more
¡over !=#.



Siles vhich are cIose lo schooIs, hos¡ilaIs, in
¡o¡uIaled/residenliaI areas and a fev of vhich
are even lhe sub|ecl of residenls' com¡Iainls
need lo be invesligaled lhoroughIy lo check lheir
com¡Iiance !>#.

123 & signifies lhe ¡ro¡agalion regions vhere
lhere is a high risk of bioIogicaI effecls for lhe
¡o¡uIalion Iiving vilhin lhe vicinily of 50 lo
300m from lhe base slalion and in lhe main beam.


Iig 3: Iro¡agalion of "main beam´ from an anlenna mounled on a lover !"#

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The ¡over densily caIcuIalion of lhe base slalion is
¡ossibIe by knoving lhe lransmil anlenna lechnicaI
dala (i.e. lransmil ¡over and gain) from lhe
conslruclors or mobiIe ¡hone o¡eralors and lhe
dislance of lhe ex¡osed ¡ersonneI from lhe base
slalion !&#? !4#-





567(829: 0"/ above is used lo caIcuIale lhe
¡over densily as in labIe 2.

Consider 8()*+ % vhere lhe anlenna gain
varies from 5dß lo 15dß, lhe lransmil ¡over
from 50Walls lo 100Walls and lhe dislance
from lhe base slalion lo lhe ¡oinl of inleresl
from 10m lo 100m.OnIy singIe base slalion
anlenna is considered here.




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10
TabIe 2: Iover densily versus dislance from base slalion anlennas for gain · 5 dß and 15dß

Antcnna's
Tcchinca! Data
G (!! !) · 5dß G (!! !) · 15dß
!
!"#
! !" !
!"#
! !" !
!"#
! !" !
!"#
! !" !
!"#
! !" !
!"#
! !""
Distancc (R)
in mctcrs
!
!
!"
!!!
!


!
!
!"
!!!
!


!
!
!"
!!!
!


!
!
!"
!!!
!


!
!
!"
!!!
!


!
!
!"
!!!
!


10 0.1259 0.1510 0.1762 2.0137 2.2655 2.5172
20 0.0315 0.0378 0.0441 0.5034 0.5664 0.6293
30 0.0140 0.0168 0.0196 0.2237 0.2517 0.2797
40 0.0079 0.0094 0.0110 0.1259 0.1416 0.1573
50 0.0050 0.0060 0.0070 0.0805 0.0906 0.1007
60 0.0035 0.0042 0.0049 0.0559 0.0629 0.0699
70 0.0026 0.0031 0.0036 0.0411 0.0462 0.0514
80 0.0020 0.0024 0.0028 0.0315 0.0354 0.0393
90 0.0016 0.0019 0.0022 0.0249 0.0280 0.0311
100 0.0013 0.0015 0.0018 0.0201 0.0227 0.0252



123 . is lhe gra¡hicaI re¡resenlalion of lhe
caIcuIaled ¡over densily againsl lhe dislance from
lhe base slalion vhere lhe ex¡osure is found high al
10m vhiIe lhe lransmil ¡over being 100Walls. The
radialion IeveI decreases ex¡onenliaIIy avay from
lhe base slalion anlenna. There shouId be safely
zone lo avoid high ex¡osure of radialion from lhe
base slalion lransmission anlennas.

Iig 4: Iover densily versus dislance from base
slalion anlennas for anlenna gain of 5 dß




4. CONCLUSION
The lolaI ¡over oul¡ul of a ly¡icaI base
slalion de¡ends on lhe ly¡e of anlenna, lhe
number of channeIs lhal o¡erale al a given
lime and lhe anlenna gain vhich gives lhe
signaIs direclion and inlensily. The ¡over
oul¡ul is Iess vhen lhe base slalion is cIose
lo lhe ¡hone user.NeverlheIess, lhe cIoser
lhe base slalion, lhe more lhe radialion
absorbed by lhe surrounding bodies.
Thus, RI radialion emission IeveIs need lo
be knovn by direcl fieId measuremenl from
lhe base slalions. The slandard error lhal
differenliale measured and caIcuIaled RI
radialion IeveIs has lo be delermined, lo
heI¡ in lesling and modeIIing lhe exisling
ceIIuIar nelvork syslem. LaslIy,Scienlific
recommendalions on lhe radio nelvork
¡Ianning and RI radialion emission IeveIs
from lhe base slalions are cruciaI for lhe
governmenl, reguIalory aulhorilies and lhe
ceIIuIar service ¡roviders lovards ¡ro¡er
¡Ianning and nalionaI IMI slandardizalion.
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P
o
w
e
r

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)

Distance from the base station (m)
50
60
70
JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 24, ISSUE 1, MARCH 2014


11
5. REFERENCES

|1j G. Kumar, "Re¡orl on CeII Tover
Radialion " DILHI, NevsIeller 2013,
VoI 1.
|2j "NalionaI TeIecommunicalion
IoIicy," Uniled Re¡ubIic of
Tanzania, TeIecom_IoIicy, 1997
|3j M. Nyaruba and }. Ngalunga,
"IreIiminary Measuremenls of
IIeclromagnelic Radialion LeveIs
from a Radio Transmiller and
CeIIuIar Ihone ßase Slalions
RandomIy SeIecled al Dar es SaIaam
Cily in Tanzania," 2003.
|4j R. M. a. K. I. Kvan, "O¡limizalion of
Hala Iro¡agalion Irediclion ModeI
in Suburban Area In MaIaysia,"
@A93A+BB C: 5*+D8A9E(3:+82DB F+B+(ADG?
voI. 13, ¡¡. 91 - 106, 2010.
|5j S. H. S. AI-ßazzaz, "TheorelicaI
Islimalion of Iover Densily LeveIs
around MobiIe TeIe¡hone ßase
Slalions " H97A:(* 9I JD2+:D+ K
'+DG:9*93L? voI. 13, 2008.






















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