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KAW4613-HIGHWAY CAPACITY ANALYSIS [Reference: HCM Updated Dec. 1997] I) INTRODUCTION Why do we need !"! #$y !n!%y&#&' Estimate maximum amount of traffic that can be accommodated by a facility while maintaining prescribed operational qualities. Evaluate existing traffic conditions & highways system deficiencies. Assess effects of proposed changes on capacity & traffic conditions. Plan & design new highway facilities on basis of projected demand. Compare alternative transportation proposals. On wh!$ $y"e o( $)!n&"o)$!$#on (! #%#$#e& #& !n!%y&#& "e)(o)*ed' reeways!expressways" #rban $arterial% & rural roads $multi&lane!'&lane%" (ntersections $signalised!unsignalised%" Public transport!transit" !"! #$y

Pedestrian. II) D+,INITIONS - CONC+PTS Wh!$ $y"e& o( (! #%#$#e&' 1) Un#n$e))."$ed (%ow )o fixed elements. *raffic flow conditions result of+ - interaction of vehicles in traffic stream" - between vehicles & geometric & characteristics of roadway /) In$e))."$ed (%ow ixed elements $traffic signal" stop signs" etc%. Periodical stops $or significant slow% traffic flow+ - irrespective of how much traffic exists. *erms describing type of facility ),* quality of traffic flow at any given time


Wh!$ !0o.$ Ro!d $y"e&' reeway & divided highway with full access control & grade&separated intersections. (uninterrupted flow) -ultilane highway & undivided or divided rural highway with ' or more lanes in one direction (uninterrupted flow~fixed elements>2 miles/3.2 km) *wo&lane highway & undivided rural highway with one lane in each direction (uninterrupted flow~fixed elements>2 miles/3.2 km) Arterials & major roads in urban areas with signal spacing . ' miles!/.' 0m (interrupted flow)

III) / PRINCIPAL CONC+PTS o( HC1 1) C!"! #$y 1maximum hourly rate at which persons!vehicles can reasonably be expected to traverse a point!uniform section of a lane!roadway during a given time period under prevailing roadway" traffic" and control conditons1 (assume good weather & pavement conditions) *ime period+ 23&min $shortest interval which stable flow exists% 4oadway conditions+ $geometric characteristics% - type of facility" - development environment" - nos. of lanes $by direction%" - lane & shoulder widths" - lateral clearances" - design speed" - hori5ontal & vertical alignments. *raffic conditions+ $traffic stream characteristics% - vehicle type distribution" - amount & distribution of traffic in lanes" - directional distribution. Control conditions+ $types" design of devices" regulations% - location" - type"

- timing of signals" - stop & give way signs" - lane use restrictions. /) Le2e%& o( Se)2# e 3LOS) 1qualitative measure describing operational conditions within traffic stream" and their perception by motorists and!or passengers1 actors+ speed & travel time" freedom to maneuver" traffic interruptions" comfort & convenience" safety.


6 LOS de(#n#$#on& 4 3.n#n$e))."$ed (%ow (! #%#$#e&)5

LOS A5 - represents free flow" - users virtually unaffected by presence of others" - freedom for desired speed and maneuver is extremely high" - level of comfort!convenience is excellent. LOS 65 presence of others begins to be noticeable" freedom for desired speed relatively unaffected" slight decline in freedom to maneuver" level of comfort!convenience less than 6,7 A.

LOS C5 - begin operation of user significantly affected by interaction with others" - desired speed now affected by presence of others" - maneuvering requires substantial vigilance" - level of comfort!convenience declines noticeably. LOS D5

high density" but stable flow" speed & freedom to maneuver severely restricted" level of comfort!convenience is poor" small increases in traffic flow cause operational problems. LOS +5 operation conditions at or near capacity $unstable%" speed reduced to low" but relatively uniform value" freedom to maneuver is extremely difficult" forced vehicle to 8give way8 to accommodate maneuver" level of comfort!convenience extremely poor" driver frustration is high" small increases in flow or minor perturbations will cause brea0down.

LOS ,5 3(o) ed (%ow) forced or brea0down flow" arrival traffic 9 discharge traffic queues formed" stop&and&go waves operation.

6,7 for interrupted flow facilities vary widely in terms of both user8s perception of service quality & operational variables used.


Se)2# e (%ow )!$e&

1the maximum hourly rate at which persons!vehicles can reasonably be expected to traverse a point!uniform section of a lane!roadway during a given time period under

prevailing roadway" traffic" and control conditions while maintaining a designated level of service. ote! "ervice flow rates ~ discrete values# ote! $evels of service ~ range of conditions. ###) 1e!&.)e& o( e((e $#2ene&& (o) LOS :ased on operational parameters+ 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 *ype of facility %easure of effectiveness ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; reeways :asic freeway segment<&ensit' (pc/mi/ln) =eaving areas<<<<..&ensit' (pc/mi/ln) 4amp junctions<<<< &ensit' (pc/mi/ln) -ultilane highways<<..<.&ensit' (pc/mi/ln) *wo&lane highways<<<...(ercent time dela' ()) <<..< *verage upgrade speed(mph) 7ignalised intersection<<. +ontrol dela' (sec/veh) #nsignalised intersection<. *verage total dela' (sec/veh) Arterials<<<<<<<<...*verage travel speed (mph) *ransit<<<<<<<<.....$oad factor (person/seat) Pedestrians<<<<<..<.."pace (s,.ft/pedestrian)


6ASIC PRINCIPL+S O, TRA,,IC ,LOW T)!((# ,%ow 1e!&.)e ,perational state of any given traffic stream is defined by / primary measures+ 2. '. /. 7peed >olume and!or rate of flow ?ensity

18 S"eed5 1rate of motion expressed as distance per unit time" $mph or 0ph%1 "pace mean speed @ average travel speed @ average running speed A a.t.s (used -' manual) A a.r.s

or uninterrupted flow facilities under uncongested conditions + a.t.s B a.r.s


.ime mean speed @ radar meters measure speed at a point @ usually 2 to / mph higher than space mean speed @ not relevant in evaluating interrupted flow facility /8 9o%.*e !nd R!$e o( (%ow5 /olume @ 1 total nos. of vehicles that pass over a given point!section of a lane!roadway during a given time interval 1 (expressed in terms of annual# dail'# hourl'# su-0 hourl' periods) 1ate of flow @ 1 equivalent hourly rate at which vehicles pass over a given point!section of a lane!roadway during a given time interval less than 2 hour 1 (usuall' 23 min) +:A1PL+5 *ime period 3.CC&3.23 3.23&3./C 3./C&3.D3 3.D3&E.CC &&&&&&&&&&&&& ;8<<-68<< &&&&&&&&&&&&& >olume $veh% 2"CCC 2"'CC 2"2CC 2"CCC &&&&&&&& 4=3<< &&&&&&&& 1ate of flow (vph) 4#555 4#655 4#455 4#555



7f capacit' of segment of highwa' is 4#355 vph ~ it would -reak down during the peak 230min period of flow (3.230 3.35)# when vehicles arrive at rate of 4#655 vph

(eak08our 9actor ((89) 1 ratio of total hourly volume to the maximum 23&min rate of flow within the hour 1 PH, > 9 ? 34 @ 91;) where! (89 : peak0hour factor# / : hourl' volume (vph)# /23 : volume during peak 230min of the peak (veh/23 min) =here PF is 0nown" it may be used to convert pea0 hour volume to pea0 rate of flow" as follows+ S,i > S9i ? PH, where! "9i : service flow rate for level of service i (vph)



"/i : service volume for level of service i (vph) (89 : peak0hour factor

38 Den&#$y 1number of vehicles occupying a given lane!roadway" averaged over time $vpm%1 length of

Critical parameter describing traffic operations" i.e. proximit' of vehicles to one another# and reflects freedom to maneuver within traffic stream. @ ?irect measurement in field is difficult. @ Can be computed from Average *ravel 7peed & 4ate of low+ D > S, ? S where! & : densit' (vpm) "9 : rate of flow (vph) " : average travel speed (mph)