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# Equations of Change in Nonisothermal Systems Topic Objectives:

To understand the concept of Energy Conservation To obtain expression describing the temperature profile in the nonisothermal flow To use the Equations of Change to solve steady state problems

Conservation of Energy
The law of conservation of energy is an extension of the classical 1st Law of Thermodynamics, which concerns the diff difference i in i internal l energies i of f two equilibrium ilib i states of fa closed system because of the heat added to the system and the work done on the system (U = Q + W) The changes in Kinetic Energy and Internal Energy of a system are related to convective heat transport as well as conductive heat transport due to molecular transport.

Conservation of Energy

(i) Kinetic Energy: Energy due to observable motion of the fluid per unit volume (v is the fluid velocity vector) (ii) Internal I l Energy: E kinetic ki i energies i in i molecules l l + energy d due to vibrations ib i & rotational motions in molecules. Assumption: U = f(, T)

Energy Equations

## The rate of increase in kinetic and internal energy:

Note: = the internal energy per unit mass

The rate of energy enters and leaves the faces of volume element: element
where vector e (energy flux) includes convective transport of kinetic and internal energy, the heat conduction, and work associated with molecular processes.

The rate at which work is done on the fluid by y the external force is the dot product of the fluid velocity v and the force acting (gravitational) on the fluid (xyz)g :

Energy Equations

vg

Assignment 1a

## Special form of Energy Equations

Equation q of Change g for Internal Energy gy (U)
Note: Obtained through the Equation of Mechanical Energy and Energy gy Equation q

Assignment 1b
The term (v), with double dot multiplication of two tensors appears from Equation of Mechanical Energy. gy This (v) term describes the degradation of mechanical energy gy into thermal energy gy (viscous dissipation heating)

Energy Equations
Assignment g 1( (expected p NOT more than 5 pages) p g )
a) For energy flux expression: Explain the terms [ v] and q, q by giving the definitions of the symbols used. used Give brief description of [v] derivation
Refer to text book by Bird, Steward & Lightfoot: Chapter 9 on Energy Transport, S9 7: Convective Transport of Energy S9.7: S9.8: Work associated with molecular motions

b) For viscous heating term (v) in the equation of mechanical energy: Explain the (v) term and give brief description of its derivations
Refer to text book by Bird, Steward & Lightfoot: Chapter 1 on Momentum Transport S1.2: Newtons Law of Viscosity & Appendix A

## Special form of Energy Equations

Equation of Change (T) q g for Temperature p

This is the general form for equation of change for temperature, in terms of substantial time derivative, heat flux vector q and the viscous momentum flux tensor . Note: P is the pressure and is the fluid density

## Special form of Energy Equations

Equation of Change q g for Temperature: p

If Fouriers Law is applied for (q) term, then: q = k2T **Provided the thermal conductivity k is assumed constant

## Special form of Energy Equations

Equation of Change q g for Temperature: p

If Newtons Law of Viscosity is applied, the viscous heating term can expressed by:

## Special form of Energy Equations

Equation of Change q g for Temperature: p

## Using Equation of Continuity, / T = -( v) Ideal gas Law P = RT/Mr and d R = Cp- Cv

Note: viscous heating term is normally ignored unless the flow has enormous velocity gradient

## Special form of Energy Equations

Equation of Change q g for Temperature: p

## Special form of Energy Equations

Equation of Change q g for Temperature: p

## Special form of Energy Equations

Equation of Change q g for Temperature: p

## Special form of Energy Equations

Equation of Change for Temperature

The last five equations are the most frequently encountered in te tbooks and research p textbooks publications. blications When the needs for more accuracy y arise, , the less restrictive expressions can be developed from the general form of equations of change. The terms involving chemical, electrical and nuclear sources can be added to the general form of equation of change.

## Equations of Change in Nonisothermal Systems

In general, to describe the nonisothermal flow of a Newtonian fluid requires: the Equation of Continuity (Mass Balance) the Equation of Motion (Momentum (Moment m Balance) the Equation of Energy (Energy Balance) Additionally: the related thermal equations: [ p = p(,T); Cp = Cp(,T) ] expressions for the density and temperature dependence of the viscosity, dilatational viscosity, and thermal conductivity the boundary and initial conditions (for numerical solution)

## Equations of Change in Nonisothermal Systems

In p principle, p the entire set of equations q (Continuity, ( y Motion and Energy gy Equations) can then be solved to get the pressure, density, velocity, and temperature profiles, as functions of position and time. (steady ( y state: differential time derivative term = 0) ) Generally, numerical methods have to be used. Standard assumptions normally used to simplify the calculations:

C t t physical Constant h i l properties ti may obtain bt i analytical l ti l solution l ti Assume zero fluxes (momentum flux and heat flux) for certain cases

## Temperature Profile in Nonisothermal Systems

Example: Heating of a fluid through a circular tube. Find expression for temperature profile for the fully developed laminar flows

( = P + gh )

3) ) Energy: gy

Now,

## Temperature Profile in Nonisothermal Systems

Viscous heating term Corresponds to heat conduction in axial direction Through assumptions & simplifications, finally: