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Let p be a prime, n be any positive integer, a(n,p) denotes the power
of p in the factorization of n!.

Let p be a prime, n be any positive integer, a(n,p) denotes the power
of p in the factorization of n!.

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Lru HONGYAN AND ZHANG WENPENG

Department of Mathematics, Northwest University

Xi'an, Shaanxi, P.R.China

ABSTRACT. Let p be a prime, n be any positive integer, a(n,p) denotes the power

of p in the factorization of n!. In this paper, we study the asymptotic properties of

the mean value L a(n, p), and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it.

p$n

1. INTRODUCTION

Let p be a prime, e

p

( n) denotes the largest exponent ( of power p ) which divides

n, a(n,p) = L ep(k). In problem 68 of [1], Professor F.Smarandach asked us to

k=:;n

study the properties of the sequences ep(n). This problem is interesting because

there are close relations between e

p

( n) and the factorization of n!. In fact, 0'( n, p)

is the power of p in the factorization of nL In this paper, we use the elementary

methods to study the asymptotic properties of the mean value L 0'( n, p), and give

p=:;n

an interesting asymptotic formula for it. That is, we shall prove the following:

Theorem. For any prime p and any fixed positive integer n, we have the asymp-

totic formula

'" a( n p) = n In In n + en 4- C1 + C2 + ... + Ck + 0 ( n ).

L< ' ' Inn ln

2

n Inkn lnk+1n

p_n

where k is any fixed positive integer, Ci (i = 1,2, ,) are some con-

stants.

2. PROOF OF THE THEOREM

In this section, we complete the proof of the Theorem. First for any prime p and

any fixed positive integer n, we let a(n,p) denote the sum of the base p digits of n.

That is, if n 0= alpO'l + a2p0'2 + ... + aspO' with as > as-I> ... > 0'1 2: 0, where

s

1 ai p-1, i = 1,2, ,8, then a(n,p) = Lai, and for this number theoretic

i=l

function, we have the following two simple Lemmas:

Key words and phraseso A new number theoretic function; Mean value; Asymptotic formula.

* This work is support.ed by the N.S.F. and the P.S.F. of P.R.China.

155

Lemma 1. For any integer n 2: 1, we have the identity

+00 [n] 1

O:'p(n) == O:'(n) == = --(n - a(n,p) ,

p' p-1 .

:=1

where [x] denotes the greatest integer not exceeding x.

Proof. From the properties of [x] we know that

[;] = [a1PQ1 + azpa:t ... + aspo. ]

_ { t ajpOlj -i, if O:'k-1 < i O:'k

- j=k

0, if i > O:'s.

So from this formula we have

+00 [] +00 [a Ol Ol ] = _ alP 1 + a2P 2 + ... + asp

0:'( n) - 6 i - 6 i

;=1 p i=1 P

s OJ S

= L L ajpcxj-k = L aj (1 + p + p2 + ... + pOlj-1)

j=lk=l j=1

s Ol lIs

pJ-

= 6 aj' -1 = (ajpQj - aj)

j=1 p P i=l

1

= --(n - a(n,p.

p-l

This completes the proof of Lemma 1.

Lemma 2. For any positive integer n, we have the estimate

p-1

a(n,p):S:; lnp In n.

Proof. Let n = a1p

O

l + a2p

Ol

2 + ... + aspo. with as > as-I> ... > a1 2: 0, where

1 ai :s:; p - 1, i = 1,2"" , s. Then from the definition of a(n,p) we have

s s

(1) a(n,p) = L ai :s:; L(p -1) = (p - l)s.

i=l i=l

On the other hand, using the mathematical induction we can easily get the inequal-

ity

or

(2)

In(n/a

s

) Inn

s< <-.

- lnp - Inp

156

Combining (1) and (2) we immediately get the estimate

.

p-1

a(n,p) ~ -I-Inn.

np

This proves Lemma 2.

Now we use Lemma I and Lemma 2 to complete the proof of the Theorem. First,

we separate the summation in the Theorem into two parts.

(3)

L a(n,p) = L a(n,p) + L a(n,p).

v'n<p$n

For the first part, from Lemma 1 we have

1

L a(n,p) = L p-1 (n - a(n,p))

p$v'n p$v'n

"" (1 1) "" a(n,p)

=n 6 ;+ p(p-I) - 6 p-1

p$v'n p$v'n

_ n ("" ~ + "" 1 + 0 ("" ~ _ "" a(n,p)

- 6 p 6 pep _ 1) 6 m

2

L.,; p - 1

p$vfn p m>v'n p$v'n

(4) = n ( rfii .!.d?r(x) + A + 0 (.2..)) _ "" a(n,p).

J ~ x yin 6 p-1

2 p$v'n

where ?rex) denotes the number of all prime not exceeding x. For ?rex), we have

the asymptotic formula

(5)

and

(6)

a31 an a3k (1)

= In In n + B + -1 - + :2 + ... + -k- + 0 k+l .

n 11 In n In 17 In 17

157

From Lemma 2 we have

(7)

"a(n,p) "Inn ,,1 L

1::; -1 - = Inn -1 -::; Inn 1::; y'nlnn.

p -

np

np

Combining (4), (6) and (7) we obtain

"

n n

a(n,p) = nlnlnn + con + a

31 -

1

- + a32-?-

c

nn In- n

P<v n

(8)

+ ... + a3k + + 0 ( k:l ).

In n In n

For the second part, we have

(9)

= .L 7r (:) - [v'n]7r(vn).

Applying Euler's summation formula ( see [2] Theorem 3.1 ) and the expansion into

power-series we have

= f (r -1 + s) (L InS m )

O

r - 1 em 1n

s

+

r

n

s=

158

From this and (5) we get

=n

L ( __ 1 __ +a

2

1 + ...

m(In n - In m) m(In n - In m )2

+ ak+I

+0

1

(1))

m(In n - In m )k+I m(ln n - In m )k+2

=n bo+-+--++--+O (

bi

b

k

(1))

In n In

2

n Ink n In

k

+

I

n

(10)

= bon+b

I

- +b2 --+ ... +b

k

--+0

n n

n (n)

In n In

2

n

Ink n Ink+

I

n

and

(11)

n n

n (n) = a4II-- + a42-2- + ... + a4k-k- + 0 HI .

nn Inn

Inn In n

Combining (9), (10) and (11) we have

(12) '" a(n,p) = bon + aS1lnn + aS2+ + ... + aSk+ + 0 ( k:l )-.

n In n

In n In n

vn<p_n

From (3), (8) and (12) we obtain the asymptotic formula

'"

n n

n" (n)

a( n, p) = n In In n + cn + CI -In + c2 -2 - + ... + Ck -k - + 0 HI .

<

n Inn Inn In n

p_n

This completes the proof of the Theorem.

REFERENCES

1. F. Smarandache, Only problems, not Solutions, Xiquan Pub!. House, Chicago, 1993, pp. 54-55.

2. Tom M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytic Number Theory, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976.

3. R. K. Guy, Unsolved Problems in Number Theory, Springer-Verlag, New York, Heidelberg,

Berlin, 1981.

4. "Smarandache Sequences" at http://www.gaIlup.unm.edursmarandache/snaqint.txt.

5. "Smarandache Sequences" at http://www.gaIlup.unm.edursmarandache/snaqint2.txt.

6. "Smarandache Sequences" at http://www.gaIlup.unm.edur smarandache/snaqint3. txt.

159

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