Desi gn Basi c s : BS EN13201 : 2003

BS 5489-1 : 2003

The European Norm for Road Lighting provides the lighting designer with
a basis for specifying lighting quality for a given scheme. Here we discuss
the basic principles and outline the various standards adopted.

The European Norm is divided into 3 as follows:

• BS EN 13201-2: Performance Requirements
• BS EN 13201-3: Calculation of Performance
• BS EN 13201-4: Methods of Measuring Lighting Performance

Performance Requirements

The classes we are most concerned with in the package are ME (Luminance),
S (Illuminance) and CE (Conflict areas).


Design for Traffic Routes

This part of the standard covers recommendations for the lighting of all-purpose traffic
routes, where the predominant user is motorised vehicles, and the speed of the user is
moderate to fast, using a luminance specification.
The recommendations are divided into 6 categories (excluding sub-categories of ME3
and ME4) as shown in Figure (1).


Class Luminance of road surface in dry condition
L
av

(cd/m
2
)
U
o

(%)
U
l

(%)
TI
(%)
ME1 2.0 40 70 10
ME2 1.5 40 70 10
ME3a 70
ME3b 60
ME3c
1.0 40
50
15
ME4a 60
ME4b
0.75 40
50
15
ME5 0.5 35 40 15
ME6 0.3 35 40 15

Figure (1): Recommended specifications for luminance, uniformity ratios and
threshold increment for ME classes.

The most stringent of these categories is ME1, which is likely to be used on major trunk
roads with a high traffic speed and capacity. The other specifications are designed more
for use where there is a lower requirement, for example on dual carriageways, single
carriageways, feeder or estate roads or in rural areas.

Figure (2): Provides guidance on the selection of ME lighting classes for traffic
routes (taken from Appendix B, Table B2 of BS 5489-1 : 2003).

Hierarchy
description
Type of road
/general
description
Detailed description Traffic flow ADT
(Average Daily
Traffic)
Lighting
class
Motorway Limited Access

Routes for fast moving long distance
traffic. Fully grade-separated and
restrictions on use.
Main carriageway in complex
interchange areas

Main carriageway with interchanges
<3km

Main carriageway with interchanges
≥3km

Emergency lanes



≤ 40 000
> 40 000

≤ 40 000
> 40 000

≤ 40 000
> 40 000

-



ME1
ME1

ME2
ME1

ME2
ME2

ME4a
Strategic
route
Trunk and some
principal “A” roads
between primary
destinations

Routes for fast moving long distance
traffic with little frontage access or
pedestrian traffic. Speed limits are
usually in excess of 40mph and there
are few junctions. Pedestrian crossings
are either segregated or controlled and
parked vehicles are usually prohibited.
Single carriageways


Dual carriageways







≤ 15 000
> 15 000

≤ 15 000
> 15 000







ME3a
ME2

ME3a
ME2
Main
distributor
Major urban
network and inter-
primary links
Short- to medium-
distance traffic
Routes between strategic routes and
linking urban centres to the strategic
network with limited frontage access. In
urban areas speed limits are usually
40mph or less, parking is restricted at
peak times and there are positive
measures for pedestrian safety reasons.
Single carriageways


Dual carriageways








≤ 15 000
> 15 000

≤ 15 000
> 15 000







ME3a
ME2

ME3a
ME2
Secondary
distributor
Classified Road
(B and C class) and
unclassified urban
bus route, carrying
local traffic with
frontage access
and frequent
junctions
Rural areas (Zone E1/2
d
)
These roads link the larger villages and
HGV generators to the Strategic and
Main Distributor Network.

Urban areas (Zone E3
d
)
These roads have 30 mph speed limits
and very high levels of pedestrian
activity with some crossing facilities
including zebra crossings. On street
parking is generally unrestricted except
for safety reasons.

≤ 7000
> 7000 ≤ 15000
> 15000


≤ 7000
> 7000 ≤ 15000
> 15000



ME4a
ME3b
ME3a


ME3c
ME3b
ME2


Link road Road linking
between the Main
and Secondary
Distribution
Network with
frontage access
and frequent
junctions
Rural areas (Zone E1/2
d
)
These roads link the smaller villages to
the distributor network. They are of
varying width and not always capable of
carrying two-way traffic.

Urban areas (Zone E3
d
)
These are residential or industrial inter-
connecting roads with 30 mph speed
limits random pedestrian movements
and uncontrolled parking

Any





Any

With high pedestrian
or cyclist traffic


ME5





ME4b or
S2

S1

The new standards allow for different lighting levels (figure 3) to be adopted at different
times of the night, if the traffic flow varies significantly. However it is just the luminance
level that can change, the uniformities should retain the values used for the peak period.

The standard describes how to construct the grid and the positioning of the luminaires
for performing an ME calculation, and TURBO Light 2 adheres to these guidelines. If you
are using Solution Finder or Quick Light, you can be sure of getting results accurately to
comply with the standard. However, in Super Light you have complete control of these
parameters, so care is needed when setting up the grid from scratch in this module. Of
course, if you copy a project across from Quick Light, then the grid and luminaire
positions will be set-up for you automatically.

The diagram in Figure (3) shows how the grid is set up correctly for an ME luminance
calculation.

Notice the following details about the diagram:

• The carriageway is all that is included in the calculation; there are no footpaths or
verges included.
• The grid points are located inside the edges of the lanes, by a distance of W
L
/6
on both sides. The gap between the grid points in the Y direction is W
L
/3.
• For S ≤ 30m, there are ten points spaced S/10 apart in the X direction, (where S
is the standard spacing between columns), for S > 30m the number of points is
the smallest integer giving D ≤ 3m.
• The calculation points are evenly spaced within the field of calculation.
• Staggered arrangements are a special case, because here the grid is between
columns on the same side of the road.





















Figure (3): Diagram of calculation grid for ME classes (Luminance method).
Example shows a single sided column configuration.
A) In the longitudinal direction
for S ≤ 30m, N = 10;
for S > 30m, the smallest integer giving
D ≤ 3m
B) In the transverse direction
The spacing (d) is determined
from the equation:
D = W
L
/3
D = S/N
D

=

W
L

/
3

w
L

Centre-line
of lane
S 60m
Observation
direction
First luminaire in
calculation field
Last luminaire
in calculation
field
Field of calculation
Edge of lane
Edge of lane
d
/
2
Design for Subsidiary Roads

S classes deal with the road lighting of minor roads, where traffic speed and density are
lower, and the predominant users are pedestrians, slow moving vehicles, or cyclists, for
example in residential areas.
It is divided into seven separate classes for dealing with different requirements. They are
detailed in Figure (4).

Class Horizontal Illuminance
E
av

(lux)
E
min

(lux)
S1 15 5
S2 10 3
S3 7.5 1.5
S4 5 1
S5 3 0.6
S6 2 0.6
S7
Performance
not
determined
Performance
not
determined

Figure (4): Recommended specifications for illuminance in S classes.

Average illuminance E
av
does not exceed more than 1.5 times the minimum value of E
av

indicated for the specified lighting class. For any lighting system, this requirement should
be applied at the maximum design spacing, at the actual average design spacing of the
lighting system, and to any group of three consecutive luminaires.

The table below (figure 5) gives selection guidance for S-classes according to traffic flow,
crime rate, environmental zone, and colour rendering.

Lighting class
Low traffic flow
a
Normal traffic flow
b
High traffic flow
c
Crime rate R
a
value
E1/E2
d
E3/E4
d
E1/E2
d
E3/E4
d
E1/E2
d
E3/E4
d

Low R
a
< 60 S5 S4 S4 S3 S3 S2
R
a
≥ 60 S6 S5 S5 S4 S4 S3
Moderate R
a
< 60 S4 S3 S3 S2 - S1
R
a
≥ 60 S5 S4 S4 S3 - S2
High R
a
< 60 S2 S2 S2 S1 - S1
R
a
≥ 60 S3 S3 S3 S2 - S2
NOTE 1 Crime rates are relative to the local area, and not national. Assistance can be obtained from the local crime prevention officer.
NOTE 2 The lighting levels shown in this table may be increased by one lighting class in the vicinity of traffic calming measures.
a
Low traffic flow refers to areas where the traffic usage is of a level equivalent to a residential road and solely associated with the
adjacent properties.
b
Normal traffic flow refers to areas where the traffic usage is of a level equivalent to a housing estate access road and can be
associated with local amenities such as clubs, shopping facilities, public houses, etc.
c
High traffic flow refers to areas where the traffic usage is high and can be associated with local amenities such as clubs, shopping
facilities, public houses, etc.
d
Environmental zone, as given in the ILE publication Guidance notes for reduction of light pollution [16].

Figure (5): BS5489-1 : 2003 Table B.4 - Lighting classes for subsidiary roads
(pedestrians and cyclists)
It should be noted that the lighting level may be increased by 1 class in the vicinity of
traffic calming measures.

Implications of implementing the new standards

TURBO Light 2 sets out the grid and luminaires correctly for an S class calculation in
Solution Finder and Quick Light. The correct method for setting out an S class grid is
shown in Figure (6).

Notice that the relevant area extends to the furthest edges of the road under
consideration, which includes any footpaths that are present. Generally, the rules are as
follows:
• The area for calculation includes the carriageway and the footpaths.
• The number of points (n) transversely should be greater than or equal to 3 and is
the smallest integer such that the distance between points d ≤ 1.5m
• The grid is located inside the relevant area, by a distance of W
r
/2n on both sides.
The gap between the grid points in the Y direction is W
r
/n.
• For S ≤ 30m, there are ten points spaced S/10 apart in the X direction, (where S
is the standard spacing between columns), for S > 30m the number of points is
the smallest integer giving D ≤ 3m.
• The calculation points are evenly spaced within the field of calculation.










A) In the longitudinal direction
for S ≤ 30m, N = 10;
for S > 30m, the smallest integer giving
D ≤ 3m
Figure (6): Diagram of calculation grid for S class (Illuminance method).
Example shows a single sided column configuration.
B) In the transverse direction
for n > 3;
the smallest integer giving
d ≤ 1.5m
Luminaire Luminaire
Field of calculation
Edge of
relevant area
W

d
/
2

D
=
W
r

/
n

D/2
D = S/N
S
Designing for Conflict Areas

This part of the standard provides recommendations for the lighting of conflict areas,
road junctions and major/minor priority junctions where at least one road is lit as a
traffic route in accordance with an ME class. It is therefore beyond the scope of this
Appendix to give all possible junction layouts. BS5489-1 Appendix J provides such road
junction information.

The sizes and forms of roundabouts vary so widely that it is difficult to give a simple rule
relating mounting height and light output. As the lighting technique is directed towards
revealing the kerbs, obstructions, vehicles, etc., by direct lighting rather than by
silhouette, we express the minimum requirements in terms of average horizontal
illuminance and uniformity.

The following table gives lighting classes for conflict areas on traffic routes, using the CE
lighting classes related to the lighting class on the roads approaching the conflict area.


Traffic route
lighting class
Conflict area
lighting class
ME1
ME2
ME3
ME4
ME5
CE0
CE1
CE2
CE3
CE4

Figure (7): Taken from BS5489-1 : 2003 Table B.3 - Lighting classes for conflict
areas


For traffic routes within the road categories defined by an ME class, the maintained
illuminance should be not less than the values given in Figure (8).


Class Horizontal Illuminance
E
av

(lux)
U
o

(%)
CE0 50 40
CE1 30 40
CE2 20 40
CE3 15 40
CE4 10 40
CE5 7.5 40

Figure (8): Recommended specifications for conflict areas.
Designing for Urban Centres (CE Classes)

The table below gives selection guidance on lighting classes for pedestrian areas and
mixed vehicle and pedestrian areas in city and town centres.

Lighting Class
Type of Traffic Normal Traffic Flow High Traffic Flow
E3 E4 E3 E4
Pedestrian only CE3 CE2 CE2 CE1
Mixed vehicle and pedestrian with separate footways CE2 CE1 CE1 CE1
Mixed vehicle and pedestrian on same surface CE2 CE1 CE1 CE1

Figure (9): Taken from BS5489-1 : 2003 Table B.5 - Lighting classes for city and
town centres

The selection of these classes for a specific city or town centre may be varied up or down
from the classes shown in the table, taking account of vehicular traffic use, street
parking, level of crime, etc.