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Keanu Mitchell Hoerip Tatetdagat 1206292023 Metallurgy and Material Engineering Material Testing Assignment 1

Muhammad Husein Firdaus 1206229396 Metallurgy and Material Engineering

The differences output of mechanical properties in tensile test for HCP, BCC, and FCC are occurs because of their natural crystal structure. Crystal structures define the movement of dislocation along the plane. Easier movement in the plane causing a material to deformed easier. So in this case, if we use different crystal structure in the tensile test, the result will be different for each kind of crystal structure. The deformation in tensile test is closely related with slip. The mechanism by which plastic yielding takes place in metals is called slip. Essentially, all slip processes can be related to dislocation motion in the crystal structure. These linear imperfections in the crystal structure determine the plastic deformation characteristics of a Tensile Test material. Under elastic loading, dislocations remain motionless, and deformation occurs at the interatomic level only. When loading is sufficient to "move" dislocations, slip is said to have taken place and plastic deformation begins. As slip begins, dislocations will start to move in certain favorably oriented crystal planes in polycrystalline metals. The dislocations will eventually begin to pile-up at the grain boundaries and, in order for slip to continue, dislocations must move in less favorably oriented slip planes in neighboring crystals. A greater stress is required for this to happen, and so the material is said to become harder, or to strain-harden. In HCP crystals, which include zinc and magnesium, the planes of closest packing are those containing the hexagons, and the slip directions in those planes are parallel to the diagonals. Hexagonal close-packed crystals therefore have three primary slip systems, although at higher temperatures other, secondary, slip systems may become operative. Face-centered cubic crystals, by contrast, have twelve primary slip systems: the closepacked planes are the four octahedral planes, and each contains three face diagonals as the closest-packed lines. As a result, FCC metals, such as aluminum, copper, and gold, exhibit considerably more ductility than do HCP metals. In body-centered cubic crystals there are six planes of closest packing and two slip directions in each, for a total of twelve primary slip systems. However, the difference in packing density between the closest-packed planes and certain other planes is not great, so that additional slip systems become available even at ordinary temperatures. Consequently, metals having a bcc structure, such as -iron (the form of iron found at ordinary temperatures), tungsten, and molybdenum, has ductility similar to that of FCC metal. Why HCP crystals are more brittle than FCC and BCC crystal? They tend to be more brittle because they have fewer slip system than other structure. Because of this, fewer planes of crystals can glide past each other under stress. Instead, the metal breaks. Why FCC metals are more ductile than BCC metals? FCC has a higher packing efficiency and the slip planes are more closely packed than BCC. In fact, BCC has more slip

systems than FCC. But they are not as closely packed as FCC. For plastic deformation, we need at least 5 independent slip systems. Both FCC and BCC have those. But the previously mentioned factor makes FCC [7] more ductile than BCC. Flat test specimen

All values in inches

Plate type (1.5 in. wide)

Sheet type (0.5 in. wide)

Sub-size specimen (0.25 in. wide)

Gauge length





1.5 +0.125 -0.25 0.5000.010


Specimen standard for tensile testing ASTM E8:


0.25 < T < 316

0.005 T 0.25

0.005 T 0.25

Fillet radius (min.)



Overall length (min.) 18

Length of reduced section (min.)



Length of grip section (min.)


Width of grip section 2 (approx.)


Specimen standard for tensile testing JIS 2201: W (Widt) 25 L (gauge length) 50 P (Parallel Length) 60 approx R (Radius of Fillet) 15 min T (Thickness) Thickness of material

According to the table that I have research, the difference between the specimen ASTM E8 and JIS 2201 list of the size the result is all of the number in the table are different. There are no similarities in each table. So I can conclude that ASTM and JIS has is not the same, since the results are different.