REPORTABLE IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL ORIGINAL JURISDICTION WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 521 OF 2002 P.

Ramakrishnam Raju Versus Union of India & Ors. WITH WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 523 OF 2002 WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 524 OF 2002 WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 3 OF 2003 WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 3! OF 2003 WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO. 4"5 OF 2005 AND CIVIL APPEAL NOS.424!#424$ OF 2014 (A%&'&() *+, *- S.L.P. (C) N*'. $55!#$55$ *- 2010) .... Respondent(s) .... Petitioner (s)

JUDGMENT
P.S.,/.'&0.12 CJI. 1) The main question whi h arises for onsideration is

whether !i"h #ourt $ud"es% who are appointed from the &ar

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under 'rti (e )1*())(+) of the #onstitution of India% on retirement% are entit(ed for an addition of 1, -ears to their ser.i e for the purposes of their pension/ )) The a+o.e petitions ha.e +een fi(ed +- former $ud"es of ountr- as we(( as +- the

the .arious !i"h #ourts of the

'sso iation of the Retired $ud"es of the 0upreme #ourt and the !i"h #ourts e(e.ated from the &ar. 1) The petitioners ha.e pra-ed that the num+er of -ears ount and

pra ti ed as an ad.o ate sha(( +e taken into a

sha(( +e added to the ser.i e as a $ud"e of the !i"h #ourt for the purpose of determinin" the ma2imum pension

permissi+(e under Part3I of the 4irst 0 hedu(e to the !i"h #ourt $ud"es (0a(aries and #onditions of 0er.i e) ' t% 1567 (in short 8the !#$ ' t9). It was further stated that in respe t of Part3III of the 4irst 0 hedu(e% whi h dea(s with the $ud"es e(e.ated from the 0tate $udi ia( 0er.i e% a(most a(( the $ud"es "et fu(( pension e.en if the- ha.e worked as a $ud"e of the !i"h #ourt for ) or 1 -ears and their entire ser.i e is added to their ser.i e as a $ud"e of the !i"h #ourt for omputin"

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pension under this Part. 4or this reason% the mem+ers of the su+ordinate judi iar- "et more pension than the $ud"es e(e.ated from the &ar on retirement. 7) In .iew of the a+o.e% the petitioners pra-ed that thou"h

Part3I and Part3III $ud"es ho(d equi.a(ent posts% the- are not simi(ar(- situated in re"ard to pension and retirement +enefits whi h is +rea h of 'rti (es 17 and )1 of the #onstitution of India and one rank one pension must +e the norm in respe t of a onstitutiona( offi e. It is further pra-ed that the retired $ud"es of the !i"h #ourts shou(d a(so +e "i.en enhan ed a((owan e for domesti he(p:peon:dri.er%

te(ephone e2penses and other se retaria( assistan e. 6) ;e ha.e heard the ar"uments ad.an ed +- (earned

ounse( for the parties and perused the re ords. <) The #onstitution of India pro.ides for three3tier judi ia(

s-stem. The Union $udi iar-3=sta+(ishment and #onstitution of 0upreme #ourt of India ('rti (es 1)7 to 17*)> The !i"h #ourts in the 0tates ('rti (es )17 to )11) and 0u+ordinate #ourts ('rti (e )11 to )1*). The #onstitution of India a(so
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pro.ides for appointment of $ud"es from amon"st the mem+ers of the &ar at a(( the three (e.e(s. *) The appointment of the $ud"es of the 0upreme #ourt is +'rti (e 1)7(1)%(a)% (+) and ( ) of the

"o.erned

#onstitution. It en.isa"es appointment from three sour es? (i) from amon"st the $ud"es of the !i"h #ourt ha.in" ser.i e of at (east fi.e -ears> (ii) the mem+ers of the &ar ha.in" a standin" of not (ess than 1, -ears> and (iii) an- person% who is% in the opinion of the President% is a distin"uished jurist. @) The appointment of a $ud"e of the !i"h #ourt is

"o.erned +- 'rti (e )1*())(a) and (+) of the #onstitution whi h en.isa"es appointments from two different sour es? (a) from amon"st the $udi ia( offi ers who ha.e he(d the offi e for at (east 1, -ears> and (+) the mem+ers of the &ar% who ha.e +een 'd.o ates of a !i"h #ourt for at (east 1, -ears. 5) The appointment of Aistri t $ud"es is "o.erned +-

'rti (e )11()) of the #onstitution whi h pro.ides that a person not a(read- in the ser.i e of the Union or of the 0tate
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sha(( on(- +e e(i"i+(e to +e appointed as a distri t jud"e if he has +een for not (ess than se.en -ears an ad.o ate or a p(eader and is re ommended +- the !i"h #ourt for appointment. 1,) The 0upreme #ourt $ud"es (0a(aries & #onditions of 0er.i e) ' t% 156@% (in short 8the 0#$ ' t9)% the !#$ ' t and the Ru(es made thereunder% re"u(ate their sa(ar- and onditions of ser.i e. The pro.isions under +oth the ' ts

were simi(ar prior to the 'mendment ' t% ),,6. The ser.i e onditions of the $ud"es of the su+ordinate ourts are

"o.erned +- the 0er.i e Ru(es made under 'rti (e 1,5 of the #onstitution of India. 11) 0e tion 11 of the 0#$ ' t read with #(ause ) of Part3I of the 0 hedu(e dea(s with the pension pa-a+(e to the retired $ud"es of the 0upreme #ourt. 0imi(ar(-% 0e tion 17 of the !#$ ' t read with #(ause ) of Part3I of the 4irst 0 hedu(e dea(s with the pension pa-a+(e to the retired $ud"es of the !i"h #ourts. The pro.isions under +oth the ' ts were simi(ar prior to the 'mendment ' t% ),,6. Re(e.ant portion of 0e tion 17 of the !#$ ' t reads as fo((ows?
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B14. P3('&*( 4.5.673 ,* J+8)3'.# 0u+je t to the pro.isions of this ' t% e.er- $ud"e sha((% on his retirement% +e paid a pension in a ordan e with the s a(e and pro.isions in Part 1 of the 4irst 0 hedu(e? Pro.ided that no su h pension sha(( +e pa-a+(e to a $ud"e un(ess3 a) he has omp(eted not (ess than twe(.e -ears of ser.i e for pension> or +) he has attained the a"e of si2t-3two -ears> or ) his retirement is medi a((- ertified to +e ne essitated +- i((3hea(th>C

1)) #(ause ) of Part3I to the 4irst 0 hedu(e of the said ' t dea(s with the pension for the retired $ud"es of the !i"h #ourt% who are dire t(- appointed from the &ar% whi h reads as under?3
B). 0u+je t to the other pro.isions of this part% the pension pa-a+(e to a $ud"e% to whom this part app(- and who has omp(eted not (ess than * -ears of ser.i e for pension sha(( +e (a) for ser.i e as #hief $usti e in an- !i"h #ourt% Rs.71%@5,:3 per annum for ea h omp(eted -ear of ser.i e> (+) for ser.i e as an- other $ud"e in an- !i"h #ourt Rs.17%16,:3 per annum for ea h omp(eted -ear of ser.i e. Pro.ided that the pension under this para"raph sha(( in no ase e2 eed Rs.6%7,%,,,:3 per annum in the ase of #hief $usti e and Rs.7%@,%,,,:3 per annum in ase of an- other $ud"es.C

11) The a+o.e3noted #(ause ()) of Part I of the 4irst 0 hedu(e imp(ies that no pension is pa-a+(e to the $ud"es ha.in" (ess than * -ears of ser.i e as a $ud"e. The a+o.e
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0e tion further shows that for a $ud"e of the !i"h #ourt to re ei.e fu(( pension +enefits% he shou(d ha.e omp(eted 1)

-ears of ser.i e as a $ud"e of the !i"h #ourt. It is su+mitted that when mem+ers of the &ar are offered the post of !i"h #ourt $ud"es% the- are "enera((- at the a"e of a+out 6, -ears or a+o.e and at the prime of their pra ti e% whi h the- ha.e to "i.e up to ser.e the s-stem. Therefore% man- of them are re(u tant to a ept the offer as the post3retirement +enefits

are not attra ti.e enou"h. 17) 0e tion 11 and #(ause ) of the 0 hedu(e to the 0#$ ' t ear(ier ontained simi(ar prohi+ition with re"ard to the

e(i"i+i(it- of pension to the $ud"es appointed from the &ar as ontained in the !#$ ' t. &oth the ' ts pro.ide that no

pension sha(( +e pa-a+(e to a $ud"e who has (ess than * -ears of ser.i e. 16) In Kuldip Singh .s. Union of India% (),,)) 5 0## )1@% the petitioner therein% who was appointed as a $ud"e of the 0upreme #ourt from the &ar% on his retirement was denied the +enefit of pension as he did not fu(fi(( the requisite onditions. #onsequent(-% he fi(ed a ;rit Petition +efore this
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#ourt pra-in"% inter alia, (a) to take into a

ount 1, -ears of

pra ti e at the &ar in addition to his ser.i e for the purposes of pension. (+) In the a(ternati.e% pra-ed for a dire tion to treat the appointees under 'rti (e 1)7(1)(+) for the purposes of pension at par with the appointees under 'rti (e 1)7(1)(a). On )7.,5.),,)% whi(e issuin" noti e% this #ourt passed the fo((owin" order?3
91. In this writ petition% the question whi h arises for onsideration re(ates to pension whi h is pa-a+(e to a $ud"e who retires from this #ourt after ha.in" +een appointed dire t(- from the &ar. 0imi(ar question a(so arises with re"ard to &ar appointees to the !i"h #ourts. 2. =2perien e has shown that the &ar appointees espe ia((-% if the- are appointed at the a"e of 6, -ears and a+o.e% "et (esser pension than the 0er.i e $ud"e appointees. It is to +e seen that as far as the #onstitution of India is on erned% it stipu(ates the manner of appointment of the $ud"es and pro.ides what ma- +e termed as the qua(ifi ation required for their appointment. The #onstitution ontemp(ates appointment to the !i"h #ourts from amon"st mem+ers of the &ar as we(( as from amon"st the judi ia( offi ers. The #onstitution does not pro.ide for an- spe ifi quota. Ti(( a few -ears a"o in pra ti e << ):1D of .a an ies were fi((ed from amon"st mem+ers of the &ar and 11 1:1D from the judi ia( ser.i es. It is on(- in the #onferen e of 731)31551 of the #hief Einisters and the #hief $usti es that it was de ided that the num+er of .a an ies from amon"st the judi ia( offi ers Bmi"ht "o up to 7,DC. The de ision of 731)31551% annot mean that the num+er of $ud"es from the ser.i es has to +e 7,D. The norma( pra ti e whi h has +een fo((owed was ):1rds and 1:1rd from amon"st mem+ers of the &ar and judi ia( ser.i es respe ti.e(- and it is on(- on a rare o asion that the #hief $usti e of a !i"h #ourt an

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propose more 0er.i e $ud"es +ein" appointed if suita+(e mem+ers of the &ar are not a.ai(a+(e. &ut this annot +e more than 7,D in an- ase. It ma- here a(so +e noted that in the #hief $usti es9 #onferen e he(d in 1555% it was unanimous(- reso(.ed that the quota shou(d norma((- +e << ):1D and 11 1:1D and it is on this basis the Government should determine the likely number of Bar Judges and then consider whether the High Court Judges who are appointed from amongst the members of the Bar should not be given the same weightage as is now sought to be given to the members of the Bar who are appointed to this Court as far as pension is concerned .C (=mphasis supp(ied)

1<) The Fo.ernment% .ide 'mendment ' t% ),,6 (7<:),,6)% added 0e tion 11' to the 0#$ ' t whi h reads as under?
B0u+je t to the pro.ision of this ' t% a period of ten -ears sha(( +e added to the ser.i e of a $ud"e for the purpose of his pension% who qua(ified for appointment as su h $ud"e under su+3 (ause (+) of #(ause (1) of 'rti (e 1)7 of the #onstitution.C

Therefore% the ondition of minimum * -ears of ser.i e as a $ud"e to +e ome e(i"i+(e for pension was omitted from the 0e tion as we(( as from #(ause ) of its 0 hedu(e. In .iew of the amendment% the said writ petition was dismissed as withdrawn on ,<.1).),,6. !owe.er% petitioner9s writ petition and other onne ted matters remained pendin". 1*) In Govt. of NCT of Delhi & Ors. .s. All India Young a!"ers# Asso$iation %&egistered' And Another% (),,5)

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17 0## 75% a Gaw-ers9 'sso iation fi(ed a writ petition in the !i"h #ourt of Ae(hi pra-in" therein that the +enefit of 16 -ears addition of ser.i e +e "i.en to the $ud"e% who is dire t(- appointed from the &ar to the !i"her $udi ia( 0er.i e for the purposes of pension. The writ petition was a((owed and Ru(e )<& was ordered to +e added to the Ae(hi !i"her $udi ia( 0er.i e Ru(es% 15*,. The Fo.t. of H#T% Ae(hi

ha((en"ed the said jud"ment and order and this #ourt uphe(d the .a(idit- of Ru(e )<&% howe.er% the period to +e added to the ser.i e for the purposes of pension% was redu ed to 1, -ears or a tua( pra ti e at the &ar whi he.er is (ess. 1@) In the three3tier judi ia( s-stem pro.ided +- the #onstitution% mem+ers of the &ar% who join the !i"her $udi ia( 0er.i e at the Aistri t $ud"es (e.e(% on retirement% "et the +enefit of 1, -ears addition to their ser.i e for the purposes of pension (Ru(e )<& of the A!$0 Ru(es). $ud"es of the

0upreme #ourt% who are appointed from the &ar "i.en a period of 1, -ears to their ser.i e for the purposes of pension (0e tion 11' of the 'mendment ' t% ),,6). !owe.er% the
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+enefit of 1, -ears addition to their ser.i e for the purposes of pension is +ein" denied to the $ud"es of the !i"h ourt

appointed from the &ar% whi h is ar+itrar- and .io(ati.e of 'rti (e 17 of the #onstitution of India. 15) The =2p(anation (aa) appended to 'rti (e )1*()) of the #onstitution of India en.isa"es that% Bin omputin" the period durin" whi h a person has +een an ad.o ate of a !i"h #ourt% there sha(( +e in (uded an- period durin" whi h the person has he(d judi ia( offi e or the offi e of a mem+er of a tri+una( or an- post% under the Union or a 0tate% requirin" spe ia( know(ed"e of (aw after he +e ame an ad.o ate.C The

e2p(anation thus treats the e2perien e of an 'd.o ate at the &ar and the period of judi ia( offi e he(d +- him at par. ),) The $ud"es% who are appointed under 'rti (e )1*())(a) +ein" mem+ers of the $udi ia( 0er.i e% e.en if the- ser.e as a $ud"e of the !i"h #ourt for on(- one or two -ears% "et fu(( pension +enefits +e ause of the app(i a+i(it- of Ru(e )<& or +e ause of their ear(ier entr- into judi ia( ser.i e. !owe.er% the $ud"es of the !i"h #ourt% who are appointed from the &ar

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do not "et simi(ar +enefit of fu(( pension% whi h is ar+itrarand dis riminator-. )1) 0e tion 17 of the !#$ ' t and #(ause ) of Part I of the 4irst 0 hedu(e whi h "o.erns the pension pa-a+(e to $ud"es "i.es rise to unequa( onsequen es. The e2istin" s heme

treats unequa((- the equa(s% whi h is .io(ati.e of 'rti (es 17 and )1 of the #onstitution of India. ))) To remo.e the a+o.e dis rimination% in the #hief $usti es #onferen e he(d on 'pri( 6 and <% ),11% it was% inter alia% reso(.ed that% Bfor pensionar- +enefits% ten -ears9 pra ti e as an ad.o ate +e added as a qua(if-in" ser.i e% for $ud"es e(e.ated from the &ar.C (Reso(ution Ho.1@ (.iii). fu((- supports the petitioner9s su+mission. )1) The ratio of the de ision ited +- the respondent in It

Union of India .s. Dev(i Nandan Agar!al% 'IR 155) 0# 15< is not app(i a+(e +e ause the re(iefs pra-ed therein were entire(- different and a(so +e ause it is per incuriam in .iew of the su+sequent de isions of this #ourt of equa( stren"th in All India )udges Asso$iation .s. Union of India% 'IR 155)

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0# 1<6> and All India )udges Asso$iation .s. Union of India% 'IR 1551 0# )751 wherein the requirement of independen e of the judi iar- ha.e +een under(ined as a(so two de isions ited a+o.e i.e. Kuldip Singh %supra' and All India Young a!"ers# Asso$iation %supra'. )7) ;hen persons who o $ud"e% !i"h #ourt upied the #onstitutiona( Offi e of there shou(d not +e an-

retire%

dis rimination with re"ard to the fi2ation of their pension. Irrespe ti.e of the sour e from where the $ud"es are drawn% the- must +e paid the same pension just as the- ha.e +een paid same sa(aries and a((owan es and perks as ser.in" $ud"es. On(- pra ti in" 'd.o ates who ha.e attained ept $ud"eship of the !i"h #ourt.

eminen e are in.ited to a

&e ause of the status of the offi e of !i"h #ourt $ud"e% the responsi+i(ities and duties atta hed to the offi e% hard(- anad.o ate of distin tion de (ines the offer. Thou"h it ma- +e a "reat finan ia( sa rifi e to a su essfu( (aw-er to a ept

$ud"eship% it is the desire to ser.e the so iet- and the hi"h presti"e atta hed to the offi e and the respe t the offi e ommands that prope( a su essfu( (aw-er to a ept
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$ud"eship. su

The e2perien e and know(ed"e "ained +- a

essfu( (aw-er at the &ar an ne.er +e onsidered to +e

(ess important from an- point of .iew .is3a3.is the e2perien e "ained +- a judi ia( offi er. If the ser.i e of a judi ia( offi er is ounted for fi2ation of pension% there is no .a(id reason as to wh- the e2perien e at &ar annot +e treated as equi.a(ent for the same purpose. )6) The fi2ation of hi"her pension to the $ud"es drawn from the 0u+ordinate $udi iar- who ha.e ser.ed for shorter period in ontradistin tion to $ud"es drawn from the &ar who ha.e ser.ed for (on"er period with (ess pension is hi"h(-

dis riminator- and +rea h of 'rti (e 17 of the #onstitution. The a (assifi ation itse(f is unreasona+(e without an- (e"a((-

epta+(e ne2us with the o+je t sou"ht to +e a hie.ed.

)<) The mea"er pension for $ud"es drawn from the &ar and ser.ed for (ess than 1) -ears on the &en h ad.erse(- affe ts the ima"e of the $udi iar-. ;hen pensions are mea"er

+e ause of the shorter ser.i e% (aw-ers who attain distin tion in the profession ma- not% +e ause of this anoma(-% a ept

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the offi e of $ud"eship. ;hen apa+(e (aw-ers do not show in (ination towards $ud"eship% the qua(it- of justi e de (ines. )*) In most of the 0tates% the $ud"eship of the !i"h #ourt is offered to ad.o ates who are in the a"e "roup of 6,366 -ears% sin e pre3eminen e at the &ar is a hie.ed norma((- at that a"e. su 'fter remainin" at the top for a few -ears% a ept $ud"eship%

essfu( (aw-er ma- show in (ination to a

sin e that is the

u(mination of the desire and o+je ti.e of ;hen persons ho(din" onstitutiona(

most of the (aw-ers.

offi e retire from ser.i e% makin" dis rimination in the fi2ation of their pensions dependin" upon the sour e from whi h the- were appointed is in +rea h of 'rti (es 17 and 1<(1) of the #onstitution. One rank one pension must +e the norm in respe t of a #onstitutiona( Offi e. )@) ;hen a #i.i( 0er.ant retires from ser.i e% the fami(pension is fi2ed at a hi"her rate whereas in the ase of Ho

$ud"es of the !i"h #ourt% it is fi2ed at a (ower rate. dis rimination fami(- pension.

an +e made in the matter of pa-ment of The e2penditure for pension to the !i"h

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#ourt $ud"es is

har"ed on the #onso(idated 4und of India

under 'rti (e 11)(1)(d)(iii) of the #onstitution. )5) In the (i"ht of what is dis ussed% we a petitioners9 ept the

(aim and de (are that for pensionar- +enefits%

ten -ears9 pra ti e as an ad.o ate +e added as a qua(if-in" ser.i e for $ud"es e(e.ated from the &ar. 4urther% in order to remo.e ar+itrariness in the matter of pension of the $ud"es of the !i"h #ourts e(e.ated from the &ar% the re(iefs% as mentioned a+o.e are to +e re koned from ,1.,7.),,7% the date on whi h 0e tion 11' was inserted +- the !i"h #ourt and 0upreme #ourt $ud"es (0a(aries and #onditions of 0er.i e) 'mendment ' t% ),,6 (7< of ),,6). amendment +e Requisite

arried out in the !i"h #ourt $ud"es Ru(es%

156< with re"ard to post3retira( +enefits as has +een done in re(ation to the retired $ud"es of the 0upreme #ourt in terms of amendment arried out +- Ru(e 1& of the 0upreme #ourt $ud"es Ru(es% 1565. C&0&7 A443.7 N*'.424!#424$ *- 2014 (A%&'&() *+, *- S.L.P. (C) N*'. $55!#$55$ *- 2010 1,) Gea.e "ranted.
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11) 't the instan e of the 'sso iation of retired $ud"es of the 0upreme #ourt and !i"h #ourts% the Ai.ision &en h of the !i"h #ourt of Rajasthan at $aipur dire ted the 0tate Fo.ernment to pa- a sum of Rs.5%,,,:3 per month to a retired #hief $usti e of the !i"h #ourt to meet e2penses of domesti he(p:peon:dri.er:te(ephone e2penses and

se retaria( assistan e et . and Rs. *%6,,:3 per month to a retired $ud"e of the !i"h #ourt for the same purposes. The said order sha(( +e effe ti.e from ,1.,).),1,. Iuestionin" the same% the 0tate of Rajasthan has fi(ed the a+o.e appea(. 1)) ;ith referen e to the a+o.e (aim and the order of the !i"h #ourt% in the #onferen e of #hief Einisters and #hief $usti es of the !i"h #ourts he(d on 1@.,5.),,7% the fo((owin" Reso(ution was passed?
91!. A+)13(,&() *- 4*',#%3,&%.7 63(3-&,' *- J+8)3'. J22 22222 K.iL 's re"ards post3retira( +enefits to the retired $ud"es of the !i"h #ourts% the s heme san tioned +- the 0tate of 'ndhra Pradesh +e adopted and fo((owed in a(( the 0tates% e2 ept where +etter +enefits are a(read- a.ai(a+(e.C

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11) It is +rou"ht to our noti e that in pursuan e of the said Reso(ution% most of the 0tates in the ountr- ha.e e2tended .arious post3retira( +enefits to the retired #hief $usti es and retired $ud"es of the respe ti.e !i"h #ourts. &- F.O.Es.Ho. )@ dated 1<.,1.),1) issued +Gaw Aepartment%

Fo.ernment of 'ndhra Pradesh san tioned an amount of Rs.17%,,,:3 per month to the retired #hief $usti es of the !i"h #ourt of 'ndhra Pradesh and an amount of Rs.1)%,,,:3 per month to the retired $ud"es of the !i"h #ourt of 'ndhra Pradesh for defra-in" the ser.i es of an order(-% dri.er% se urit- "uard et . and for meetin" e2penses in urred towards se retaria( assistan e on ontra t +asis and a

residentia( te(ephone free of ost with num+er of free a((s to the e2tent of 16,, per month o.er and a+o.e the num+er of free a((s per month a((owed +- the te(ephone authorities to +oth the retired #hief $usti es and $ud"es of the !i"h #ourt of 'ndhra Pradesh w.e.f. ,1.,7.),1). 17) ;hi(e appre iatin" the steps taken +- the Fo.ernment of 'ndhra Pradesh and other 0tates who ha.e a(readformu(ated su h s heme% +- this order% we hope and trust
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that the 0tates who ha.e not so far framed su h s heme wi(( formu(ate the same% dependin" on the (o a( onditions% for

the +enefit of the retired #hief $usti es and retired $ud"es of the respe ti.e !i"h #ourts as ear(- as possi+(e prefera+(within a period of si2 months from the date of re eipt of opof this order. 16) '(( the ;rit Petitions and the appea(s are disposed of on the a+o.e terms. In .iew of the disposa( of the writ petitions% no orders are required in the inter.ention app(i ation.

.MM.MMMMMMMMMM#$I. (P. SATHASIVAM)

MMMM.MMMMMMMMMM$. (RANJAN GOGOI)

MMMM.MMMMMMMMMM$. (N.V. RAMANA) H=; A=G!I> E'R#! 11% ),17.

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