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First of all, thank God, the most merciful and most grateful for giving me his blessing, thus I have finished this assignment with my best. Other than that, thanks a lot to my English Language Academic lecturer, r. !o"an bin #ela"en

for guiding, advises and teaching me in order to finishing this assignment. I have done it and I do it my best. $o%e you will satisfied with this assignment.

In addition, I want to thank to all my friends es%ecially in &&I' & &enga(ian 'osial for )uly intake *++, for giving me useful ti%s, su%%ort and motivate me to finish this assignment. I a%%reciate your good collaboration and coo%eration with me. It cannot be re%laced even by gold. Only God can %ay for that.

I also want to thank to my %arents because of their su%%ort and motivating me to survive in the cam%us life where I needs to be an inde%endent student and this was gave my ins%irations to finish my assignment -#er(a #ursus &endek ELA..

&oetry -from the Greek /0123456/, %oiesis, a /making/. is a form of literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative 7ualities in addition to, or in lieu of, it8s a%%arent meaning. &oetry may be written inde%endently, as discrete %oems, or may occur in con(unction with other arts, as in %oetic drama, hymns or lyrics. &oetry, and discussions of it, has a long history. Early attem%ts to define %oetry, such as Aristotle9s &oetics, focused on the uses of s%eech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Later attem%ts concentrated on features such as re%etition, verse form and rhyme, and em%hasi"ed the aesthetics which distinguish %oetry from %rose. From the mid:*+th century, %oetry has sometimes been more loosely defined as a fundamental creative act using language. &oetry often uses %articular forms and conventions to suggest alternative meanings in the words, or to evoke emotional or sensual res%onses. ;evices such as assonance, alliteration, onomato%oeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. <he use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements of %oetic diction often leaves a %oem o%en to multi%le inter%retations. 'imilarly, meta%hor, simile and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise dis%arate images=a layering of meanings, forming connections %reviously not %erceived. #indred forms of resonance may e>ist, between individual verses, in their %atterns of rhyme or rhythm. A metrical com%osition? a com%osition in verse written in certain measures, whether in blank verse or in rhyme, and characteri"ed by imagination and %oetic diction? :: contradistinguished from %rose? as, the %oems of $omer or


ilton. A com%osition, not in verse, of which the language is highly imaginative

or im%assioned? as, a %rose %oem? the %oems of Ossian.


aud went to college. 'adie stayed home. 'adie scra%ed life @ith a fine toothed comb. 'he didn9t leave a tangle in $er comb found every strand. 'adie was one of the livingest chicks In all the land. 'adie bore two babies Ander her maiden name. aud and a and &a%a Bearly died of shame. @hen 'adie said her last so:long $er girls struck out from home. -'adie left as heritage $er fine:toothed comb.. aud, who went to college, Is a thin brown mouse. 'he is living all alone In this old house.


Gwendolyn Eli"abeth Crooks was born on )une D, EFED, in <o%eka, #ansas. $er father name is ;avid Anderson Crooks while her mother name is #e"iah @ims. $er mother was a school teacher while her father, ;avid Anderson Crooks, was a (anitor. @hen Crooks was only si> weeks old, her family moved to Ghicago, Illinois. 'he attended $yde &ark $igh 'chool, the leading white high school in the city, before transferring to all:black @endell &hilli%s. Crooks eventually attended an integrated school, Englewood $igh 'chool. In EFHI, she graduated from @ilson )unior Gollege. After graduating from @ilson )unior Gollege in EFHI, Crooks worked as director of %ublicity for a youth organi"ation of the Bational Association for the Advancement of Golored &eo%le. In EFHF she married $enry L. Clakeley, another young writer, and together they would raise two children. Crooks continued to write %oetry when the children were aslee% or later while they were in school.

A second collection titled Annie Allen was released in EFJF. In EFK+ Crooks was awarded a &ulit"er &ri"e for &oetry, becoming the first African American to be granted this honor. 'he also wrote a novel, Maud Martha, in EFKH. Other %oetry collections included The Bean Eaters -EFI+. and Selected Poems -EFI*.. In EFID Crooks9s changed to a more sim%le writing style so that her themes. Among such works are In the Mecca -EFI,., Riot -EFIF., Aloneness -EFDE., Family Pictures -EFDE., the autobiographical -descri%tion of her own life. Report from Part One -EFD*., The Tiger ho ore hite !lo"es# Or$ hat %ou Are %ou Are -EFDJ., Bec&onings -EFDK., and Primer for Blac&s -EF,+.. During t ! 1"#0$% Br&&'$ t!() ing *&!tr+ (t N&rt !($t!rn I,,in&i$ St(t! C&,,!g! -n&. N&rt !($t!rn I,,in&i$ Uni/!r$it+0% t ! Uni/!r$it+ &1 Wi$)&n$in (t M(2i$&n% (n2 t ! Cit+ C&,,!g! &1 t ! Cit+ Uni/!r$it+ &1 N!. Y&r'. Ot !r t (n t (t% Br&&'$ $*!nt !r ti3! t& .rit! in C i)(g&. A1t!r t (t% In 1"45 $ ! 6!)&3! ($ t ! *&!tr+ )&n$u,t(nt 1&r t ! Li6r(r+ &1 C&ngr!$$. In 1""0 !r .&r'$ .!r! gu(r(nt!!2 ( *!r3(n!nt &3! . !n C i)(g& St(t! Uni/!r$it+ !$t(6,i$ !2 t ! G.!n2&,+n Br&&'$ C!nt!r &n it$ )(3*u$. In ,(t!r +!(r$ Br&&'$ )&ntinu!2 t& .rit!% .it Children Coming Home and Blacks 6&t 6!ing *u6,i$ !2 in 1""7. In the end, Crooks died on ;ecember H, *+++, aged ,H, at her 'outhside Ghicago home. 'he is buried at Lin)&,n C!3!t!r+ in B,u! I$,(n2, Illinois.


<his %oem L'adie and

audM is written by Gwendolyn Crooks. <his

%oem is about life, choice, wealth, education and also ha%%iness. Gwendolyn Crooks tells a brief story of two com%letely different women, each symboli"ing a different ty%e of %erson, and their individual lives. Cy com%aring these two women, between 'adie and aud Crooks shows different lives make different %eo%le ha%%y. In the story, 'adie chooses the %oor life. 'adie was stayed at home. 'he was marriage and gives birth to two daughters out of wedlock. @hile a aud8s life is different to 'adie. aud re%resents the studious, res%onsible girl aud who works hard and does not have much time for e>citement in her life.

went to the college because she thinks if she had education, so she will be success in her life. Cut in the end of the %oem, on the stan"a, the writer shows that aud does not become successful. 'he was living all alone in the old house with desolation and unha%%y.







A literary element -or element of literature. is an individual as%ect or characteristic of a whole work of literature. Literary elements are not /used/ by authors? rather, they e>ist inherently in forms of literature and are derived by the readers of a work in 7uestion. <heme, characteri"ation, moral values, setting, language and %oint of view are among the many literary elements that e>ist. THEME <heme is the main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work. A theme may be stated or im%lied. <heme differs from the sub(ect or to%ic of a literary work in that it involves a statement or o%inion about the to%ic. Bot every literary work has a theme. <hemes may be ma(or or minor. A ma(or theme is an idea the author returns to time and again. It becomes one of the most im%ortant ideas in the story. inor themes are ideas that may a%%ear from time to time. Four ways in which an author can e>%ress themes are as followsN E. <hemes are e>%ressed and em%hasi"ed by the way the author makes us feel.. Cy sharing feelings of the main character you also share the ideas that go through his mind. *. <hemes are %resented in thoughts and conversations. Authors %ut words in their character8s mouths only for good reasons. One of these is to develo% a story8s themes. <he things a %erson says are much on their mind. Look for thoughts that are re%eated throughout the story. H. <hemes are suggested through the characters. <he main character usually illustrates the most im%ortant theme of the story. A good way to get at this

theme is to ask yourself the 7uestion, what does the main character learn in the course of the storyO J. <he actions or events in the story are used to suggest theme. &eo%le naturally e>%ress ideas and feelings through their actions. CHARACTERI:ATION 'econd literary element is characters. <here are two ty%e of character namely ma(or and minor character . a(or character is a character that changes inside as a result of what ha%%ens to him is referred to in literature as a ;PBA IG character. A dynamic character grows or %rogresses to a higher level of understanding in the course of the story. Pr&t(g&ni$t <he main character in the story Ant(g&ni$t <he character or force that o%%oses the %rotagonist. 8&i, A character that %rovides a contrast to the %rotagonist.

@hile a minor character is always flat or two:dimensional characters. <hey have only one or two striking 7ualities. <heir %redominant 7uality is not balanced by an o%%osite 7uality. <hey are usually all good or all bad. 'uch characters can be interesting or amusing in their own right, but they lack de%th. Flat characters are sometimes referred to as '<A<IG characters because they do not change in the course of the story. SETTING 'etting is refers to the %lace or geogra%hical location where the story takes %lace. 'etting also relates to a %articular time that is referred in the story. 'etting also includes the environment or %hysical s%ace, and the socio:cultural conte>ts of the %eo%le involved in the story. MORAL 9ALUES

oral value is a lesson in the right way to behave that can be learnt from a story.

8IGURATI9E LANGUAGE Figurative language is any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a sub(ect. <he most common figures of s%eech are simile, meta%hor, and alliteration. Si3i,! A figure of s%eech which involves a direct com%arison between two unlike things, usually with the words like or as. M!t(* &r A figure of s%eech which involves an im%lied com%arison between two relatively unlike things using a form of be. <he com%arison is not announced by like or as. A,,it!r(ti&n !e%eated consonant sounds occurring at the beginning of words or within words. P!r$&ni1i)(ti&n &ersonification is is giving human 7ualities, feelings, action, or characteristics to inanimate -non:living. ob(ects H+*!r6&,! An e>aggerated statement used to heighten effect. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to em%hasi"e a %oint.

POINT O8 9IEW 8ir$t P!r$&n

<he narrator is a character in the story who can reveal only %ersonal thoughts and feelings and what he or she sees and is told by other characters. $e can8t tell us thoughts of other characters.

T ir2;P!r$&n O6<!)ti/! <he narrator is an outsider who can re%ort only what he or she sees and hears. <his narrator can tell us what is ha%%ening, but he can8t tell us the thoughts of the characters. T ir2;P!r$&n Li3it!2 <he narrator is an outsider who sees into the mind of one of the characters. O3ni$)i!nt <he narrator is an all:knowing outsider who can enter the minds of more than one of the characters


7.1 THEME M(in T !3!

;ifferent lifestyle in our society : Everyone in this world have there own lifestyle and we must be res%ect to their life

Min&r T !3!
Going against the grain of society is %erfectly acce%table 'ei"e the day

<heme is the main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work. In the %oem 'adie and aud, the main theme is about the different lifestyle in our society. As we know, everyone in this world have their own lifestyle either a rich lifestyle or %oor lifestyle and it de%end on the %erson to choose it. For e>am%le 'adie and aud, they have a different life. 'adie chooses to stay at home while aud goes to the college.

<he one of minor theme for this %oem is going against the grain of society is %erfectly acce%table. <he writer conveys this message by de%icting two contrasting sistersN aud, who follows the rules of society, and 'adie, who does not allow social e>%ectations to dictate her life. <he %oem e>%lains how these women lead very different lives that reflect the choices they make. <he second minor theme for this %oem is sei"e the day .<his theme mean a %erson should live everyday as if it8s their last. @e do not know when we will die. 'o, the days are more %recious and we must be fulfilling it with a ha%%y day like a 'adie.

a. b. ain characterN 'adie and aud aud

inor character N A &arent of 'adie and

'he is a mother of two children outside of marriage

'he stayed at home

'he was brave and courageous %erson 'he was res%onsible

1. S(2i!

'he is 'he was never give u% and struggles to get anything that she want in her life.

aud8s sister

'he is a social woman

'he is not educated woman and (ust to use a %hysical beauty to survive

'he think that the wealth and education is can make ha%%y

'he was a smart and educated woman

'he was a fear %erson 7. M(u2

'he was chooses not have a social life and she follow a rules of society

'he was alone and become unha%%y at the end of this %oem

<hey do not understand and res%ect their daughter life

<hey was obey %erson. <hey obey the rules of society

?. A P(r!nt &1 $(2i! An2 M(u2

<hey %assed away with a shame

Gharacter is imaginary %eo%le created by the writer. &erha%s the most im%ortant element of literature. <here are two ty%e of character in the %oem L'adie and audM namely main and minor character. aud character. Actually,

<he main character in this %oem is 'adie and 'adie and

aud are sisters but they have are different characteristic. 'adie was

chooses a %oor life with stayed at home. 'he was a single mother of two children. 'he bore two children outside of marriage. <hese situations make her %arent horrible shame and die because having a daughter %regnant and unmarried. <he other characteristic for 'adie is brave and courageous %erson. <his characteristic will reflected in the character of 'adie because the life is not easy for 'adie, for she does not go to college? she has to struggle to survive. 'he can handle every %roblem coming to her, with her own way of life that she chooses. On the other hand, she was a social woman and uses a %hysical beauty to survive because she knows that she was not educated woman. oreover, she also never gives u% and struggles to get anything that she wants in her life although her %arent was ashamed to her. 'adie also a res%onsible %erson and we can find it when she ever regrets with her own choice that not to go to the collage. Cefore 'adie dies, she teaches her two daughters to follow her ste% in their life, to be yourself and do what you think will make you ha%%y. And be res%onsible with your own choice. ;on8t (ust follow the consensus of good norm of society if you don8t feel ha%%y with that. <he other main character in this %oem is <he character of aud. aud is a 'adie8s sister.

aud is more different from 'adie. 'he is a smart and educated

woman. 'he chooses to goes to the college because she think that the education and wealth is the most im%ortant to become a good %erson. Another

characteristic is she is not a social woman like 'adie. 'he was obeying the rules of society and socially correct. Bevertheless, she was a fear woman. <he writer symboli"ed her like a mouse because she is living all alone like a mouse lives in its hole. Other that that the other characteristic for aud is she was missing out on any fun in her life while 'adie was fulfilling her life with a ha%%y and fun day.

<he %oem L'adie and of 'adie and

audM also have a minor character that is a %arent

aud. <he im%ortant characteristic of them is they not understand

and res%ect their daughter life es%ecially 'adie life. 'adie chooses a %oor life because she wanted to found a fun and ha%%y life. 'he know that the wealth and education is doesn8t mean will have fulfilling life and make you are ha%%y %erson. Another characteristic of them is they was a obey %eo%le. <hey were obeyed to the rules of society. <hey know that having children without marriage was im%inging the rules of society. <hey were ashamed after they know 'adie was %regnant and unmarried. In the end of this %oem, they were die with a shame.






;uring year EFJ+ until EFK+.

America -<he writer not mention the s%ecific %lace. <he 'adie8s home. <he college

American society. <he society that obey with the rule of society <he society that thinks the education is im%ortant in our life.

'etting is refers to the %lace or geogra%hical location where the story takes %lace. <here are three ty%e of setting namely time setting, the %lace and society. In this %oem L'adie and audM, the time setting is not surely mention by the writer but this situation occurred during year EFJ+ until EFK+. <he as%iration

for the writer to write this %oem is women across America were torn between choosing a sim%le domestic life and having a career. Crooks9 take on this controversial to%ic is a%%arent in the %oem 'adie and aud.

<he second ty%e of setting namely the %lace, in this %oem the writer used an America country as a setting. oreover the story of the %oem also more focus of African America women. On the other hand, the 'adie8s home is also the setting for this %oem. 'adie8s home is the %lace where 'adie8s and his family lived. 'adie chooses to stay at home and not like aud to go to the college. Other than that, another %lace is the college. <he college is the %lace where aud does the further study. In this %lace, she becomes a smart %erson and she chooses to goes to college because she thinks that the wealth and education was im%ortant. <he third setting is referred to the society and the %oem L'adie and audM

e>%lain about the African America society. From this %oem, we can found that they community was obey to the rules of society. For e>am%le like a %arent of 'adie and aud. <hey were ashamed when their daughter, 'adie was im%inging the rule of society. 'adie was bore two children outside of marriage. oreover, the society is also known that the education is im%ortant to get the ha%%y and good life. 'uch as a aud who goes to the collage to study.


E>am%le NN E>am%le SS !! didn8t leave aa tangle in. didn8t leave tangle in.

TT ir2 ir2*&int *&int&1 &1/i!. /i!.

H!r comb found every strand. H!r comb found every strand. She is li"ing all alone She is li"ing all alone hen Sadie said her last so'long hen Sadie said her last so'long

Her fine'tooth comb() Her fine'tooth comb()

&oint of view is describes from which grammatical %erson9s %ers%ective the story is %erceived. <here are three ty%es that is first %oint of view, second and third %oint of view. $owever, in this %oem L'adie and audM, the %ersona is third %oint of view. Every character is referred to by the narrator as /he/, /she/, /it/, or /they/, but never as /I/ or /we/ -first:%erson., or /you/ -second:%erson.. For e>am%leN a. <he lines one and two of stan"a twoN She didn*t lea"e a tangle in( Her comb found e"ery strand

b. <he line one, two, and four of stan"a threeN hen Sadie said her last so'long Her girls struc& out from home( Her fine'tooth comb()

c. And also line three stan"as fourN She is li"ing all alone audM, the three e>am%les above clearly

'o, from this %oem L'adie and word L'heM and L$erM.

the %ersona of this %oem is third %oint of view because overall the writer used the


E. @e must strong belief the wealth and education is not the im%ortant key to success *. Ce yourself


H. @e must be res%onsible with your choice. J. @e must be never gives u% when do everything. K. !es%ect others in our society.

In the %oem L'adie and by the writer, Crooks.

audM there are more moral values that reflected

oral value is a lesson in the right way to behave that can

be learnt from a story. <he first moral values are we must strong belief that the wealth and the education is not the im%ortant key to success in our life. <his moral value will reflected in the characters of 'adie and aud. 'adie chooses (ust to stay at home but she fulfills her life with ha%%y day because she thinks that always doing the right thing may not make her ha%%y at all. @hile the character of aud, Living in an era where education is very im%ortant for aud will have a better someone8s success in life, one can directly conclude that

future than her sister 'adie. Cut at the end of her life, she was alone and unha%%y %erson. <he second moral value is be yourself and don8t try to be hy%ocrite %erson. <his moral value can be found from the character of 'adie. Although she im%inge the consensus of society by %regnant outside marriage, but she ha%%y with her life and she not regret by her choice to stayed at home. 'he teaches her daughters to be themselves like her. <he third moral value is we must res%onsible with your choice. <his moral value also reflected by the characters of 'adie and work hard to achieve it. Other than that, we must be never giving u% whatever we do in our life. It is because it is the one key to success. @e must follow the 'adie8s character that she never gives u% and struggles to get anything that she want in her life although she forced more challenge before to get a ha%%y life. On the other hand, another moral value is res%ecting others. @e lived in a community, so everything that we do was affected to others. In this %oem, the characters of the %arent of 'adie and aud, they do not res%ect the decision make by 'adie in her life. $owever as a %arent we must try to advice our daughter when they do the wrong things in life. aud. <hey choose their own choice in life. 'o, if we choose some decision, we must res%onsible and try to



M!t(* &r



'adie scra%ed life, @ith a fine tooth comb

LAnder her L'adie stayed at home. 'adie scra%ed lifeQM maiden name aud and &a%aQM a and

aud, who when to collage, Is a thin brown mouse

Figurative language is any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a sub(ect. <he most common figures of s%eech are simile, meta%hor, and alliteration. $owever in the %oem L'adie and audM, only three ty%e of figurative language that is meta%hor, alliteration and assonance. eta%hor is a figure of s%eech which involves an im%lied com%arison between two relatively unlike things using a form of be. <he com%arison is not announced by like or as. For e>am%leN Sadie scraped life$ ith a fine tooth comb Maud$ +ho +hen to collage$ Is a thin bro+n mouse /'adie scra%ed life R with a fine tooth comb/ -H:J. *describes her lifestyle which was to live early day to its fullest and to not worry about what others think. aud ends u% alone after shaming 'adie and her daughters and after her %arents have already %assed away. / aud, who went to college, R is a thin brown mouse/ -ED:E,. which describes aud as being a thin, timid black woman all alone fearful of life. Alliteration is re%eated consonant sounds occurring at the beginning of words or within words. L'adie stayed at home. R 'adie scra%ed lifeQM -*:H. the re%etition of s is evident in these two lines, reflecting the sassiness and inde%endence that 'adie %ossessed. <he ne>t figurative language is assonance is the re%etition of the same or similar vowel sound. For e>am%le N

,nder her maiden name Maud and Ma and Papa-.


<he %oem L'adie and audM by Gwendolyn Crooks, show about life,

choices, and ha%%iness. <he %oem follows the lives of two women, 'adie and aud. 'adie makes what society may consider %oor choices, but lives a ha%%y life. aud, the college graduate, the one with a seemingly %ro%itious future, ends aud like a mouse. Cut at u% with a bleak and lonely life. <he writer symboli"ed the end of this %oem, 'adie was die with a ha%%y life. <he %oem L'adie and about deal with aud. Its mean a audM, the writer more focus about 'adie than it is aud is only used for com%ared with a 'adie8s

aud? of the *+ lines that form the %oem, EK deal with 'adie and only K

character. 'imilarly we look at 'adie in this %oem as interesting, attractive, and vivacious, while interest. At the start of the %oem, the writer used is two sim%le sentences that right away se%arate these two women, aud and 'adieN L aud went to college. R'adie stayed at homeM -Crooks E:*.. From these first two lines, there is a distinct and different im%ression that the reader forms about each of these two characters. Of aud who went to college, there is a suggestion of success and of a %romising future. Cut for 'adie, it is the o%%osite? es%ecially the use of the word LstayedM, in Lstayed at homeM, gives the reader a feeling that 'adie will not be as successful as aud. 'adie, the one who LstayedM at home, end u% with a more aud, with the seemingly vivacious and interesting life. <he writer will reflected the character of 'adie was do everything that she want to do in her life, while -Crooks EF:*+.. aus%icious future, ends u% with a unha%%y, Lliving all alone R In this old houseM aud we see only %eri%herally, and not with any sustained

<he %oem also has a very %owerful message about stereoty%es, the stereoty%es that readers or society bring to this %oem. <he readers think that 'adie makes what the wrong choices in her life. <he first being not going to college, and the second having * children outside of marriage. 'ociety, de%icted in the %oem as L aud and a and &a%aM -Crooks EE., is deathly ashamed of aud, 'adie. As a reader there is a similar, make a sentiment towards 'adie. become a successful %erson. 'ociety also like of society and educated women. It is at the end of the %oem, on the last stan"a that the reader gets a the future of aud. aud does not become successful. In fact, the author does not com%are, but rather, e7uates her to a Lthin brown mouseM -Crooks E,.. <his symboli"ed aud like a mouse. <he last line com%ounds this direct image of aud, L'he is living all alone R In this old houseM -Crooks EF:*+.. <he use of the word LhouseM does not have the same warm connotation that the word LhomeM has. Instead, it adds to this image of desolation and lifelessness that we are left with at the end of this %oem. Although the %oem L'adie and die. her. Other than that, the writer also more used a meta%hor language that can make a reader difficult to get the %oint or the ides. $owever, I8m not denying the writer used the figurative language like such as meta%hor to make the %oem more interesting. In addition, the end of this %oem on the sad condition. 'adie and her %arent were die while a aud become alone and unha%%y %erson. <he writer (ust said that aud L have a good story to shared with aud and a and &a%aR

who from the little the reader knows about her, makes LgoodM choices and aud because, she obey the rules

the reader, however the writer do not shows clearly how 'adie, and her %arent nearly died of shame. <he writer (ust said aud and her %arent ashamed with

#ent, George E. A /ife of !+endolyn Broo&s( -EFF+.. Le>ington. Aniversity &ress of #entucky. On Gwendolyn Crooks. Anited 'tates. -*++E.. <he Aniversity of &ress. 'haw, $arry C. !+endolyn Broo&s. -EF,+ .. Coston. <wayne &ublishers. ichigan


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