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Shading Shading is a method of passive design for designing of buildings and the spaces within it to benefit from natural

light, ventilation and even temperatures. Shading of glass to reduce unwanted heat gain is critical. Unprotected glass is the greatest source of unwanted heat gain in a home. Radiant heat from the sun passes through glass and is absorbed by building elements and furnishings, which then re-radiate it. Re-radiated heat has a different wavelength and cannot pass back through the glass as easily, resulting in increased temperatures. Trapping radiant heat is desirable for winter heating but must be avoided in summer. Shading of wall and roof surfaces is important to reduce summer heat gain, particularly if they are dark coloured and/or heavyweight. The basic principle followed in shading is keeping the surface in shade so that direct sunlight does not fall on it, thus avoiding radiant heat and increased temperatures. Shading the structure from midday summer sun is easy as it is at a higher angle in summer than in winter. Shading requirements vary according to climate and house orientation. To design effective shading, it is important to have a good understanding of sun paths at the site at different times of the year. Benefits of shading: i. Sun protection /passive cooling - Protection against overheating and greenhouse effect. ii. iii.
Significant reduction of heat transmission from outside; the load on the active cooling system can be minimized and/or active cooling is not necessary at all. Use of free, renewable solar heat gains / passive heating - The shading device may be retracted to let in welcome solar heat in winter time, which will reduce the load on the active heating system. Better utilisation of natural daylight and better daylighting strategy Shading device can be adjusted according to the position of the sun to allow optimum natural daylight, while at the same time providing protection against the sun. This will allow reduction of the energy need for artificial lighting, which indirectly helps reduce the load on any active cooling system. Glare protection - Reduces the luminance values (the brightness of the light) Increased comfort The temperature of the surface shaded and thus the room temperature - is considerably reduced.

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Shading can be given in two different ways: i. External shading ii. Internal shading External shading External shading prevents solar access and so helps to keep building cool. This is done by providing shade over building openings and outdoor spaces which help to reduce temperatures and save energy. There are many examples of providing external shading. Each one has to be designed taking into account the sun path throughout the year. Eaves Awnings Screens and shutters Louvers Verandahs Pergolas Trees and shrubs

Eaves Eave is the edge of a roof projecting beyond the side of the building. Eaves or other fixed overhangs are the simplest way to provide protection against solar gain. They must be sized correctly to exclude summer sun but still admit winter sun. Overhang of the eave, window dimensions, distance of window head from the overhang etc. are the dimensions to be calculated taking into consideration the suns path and its position during each season.

Awnings An awning or overhang is a secondary covering attached to the exterior wall of a building. It is typically composed of canvas woven of acrylic, cotton or polyester yarn, or vinyl laminated to polyester fabric that is stretched tightly over a light structure of aluminium, iron or steel or wood. Awnings reduce sun when they are in position. They should be light in colour to deflect more heat. Awnings may not be suitable in windy areas. Retractable awnings can also be used which admit sunlight when in retracted position. Motorised retractable awnings are also available which monitor wind levels and retract when the wind strength gets too high.

Screens and shutters Fixed and moveable screens and shutters can be used in different sizes and methods of operation like sliding, hinged etc. advantage of this type of shading is that they can be moved away to admit light when required.

Louvers

A louver consists of an opening with horizontal, fixed slats that are angled to admit light and air, but to keep out rain, direct sunshine, and noise. Fixed mirrored louver systems can limit glare and redirect diffuse light. Louvre blades should be as thin as possible to avoid blocking sun.

Verandahs Verandahs provide excellent shade. Deep verandahs are particularly good for shading east and west facing elevations although they will still admit very low angle sun. They can be used in combination with planting or screens to filter sun. Pergolas A pergola is a garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars. Pergolas covered with vegetation provide very good seasonal shading. Trees and shrubs Trees and shrubs provide excellent shading. Deciduous trees provide shade in the summer and admit sun in the winter. Internal Shading Internal shading is less effective at reducing solar heat gain than external shading because the solar radiation has already come through the glass. The shading absorbs the radiation, and while a small amount of heat is reradiated back to the outside, most remains within the interior space. Internal shading can be a useful device when: the sun penetrates for only a short time heat build-up will not be a major problem windows can be left open adjacent to them it is required to reduce glare. Internal shading options Curtains, when drawn, significantly reduce light but reduce heat gain by only a small amount. They also reduce ventilation and block views. Venetian blinds and vertical blinds can be used to adjust the amount of incoming light while retaining views but they reduce heat gain by only a small amount. Roller blinds and other types of window blinds reduce the light admitted but also reduce the heat gain by only a small amount. They may also reduce ventilation and block views but some types of blinds provide two adjustments: one setting provides partial light blockout, the other setting provides full blockout. Blinds may be motorised for high level windows or roof lights. They can be made from a range of sun filter fabrics to suit the desired level of light, view and shading.

Shading principles
The solar energy that enters a building through glass areas in the outside walls can be one of the major sources of heat in many contemporary buildings. This heat is unwanted in summer and has to be expelled by the cooling system. There are many other different reasons to want to control the amount of sunlight that is admitted into the building. Well designed sun control and shading devices can dramatically reduce buildings peak heat gain and cooling requirements and improve the natural lighting quality of building interiors. Sun control and shading devices can also improve user visual comfort by controlling glare and reducing contrast ratios. Direct sunlight falling on a bright surface can cause glare unless the level of illumination in the other parts of the room is not too different from that of the sunlit areas. This cause discomfort to the attendant. To eliminate this problem, it is possible to set out a list of objectives that the building designer must strive to meet when he designs windows and their shades. These are: to minimize heat gain during summer; to prevent the direct rays of the sun from falling on any light coloured surface that is visible to the normal occupants of the room; to allow natural light to enter in such a way that it can be diffused as evenly as possible over the whole room; to interfere as little as possible with the view from the window.

The use of sun control and shading devices is an important aspect of many energy efficient building design strategies. During cooling seasons external window shading is an excellent way to prevent unwanted solar heat gain from entering a conditioned space. Shading can be provided by natural landscaping or by building elements such as awnings, overhangs, and trellises. Some shading devices can also function as reflectors, called light shelves, which bounce natural light for day lighting deep in to building interiors. Solar control and shading can be provided by a wide range of building components including: Landscape features such as mature trees or hedge rows Exterior elements such as overhangs or vertical fins Horizontal reflecting surfaces called light shelves Low shading coefficient glass and Interior glare control devices such as Venetian blinds or adjustable louvers

Fixed exterior shading devices such as overhangs are generally most practical for small commercial buildings. The optimal length of an overhang depends on the size of the window and the relative importance of heating and cooling in the building Shading devices can have a dramatic impact on building appearances. This impact can be for the better or for the worse. They are considered to be attractive and well integrated in the overall architecture of a project Large areas of glass in any facade that receives direct sunshine require shading if people must work near the windows. The best arrangement, from the point of view of solar control, is to design the building with the glass facing north; the second best arrangement is to have it facing south and to provide both a canopy shade and a venetian blind when windows must face east or west, the summer heat gain can be minimized by placing a slat type shade on the outside, or if this is impractical, by using double glazing with a blind between the panes.