TI (6) ME – 5 Planning & 1 Monitoring&Controlling

S# Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 12 Define Activities: The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. WPs >> Activities (work necessary to complete the WP). # Rolling wave planning lets you plan as you go. # Projects using Agile methodologies use a form of RWP. # Planning Package (placeholder put between control A/cs & WPs) 1. Activity List DERT 1. Decomposition 2. Rolling Wave Planning 2. Activity Attributes 3. Milestone list 3. Templates 4. Expert Judgment 13 Sequence Activities: The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. # PDM - # Finish-to-Start (FS): An activity must finish before the successor can start (dig hole; plant tree). # Start-to-Start (SS): An activity must start before the successor can start. # Finish-to-Finish (FF): An activity must finish before the successor can finish. # Start-to-Finish (SF): An activity must start before the successor can finish (rarely used). # Types of Dependencies - Mandatory (Hard logic), Discretionary (Preferred logic, Preferential logic, Soft logic), & External (relationship b/w proj and non-proj activities) 1. Activity List 1. Project Schedule Network Diagrams 1. PDM (Precedence Diagramming Method) 2. Activity Attributes or AON (Activity-on-Node) 2. Project Document Updates 3. Milestone List 2. Dependency Determination 4. Project Scope Statement 3. Applying Leads and Lags 5. OPA 4. Schedule Network Templates 14 Estimating Activity Resource: The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity. # Resource Calendars specify WHEN and HOW LONG identified project resource will be available during the project. 1. Activity list 1. Activity Resource Requirements 1. Alternatives Analysis 2. Activity Attributes 2. Bottom-up Estimating 2. Resource Breakdown Structure ^^ 3. Resource Calendars ^^ (Acq Proj Team / Cond Proc) 3. Published Estimating Data 3. Project Document Updates 4. EEF 4. Project Management Software 5. OPA 5. Expert Judgment 15 Estimating Activity Duration: The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimted resources. # TT2 - Analogous (top down) : look at activities from previous similar activities . The degree of similarity affects accuracy. This technique should be used early in estimating cycle when there is not much detail known about the activity. It uses Historical information & expert judgement . It is less costly, less time consuming than others, & less accurate . It can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project and may be used in conjunction with other estimating methods. # TT3 - Parametric/Quantitately - Based Estimating : It uses a statistical relationsip between HISTORICAL DATA and OTHER VARIABLES (Ex: Square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration. It can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project and may be used in conjunction with other estimating methods. Cost = Qty in units X Unit Rate. # TT4 - 3-Point Estimate or Triangular Distribution : Come up with three points, Optimistic, Pessimistic, and Most Likely (Realistic) = (P+R+O)/3 # PERT (Program Evaluation & Review Technique)/Beta/Weighted 3-Point Estimate = (P+4R+O)/6 #Standard Deviation σ = (P-O)/6 #Variance v = [(P-O)/6]^2. # Effort: The number of labour units required to complete a schedule activity or WBS component. Usually expressed as staff hours, staff days, or staff weeks. (Requirements for effort estimation: The Expert Judgement, Task Complexity, Skill Level, & Expectations). # Duration: The total number of work periods (not including holidays & non-working periods) required to complete a schedule activity or WBS component. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. (Requirements for Duration estimation: Resource Availability & Resource Capability). # Elapsed Time: Waiting periods. # Heuristics: Rules (A rule of thumb) for which no formula exists. Usually derived through trial & error. 1. Activity List 1. Activity Duration Estimates PETRA 1. Expert Judgment 2. Activity Attributes 2. Analogous Estimating (Top Down / Gross Value) (It doesn't include LAGs. It may include some indication of the range of possible results. Eg., 2 weeks +/- 2 days) 3. Activity Resource Requirements 3. Parametric Estimating (uses statistical relationship) 4. Resource Calendars ^^ (Acq Proj Team / Cond Proc) 4. Three-point Estimates 2. Project Document Updates 5. Project Scope Statement 5. Reserve Analysis (As more precise information about the project becomes available, the Contingency Reserve 6. EEF may be Used, Reduced, or Eliminated). 7. OPA 16 Develop Schedule: The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule. It determines the planned start and finish dates for project activities and milestones. # TT1 Critical Path Method: It calculates the theoretical Early Start/Finish dates, & Late Start/Finish dates, for all activities without regard for any resource limitations, by performing a Forward/Backward pass analysis through the schedule network. Critical Path is the longest duration path through a network diagram & determines min time required to complete the proj. CPs have either ZERO or NEGATIVE Total Float. # Float/Slack/Total Float: Amt of time an activity can slip before it causes delay in proj. Float for activities on CP is 0. (CP - next longest path) = float. # Free Float: amt of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the early start date of subsequent dependent activities. # Proj Float: amt of time a proj can be delayed without delaying externally imposed proj completion date required by customer/mgmt. # TT2 Critical Chain Method: The resource-constrained critical path is known as the Critical Chain . The longest sequence of resource-leveled tasks is the critical chain. It tries to adjust for problems in estimating and managing tasks that result from 1. poor multi-tasking, 2. estimates with too much contingency for uncertainty, 3. work that expands to fill the available time, 4. waiting until the latest possible time to start and 5. lack of prioritization. CCM focuses on managing remaining buffer durations against the remaining durations of task chains. In CCM; buffers are 2 types: 1. Project Buffer (Protects the target finish date from slippage along the Critical Chain), and 2. Feed Buffer (Protects the Critical Chain from slippage along the Feeding Chains). # TT4 Resource Leveling: Leveling lets the schedule slip & the cost increase in order to deal with resource constraints. It allows to level the peaks & valleys of resource use, resulting in more stable # of resources used in the proj. It can be used when shared or critical required resources are only available at certain times, are only available in limited quantities, or to keep resource usage at a constant level . It can often cause the original critical path to change. # TT5 Leads & Lags: # LEAD: A lead can be added to start an activity before completion of the predecessor (eg: start writing the training material before completion of the testing). # LAG: is inserted waiting time b/w activities (Ex: needing to wait 3 days after pouring concrete before constructing the frame of house). # TT3 Schedule Compression: Crashing involves adding extra resources to reduce proj duration. Over Time is considered as Crashing. It almost always increases cost. Cheapest task has to be crashed first. Fast-Tracking involves doing critical path activities in parallel . It often results in rework & usually increases risk. 1. Activity List 1. Critical Path Method CCS SWARS 1. Project Schedule (Formats 1. Milestone Charts, 2. Bar Charts, and 3. Project Schedule Network Diagrams) 2. Activity Attributes 2. Critical Chain Method 3. Project Schedule Network Diagrams 2. Schedule Baseline 3. Schedule Compression (Crashing & Fast Tracking) 4. Activity Resource Requirements 4. Resource Leveling 3. Schedule Data 5. Activity Duration Estimates 5. Applying Leads and Lags 4. Project Document Updates 6. Resource Calendars ^^ (Acq Proj Team / Cond Proc) 6. What-if Scenario Analysis (Monte-Carlo Analysis) 7. Project Scope Statement 7. Scheduling Tool 8. EEF 8. Schedule Network Analysis 9. OPA (Project Calendar) 17 Control Schedule: The process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline. # Schedule Baseline is updated, whenever the Customer requests a significant change and when original estimates were wrong. 1. Project Management Plan 2. Project Schedule 3. Work Performance Information (Dir&Mng P Exec) 4. OPA 1. Performance Reviews PPV SWARS 2. Variance Analysis (SV/SPI) 3. Schedule Compression (Crashing & Fast Tracking) 4. Resource Leveling 5. Adjusting Leads and Lags 6. What-if Scenario Analysis 7. Scheduling Tool 8. Project Management Software 1. Work Performance Measurements (SV / SPI) 2. Change Requests 3. Project Management Plan Updates 4. Project Document Updates 5. OPA Updates PLANNING M&C PLANNING PLANNING PLANNING PLANNING 1. Scope Baseline 2. EEF (PMIS) 3. OPA

# HAMMOCK Activity : For control and mangement communication, the broader, more comprehensive summary activity. # Path Convergence: The merging or joining parallel schedule network paths into the same node in a project schedule network diagram. Path convergence is characterized by a schedule activity with more than one predecessor activity. # Path Divergence : Extending or generating parallel schedule network paths from the same node in a project shedule network diagram. Path devergence is characterized by a schedule activity with more than one successor activity.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful