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Given a sequence say Sb . We call it the base sequence. We define a
Smarandache Pascal derived sequence Sd as follows:

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**(Amarnath Murthy, S.E.(E&n, WLS, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.,
**

Ahmedabad,-380005 INDIA)

Given a sequence say Sb . We call it the base sequence. We define a

Smarandache Pascal derived sequence Sd as follows:

n

Tn+1 = 1: rCk .tk+l , where tk is the kth term of the base sequence.

k=O

Let the terms of the the base sequence Sb be

bl, hJ , b4 , ...

Then the Smarandache Pascal derived Sequence Sd

d

l

, d

2

, d

3

, , ••• is defined as follows:

d

l

=b

l

d

2

=bl

d3 = bl + + hJ

= bl + + 3hJ + b4

These derived sequences exlubit interesting properties for some base sequences.

Examples:

{I} Sb -» 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ( natural numbers)

Sd -» 1,3,8,20,48, 112,256, ... (Smarandache Pascal derived natural number

sequence)

The same can be rewritten as

2x2-

1

,3x2°, 4x21, 5x2

2

, 6x2

3

, •••

It can be verified and then proved easily that T. = 4( Til-l - T .-2 ) for n > 2.

And also that T. = (n+l) .211-2

{2l Sb -» 1,3,5, 7, ... ( odd numbers)

Sd -» 1,4, 12,32,80, .. .

The first difference 1,3,8,20,48, ... is the same as the Sd for natural numbers.

The sequence Sd can be rewritten as

1.2° ,2.i, 3.2

2

, 4.2

3

, 5.2

4

, •••

Again we have T. = 4( T a-I - T .-2) for n> 2.Also T. = n.2a-1.

{3} Smarandache Pascal Derived Bell Sequence:

Consider the Smarandache Factor Partitions (SFP) sequence for the square free

numbers:

( The same as the Bell number sequence.)

Sb -» 1, 1,2,5, 15,52,203,877,4140, ...

We get the derived sequence as follows

Sd -» 1,2,5, 15,52,203,877,4140, ...

The Smarandache Pascal Derived Bell Sequence comes out to be the same. We

251

call it Pascal Self Derived Sequence. This has been established in ref. [1]

In what follows, we shall see that this Transformation applied to Fibonacci

Numbers gives beautiful resuhs.

** {4} Smarandache Pascal derived Fibonacci Sequence:

Consider the Fibonacci Sequence as the Base Sequence:

Sb ~ 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 114, 233, •••

We get the following derived sequence

Sd ~ 1,2,5, 13,34, 89,233, . . . (A)

It can be noticed that the above sequence is made of the alternate (even numbered

terms of the sequence) Fibonacci numbers.

This gives us the following resuh on the Fibonacci numbers.

n

F

2

• = }; ·C

t

.F

t

, where FII. is the kth term of the base Fibonacci sequence.

k=O

Some more interesting properties are given below.

Ifwe take (A) as the base sequence we get the following derived sequence Sdd

Slid ~ 1,3, 10,35, 125,450, 1625,5875,21250, .. 0

An interesting observation is ,the first two terms are divisible by 5°, the next two

terms by 51 , the next two by 52 , the next two by 53 and so on.

T2a = T

2

a-l = 0 (mod 5

11

)

On carrying out this division we get the following sequence ie.

1,3,2, 7, 5, 18, 13,47,34, 123,89,. , . (B)

The sequence formed by the odd numbered terms is

1,2, 5, 13, 34, 89, ...

which is again nothing but Sd ( the base sequence itsel£).

Another interesting observation is every even numbered term of (B) is the sum of

the two adjacent odd numbered terms. (3 = 1+2, 7 = 2 +5,18 = 5 + 13 etc.)

CONJECTURE: Thus we have the possibility of another beautiful resuh on the

Fibonacci numbers which of-course is yet to be established.

2m+l r

F

2

m+l = (l/5j}; { lm+1C

r

(}; rC

t

FII.} }

r=O k=O

Note: It can be verified that all the above properties hold good for the Lucas

sequence ( 1 ,3, 4, 7, 11, ••• ) as well.

Pascalisation of Fibonacci sequence with index in arithmetic progression:

Consider the following sequence formed by the Fibonacci numbers whose indexes

are in AP.

F1, Fd+1 , F2d+l , F3d+1 , ... on pascalisation gives the following sequence

1, dF

2

• d

2

.F4 , d

3

.F6 , F 8 , .. 0, d

n

.F2n , ...

for d = 2 and d = 3.

For d = 5 we get the following

Base sequence: F .. F

6

, F

II

, F

16

, ...

1,13,233,4181,46368, ...

252

Derived sequence: 1, 14,260,4920,93200, ... in which we notice that

260= 20.(14- 1),4920 = 20.(260 - 14),93200 = 4920 - 260) etc. which suggests

the possibility of

Conjecture: The tenns of the pascal derived sequence for d = 5 are given by

T.= 20.( To-I - TII-1) (n > 2)

For d = 8 we get

Base sequence: F

I

,F

9

, FI7, F25 , ...

Sb - 1,34, 1597, 75025, .. .

Sd --1, 35, 1666, 79919, .. .

= 1, 35, (35-1). 7

2

, ( 1666 - 35). 7

2

, ... etc. which suggests the possibility of

Conjecture: The tenns of the pascal derived sequence for d = 8 are given by

T.= 49.( Til-I - TII-1) , (n > 2)

Similarly we have Conjectures:

For d = 10, T.= 90.( T.-

1

T._

1

) , (n > 2)

For d = 12, T.= 18

1

.( Til-I - TII-1) , (n > 2)

Note: There seems to be a direct relation between d and the coefficient of( To-I -

T n-2 ) (or the common :factor) of each term which is to be explored.

{5} Smarandache Pascal derived square sequence:

Sb --+ 1,4,9, 16,25, ...

Sd --+ 1,5, 18,56, 160,432, - ..

Or 1, 5x1, 6x 3, 7x 8, 8x20, 9x48, ••• , (T. = (n+3)ta-1 ), where tris the rth term

of Pascal derived natural number sequence.

Also one can derive T.= 211-1. (n+3)(n)/2.

{6} Smarandache Pascal derived cube sequence:

Sb --+ 1, 8,27,64, 125

Sd --+ 1, 9, 44, 170, 576, 1792, ...

We have Tn == 0 (mod (n+l».

Similarly we have derived sequences for higher powers which can be analyzed tor

patterns.

{7} Smarandache Pascal derived Triangular number sequence:

Sb --+ 1,3,6, 10, 15,21, ...

Sd --+ 1,4, 13,38, 104,272, ...

{8} Smarandache Pascal derived Factorial sequence:

Sb --+ 1,2, 6,24, 120, 720, 5040, ...

Sd --+ 1, 3, 11, 49, 261, 1631, ...

We can verify that T. = n.T._

1

+ 1: TII-1 + 1.

Problem: Are there infinitely many primes in the above sequence?

Smarandache Pascal derived sequence of the ~ order.

Consider the natural number. sequence again:

Sb --+ 1,2,3,4,5, ... The corresponding derived sequence is

Sd --+ 2x2-

I

, 3x2°, 4x2

I

, 5x2

2

, 6x2

3

, ••• With this as the base sequence we get the

derived sequence denoted by Sen as

Sdd or Sd2 --+ 1, 4, 15, 54, 189, 648, ••• which can be rewritten as

1, 4x3° , 5x31, 6x3

2

, 7x3

3

•••

similarly we get SdJ as 1, 5x4o, 6x4I. 7x42 , 8x4

3

, ••• which suggests the

possibility of the terms of Sdk , the kthorder Smarandache Pascal derived natural

253

number sequence being given by

1, (k+2) ,(k+l)°, (k+3).(k+ll ,(k+4).(k+li, . .. , (k+r).(k+ly-2 etc. This can be

proved by induction.

We can take an arithmetic progression with the first term 'a' and the

common difference 'b' as the base sequence and get the derived ktll order

sequences to generalize the above results.

Reference: [1] Amarnath Murthy, 'Generalization of Partition Function"

Introducing Smarandache Factor Partitions' SNJ, Vol. 11, No. 1-2-3,2000.

254

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