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The objective of this article is to investigate the existence of magic squares made with
Smarandache's numbers [Tabirca, 1998]. Magic squares have been studied intensively and many aspects …Full description

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Sabin Tabirca *

°Buclcs University College, Computing Department

The objective of this article is to investigate the existence of magic squares made with

Smarandache's numbers [Tabirca, 1998]. Magic squares have been studied intensively and

many aspects concerning them have been found. Many interesting things about magic

squares can be found at the following WEB page

http://www.pse.che.tohoko.ac.jp/-msuzukilMagicSquares.html.

Definition 1. A Smarandache magic square is a square matrix a EM n (N) with the

following properties:

a) (1)

b) (v j=l,n)i=a

i

.j =k (2)

i=1

c) (Vi = 1,n)i=a

i

.j =k (3)

j=1

Therefore, a Smarandache magic square is a square matrix by order n that contains only

the elements S(l),S(2), ... ,S(n2) [Smarandache, 1980] and satisfies the sum properties (2-

3). According to these properties, the sum of elements on each row or column should be

equal to the same number k. Obviously, this number satisfies the following equation

n"

LS(i)

k = -,-i=-,-1 __

n

n

2

Theorem 1. If the equation nIL Sci) does not hold, then there is not a Smarandache

magic square by order n.

Proof

1=1

100

,,2

LS(i)

This proof is obvious by using the simple remark k = ;=) EN. If a EM" (N) IS a

n

,,2

Smarandache magic square, then the equation niL SCi) should hold. Therefore, if this

i=)

equation does not hold, there IS no a Smarandache magtc square.

Theorem 1 provides simple criteria to find the non-existence of Smarandache magIC

,,2

square. All the numbers 1 <n<l 0 1 that do not satisfy the equation niL SCi) can be

i=)

found by using a simple computation [Ibstedt, 1997]. They are {2, 3, .... , 100}\{6, 7, 9,

58, 69}. Clearly, a Smarandache magic square does not exist for this numbers. If n is one

,,2

of the numbers 6, 7, 9, 58, 69 then the equation n I LS(i) holds [see Table 1]. This does

i=)

not mean necessarily that there is a Smarandache magic square. In this case, a

Smarandache magic square is found using other techniques such us detailed analysis or

exhaustive computation.

,,2

Sen)

LS(i)

n i=)

6 3 330

7 7 602

9 6 1413

58 29 1310162

69 23 2506080

,,2

Table 1. The values of n that satisfy n

I LS(i).

1=)

101

An algorithm to find a Smarandache magic square is proposed in the following. This

algorithm uses Backtracking strategy to complete the matrix a that satisfies (1-3). The

going trough matrix is done line by line from the left-hand side to the right-hand side.

The algorithm computes:

• Go trough the matrix

• Find an unused element of the set S(1), S(2), ... ,S(n2) for the current cell.

• If there is no an unused element, then compute a step back.

• If there is an used element, then

•

•

Put this element in the current cell.

Check the backtracking conditions.

• If they are verified and the matrix is full, then a Smarandache magic

square has been found.

• If they are verified and the matrix is not full, then compute a step

forward.

procedure Smar_magic_square(n);

begin

col:=1; row:=1;a[col, row]:=O;

while row>O do begin

while a[col, row]<n*n do begin

a[ col, row ] :=a[ col,row]+ 1;

call check(col,row,n,a,cont);

if cont=O then exit;

end

if cont =0 then call back(col,row);

if cont=1 and col=n and row=n

end;

then call write_square(n,a)

else call forward(col,row);

write('result negative');

end;

procedure back(col, row);

begin

col:=col-l;

if col=O then begin

end;

end;

col :=n;row:=row-l;

102

procedure forward( col, row);

begin

col:=col+ 1;

if col=n+ 1 then begin

col: = 1 ;row:=row+ 1;

end;

end;

procedure write_square(n,a);

begin

for i:=1 to n do begin

for j:=l to n do write (S(a[ij]),' ');

writeln;

end;

stop;

end;

procedure check( col,row,n"k,a,cont);

begin

cont:=l; sum:=O;

for i:=l to col do sum:=sum+S(a[ij]);

if (sum>k) or (col=n and sum<>k) then begin

cont:=O;

end;

sum:=O

return;

for j:=l to row do sum:=sum+S(a[ij));

if (sum>k) or (row=n and sum<>k) then begin

end;

end;

cont:=O;

return;

Figure 1. Detailed algorithm for Smarandache magic squares.

The backtracking conditions are the following:

(Vj=l,n)fa;,i 5,k and (Vj=l,n)ia;,i =k

;=1 ;=1

5,k and (Vi=l,n)ia;,: =k.

]=1 i=1

(4a)

(4b)

(V(i,j) < (row,col))ai,i :t;arow,coz (5)

These conditions are checked by the procedure check. A detailed algorithm is presented in

a pseudo-cod description in Figure 1.

Theorem 2. If there is a Smarandache magic square by order n, then the procedure

Smar _magic_square finds it.

Proof

This theorem establishes the correctness property of the procedure Smar_magic_square.

The Backtracking conditions are computed correctly by the procedure check that verifies

if the equations (4-5) hold. The correctness this algorithm is given by the correctness of

the Backtracking strategy. Therefore, this procedure finds a Smarandache magic square.

Theorem 3. The complexity of the procedure complexity Smar_magic_square IS

O(n2n2+1) .

Proof

The complexity of the procedure Smar_magic_square is studied in the worst case when

there is not a Smarandache magic square. In this case, this procedure computes all the

checking operations for the Backtracking strategy. Therefore, all the values

103

S (1), S (2), ... , S (n 2) are gone through for each cell. For each value put into a cell, at most

O(n) operations are computed by the procedure check. Therefore, the complexity is

Remark 1. The complexity O(n

2

.,,2+

1

) is not polynomial. Moreover, because this is a very

big complexity, the procedure Smar_magic_square can be applied only for small values of

n. For example, this procedure computes at most 673 > 10

56

operations in the case n=6.

The above procedure has been translated into a C program that has been run on a Pentium

:MMX 233 machine. The execution of this program has taken more than 4 hours for n=6.

Unfortunately, there is not a Smarandache magic square for this value of n. The result of

computation for n=7 has not been provided by computer after a twelve hours execution.

This reflects the huge number of operations that should be computed (7

99

> 10

83

).

According to these negative results, we believe that Smarandache magic squares do not

,,2

exist. If n is a big number that satisfy the equation niL S (i), then we have many

i=1

possibilities to change, to permute and to arrange the numbers S(l), S(2), ... , Sen 2) into a

square matrix. In spite of that Equations (2-3) cannot be satisfied. Therefore, we may

conjecture the following: "There are not Smarandache magic squares". In order to

confirm or infirm this conjecture, we need more powerful method than the above

computation. Anyway, the computation looks for a particular solution, therefore it does

not solve the problem.

References

Ibstedt, H. (1997) Surfing on the Ocean of Numbers - a few Smarandache Notions and

Similar Topics, Erhus University Press.

Smarandache, F (1980) A Function in Number Theory, Analele Univ. Timisoara, XVIII.

Tabirca, S (1998) Problem 24 - Smarandache magic squares, Smarandache Notion

Journal, Vol 9 - nr 1-2.

104

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