Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1982, 30:893-917 Self, E o, Affects an! "ri#es $tto %& 'ern(er ./+.
/)012 )*+,3n: htt4:55666&4e4-6e(&or 5!ocument&4h47i!8APA&030&0893A לגבי הבעיות בטרמינולוגיה של אגו מול עצמי A sur#ey of the 4sychoanalytic literature on theories of the e o an! conce4ts of the self re#eals the e9istence of consi!era(le terminolo ical confusion& :hat the terms e o an! self are sometimes use! interchan ea(ly, sometimes carefully !istin uishe! from each other, an! at other times treate! am(i uously 4ro(a(ly is !ue to the 6ay %reu! use! these 6or!s& %reu! 4reser#e! throu hout his 6ritin s the ;erman 3ch<=3=<for the e o as (oth a mental structure an! 4sychic a ency, an! also for the more 4ersonal, su(>ecti#e, e94eriential =self&= %reu! ne#er se4arate! 6hat 6e thin? of as the meta4sycholo ical e o from the e94eriencin self& :he am(i uity resultin from %reu!@s use of 3ch 6as com4oun!e!, it seems to me, (y Strachey@s !ecision to translate 3ch into =e o&= :he 6or! e o has an im4ersonal Auality !oes not fit the more 4ersonal, su(>ecti#e =self&= Bthere are innumera(le e9am4les of such uses of the 6or! 3ch (efore 1923, to !esi nate su(>ecti#e e94erience an! self-esteemC& A secon! source of !ifficulty is the use of =self= to !escri(e the 4erson or in!i#i!ual interactin 6ith other 4ersons or =o(>ects,= as in Dartmann@s E19F0G !istinction (et6een the self as the 4erson an! the intra4sychic re4resentation of the 4erson or self-re4resentation, a thir! term reAuirin clarification& Jaco(son E19HIG, a!!ressin these 4ro(lems of terminolo ical confusion, sai!, =:hey refer to the am(i uous use of the term e oJ i&e&, to the lac? of !istinction (et6een the e o, 6hich re4resents a structural mental system, the self, &&, an! the self re4resentations=& Dartmann E19F0G attem4te! to free the term =e o= from %reu!@s am(i uity& De u este! the use of the latter term for the unconscious, 4reconscious, an! conscious en!o4sychic re4resentations of the (o!ily an! mental self in the system e o& E44& 18-19G& Jaco(son, in a reement 6ith Dartmann, !efines the self "as referring to the whole person of an in i!i "al# in$l" ing his %o & an %o & parts as well as his ps&$hi$ or aniKation an! its 4arts L the 'self' is an a"(iliar& es$ripti!e ter)# whi$h points to the person as a s"%*e$t in istin$tion fro) the s"rro"n ing worl of o%*e$ts= E4& HnG& :he !efinition of =self= in the ;lossary of Psychoanalytic :erms an! Monce4tsENoore an! %ine, 19H8G states: =:he total 4erson of an in!i#i!ual in reality, inclu!in his (o!y an! 4sychic or aniKationJ one@s @o6n 4erson@ as contraste! 6ith @ other 4ersons@ an! o(>ects outsi!e one@s self& :he @self@ is a common-sense conce4t= E4& 88G&
(ut 4art of the =not-me= e94erience. of the corres4on!in inte ration of the !eri#ati#es of li(i!inal an! a a in#estments as 6ell& :his mo!el concei#es of the self as in#este! 6ith (oth li(i!inal an! ressi#e !ri#e !eri#ati#es fuse! or inte rate! in the conte9t of the inte ration of their
:his mo!el also su ests an e94lanation for the conce4t of neutraliKation of !ri#es
EDartmann.3n my #ie6. (lissful states constitute the core of the e o@s self-feelin or self-e94erience& Accor!in to this #ie6. an! character structure& + propose# instea # to reser!e the ter) "self" for the s") total of self.representations in inti)ate $onne$tion with the s") total of o%*e$t representations. Dartmann@s fateful se4aration of the conce4t of e o from self an! of self from self-re4resentation create! an artificial se4aration of structural. then. 19FFG&
:he self.+n other wor s# + propose efining the self as an intraps&$hi$ str"$t"re that originates fro) the ego an is $learl& e)%e e in the ego. frustratin e94eriences an! the a ression tri ere! (y them 6oul! not (e 4art of the ori inal self. an! !escri4ti#e as4ects of e o functions& :his se4aration com4licate! conce4tualiKin the relations (et6een =im4ersonal= e o functions. is an e o structure that ori inates from self-re4resentations first (uilt u4 in the un!ifferentiate! sym(iotic 4hase L un!er the influence of (oth ratifyin an! frustratin e94eriences&&& :he self as a 4sychic structure ori inates from (oth li(i!inally an! a in#este! self-re4resentations&
co niti#e structures&
3t is. su(>ecti#ity. an e o function an! structure that e#ol#es ra!ually from the inte ration
of its com4onent self-re4resentations into a su4raor!inate structure that incor4orates other e o functions<such as memory an!
. an e9ternal threat to the self. not intrinsically lin?e! 6ith it& this thin?in 4ermits omittin a ression from the structural analysis of e o an! self-!e#elo4ment& :he alternati#e conce4t is that self-!e#elo4ment also occurs at times of hei htene! frustration an! 4ainful or traumatic e94eriences& this latter conce4t !escri(es self-!e#elo4ment un!er (oth li(i!inal an! a a ressi#e con!itions& the conce4t of the ori in of self-re4resentations an! self-e94erience un!er the im4act of (oth ressi#ely an! li(i!inally in#este! states of mer er lea!s to conce4tualiKin the self as the ressi#e !ri#e 4ro!uct of the e#entual inte ration of such contra!ictory self-re4resentations an!.Ohat follo6s is an effort to integrate fin ings
.oti!ational /or$es0 1ri!es# 2ffe$ts# an 3%*e$t 4elations
5ern%erg proposes a )o ifi$ation of the "al instin$t theor& in the light of the relation %etween affe$t an ri!es. e94eriential. in the 4rocess.:o conce4tualiKe the self in this 6ay is to remain close to %reu!@s im4licit insistence that self an! e o are in!issolu(ly lin?e!& Pro(a(ly all 4sychoanalysts 6ho ha#e !ealt 6ith this Auestion 6oul! a ree that ratifyin . in short.
4articularly the su(>ecti#e affecti#e colorin of that e94erience EArnol!. 4articularly a ression. an! to thus initiate communication (et6een the infant an! mother that mar?s the (e innin of intra4sychic life EEm!e et al&. etc&G&
. 197HG&777 3 assume that affecti#e memory structures reflectin 4leasura(le relations of infant an! mother (uil! u4 se4arately from the un4leasura(le affecti#e memory structures & 3 su est that affects are the 4rimary moti#ational system. o4eratin as the earliest moti#ational system. some 4leasura(ly tin e!. inte rate! affect states Esuch as sa!ness. are therefore intimately lin?e! 6ith the fi9ation (y memory of an internaliKe! 6orl! of o(>ect relations E'ern(er . lon in . the relation to an o(>ect
chan es un!er the influence of the acti#ation of ne6 affect states 6hich emer e throu hout !e#elo4ment an! cause the Auality of the !ri#es to shift &%or e9am4le. an! the fun!amental nature of the (iolo ical (asis of human !e#elo4ment&
Affecti#e (eha#ior stron ly influences o(>ect relations from (irth on E3Kar!.fro) $onte)porar& ne"rops&$hologi$al st" ies of affe$ts an resear$h on infant e!elop)ent with a re!ise for)"lation of the "al instin$t theor&&
Analo ous to the reaction to %reu!@s !isco#eries re ar!in infantile se9uality that im4ute! to 4sychoanalysis a mor(i! concern 6ith an e9a erate! #ie6 of se9uality. !irecte! to6ar! the same li(i!inal o(>ect.:he !ri#es ERi(i!o an! a ressionG manifest themsel#es && in a s4ectrum of concrete affect !is4ositions an! affect states& Also. 1970G& Affects. 1978GJ E3Kar! an! Puechler. an! the ori in an! !e#elo4ment of !ri#es as o#erall moti#ational systems& 'ohut@s E1971G. 4ermits the reacti#ation not only of the co niti#e. transcen!s each of these concrete a ressi#e affects. %reu!@s !ual instinct theory has arouse! stron cultural reactions a ainst the conce4t of a ression as a (asic instinct& :hus. a ression. an!<4articularly after con!ensation an! inte ration of a ressi#e an! li(i!inal !ri#es<(rin s a(out or contri(utes to a ne6 set of more com4le9. others un4leasura(ly tin e!. is constructe!& Put e#en 6hile affects are lin?in internaliKe! o(>ect relations in t6o 4arallel series of ratifyin an! frustratin e94eriences. em4hasiKin the central nature of the !e#elo4ment of the cohesi#e self<the moti#ational force of 6hich is not s4elle! out an! only im4lie!<is one of many 4sycholo ical an! culturalist 4sychoanalytic theories that e94licitly or im4licitly re>ect instinct theory. (ut 6ith a chan e! su(>ecti#e Auality an! !ifferent moti#ational im4lications& Similarly. there is an uncertainty re ar!in the moti#ational forces of earliest !e#elo4ment. the internal relation of the infant to mother un!er the si n of =lo#e= is more than the sum of a finite num(er of concrete lo#in affect states& :he same is true for hate& 6o!e an hate th"s %e$o)e sta%le intraps&$hi$ str"$t"res7 an gra "all& $onsoli ate into li%i o an aggression& 6i%i o an aggression# in t"rn# %e$o)e hierar$hi$all& s"praor inate )oti!ational s&ste)s whi$h e(press the)sel!es in 7affe$t ispositions un!er !ifferent circumstances& 2ffe$ts# in short# are the %"il ing %lo$8s or $onstit"ents of ri!es9 affe$ts e!ent"all& a$:"ire a signal f"n$tion for the a$ti!ation of ri!es. E1977G !e#elo4mental mo!el. uilt. 1979G& A central (iolo ical function of in(orn affecti#e 4atterns Lis to si nal to the en#ironment the infant@s nee!s. 4reoe!i4al li(i!inal stri#in s for mother chan e un!er the im4act of ne6ly emer in se9ually tin e! affect states of the oe!i4al sta e of !e#elo4ment& :hese affects or aniKe themsel#es into ur es o4eratin in continuity 6ith earlier li(i!inal stri#in s. 1978G& && Qeuro4sycholo ical theoriKin no6 assumes the stora e of affecti#e memory in the lim(ic corte9 6hich. in the sense that they are at the center of each of the infinite num(er of ratifyin an! frustratin concrete e#ents the infant e94eriences 6ith his en#ironment& Affects lin? a series of un!ifferentiate! self-o(>ect re4resentations so that ra!ually a com4le9 6orl! of internaliKe! o(>ect relations. (ut also of the affecti#e as4ects of 4ast e94erience. also manifest in #arious com4onent a ressi#e affecti#e states. = oo!= an! =(a!= internaliKe! o(>ect relations are themsel#es (ein transforme!& :he 4re!ominant affect of lo#e or hate of the t6o series of internaliKe! o(>ect relations (ecomes increasin ly com4le9& E#entually. ten!erness. as !irect (rain stimulation e94eriments in!icate.
6hich he #ie6e! as !iscontinuous. an! from the 4reci4itate of o(>ect relations.an! o(>ect re4resentations& :his #ie6 4ro#i!es a
(ri! e (et6een %reu!@s theory of the e o as e#ol#in from the system 4erce4tion-consciousness. in contrast to the use of the term =!ri#es= for the moti#ational systems. ri i!. an! they ori inate in affect-la!en e94eriences& :his 4ro4ose! reformulation of the !ual instinct theory em4hasiKes the crucial function of affects in acti#atin the earliest infant-mother interactions. in(orn (eha#ioral !is4ositions& Dere %reu!@s conce4t of 4sycholo ical !ri#es in contrast to (iolo ical instincts fits contem4orary (iolo ical !e#elo4ments& :hus. the term =instincti#e com4onents= for in(orn affects seems a44ro4riate. in contrast to instincts. li(i!o an! a ression& !ri#es are more 4recise than affect states& "ri#es. on the one han!.&
. are the hierarchically su4raor!inate moti#ational system& !ri#es are reflecte! in concrete 6ishes. an! e94lains the relation of affects to the internaliKation an! !e#elo4ment of self. on the other.%reu! concei#e! of !ri#es E:rie(G as relati#ely continuous 4sychic moti#ational systems at the (or!er (et6een the 4hysical an! the mental. rather than affects.