Transcribed by Erica Manion Craniofacial Biology Lecture 9 Prenatal Craniofacial Development IV and V– by Dr.

Wishe Slide set: 2014 FACIAL DEVELOPMENT 4 2-23 post.ppt

3.27.14

[Slide 12] – L FIG. 18.2 OTIC VESICLE FORMATION 11TH ED. Dr. Wishe: Alright I guess we might as well continue. This is where I left off, before technical difficulties arose. And here we return to our invaginating placode, and what I was about to say before the problem happened, think of these areas as neural folds. And the two neural folds come together and when they do, you get the formation of a neural tube. But here, in terms of the ear, the two folds are coming together and eventually they fuse and you get a structure reminiscent of the neural tube but this is actually the otic vesicle. And some folks throw in an additional term called the otic pit, that’s sort of like the opening. In addition what’s not shown on diagrams A and B, see these little yellow structures labeled statoacoustic ganglion? Think back to the formation of the neural tube, we had neural crest forming. The neural crest sits on top of the neural tube, and here’s your neural tube and here’s your neural crest that are fragments. Well something very similar happens in this case. The fragmented neural crest that comes off gives rise to the statoacoustic ganglion which is associated with CN VIII. And CN VIII has dual function, one for hearing, and one for balance, equilibrium, if you will. The other thing, this is the pharyngeal area (indicated on Figure B, see image below). And the pharyngeal area seems to be getting larger and larger. If you use imagination and just follow the sequence of diagrams, you’ll see that this pharyngeal region comes smack up to this little indentation (in Figure C, see image below) . And this little indentation is really your first pharyngeal cleft. And all the other clefts disappear, because the mesenchyme in arch 2 grows inferiorly and all the other clefts or grooves sort of fuse into a sinus. Now what do you think this space actually represents? The pouch. So there’s your first pharyngeal pouch. And where the yellow is joining together with the blue, what structure do you think is going to form over here? Tympanic membrane or ear drum. This part of development of the ear seems to be far away at the moment (Image C otic vesicle), but it will come closer to this region (near the first pharyngeal cleft and pouch) and in essence the ear has an outer ear, a middle ear, and an inner ear. This otic vesicle has a dorsal and a ventral component.

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[Slide 13] – L FIG. 18.3 INNER EAR FORMATION 11TH ED. And here in essence is your dorsal component (Indicated Image A, Utricular portion of otic vesicle), and here’s your ventral component (Indicated image A, Saccular portion of otic vesicle). The ventral component gives rise to the sacculus, the dorsal component to the utriculus. And the utriculus forms the semicircular canals, the sacculus will eventually form the organ of corti. And the organ of corti is associated with hearing, utriculus with the formation of the semicircular canals. So starting with the sacculus, it begins to expand and coil around itself, until finally you get something that looks like this. In essence it looks like a snail shell and that becomes organ of corti. [Slide 14] – L FIG. 18.4 ORGAN OF CORTI 11TH ED. Here we have an elaboration of the cochlear duct. And here’s the cochlear duct (Image A). Here we have cells that will form the organ of corti (red cells all along outside of duct) and there seems to be a darkened area over the top. If we move on to diagram B, you can see these cells developed further, they are known as hair cells. And they do have little hair like structures projecting from them. These are in essence your sense organs and the structure overlying them is your tectorial membrane. You can see this relationship better in the bottom diagram (Image C). Here are your hair cells and you may or may not be able to see 2

it, but there seem to be little projection, those are the hairs, and this is the tectorial membrane. In addition to the cochlear duct we are going to get two additional cavities forming. Scala vestibuli and this as the scala tympani. In addition the cells up in this area (neighboring scala vestibuli in Image B), which were these cells initially (making up the back part of the ring in Image A) thin down and become what is known as your vestibular membrane. Now these are all epithelial cells and underneath organ of corti there’s also a membrane called the basilar membrane. You can see it’s just right underneath here (indicated location on Image C). And connected to this organ of corti you’ll have your nerve fibers leading into your ganglion and back into the brain.

[Slide 15] – L FIG. 18.5 ORGAN OF CORTI 11TH ED. So this is what A that snail shell appearance looks. Here we have something a little bit more magnified. What’s left out on this diagram is the space on top called the scala vestibuli and scala tympani. But you have a highly mag view of these special cells (Image B), the neural epithelial cells which become your hair cells. And here you can see the word “hair cells” (Image C), we’re not distinguishing between outer and inner. They’re just hair cells. And you can see little fuzzy structures on top of them. And then you’ll see that the tectorial membrane seems to be sitting over the hair of the hair cells. Now what happens in this mechanism is that the outer ear picks up sound waves in the air, transmits it to middle ear, and again still dealing with vibrations in air, then the sound waves are transmitted to the inner ear, to the organ of corti. But this whole inner ear is in a fluid base. So that means the vibrations are transmitted from air to fluid now. And since everything id in a fluid environment, what happens is that this whole mechanism rocks up and down, and as it rocks up and down, these little hairs contact tectorial 3

membrane. Those vibrations are then eventually transmitted to your nerve fibers, which takes it back to the brain. [Slide 16] – L FIG. 18.3 INNER EAR FORMATION 11TH ED. So that was the sacculus, which gave rise to your hearing mechanism known as the organ of corti. We’re looking at the utricular portion now. And it hollows out in three spots (Image A) and that’s what you seeing over here. And as we continue to diagram B, everything is enlarging and the hollowing out effect is getting more and more. And finally in Diagram C, all the tissue that existed in these spaces is gone, and you’ve created canals. So you can look at this part (drew on Image B, see below). These are all the canals that are going to be created. And that’s essentially your semicircular canals. And there are certain areas like these little bulges. Each canal has a bulge. Here’s one, here’s the other, and its hard to see the third bulge. Those little bulges are called your crus ampluare. Those are receptors whereas the rest of the canal is your crus nonampullare. What these receptors do is detect changes in movement. So sometimes if you get up from your bed to quickly all of a sudden you feel a little dizzy. That’s been picked up by the receptors. And so the way to get out of bed is really slowly and you won’t have an effect on the equilibrium. That’s what’s really being affected. Some people do have this as a normal effect. People with vertigo for instance. When they are high up they begin to lose their equilibrium. If you happen to have a tumor in the area, the receptors might be lost as well as equilibrium on one side.

[Slide 17] – L FIG. 18.7 MIDDLE EAR 11TH ED. So that was the inner ear. Now we are going to bring back to the picture the rest of the components. So right over here is 1st pharyngeal cleft, and that formed the external auditory meatus (Image A). Here’s your 1st pharyngeal pouch, which really forms your

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eustacian tube, your tubotympanic recess, as well as this area (in B) which is going to be the primitive middle ear cavity. What this also shows in this particular area, you’re getting a thickening. And there’s your thickening, and it’s referred to as meatal plug. And this is going to give rise to the eardrum/ That’s the ectodermal component. And here’s the endodermal component (yellow from primitive typmanic cavity). At the same time you’re going to get your little ear bones forming. Your malleus, your incus from Meckle’s cartilage, 1st pharyngeal arch, and your stapes from Reichart’s cartilage in the 2nd arch. So this region which is called your mesenchymal condensation (Image A) will give rise to cartilage, and then eventually to bone tissue. So the middle ear bones and mandibular symphesis are the parts of Meckle’s cartilage which play a role in endochondral bone formation. The rest of Meckle’s cartilage disappears and most of the mandible is now formed intramembranously. These middle ear bones are mostly embedded and held in mesenchyme. Here we see the representation of the inner ear component. The sacculus, utriculus, and you’ll notice it’s moving closer to the other two parts of the ear. [Slide 18] – L FIG. 18.9 MIDDLE EAR 11TH ED. So here we have a little bit more detailed picture of the region. 1st pharyngeal cleft, external aud meatus, this blue part came from meatal plug, the yellow part which is your endoderm comes from the pharyngeal pouch, the first one, and you see sandwiched between the two of them the red layer, and that’s the mesoderm. So in essence, the tympanic membrane or eardrum consists of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. And now we have mesenchyme that held and positioned these three bones has disappeared. The bones are now held in position by various ligaments that have formed. And so we really have a middle ear cavity at this point. And this will then lead downward to eustacian or auditory tube. These two bones, Meckle’s cartilage (malleus and incus), this bone (stapes), Reichart’s cartilage. What this picture also shows is the stapes resembles the stirrup of a saddle that you put on a horse. This is where you put your foot in. And this stapes seems to be sandwiched against a membranous structure called an oval window. So the way transmission of sound works, you have sound waves outside the ear, sound waves inside the ear, and the tympanic membrane is like a drum. So the sound waves hit the ear drum, and you’re literally playing a drum, and those vibrations are then transmitted to malleus, the incus, and eventually the stapes. Once the stapes get those vibrations, keep in mind this is all in air, it will push up against the oval window. Complete inner ear filled with fluid. So it pushes the oval window in. [Slide 19] – L FIG. 18.8 ENTIRE EAR 11TH ED. Now the next picture, here again is the stapes, there’s the oval window. And what you see in the inner ear, here’s your organ of corti, here are your semicircular canals, and all this blue-purply stuff is the areas where you find your fluid. So fluid vibrations are created, but where do they then go? Once you push in on a balloon, there’s no place left in a full balloon, so the balloon has to bulge someplace. So if we look down over here, you see another window, your round window, which also has a membrane. So as pressure is pushed in, some of this fluid is pushed out. It doesn’t leave the system. And

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what’s essentially happening is what I’m doing with my two hands. In, out. In, out. So you have equalization of your pressure. And that’s how essentially the ear works. [Slide 20] – L FIG. 18.10 EXTERNAL EAR 11TH ED. What we are now seeing is the formation of the external ear. #1, 2, and 3 come from pharyngeal arch 1. Numbers 4, 5, and 6 from pharyngeal arch 2. And the space between them is your external auditory meatus, which came from the 1st pharyngeal cleft. And you can see on the embryo here these little bulges. These bulges are known as auricular hillocks. So wherever you see the number, that represents an auricular hillock. And so the numbers shift around a bit. They still seem to maintain order. It’s not that they go out of sequence, but you’re changing the position of the hillocks and eventually you get the formation of this external ear. [Slide 21] – L FIG. 18.11 EXTERNAL EAR DEFECTS 11TH ED. Now here are some examples of external ear defects. What we are seeing here (Image A) is pointing to the same thing as this and this (B). There are little pits that develop, areas that don’t seal up. And C and D show these structures which are called tags. And they’re sort of offshoots off the auricular hillocks. And in this particular picture you’ll see a tag all the way down here as well (Image D). So that’s some of the more common type of defects. You can have small ears, large ears, in that type of case we use the words micro-otia, macro-otia. And then you can get all sorts of different notches like we saw in the mandibular facial syndrome, etc. I think some of you spend too much time on the phone, some of you spend too much time playing computer games. And so, a good part of the class doesn’t come to class. Supposedly studying hard. I wonder about that. I think these other activities are more inductive at this point in time. I have a choice of ending the lecture now, or continuing with the next lecture. Your choice. You want to go on? Yeah ok. Slide set: 2014 FACIAL DEVELOPMENT 5 3-3 post.ppt [Slide 1] – MAXILLOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT Now we used to have a conference in this course, and in the end run I wound up doing all the conferences. And not that I’m that important, but technically no one can replace me in doing the conferences. No one wanted to replace me in doing the conferences which is probably more the true story. So we eliminated the conferences from the course. And what the conferences showed you was actual embryo heads. And you saw a picture yesterday and Dr. Lai had a section through the embryo head and he made reference that I would do that.

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[Slide 2] – Cartoon of pig snout So, some of these slides come from pig, some come from rodent, and some are human. Which is which is totally irrelevant, it doesn’t affect our story. But basically we are going to be looking at sections through various parts of the head. So when you look at a pig, it has a rather large snout or nose. So here we have the mandible, there’s the maxilla, and that obviously is the tongue. And here’s your external nares. Anybody have any idea what the turquoise structures represent? The concha. The inferior, middle, and superior concha of the nose. So depending on where the cut is made, you’re going to see different things. So you’ll see the tongue hanging in midair, not attached. That’s just because the cut’s been made over here. And depending on where the cut was made, you’re going to see different concha, different meatus as well. [Slide 3] – L FIG. 18.7 MIDDLE EAR 11TH ED. And this just shows you a typical anterior and posterior view in terms of the cut. And here’s the example I just mentioned, where the tongue is in midair (anterior). Here, it’s attached (posterior). In addition, you see the little purple structures? Those represent Meckle’s cartilage. And if the cut is very anterior, you’ll find that the two Meckle’s cartilages are very close to the midline. Whereas if you go more posterior, Meckle’s cartilage is moving further apart. And in essence, this is an anterior cut, this is a posterior cut (back one slide, indicating #1 as anterior, #3 as posterior). (Back to slide 3) So when two cartilages are close together, part of those cartilages will form the mandibular symphesis. More posteriorly, these cartilages will give rise to the malleus and incus. On top is also showing you the formation of nasal cavity. And these are cartilages up in the nose (Black structure) . This is your nasal septum (black vertical line), these are your paranasal cartilages (black rounded lines coming off of the vertical line) which go into the concha. And these little J shaped structures underneath the nasal septum is your third set of cartilages, your paraseptal cartilage. And I’m sure all of this was covered to some extent in anatomy. [Slide 4] – Embryonic Tissues So this is a rather high power, we’re going to start off with a low power but this is meant to show you different tissues. All this light type of tissue, cells far apart, really represents mesenchyme. And the head starts off as mostly mesenchyme. And then the mesenchyme gives rise to various structures. So structures like this represents developing muscle, and we’ll go over these muscles that are developing under the tongue a little bit later. Over here, you’re getting some development of salivary glands. And something like this, which has a big opening, is really a salivary duct. This by the way, is Meckle’s cartilage. And here some actually woven bone being layed down, and this will play a role in the formation of the mandible. And you’ll notice surrounding bone is periosteum, and the periosteum seems to become continuous with perichondrium.

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[Slide 5] – Open Palate Stage, Dental Lamina So this is an early picture, and this is something we call open palate stage. So off the maxillary process you get another process forming, lateral palatine shelf or process, and we discussed that in lecture. And we discussed the presence of tongue in this whole nasal cavity. Now the mandible has to drop, and when it drops, it pulls the tongue down, and when the tongue is pulled out of the nasal cavity, these two processes can then elevate up, grow towards each other and fuse. In addition to the two processes fusing with each other, they’ll fuse with the nasal septum. When all 3 fuse, that’s the creation of your hard palate. And the floor of the nasal cavity isn’t straight, it angles up. So as you’re angling up, you lose the bony component, and you’ll just have the two lateral palatine shelves fusing together. Absences of bone is your soft palate and uvula. When you get a cleft in terms of the palate, it could be for a number of reasons. One, the mandible has not receded or dropped down. If that happens, the tongue has not dropped down either and the tongue is still in nasal cavity. Let’s assume that these two events take place. There could be something wrong with palatine shelves, they don’t elevate for some reason. Or they are elevated but don’t grow towards each other. So there are any number of reasons for getting cleft palate. As we look down here, here you have the two Meckle’s cartilages and they are close together, as I said. On top is your nasal septum and there’s your nasal cavity, and you do see a bulge. Down in this area, that’s the formation of the inferior concha. In conch you’ll notice there’s a tissue (purple in midline) that’s continuous with the nasal septum, and this is all hyaline cartilage. So nasal septum, paranasal cartilage. What isn’t illustrated too well on this part of the 8

slide, you can barely see something going on over here, and we’ll see a higher power of it, this is where you get your nasolacrimal duct. And we spoke about the nasolacrimal duct. You have a nasolacrimal groove which has been formed because a solid cord of cells has dropped in, and then the skin is supposed to seal up above it and that solid chord of cells becomes a tube like structure, the nasolacrimal duct which empties into the inferior meatus. And most of this tissue (white) scattered throughout happens to be mesenchyme. When you see structures bulging in, like this from the outside, anyone have any idea what they might be? What’s going to bulge in from the outside? What do we especially, guys, have on our face? Hair. Those are the beginning of hair follicles. At the same time, you see this, this, this, and this. Anybody have any idea what those four structures are? Tooth buds.

[Slide 6] – Open Palate Stage – Dental Lamina This is a section more posterior. How do I know that, because of the appearance of these two structures. These are ventricles 1 and 2. So this is the cerebrum in the animal. In essence you are dealing with the forebrain. And as we look at palatine shelves, we are still dealing with an open palate stage. The tongue and mandible have not dropped down at all. We can see the nasal septum, but the concha are sort of jumbled up, we don’t get a clear view. But the space in here is definitely your nasal cavity. Here’s Meckle’s cartilage, and again a lot of tissue is mesenchyme. And if we look at this structure and this structure, you wouldn’t know what it is but it is the development of the maxillary nerve and vasculatures. Again, we still have the forerunners here for teeth. 9

[Slide 7] - Open Palate Stage – Dental Lamina So here we are still in the post part of pig, and your ventricles are disappearing. Still open palate, nasal septum, still a little jumbled up in terms of nasal cavity, and now you can see a lot of little hair follicles developing, and Meckle’s cartilage, and you begin to see the appearance of this type of tissue, which happens to be muscle. Good view of your max nerve and artery. Still, most tissue is mesenchyme. And this is labeled dental lamina, but it’s kind of low power. When we do crown development, you’ll find that there’s a thickening of the oral epithelium which gives rise to a dental lamina which grows into the underlying connective tissue alias mesenchyme. And that dental lamina will give rise to a tooth bud, the tooth bud then becomes a cap stage, and a bell stage, and eventually to the production of your enamel and dentin. [Slide 8] – Dental Lamina And here’s just a high power. We aren’t going to concentrate on this much. Oral epithelium, and there’s your dental lamina. Technically this structure here will blossom out like you’re

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blowing up a balloon and that will become your tooth bud. But all this tissue is mesenchyme. [Slide 9] – Closed Palate Stage – Tooth Bud Now we change stages of development. The mandible has dropped, the tongue has pulled out of the nasal cavity, and the two palatine shelves have rotated upward and grown towards each other. And what you can see here is this line, separating the two palatal shelves. Now this line is epithelium, and that epithelium should disappear, then you can have mingling of your mesenchyme in this particular area. What should also happen is that these shelves should fuse with the nasal septum, it hasn’t quite done that yet. Now this is the first slide that we’ve seen a clearer picture of the nose. Nice nasal septum. And these two bulges in here represent your inferior concha. And concha are associated with meati. Underneath this concha, this space is the inferior meatus. And in this particular picture, right there seems to be a structure. That’s the nasolacrimal duct that empties into the inferior concha. You can also see your paranasal cartilage joining up with the nasal septum, which both are hyaline cartilage. And something is beginning to happen under the nasal septum. You will get two J shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage known as your paraseptal cartilage, and in the J shape of the cartilage, you will find something called Jackobsons organ or the vomernasal organ. Meckle’s cartilage is still pretty close together. We don’t see any brain so we are not really that far back posteriorly. [Slide 10] – Closed Palate Stage – Tooth Bud A little bit more development occurring, and we certainly have two very nice inferior concha. And now you can see right there, and right over here is the formation of the nasolacrimal duct. You’ll also see bone forming up in this area. So this is the beginning of development of the maxilla. And whatever bone forms the first bone is going to be woven bone. This type of tissue is the beginning formation of muscle. And here’s your nice tongue. Now you can see two muscles right over here (clubs under tongue) Anybody remember the name of this particular muscle? What term do we use for tongue? Glossis. Genioglossus from the tongue into the area. And what about these muscles (triangles). What’s under the genioglossus anyone remember? Geniohyoid. Then we have what I refer to, I guess most people do, as the smile muscle. Mylohyoid. So in anatomy you discussed the anatomical approach to this, and here you’re actually seeing embryonic heads showing you the histology through the head itself.. And what are these two structures? Meckle’s cartilage. And down in this neck of the woods you’re getting the formation of the mandible. And again, here’s your formation of dentition, over here, and here as well. And you see something is happeneing in this region, we don’t get a good view of it, but it is the formation of your salivary glands and salivary ducts.

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[Slide 11] – Tooth Bud And this is just a high power, you’ll see these pictures again when we do crown development. There’s your oral epithelium, your oral cavity, your dental lamina, and here’s your little rounded end, that’s your tooth bud. Underneath the tooth bud, I’ll mention it now but it doesn’t really apply to what we’re doing, you see this condensation of mesenchyme. This is going to form your dental papilla. The tooth bud, by the way, gives rise to enamel. The dental papilla will form the pulp and dentin of the tooth. And then there’s going to be a thinning out of mesenchyme going around and that gives rise to your dental follicle or dental sac, which will form your alveolar bone, your PDL, and cementum. But I wouldn’t worry about it at this point in time. [Slide 12] – Closed Palate Stage – Tooth bud So again we’re seeing basically the same thing but in this case everything up here has fused together. The two palatal shelves with the nasal septum, and we are having continued expansion of the maxilla. There’s more of a mandible forming. And Meckle’s cartilage is moving away from the midline slowly but surely. There are some tooth buds down here.

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[Slide 13] – Maxillary VAN And this is a high power I pointed out to you earlier. This is all mesenchyme and so you get a differentiation forming your blood vessels. This seems to be a more structured, organized, thicker layered vessel, that’s the artery (middle arrow), that’s the vein (top arrow), and that’s the nerve (bottom arrow). [Slide 14] – Tooth Germ Stage – Cap Stage Now this is a more anterior shot because the tongue is sitting in midair. And so the two Meckle’s cartilages are closer together. And you don’t see much development down here but you are beginning to form part of the mandible. Anybody have any idea what’s forming here and here? The lip. And way in this section, we’ll they’re calling this the cap stage, that’s a very poor example of cap, so we’ll just say the dentition is forming in these areas. And what about this indentation right over here? Any ideas at all? What’s on the inside of the lip? What do you call that space? The vestibule. So this starts off as a solid mass of cells, the cells degenerate, and you get this indentation, and that’s what gives rise to the vestibule. So you’re seeing the lip, the vestibule, and a developing tooth. We do see one additional thing up here, and here’s your J shaped cartilage that I mentioned, your paraseptal cartilage, and in the J, is Jacobson’s organ or vomeronasal organ that’s forming.

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[Slide 15] – G&H PLATE 13-4 FIG. 2 CAP STAGE 7TH ED. This is just a high power to show you that the little balloon shaped structure, the bud, changes into a cap just like a French beret. And it has different layers and underneath is the dental papilla. So again, this is going to form the enamel. And we call the whole structure the enamel organ. And don’t worry about the lettering that represents the layers. And here’s the part that’s going to give rise to your pulp and dentin (DP). And DS stands for your mesenchyme outside here. And that’s your dental sac or follicle which forms the alveolar bone, PDL, and cementum. All this other tissue in here is still mesenchyme. [Slide 16] – Nasolacrimal Duct Now this is a nice high power where we are looking at the inferior concha. This is the nasal cavity, and here’s your inferior meatus which feeds into the nasal cavity. And here’s the structure we’ve been seeing very tiny up to this point. And that’s your nasolacrimal duct which actually empties into the inferior meatus. This is part of your paraseptal cartilage, which goes all the way around and becomes continuous with the nasal septum. .

[Slide 17] – Early Bell Stage Besides an advancement in the tooth development you can see that the shape here has changed and once the prongs begin to dip down like this it’s going to look like a bell, and

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that’s where the name comes from. Here we have a couple of hair follicles. The vestibule is shown very nicely here and here, and of course the lip. Now inside paraseptal cartilage you now begin to see the formation of a bony structure. That’s the development of a vomer. Here’s your maxilla, and there’s your mandible. Now way down at the bottom there’s a muscle that’s forming and this muscle, look at me, goes up like this. Anyone remember the name of that muscle? It’s pretty thin, close to the surface… platysma. [Slide 18] – Early Bell Stage Good shot of the lip, the vestibular groove or vestibule. And that was the vestibular lamina. And this is a nice picture of the bell stage of development. [Slide 19] Really a high power focusing on the bottom of the nasal septum. Your paraseptal cartilages and there’s Jacobson’s organ. And in between is the vomer that’s forming and you can see part or the maxilla forming in this area. Nice inferior meatus, and structure here again is your nasolacrimal duct [Slide 20] This picture probably should have come before the other one because this is an earlier stage in the formation of vomer. Again most of the tissue here is mesenchyme. [Slide 21] – Jacobson’s organ aka Vomeronasal Organ We are just focusing higher and higher. So this tissue is really epithelial in nature (indicated below). The tissue that lines the nasal cavity is epithelial in nature as well.

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[Slide 22] – Late Bell Stage This is the maxilla and this area is where the hard palate forming. But notice that this bone is surrounded by periosteum, and there’s another bone that appears on top surrounded by its own periosteum. Anybody know what that bone might be? The frontal bone. And again, nasal septum, paranasal cartilage, nasal cavity, and by the way the lining of the nasal cavity will have glandular elements as well. The tongue means nice anterior cut. This is a nice bell stage and there’s muscle forming here and you can see a little trace of muscle way down there. [Slide 23] – Late Bell Stage And this is a higher power of something I showed you before. Really, very nice bell stages. You’re having quite a bit of development of the mandible, Meckle’s cartilage is still together. And now the reason the periosteum becomes continuous with the perichondrium, because this is where you are actually have the mandibular symphesis forming, and that’s via endochondral bone formation. And you can still see certain traces of muscle forming down here, part of your platysma.

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[Slide 24] – Late Bell Stage And basically what’s happening in the upper region, you’re getting more development, the frontal bone is getting larger, the maxilla is getting larger, and we still see your bell stages of development [Slide 25] – Hair Follicle This is just a high power to show you the hair follicle. So in essence a hair follicle sort of develops like a tooth bud. Nerve components. Muscle components, and a lot of mesenchyme. [Slide 26] Now we are changing our location, and we can see a lot more structures in this particular slide. Here’s nasal cavity and your nasal septum would be over here. And you really see 1, 2, 3 bulges. Inferior concha, middle concha, superior concha. Inferior meatus, middle meatus, superior meatus. And then there’s a space up here that’s not really shown, we don’t have a picture of that, but it’s called the supreme meatus. This is stuff you should have learned in anatomy. What’s forming up in this region? Eye. What you’re essentially seeing here is the formation of retina, and there is some eye musculature developing in this region. Now this is of the cheek area. SO what muscle do you think is forming right here? Buccinator. The masseter would come more from this region down. And you’re getting part of a muscle here, that’s the upper limit of the platysma.

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[Slide 27] Another nice picture. Retina and what do you think this structure is? The development of the lens. And again we see some of the extra-ocular eye muscle. Inferior, middle, superior conch, inferior, middle, superior meatus.

[Slide 28] And this one there’s been a certain artifactual preparation that’s taken place, so the retina has collapsed on itself. But here we have five structures. Are all five the same? This is the one that’s different. That’s a section through the developing optic nerve. These are your extra-ocular eye muscles.

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[Slide 29] And again we have the retina in a smaller position. And by the way this is the anterior 1/5, then all of this is the posterior 4/5. And here the lens is just ripped apart. What is forming right over here? The eyelid. And you can see right in this area the two eyelids are joined together. And when you are born the eyelids separate. [Slide 30] This one the retina is missing but you do have the extra-ocular eye muscles and the optic nerve [Slide 31] This gives us a nice shot of the mandibular area with all the muscles. Obviously that’s the tongue. And what was this muscle again? Genioglossus. And this? Geniohyoid. Mylohyoid. Anyone have any idea what these muscles might be? It’s part of the digastric muscles. Anterior belly. And then this thin slivery muscle which goes all the way around and up is the platysma, and there’s your buccinators, once again. And what about this region (under the tongue). Well it could be the sublingual or the submandibular but it is a developing salivary gland and here and here you have developing salivary ducts. [Slide 32] And this is just another picture showing us essentially the same things. Except here the mylohyoid you have more muscle slivers than on the previous slide. That means, next time we get together, Monday, I forget what I’m doing first. It’ll be skeletal muscle, embryology, and teratology. And if we should need more time, I think I have another period or so afterwards. Have a nice weekend.

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