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Geotechnics and Structural Design Unconsolidated Undrained Triaxial Test On Clay

Contents
Page No
1. Introduction 2. Procedure 3. esults !. Sa"#le Calculations %. Discussion $. Classi&ication o& Soil '. ele(ance o& the Triaxial test ). Conclusions *. e&erences 3 3 ! $ 11 12 12 13 1!

Introduction
The unconsolidated undrained triaxial test is +hen the s#eci"en is su,-ected to a s#eci&ied all.round #ressure and then the #rinci#al stress di&&erence is a##lied i""ediately +ith no drainage ,eing #er"itted at any stage o& the test / .0. Craig1 1**'2 The (alue o& shear strength &or a #articular soil is (ital to ac3uire solutions to #ossi,le #ro,le"s relating to the sta,ility o& a soil "ass in deter"ining the load that can ,e exerted on the soil &ro" structures. The #rocedure &or the triaxial test &ollo+s the instructed "ethod in 4S 13''51**6 #art '. The #ur#ose o& this la,oratory re#ort is to test three sa"#les o& clay and deter"ine the shear strength and shearing resistance o& the sa"#les.

Procedure
The triaxial test started +ith three sa"#les o& clay +hich had to extruded &ro" the cylindrical "etal tu,es into the ,rass &or"er so that the height o& the sa"#le +as '$"". 7 s"all a"ount o& the excess soil +as ta8en in order to calculate the dry density +ith the rest discarded. The ,rass &or"er +as re"o(ed &ro" the sa"#le and the sa"#le #laced +ithin a ru,,er "e",rane &or the #ur#oses o& the ex#eri"ent. The sa"#le is then #laced on the triaxial testing #edestal +here,y the to# and ,otto" #lates are inserted and held to the ru,,er "e",rane ,y "eans o& a ru,,er O.ring. The outer casing is then #laced o(er the sa"#le and the (essel &illed +ith +ater1 "a8ing sure all the air is dis#laced through the air #oint at the to# o& the a##aratus. The triaxial testing "achine +as set to a rate o& 29:"in +ith e(ery 6.%"" de&lection recorded the #ro(ing ring reading &or each o& the three sa"#les +ith a "axi"u" de&lection o& 1%.%"". The cell #ressure o& the +ater +as set '%8Pa &or the &irst ex#eri"ent and increased to 1%68Pa then 3668Pa &or the last sa"#le. Once all results had ,een noted the cell #ressure +as released and the +ater le&t to drain &ro" the cell.

Results
Soil #ara"eters &or triaxial test
Sample Number Total Mass of Sample (g) Tin Number Mass of et soil an! tin (g) Mass of !r" soil an! tin (g) Mass of tin (g) Mass of ater (g) Mass of !r" soil (g) Moisture %ontent (&) 'ul( !ensit" (t)m#) *r" !ensit" (t)m#) Spe+ifi+ ,ra-it" .oi! ratio /e/ 0orosit" /n/ *egree of saturation /S1/ 2ir +ontent /2/ 0ro-ing 1ing Number 0ro-ing 1ing %alibration (N)!i-) .olume of sample (mm#) 1 184.46 4 64.44 57.#8 16.2 7.$6 41.18 17.1 2.14 1.8# 2.71 $.48 ##& 96& 1.#& 1173#3 727 1.55 86192.7 2 186.54 29 62.5 55.7 16.18 6.8 #9.52 17.2 2.16 1.85 2.71 $.47 #2& 1$$& $.1& 3 185.8 57 55.72 5$.58 16.# 5.14 #4.28 15.$ 2.16 1.87 2.71 $.45 #1& 91& 2.7&

Di"ensions &or soil sa"#les


*iameter (mm) 4engt5 (mm) 6riginal 2rea (mm2) Ne 2rea (mm2) .olume (mm#) 'rass 7ormer (g) 1ing +alibration 0ro-ing 1ing Number #8 76 11#4.1 1424.7 86192.7 #1#.26 1.55 1173#3727

Sample Calculations
;oid atio /e2
e =/ e =/ SG 2 1

dry

2.'1 2 1 1.)3 e = 6.!)

Porosity /n2
e /1 + e2 6.!) n =/ 2 166 1 + 6.!) n = 339 n=

Degree o& Saturation /S 2


SR = SR SR MC SG 166 e 6.1'1 2.'1 = 166 6.!) = *$9

7ir Content /72


A = n /1 S R 2 166 A = 6.33 /1 6.*$2 166 A =1.39

<oisture Content /<C2


MC = MC = M water 166 M drysoil

'.6$ 166 !1.1) MC = 1'.19

4ul8 Density /=2

Volume 1 16 1 16 * 1)!.!$ )$1*2.' = 1 16 $ 1 16 * = 2.1!t : m 3

M sample
$

Dry Density =dry


dry = dry
1 + /6.61 MC 2 2.1! = 1 + /6.61 1'.12

dry =1.)3t : m 3

Triaxial Test Results

Graph showing deviator stress against axial strain or a triaxial test on cla!
2$$.$$ 18$.$$ 16$.$$ #eviator Stress $N%mm2& 14$.$$ 12$.$$ 1$$.$$ 8$.$$ 6$.$$ 4$.$$ 2$.$$ $.$$ $.$$

5.$$

1$.$$

15.$$

2$.$$

25.$$

"xial Strain
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3

Figure 1 shows the graph of stress versus strain for the three samples

Stress Calculations for Failure Reading of sample 1 Strain /2


a = a =
l 166 Lo

1%.% 166 '$ a = 26.3*9

De(iator Stress /81 3 8#) at &ailure

'

1 3 = 1 3 =

a ial.load A!

2%2.$% 1666 1!2!.' 1 3 = 1''.3 N : mm 2

Corrected Cross.sectional 7rea /""22


A! = A! = Ao 1 a

113!.1 1 6.26 A! = 1!2!.' mm 2

Coulo",s >a+ o& soil Shear Strength


?1 = ?3 " p + 2! ? " p
#here1 " p = tan 2 /!% +

?
2

0or Sa"#le 1
2%2.3! = '%. tan 2 /!% +

?
2

2 + 2.!u tan/!% +

?
2

Cu =

2%2.3! '%. tan 2 / !% + 2. tan/!% +

?
2

?
2

Sa"#le 2
32).!3 = 1%6. tan 2 /!% +

?
2

2 + 2.!u tan/ !% +

?
2

Cu =

32).!3 1%6. tan 2 /!% + 2. tan/!% +

?
2

?
2

Sa"#le 3

!'*.%1 = 366. tan 2 / !% +

?
2

2 + 2.!u tan/ !% +

?
2

Cu =

!'*.%1 366. tan 2 /!% + 2. tan/ !% +

?
2

?
2

<a8e e3uations e3ual /Sa"#le 1 @ Sa"#le 22


2%2.3! '%. tan 2 / !% + 2. tan/ !% +

?
2

?
2

32).!3 1%6. tan 2 /!% + 2. tan/!% +

?
2

?
2

2%2.3! '%. tan 2 / !% + 2%. tan 2 / !% + tan/ !% + !% +

?
2

2 = 32).!3 1%6. tan 2 /!% +

?
2

?
2

2 = '$.6* '$.6* '%

?
2

2=

?
2

= tan 1 1.61

= !%.2 !% 2 ? = 6.!13

Substitute in equation 1

Cu =

2%2.3! '%. tan 2 / !% + 2. tan/!% +

?
2

?
2

2 6.!13 2 2

Cu =

2%2.3! '%. tan 2 / !% + 2. tan/!% +

6.!13 2 2 2%2.3! '%. tan 2 / !%.22 Cu = 2. tan/!%.22 2%2.3! '$.6* Cu = 2.61 C u = )'.$*$%a

Ta,ulated esults &or Undrained Unconsolidated Triaxial test


Sample No %ell 0ressure ((0a) 81 9n!raine! S5ear Stengt5 +u 1 75 252.#4 87.69 2 15$ #28.4# 88.76 # #$$ 479.51 86.97

Using coulo",s la+ o& soil shear strength 0or Sa"#le 1. A& @ c B 8:tan @ )'.$*B'%tan/6.!132 @ )'.' 0or Sa"#le 2. A& @ c B 8:tan @ )).'$B1%6tan/6.!132 @ )*.)! 0or Sa"#le 3. A& @ c B 8:tan @ )$.*'B366tan/6.!132 @ )*.13

16

'ohr Circles

0ailure en(elo#e @6.!13

Cu

#iscussion
It can ,e o,ser(ed &ro" the #icture 1 that the three sa"#les +ere (ery si"ilar in their constituents. The angle o& 6.!1$C #ro(ed in the calculations sho+s the three sa"#les di&&ered (ery little. The gra#h in &igure 1 also sho+s the si"ilarity ,et+een results +here,y the lines rise continuously +ith each other. The sa"#les in #icture 1 sho+ slight ,arrelling o& the clay1 +ith no o,(ious &ailure shearing lines +ith the strain "easured at 269. The <ohr circles sho+ the &ailure en(elo#e o& the soil and1 although not o,(ious &ro" the diagra"1 the angle o& shearing resistance o& the line. The cohesion is stated on the dra+ing at the (alue o& )'.$* 8Pa

Picture 1 sho+s the three sa"#les o& clay &ro" the triaxial test

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Classi ication o soil


The three clay soil sa"#les +ere a,o(e the #lastic li"its since the sa"#les could ,e rolled into rods e3ui(alent to 3"". The soil +as a &ir" to sti&& clay1 according to the undrained strength classi&ication ta,le in 4S DN ISO 1!$)).25266! Ta,le %. The sa"#les +ere ,ro+n in colour and contained a s"all a"ount o& sand. The sa"#le +as a,le to ,e dried out +hen handling sho+ing a silty clay.

Relevance o the triaxial test


The #ur#ose o& the triaxial test is to deter"ine the shear strength o& the soil at di&&erent con&ining stresses in order to o,tain the highest stress the soil can sustain. This go(erns the sta,ility or colla#se o& any structure. E"aterials that ha(e strength can sustain shear stresses and the strength is the "axi"u" shear stress that can ,e sustained. Only "aterials +ith strength can ha(e slo#es ,ecause shear strength are re3uired to "aintain a slo#e.F /7t8inson1 1**32 The triaxial test is carried out on s"all sa"#les o& the soil that the #ro#osed structure is to ,e ,uilt on. The sa"#les are exa"ined in the triaxial test in order to deter"ine the characteristics so that the esti"ation &or ho+ the &oundation or e",an8"ent "ight de&or" or colla#se1 or ho+ "uch rein&orce"ent "ight ,e re3uired in order to su##ort the e",an8"ent or &oundation. The test is re#resentati(e o& the soils in the construction site +here the rate o& construction o& the &oundation or e",an8"ent is relati(ely &ast and +here the #ore +aters do not ha(e enough ti"e to drain. This test sho+s ho+ the soil +ill ,eha(e in #ractice under &ully saturated conditions. In da"s or e",an8"ents the core is nor"ally constructed o& clay +hich "ini"ises the a"ount o& +ater that see#s through the e",an8"ent or da". The outer casings tend to ,e sand1 gra(el and roc8 +here,y the triaxial test can ,e used to analyse the shear strength o& each o& the e",an8"ent "aterials.

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Conclusion
0ro" the triaxial test the shear #ara"eters o& soil +ere &ound to ,e Cu@)'.$*8Pa &or cohesion and the (alue o& @6.!13C +ith ,oth results o,tained through calculation and gra#hically. The shear strength o& the three sa"#les +ere calculated +hich could ,e used in real li&e situations &or the calculation o& structural loads. The triaxial test is essential in understanding soil ,eha(iour. 0ro" the test the #ara"eters &or strength1 sti&&ness and the res#onse o& certain soils under increasing #ressures are &ound. Understanding o& the soil ,eha(iour added to #ro#er assess"ent o& the soil characteristics allo+s the engineer to enhance designs and reduce the ris8 o& &ailure.

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Re erences
4ritish Standards1 4S 13''.'1 1**6. Soils &or ci(il engineering #ur#oses. 2nd ed. >ondon5 4oard o& the 4SI. .0. Craig1 1**'. Soil <echanics. $ Ddition. C C Press. Gohn 7t8inson1 1**3. The Introduction to the <echanics o& Soils H 0oundations. Ddition. <cgra+.Iill College

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