Pneumatics, Air Conditioning, & Pressurization Pneumatics

Scenario #1: The aircraft is descending with a high bleed demand; packs are in high flow and the wing / engine anti-ice is selected ON. 1. If the Bleed Management Computer (BMC) detects that bleed air from the IP stage of the compressor is insufficient, how is the bleed demand satisfied? Reference: TM 3.3.2 The BMCs select the compressor stage to use as a source depending on system demand. Bleed air temperature and pressure are regulated prior to introduction into the pneumatic system. The Pre-cooler, an air-to-air heat exchanger, utilizes fan air to precool the bleed air. Bleed air is normally bled from the Intermediate Pressure (IP) stage of the high pressure compressor. When IP stage pressure and temperature are insufficient, a high pressure bleed valve opens to supply bleed air from the High Pressure (HP) stage. 2. If HP air is still not sufficient to operate the air conditioning and ice protection systems, how would the demand be satisfied? Reference: TM 3.3.2 In flight, if the pressure is insufficient even with the HP stage valve open (i.e., engine at idle), the engine idle speed is automatically increased to provide adequate air pressure. 3. Which source has a higher priority on the pneumatic system; APU bleed air or Engine bleed air? Reference: TM 3.3.3 Air from the APU load compressor is available both on the ground and in flight. The APU bleed air valve operates as a shutoff valve and is electrically controlled and pneumatically operated. When the APU BLEED pb is ON the BMCs command the crossbleed valve to open (X BLEED selector in AUTO), and the engine bleed valves to close. The APU bleed air supplies the pneumatic system provided APU speed is more than 95%. The APU can be used to supply bleed air for air conditioning operation during takeoff, allowing additional thrust to be obtained from the engines. The maximum altitude for APU bleed operation is 20,000 feet. Additionally, APU air bleed for wing anti-ice is not permitted. Scenario #2: After level off at an intermediate altitude, the ECAM alert AIR L ENG BLEED LEAK displays. 4. Will the left engine bleed valve close automatically? Reference: TM 3.3.7 If a leak    is detected in an engine pylon: the bleed air valve closes on the affected side the associated ENG BLEED FAULT light illuminates the crossbleed valve closes (except during engine start)

5. What other valve(s) should automatically close when an ENG bleed leak is detected? Reference: TM 3.3.7 The crossbleed valve closes (except during engine start) 6. Bleed leak detection is available in what other areas of the aircraft? Reference: TM 3.3.7 The leak detection system senses high temperatures from air leaks near the hot air ducts in the fuselage, engine pylons, and wings. The sensing elements for the pylons and APU are connected in a single loop. The wings are protected by a double loop. A wing leak is detected when both loops detect the leak, or when one loop detects a leak with the other loop inoperative. If a leak     If a leak    is detected in the wings: the bleed air valve closes on the affected side the associated ENG BLEED FAULT light illuminates the crossbleed valve closes (except during engine start) the APU bleed valve closes (except during engine start) if the leak involves the left wing is detected in the APU ducting: the APU bleed air valve closes the APU BLEED FAULT light illuminates the crossbleed valve closes (except during engine start)

circulates through the skin heat exchanger and then forced back into the avionics equipment by the blower fan.   Open configuration. if the CABIN PRESS MODE SEL is in AUTO. Flow modulation and optimized temperature regulation are no longer available and pack air flow is fixed at the pre-failure setting.  . Air is drawn from the avionics by the extract fan. This is already the warmest compartment but the pilots make the adjustment. Ambient air is drawn through the inlet valve by the blower fan. the backup secondary channel automatically takes over. ECAM signals related to the corresponding pack are lost. 2. Closed configuration. If both channels of a pack controller fail. pack regulation is not affected. One fan acts as a blower. Scenario #2: Just after the aircraft lands in KPHL heavy rain showers begin. How does the system increase temperature in the forward zone? Reference: TM 3. A skin heat exchanger cools the air as it recirculates through the system. instrument and circuit breaker panels. how would the cabin be ventilated? Reference: TM 3. compares these signals with the zone temperatures selected by the crew. provided the DITCHING switch is not selected ON. the check valve located downstream will not open. Both inlet and extract valves are closed. circulates through the avionics equipment and then exhausted overboard through the extract valve by the extract fan. and no airflow will be supplied. System operation is fully automatic and has three configurations depending on the phase of operation and ambient conditions. except the extract valve is partially open to allow some overboard exhaust of cooling air.6 The hydraulic reservoir and water tank is pressurized from either side of the crossfeed valve. the outflow valve opens when the differential pressure is less than 1 psi. When the pb is selected ON. This configuration is functional only in flight when ambient temperatures are warm.2. If both PACK controllers failed (both packs lost). Two electric fans operate continuously to circulate cooling air through the various avionics. It allows ventilation of the cabin in the event of a dual pack failure or for smoke removal. the ram air inlet opens and ram air is directed to the mixing unit. To enhance ventilation. If the primary channel of the pack controller fails. forcing cooling air in. An air inlet valve allows ambient air to be drawn into the system. Is there a way the crew could directly control the output temperature of the packs individually? Reference: TM 3. Intermediate configuration.2. The ECAM BLEED page displays “XX” for the failed component(s). Does increasing the forward zone temperature change the output temperature of the packs? Reference: TM 3. and the other fan extracts (draws) air from the avionics equipment and panels. The skin heat exchanger is bypassed. The avionics ventilation system provides cooling for the avionics compartment.2. This is the normal in-flight configuration. It is functional during ground operations with low ambient temperatures. Reference: TM 3. (True or False) Hydraulic reservoir and water tank pressurization would be lost. It receives information from various temperature and flow sensors.2. It is the same as the closed configuration. with the primary pack controller channel functioning normally.7. through the trim air valves. If the differential pressure is greater than 1 psi. It is activated by the RAM AIR pb on the air conditioning panel. pack outlet temperature is controlled by the respective pack anti-ice valve. even if the ram air door has been selected open. If the secondary pack controller channel fails. and then directs the pack controllers to deliver air at the coolest demanded temperature to the mixing unit. The crew considers the significance of the weather on the avionics ventilation system.1 No 4.1 Individual zone temperature is adjusted by mixing hot bleed air. 1. The temperature selection range is from 64°F to 86°F 3. and an extract valve allows overboard exhaust of the cooling air.3. This configuration is functional only during ground operations.1 The zone controller is a dual-channel computer which regulates the temperature of the flight deck and two cabin zones. A portion of the cooling air is exhausted through the cargo underfloor. An avionics equipment ventilation computer controls the fans and valves.1 The ram air valve is an air scoop at the bottom of the fuselage. into the zone distribution network. Air Conditioning Scenario #1: The A flight attendant requests another temperature increase in the forward cabin.

7. After Landing: 1. Both fans continue to run. The system operates in automatic. the two controllers swap roles. how can SYS 2 be selected? Reference: TM 3.. during flight. the crew notes SYS 1 is the active pressurization controller. When do the pressurization controllers normally swap control of the system? Reference: TM 3. When the BLOWER pushbutton switch is set at OVRD. this arrangement can function for a limited time as follows: OAT ≤ 39°C: no limit 39°C ≤ OAT ≤ 45°C: 3 hours OAT ≥ 45°C: 30 minutes Pressurization Scenario #1: During the FHPED check. If. and other sources to optimize cabin pressurization by maintaining a predetermined profile.. an outflow valve. semiautomatic and manual modes. attempt to select the other system by switching the MODE SEL pb to MAN for at least 10 seconds. One motor is primary.4.2 In the automatic mode. the extract fan is controlled directly from the pushbutton. the blower fan is stopped and the extract fan continues to run.4. the pilot suspects SYS 1 is not performing properly. The pressurization system then uses the manually-selected landing field elevation for internal pressurization schedules . and two safety valves to protect against excessive differential pressure.5 If bleed    air is not available. In normal operation.2 (abnormal configuration) When the BLOWER or the EXTRACT pushbutton switch is set at the OVRD (override) position. Departure and destination elevations are received from the FMGC.   When the EXTRACT pushbutton switch is set at OVRD.2 The active controller receives signals from the ADIRS. The aircraft is equipped with two identical. and the third is used for manual operation. PACKS 1 and 2 Pushbuttons . then returning it to AUTO. EXTRACT Pushbutton . 2. Will the blower fan continue to operate and provide cooling with the extract valve in OVRD? Reference: TM 3. what would be the time limit in this configuration? Reference: PH 3. cabin pressure controllers (CPCs). independent controllers which regulate cabin altitude automatically.. cabin pressurization is fully automatic. If FMGC data are not available.. water can enter the avionics ventilation system via the open skin air inlet valve. FMGC.5.8 If the pilot suspects the operating pressurization system is not performing properly. the crew must select the destination airport elevation on the LDG ELEV selector. one cabin pressure controller is active and the other serves as backup. Where would the pressurization system receive destination airport elevation from if not available from FMGCs? Reference: TM 3. the system is in closedcircuit configuration and adds air from the air conditioning system to the ventilation system. How would the pilots prevent water from entering the avionics bay through the open skin air inlet valve? Reference: PH 3. The system consists of a control panel. If outside air temperature was above 45°C. 1. If the active controller fails.5. OVRD 2. Check ON (Adds air conditioning system air to the ventilation air) 6. the backup automatically assumes control.2. the aircraft is diverting to an airport that is not stored in the FMGC database.2. the second serves as backup. Scenario #2: Due to an inflight emergency. After each landing. 3.5 When the aircraft is parked during heavy rain. The outflow valve is actuated by three DC motors.

what will the pack flow rate be? During single pack operation or if the APU is supplying bleed air for air conditioning. or it may increase APU speed or engine idle to meet temperature demands. After each landing. When operating pressurization in AUTO. When is the RAM AIR pushbutton used? During flight.  OFF: for normal flow 2. 4. 13. if the pressure is insufficient even with the HP stage valve open.  NORM: for all other operating cases. ECON FLOW Selector (A321)  ON: ECON FLOW if number of pax is less than 140. 11. if both packs fail. one cabin pressure controller is active and the other serves as a backup. Can the zone controller override the crew selected pack flow? The zone controller may override pilot selected pack flow. What is the caution about pressing the DITCHING pushbutton ON while on the ground with low pressure conditioned air connected? . regardless of selector position. how can he swap controllers? Attempt to select the other system by switching the MODE SEL pb to MAN for at least 10 seconds. the two controllers swap roles. 5. 10. what altitude is used for landing field pressurization reference? FMGS data is used. a high pressure bleed valve opens to supply bleed air from the High Pressure stage. If bleed air is being supplied by the APU or if one pack fails. what happens if HP bleed air pressure is insufficient? Air is normally bled from the Intermediate Pressure stage of the high pressure compressor. With the APU supplying bleed air what will be the pack flow if the PACK FLOW (A319/320) selector is LOW?   A319/320 – HIGH A321 . When does the pressurization system switch auto-controllers? In the automatic mode. the backup automatically resumes control.1. When IP stage pressure and temperature are insufficient. or in case of smoke in the cabin. 8. then return it to AUTO. a ram air inlet may be opened allowing ambient air to enter the mixing unit. pack controllers select high flow (A319/320) or normal flow (A321) automatically. Can external air be used to supplement low APU bleed pressure? No 12.NORMAL 7. 9.  HI: for abnormally hot and humid conditions. In flight. 6. In flight. 3. the engine speed is automatically increased to provide adequate air pressure. With the LDG ELEV selector in AUTO. If SYS 1 (or SYS 2) were displayed in amber on the CAB PRESS page. What is the one limitation for opening the RAM AIR inlet? Open only if differential pressure is less than +1 PSI. If the active controller fails. I guess it just depends on its mood. what would be indicated? SYS 1 or SYS 2 appears in green when active and in amber when faulty. When would the LO selection on the PACK FLOW selector (A319/320) be used? PACK FLOW Selector (A319/320)  LO: if number of pax is less than 50 or for long haul flights. if the pilot suspects the selected controller is malfunctioning.

6.  HI: for abnormally hot and humid conditions. and the DITCHING pb is switched ON. If bleed air is being supplied by the APU or if one pack fails. or in the case of a wing.If on the ground. It receives information from various temperature and flow sensors. pylon. The crossbleed valve is closed if the APU bleed valve is closed. regardless of selector position. The pack flow control valve automatically closes for engine start when the mode selector is moved to IGN/START. When would the LO selection on the PACK FLOW selector (A319/320) be used? PACK FLOW Selector (A319/320)  LO: if number of pax is less than 50 or for long haul flights. with low pressure conditioned air connected. through the trim air valves. all doors closed. What controls and monitors the pneumatic system? Operation of the pneumatic system is controlled and monitored by two Bleed Monitoring Computers. Individual zone temperature is adjusted by mixing hot bleed air. What are the three supply zones for conditioned air?    Flight deck Forward cabin Aft cabin When does the crossbleed valve open with the X BLEED selector in AUTO?   The crossbleed valve is open if the APU bleed valve is open. into the zone distribution network.  NORM: for all other operating cases. Can the zone controller override the crew selected pack flow? . 14. 7. How is temperature in the flight deck and cabin controlled? The zone controller is a dual-channel computer which regulates the temperature of the flight deck and two cabin zones (FWD & AFT).  OFF: for normal flow 3. 2. 4. pack controllers select high flow (A319/320) or normal flow (A321) automatically. Is it permissible to allow simultaneous introduction of external air with another source supplying the system? Do not use external conditioned air simultaneously with the airplane air conditioning packs. ECON FLOW Selector (A321)  ON: ECON FLOW if number of pax is less than 140. compares these signals with the zone temperatures selected by the crew. What would an amber temperature indication in either the Pack Outlet Temperature or Pack Compressor Outlet Temperature indicate? The temperature changes from green to amber if the temperature exceeds the advisory threshold. and then directs the pack controllers to deliver air at the coolest demanded temperature to the mixing unit. a differential pressure will build up. or APU leak (except during engine start). 15. what will the pack flow rate be? During single pack operation or if the APU is supplying bleed air for air conditioning. The BMCs provide indications and warnings to the ECAM and centralized fault display system. 1. although a portion of the avionics cooling air is exhausted through the cargo underfloor. Is cargo heat provided to the forward cargo compartment? No.NORMAL 5. When does the valve automatically reopen? Reopening of the valves is delayed for 30 seconds to avoid a supplementary pack closure during second engine start. With the APU supplying bleed air what will be the pack flow if the PACK FLOW (A319/320) selector is LOW?   A319/320 – HIGH A321 .

or it may increase APU speed or engine idle to meet temperature demands. . What are those two conditions? The ram air inlet flaps close temporarily at takeoff thrust application and at touchdown to prevent ingestion of debris. I guess it just depends on its mood.The zone controller may override pilot selected pack flow. 8. for the ACM heat exchangers. The ram air inlet flaps. automatically close under two conditions regardless of heat exchanger requirements.

3. What ground warning notice is given when a problem occurs with the ventilation system when the engines are stopped? The external horn sounds. or in case of smoke in the cabin.  HI: for abnormally hot and humid conditions. What indications on the ventilation panel are given if smoke is detected in the avionics ventilation duct?   The FAULT lights illuminate in both the BLOWER and EXTRACT pbs The SMOKE light illuminates in the GEN 1 LINE pb on the emergency electrical panel. a ram air inlet may be opened allowing ambient air to enter the mixing unit.  NORM: for all other operating cases. After each landing. . ECON FLOW Selector (A321)  ON: ECON FLOW if number of pax is less than 140. If the active controller fails. With the LDG ELEV selector at 2. What is indicated if the Cabin Vertical Speed is indicated in amber? The cabin vertical speed is in the advisory range.9. pack controllers select high flow (A319/320) or normal flow (A321) automatically. regardless of selector position.000 feet 2. What would the FAULT light in the AFT ISO VALVE pb indicate? Illuminates amber when either inlet or outlet valve is not in the selected position. 13. the backup automatically resumes control. 1. When would we use the ON position of the ECON FLOW selector (A321)? PACK FLOW Selector (A319/320)  LO: if number of pax is less than 50 or for long haul flights. the two controllers swap roles.  OFF: for normal flow Note: If the APU is supplying bleed air for air conditioning. When is the RAM AIR pushbutton used? During flight. 14. what would be indicated? SYS 1 or SYS 2 appears in green when active and in amber when faulty. If SYS 1 (or SYS 2) were displayed in amber on the CAB PRESS page. one cabin pressure controller is active and the other serves as a backup. what would be the landing elevation? 2. 4. if both packs fail. 12. What ECAM page should be selected to verify aft cargo compartment temperature? COND 11. When does the pressurization system switch auto-controllers? In the automatic mode. 10.

. If one cabin pressure controller fails. the backup automatically resumes control. all exterior openings below the flotation line are closed. 8. 11. one cabin pressure controller is active and the other serves as a backup. What indications on the ventilation panel are given if smoke is detected in the avionics ventilation duct?   The FAULT lights illuminate in both the BLOWER and EXTRACT pbs The SMOKE light illuminates in the GEN 1 LINE pb on the emergency electrical panel. What would an amber temperature indication in either the Pack Outlet Temperature or Pack Compressor Outlet Temperature indicate? The temperature changes from green to amber if the temperature exceeds the advisory threshold. then return it to AUTO. and the DITCHING pb is switched ON. what altitude is used for landing field pressurization reference? FMGS data is used. 4. how is pressurization maintained? In the automatic mode. The APU BLEED pb FAULT light illuminates amber when? This amber light illuminates and an ECAM caution appears when the system detects an APU bleed leak. 12. 2.5. if the pilot suspects the selected controller is malfunctioning. 7. When operating pressurization in AUTO. When does the valve automatically reopen? Reopening of the valves is delayed for 30 seconds to avoid a supplementary pack closure during second engine start. What is indicated if the Cabin Vertical Speed is indicated in amber? The cabin vertical speed is in the advisory range. what would be the landing elevation? 2. The pack flow control valve automatically closes for engine start when the mode selector is moved to IGN/START. with low pressure conditioned air connected. 6. 5.000 feet 3. 6. What is the caution about pressing the DITCHING pushbutton ON while on the ground with low pressure conditioned air connected? If on the ground. what altitude is used for landing field pressurization reference? FMGS data is used. 10. Will the ram air inlet open if the DITCHING pb has been selected ON? No 9. With the LDG ELEV selector at 2. all doors closed. how can he swap controllers? Attempt to select the other system by switching the MODE SEL pb to MAN for at least 10 seconds. What is the one limitation for opening the RAM AIR inlet? Open only if differential pressure is less than +1 PSI. a differential pressure will build up. If the active controller fails. With the LDG ELEV selector in AUTO. What occurs when the DITCHING pushbutton is selected ON? The system sends a “close” signal to the:  Outflow valve  Emergency ram air inlet  Avionics ventilation inlet and extract valves  Pack flow control valves  Forward cargo isolation outlet valve (if installed) In other words. With the LDG ELEV selector in AUTO. 1.

If the active controller fails. 10.  NORM: for all other operating cases. ECON FLOW Selector (A321)  ON: ECON FLOW if number of pax is less than 140. how is pressurization maintained? In the automatic mode. What indications on the ventilation panel are given if smoke is detected in the avionics ventilation duct? FAULT illuminates amber in both BLOWER and EXTRACT pbs. the backup automatically resumes control. how can he swap controllers? Attempt to select the other system by switching the MODE SEL pb to MAN for at least 10 seconds. When would we use the ON position of the ECON FLOW selector (A321)? PACK FLOW Selector (A319/320)  LO: if number of pax is less than 90 or for long haul flights. 13. 11. then return it to AUTO. 9.  OFF: for normal flow 12. 14. if the pilot suspects the selected controller is malfunctioning.  HI: for abnormally hot and humid conditions.7. If one cabin pressure controller fails. Is cargo heat provided to the forward cargo compartment? No. Can external air be used to supplement low APU bleed pressure? No 8. When operating pressurization in AUTO. one cabin pressure controller is active and the other serves as a backup. Will the DITCHING push-button always close the outflow valves? The outflow valve will not close automatically if it is under manual control . although a portion of the avionics cooling air is exhausted through the cargo underfloor. Is the LDG ELEV knob used when operating manual pressurization? I can’t find the official answer to this one.