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Modelling and Simulations
(IREMOS)
Contents:
Algorithms, Schemes and Techniques of SpaceVector Modulation for DualInverter Systems
with Symmetrical Multilevel Phase Voltage
byValentin Oleschuk, GabrieleGrandi
1877
Modified Bacterial Foraging Algorithm Based OPF to Optimize Fuel Cost Function
and Losses Using Shunt FACTS Device
byK. Ravi, M. Rajaram
1887
Comparing Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Switching Strategies
in ThreeLevel NPC Inverter from Power Quality Point of View
byM. R. Alizadeh Pahlavani, Y. Khadivi Vaneqi
1894
Closed Loop Control of Soft Switched Interleaved Buck Converter
byR. Shenbagalaksmi, T. SreeRenga Raja
1910
FPGA Based Implementation of Selective Harmonic Elimination PWM
for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter
byBaharuddin Ismail, MuhdHafiz Arshad, S. Thangaprakash
1919
Space Vector Modulated ZSource HBridge Asymmetric Multilevel Inverter
with Reduced Switches
byM. Balachandran, P. Senthilkumar, N. P. Subramaniam
1927
Harmonic Reduction of ThreePhase Multilevel Inverter for Grid Connected Photovoltaic System
Using Closed Loop Switching Control
byA. Ravi, P. S. Manoharan, M. Valan Rajkumar
1934
An Intelligent Controlled Bidirectional DC to DC Converter
byG. Themozhi, S. Rama Reddy
1943
HVDC Light Systems: an Overview
byM. AjayKumar, K. U. Archana, N. V. Srikanth
1951
Common Mode Voltage Reduction of ThreeLevel Back to Back Converter in DFIG
with Balanced Neutral Point Voltage
byDavoodMazhary
1960
A Solution Method to Optimize Power Converter Modeling
for Real Time Digital Simulation Applications
byUmashankar S., Vijayakumar D., Kothari D. P.
1969
(continued on inside back cover)
ISSN 19749821
Vol. 5 N. 5
October 2012
PART
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Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved
International Review on Modelling and Simulations
(IREMOS)
EditorinChief:
Santolo Meo
Department of Electrical Engineering
FEDERICO II University
21 Claudio  I80125 Naples, Italy
santolo@unina.it
Editorial Board:
Marios Angelides (U.K.) Brunel University
M. El Hachemi Benbouzid (France) Univ. of Western Brittany Electrical Engineering Department
Debes Bhattacharyya (New Zealand) Univ. of Auckland – Department of Mechanical Engineering
Stjepan Bogdan (Croatia) Univ. of Zagreb  Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Cecati Carlo (Italy) Univ. of L'Aquila  Department of Electrical and Information Engineering
Ibrahim Dincer (Canada) Univ. of Ontario Institute of Technology
Giuseppe Gentile (Italy) FEDERICO II Univ., Naples  Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Wilhelm Hasselbring (Germany) Univ. of Kiel
Ivan Ivanov (Bulgaria) Technical Univ. of Sofia  Electrical Power Department
JiinYuh Jang (Taiwan) National ChengKung Univ.  Department of Mechanical Engineering
HeuyDong Kim (Korea) Andong National Univ.  School of Mechanical Engineering
Marta Kurutz (Hungary) Technical Univ. of Budapest
Baoding Liu (China) Tsinghua Univ.  Department of Mathematical Sciences
Pascal Lorenz (France) Univ. de Haute Alsace IUT de Colmar
Santolo Meo (Italy) FEDERICO II Univ., Naples  Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Josua P. Meyer (South Africa) Univ. of Pretoria  Dept.of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering
Bijan Mohammadi (France) Institut de Mathématiques et de Modélisation de Montpellier
Pradipta Kumar Panigrahi (India) Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur  Mechanical Engineering
Adrian Traian Pleşca (Romania) "Gh. Asachi" Technical University of Iasi
Ľubomír Šooš (Slovak Republic) Slovak Univ. of Technology  Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Lazarus Tenek (Greece) Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki
Lixin Tian (China) J iangsu Univ.  Department of Mathematics
Yoshihiro Tomita (J apan) Kobe Univ.  Division of Mechanical Engineering
George Tsatsaronis (Germany) Technische Univ. Berlin  Institute for Energy Engineering
Ahmed F. Zobaa (U.K.) Brunel University  School of Engineering and Design
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International Review on Modelling and Simulations (I.RE.MO.S.), Vol. 5, N. 5
ISSN 19749821 October 2012
Manuscript received and revised September 2012, accepted October 2012 Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved
2007
Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)
Based Simulation of Induction Motor Drives
P. M. Menghal
1
, A. Jaya Laxmi
2
Abstract – AC motor drives are used in multitude of industrial and process applications
requiring high performances. In high performance drive systems the motor speed should closely
follow a specified reference trajectory regardless of any load disturbances and any model
uncertainties. The controllability of torque in an induction motor with good transient and steady
state responses form the main criteria in the designing of a controller. Though, PI controller is
able to achieve these but with certain drawbacks. The gains cannot be increased beyond certain
limit so as to have an improved response. Also it deteriorates the controller performance. With the
advent of artificial intelligent techniques, these drawbacks can be mitigated. Base on the inability
of conventional control methods like PI, PID controllers to work under wide range of operation.
Artificial intelligent based controllers like ANN, Fuzzy controller, ANFIS, expert system, genetic
algorithm are widely used in the industry. But, the main problem with the conventional fuzzy
controllers is that the parameters associated with the membership functions and the rules depend
broadly on the intuition of the experts. In this paper Fuzzy and ANFIS based control of induction
motor is done. ANFIS performs better than the conventional and fuzzy and proves be more
reliable. Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved.
Keywords: Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Sugeno Fuzzy Controller, Hebbian
Learning Genetic Algorithm, Expert System
Nomenclature
R
s
The stator resistance
R
r
The rotor resistance
L
m
The magnetizing inductance of the motor
L
ls
The stator leakage inductance
L
lr
The rotor leakage inductance
ω
r
The slip frequency which is the frequency of
the actual rotor current
L’
lr
The rotor leakage inductance referred to stator
side
R’r The rotor resistance referred to stator side
ψ
qs ,
ψ
ds
qaxis and daxis components of stator flux
ψ
qr ,
ψ
dr
qaxis and daxis components of rotor flux
i
qs ,
i
ds
qaxis and daxis components of stator current
i
qr ,
i
qr
qaxis and daxis components of rotor current
v
qs ,
v
ds
qaxis and daxis components of stator voltage
v
qr ,
v
qr
q axis and daxis components of rotor voltage
p Number of poles
θ The angular position of the rotor
ω
a
Reference frame rotating speed
J Moment of inertia (kg/m
2
)
T
e
Electrical torque
T
l
Load torque
e (k) Control error
r (k) Reference signal
y (k) Output signal
∆
e
(k) Changed error
∆
u
(Ri) The crisp ∆
u
value corresponding to the
maximum membership degree
I. Introduction
Induction motors play a vital role in the industrial
sector especially in the field of electric drives & control
[1][43]. Without proper controlling of the speed, it is
virtually impossible to achieve the desired task for a
specific application. AC motors, particularly the Squirrel
Cage Induction Motors (SCIM), enjoy several inherent
advantages like simplicity, reliability, low cost and
virtually maintenancefree electrical drives. However, for
high dynamic performance industrial applications, their
control remains a challenging problem because they
exhibit significant nonlinearities and many of the
parameters, mainly the rotor resistance, vary with the
operating conditions.
Field Orientation Control (FOC) or vector control of
an induction machine achieves decoupled torque and flux
dynamics leading to independent control of the torque
and flux as far as separately excited DC motor is
considered. FOC methods are attractive, but suffers from
one major disadvantage.
They are sensitive to motor parametric variations such
as the rotor time constant and an incorrect flux
measurement or estimation at low speeds. Consequently,
performance deteriorates and a conventional controller
such as a PID is unable to maintain satisfactory
performance under these conditions. Recently, there has
been an increasing interest in combining artificial
intelligent control tools with classical control techniques.
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Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 5, N. 5
2008
The principal motivations for such a hybrid
implementation is that with fuzzy logic, neural networks
& rough sets issues, such as uncertainty or unknown
variations in plant parameters and structure can be dealt
with more effectively, hence improving the robustness of
the control system. Conventional controls have on their
side well established theoretical backgrounds on stability
and allow different design objectives such as steady state
and transient characteristics of the closed loop system to
be specified. Several works were contributed to the
design of such hybrid control schemes which was shown
by various researchers.
Classical control systems like PI, PID control have
been used, together with vector control methods, for the
speed control of induction machines by various
researchers. The main drawbacks of the linear control
approaches were the sensitivity in performance to the
system parameters variations and inadequate rejection of
external perturbations and load changes. Intelligent, self
learning or selforganizing controls using expert systems,
artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, neural networks,
hybrid networks, etc, have been recently recognized as
the important tools to improve the performance of the
power electronics based drive systems in the industrial
sectors.
Combination of this intelligent control with the
adaptiveness appears today as the most promising
research area in the practical implementation & control
of electrical drives. With the advent of artificial
intelligent techniques, these drawbacks can be mitigated.
One such technique is the use of Fuzzy Logic in the
design of controller either independently or in hybrid
with PI controller. Fuzzy Logic Controller yields
superior and faster control, but main design problem lies
in the determination of consistent and complete rule set
and shape of the membership functions. A lot of trial and
error has to be carried out to obtain the desired response
which is time consuming. On the other hand, ANN alone
is insufficient if the training data are not enough to take
care of all the operating modes. The drawbacks of Fuzzy
Logic Control and Artificial Neural Network can be
overcome by the use of Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference
System.
The resulted controller is composed of Sugeno fuzzy
controller with two inputs and one output [10][14].
Assume that the fuzzy inference system has two inputs
(x,y) and is e(k) and ∆e(k) and one output. According to
the error and error rate of change of the error the control
system and the output data, ANFIS generates the
appropriate fuzzy controller [15][16].
II. Modeling of Induction Motor
Dynamic behavior of induction motor can be
expressed by voltage and torque which are time varying.
The differential equations that are belonging to
dynamic analysis of induction motor are so sophisticated.
Then with the change of variables the complexity of
these equations decrease through movement from poly
phase winding to two phase winding (qd). In other
words, the stator and rotor variables like voltage, current
and flux linkages of an induction machine are transferred
to another reference model which remains stationary [1]
[6].
Fig. 1. d q Model of Induction Motor
In Fig. 1 the sum of the stator leakage inductance and
magnetizing inductance is called the stator inductance
(L
ls
= L
s
+ L
m
), and the sum of the rotor leakage
inductance and magnetizing inductance is called the rotor
inductance (L
lr
= L
r
+ L
m
).
From the dq equivalent circuit of the induction motor,
we can derive the model equations. The flux linkages can
be achieved as:
1
æ
b
J¢
qs
Jt
= :
qs

æ
c
æ
b
¢
ds
R
s
i
qs
(1)
1
æ
b
J¢
ds
Jt
= :
ds

æ
c
æ
b
¢
qs
R
s
i
ds
(2)
1
æ
b
J¢
q¡
Jt
= :
q¡

(æ
c
 æ
¡
)
æ
b
¢
d¡
R
s
i
q¡
(3)
1
æ
b
J¢
d¡
Jt
= :
d¡
+
(æ
c
 æ
¡
)
æ
b
¢
q¡
R
s
i
d¡
(4)
By substituting the current parameters in the above
equations, the following current equations are obtained
as:
i
qs
=
(¢
qs
 ¢
mq
)
X
Is
(5)
i
ds
=
(¢
ds
 ¢
md
)
X
Is
(6)
i
q¡
=
(¢
q¡
 ¢
mq
)
X
Is
(7)
i
d¡
=
(¢
d¡
 ¢
md
)
X
Is
(8)
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Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 5, N. 5
2009
where ψ
mq
and ψ
md
are the fluxes linkages over L
m
in the
q and d axes, The flux equation are written as follows:
¢
mq
= X
mI
_
¢
qs
X
Is
+
¢
q¡
X
I¡
] … (9)
¢
md
= X
mI
_
¢
ds
X
Is
+
¢
d¡
X
I¡
] (10)
X
mI
=
1
1
X
m
+
1
X
Is
+
1
X
I¡
(11)
The speed ω
r
in the above equations is related to the
torque by the following mechanical dynamic equation as:
I
c
= I
Ioud
+ [
Jæ
m
Jt
= I
Ioud
+
[2
p
Jæ
¡
Jt
(12)
Then æ
¡
is achievable from above equation, where:
p: number of poles
J: moment of inertia (kg/m
2
)
III. Simulation of Induction Motor
In the previous section, dynamic model of an
induction motor is expressed. The model constructed
according to the equations has been simulated as shown
in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 in conventional mode of operation, of
induction motor.
3 phase source is applied to conventional simulated
model of an induction motor and the equations are given
by:
I
u
= √2 I
¡ms
sin(wt)
(13)
I
b
= √2 I
¡ms
sin_wt 
2n
S
] (14)
I
b
= √2 I
¡ms
sin_wt +
2n
S
] (15)
By using Parks Transformation voltages are
transformed to two phase in the dq axes, are applied to
induction motor. In order to obtain the stator and rotor
currents of induction motor in 3 phase Inverse park
transformation is applied in the last stage [6].
IV. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC)
Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC), based on fuzzy set
theory are used to represent the experience and
knowledge of a human operator in terms of linguistic
variables that are called fuzzy rules.
An experienced human operator adjusts the system
inputs to get a desired output by just looking at the
system output without any knowledge on the system’s
dynamics and interior parameter variations.
Fig. 2. Induction motor in dq model
Fig. 3. Simulated Induction Motor Model in Conventional Mode
Therefore, a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) becomes
nonlinear and adaptive in nature having a robust
performance under parameter variations with the ability
to get desired control actions for complex, uncertain, and
nonlinear systems without the requirement of their
mathematical models and parameter estimation. FL based
controllers provide a mathematical foundation for
approximate reasoning, which has been proven to be very
successful in a variety of applications. In modern control
techniques, uncertainty and vagueness have a great
amount of importance to be dealt with. The use of
membership functions quantified from ambiguous terms
in fuzzy logic control rules has given a pulse to speed up
the control of the systems with uncertainty and
vagueness. The introduction of fuzzy set theory and its
application to control systems has become an important
and useful tool in especially controlling nonlinear
systems. The operation principle of a FLC is similar to a
human operator. It performs the same actions as a human
operator does by adjusting the input signal looking at
only the system output. A FL based controller consists of
three sections namely fuzzifier, rule base, and defuzzifier
as shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The basic structure of fuzzy logic based controller
6
Wr
5
Te
4
idr
3
iqr
2
ids
1
iqs
T
L
T
e
W
r
rotor speed
iqs
Fqs
Fds
ids
Te
electrical torque
Fqr
Fqs
Fmq
iqr
iqs
Subsystem4
Fds
Fdr
ids
idr
Fmd
Subsystem2
Fmq
vqs
vds
Wr
Fmd
Fqr
Fqs
Fds
Fdr
Flux linkage calculation
3
TL
2
Vds
1
Vqs
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Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 5, N. 5
2010
A fuzzy controller is responsible to adjust the speed of
induction motor. Converting crisp value to fuzzy can be
done by several methods. Triangular type membership
functions are used here for partitioning the crisp
universes into fuzzy subsets [13]. Therefore the
following function is used to represent the fuzzy
triangular membership functions:
¡(x, o, b, c) =
`
1
1
1
1
u x < o
x o
b o
o ¸ x ¸ b
c x
c b
b ¸ x ¸ c
u x ¸ c
(16)
In the following the membership function of ∆e and e
and three scalar values of each triangle that are applied
into this controller as shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Triangular Membership of ∆e and e
The fuzzy rules represent the knowledge and abilities
of a human operator who makes necessary adjustments to
operate the system with minimum error and fast
response. In order to model the actions that a human
operator would decide whether the change, in the
controller output is to be increased or decreased
according to the error (k) and its change ∆e(k), it is
necessary to observe the behaviors of the error signal e(k)
and its change ∆e(k) on different operating regions.
In the following the fuzzy rules decision table
implemented into the controller are given in Table I.
The final control action is the crisp output that is
defuzzified from the resultant fuzzy values of the fuzzy
rule base. The fuzzy output of the rule base is obtained
by triggering the active rules for the k
th
sampling instant
corresponding to the values e(k) and ∆e(k). For any point
(e(k), ∆e(k)) on the trajectory plot of e(k) vs ∆e(k), there
are maximum two intercepting fuzzy sets on each one of
the universes e(k) and ∆e(k). Thus, for any sampling
instant, the value of e(k) activates only one or two fuzzy
sets in the universe of e. Similarly, the value of ∆e(k) for
the k
th
sampling instant also activates only one or two
fuzzy sets in the universe of ∆e(k)[1],[8],[13],[16]. The
method called the center of area is widely used in fuzzy
logic control applications; here also this method is
applied to generate the crisp value at the output. The
center of area method yields the following:
Au
R
(k) =
∑ μ
R
i
(Au
R
) Au
R
(Ri)
ì=7,8,12,13
∑ μ
R
i
ì=7,8,12,13
(17)
where, ∆u(Ri) is the crisp ∆u value corresponding to the
maximum membership degree of the fuzzy set that is an
output from the rule decision table for the rule Ri. The
conventional simulated induction motor model as shown
in Fig. 3 is modified by adding Fuzzy controller which
is shown in Fig. 6.
The pictorial configuration of fuzzy logic based
controlled induction motor drive is shown in Fig. 6. This
model is achieved by improving the conventional
simulation of induction motor by control system
enhancement. The dq model of Induction Motor, Park’s
transformation and inverse Park’s transformation are
same to the conventional model, but AC source is
replaced with PWM inverter which is controlled by
Fuzzy Controller.
The induction motor rotor speed is applied to the
Fuzzy Controller. As the first step, the speed is
normalized between zero and one and then it is
compared to one. Then error and change in error will be
calculated.
The produced crisp value will be applied to fuzzifier
model and the preferred fuzzy value will be produced.
Then after defuzzification the achieved crisp value
will change the frequency of PWM inverter. The Fuzzy
controller model is shown in Fig. 7. Speed output
terminal of induction motor is applied to fuzzy controller,
and in the initial stages of induction motor the error is
maximum.
According to fuzzy rules, FC produces a crisp value
and this value will change frequency of sin wave in the
speed controller. The sin wave is compared with
triangular wave, and firing signals of IGBTs are
generated in PWM. The frequency of these firing signals
also gradually change as shown in Fig. 8 and the
frequency of applied voltage to Induction Motor will
increase [12].
TABLE I
MODIFIED FUZZY RULE DECISION
∆
e
NB NS ZZ PS PB
e
PB ZZ NS NS NB NB
PS PS ZZ NS NS NB
ZZ PS PS ZZ NS NS
NS PB PS PS ZZ NS
NB PB PB PS PS ZZ
V. Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference
System (ANFIS) Controller
A novel design of an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference
System (ANFIS) for controlling some of the parameters,
NB
1
NS Z PS PB
µ(∆e)
0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1 0.1
∆e
NB
NS Z PS PB
0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.1
NB
1
NS Z PS PB
µ(e)
0.5 1 0 0.5 1 1.5
e
NB
NS Z PS PB
0
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Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 5, N. 5
2011
such as speed, torque, flux, voltage, current, etc. of the
induction motor is presented in this paper.
Fig. 6. Fuzzy Control Induction Motor Model
Fig. 7. Fuzzy Controller model
Induction motors are characterized by highly non
linear, complex and timevarying dynamics and
inaccessibility of some of the states and outputs for
measurements.
Hence it can be considered as a challenging
engineering problem in the industrial sector. Various
advanced control techniques have been devised by
various researchers across the world. Some of them are
based on the fuzzy techniques. Fuzzy logic based
controllers are considered as potential candidates for
such an application. AC motor drives are used in
multitude of industrial and process applications requiring
high performances.
In high performance drive systems the motor speed
should closely follow a specified reference trajectory
regardless of any load disturbances and any model
uncertainties. The controllability of torque in an
induction motor with good transient and steady state
responses form the main criteria in the designing of a
controller.
Though, PI controller is able to achieve these but with
certain drawbacks. The gains cannot be increased beyond
certain limit so as to have an improved response.
Moreover, it introduces non linearity into the system
making it more complex for analysis. Also it deteriorates
the controller performance.
With the advent of artificial intelligent techniques,
these drawbacks can be mitigated. One such technique is
the use of Fuzzy Logic in the design of controller either
independently or in hybrid with PI controller. Fuzzy
Logic Controller yields superior and faster control, but
main design problem lies in the determination of
consistent and complete rule set and shape of the
membership functions.
A lot of trial and error has to be carried out to obtain
the desired response which is time consuming. On the
other hand, ANN alone is insufficient if the training data
are not enough to take care of all the operating modes.
The drawbacks of Fuzzy Logic Control and Artificial
Neural Network can be overcome by the use of Adaptive
NeuroFuzzy Inference System.
The main concept of a neurofuzzy network is derived
from the human learning process, where an initial
knowledge of a function is first setup by fuzzy rules and
then the degree of function approximation is iteratively
improved by the learning capabilities of the neural
network.
Hence ANFIS combines the learning power of neural
network with knowledge representation of fuzzy logic.
Neuro fuzzy techniques have emerged from the fusion of
Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Fuzzy Inference
Systems (FIS) and form a popular framework for solving
the real world problems.
A neuro fuzzy system is based on a fuzzy system
which is trained by a learning algorithm derived from
neural network theory. While the learning capability is an
advantage from the viewpoint of FIS, the formation of
linguistic rule base will be advantage from the viewpoint
of ANN. There are several approaches to integrate ANN
and FIS and very often the choice depends on the
applications. Assume that the fuzzy inference system has
two Inputs x and y and one output, that in this paper the
inputs will be e(k) and ∆e(k)[12],[15],[17],[35] A first
order Sugeno fuzzy model has rules which are as
follows:
• Rule1:
If x is A
1
and y is B
1
, then f
1
= p
1
x + q
1
y + r
1
• Rule2:
If x is A
2
and y is B
2
, then f
2
= p
2
x + q
2
y + r
2
In the Sugeno model ifthen rules are used, and output
of each rule is linear combination of inputs plus a
constant value. The learning algorithm applied to this
paper is Hebbian. Hebb rule is the oldest and the most
famous of all learning rules. This method is feed forward
and unsupervised and the weights will be adjusted by the
following formula:
w
ì
(ncw) = w
ì
(olJ) +x
ì
y
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Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 5, N. 5
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Fig. 8. ANFIS model
The ANFIS model is shown in Fig. 8. It states that if
the cross product of output and input is positive, then it
results in increase of weight, otherwise decrease of
weight. Fig. 9 shows ANFIS layout.
M1
M2
M5
M’
1
M’
2
M’
5
e
∆e
Pro
Pro
Pro
Pro
Pro
Pro
Norm
Norm
Norm
Norm
Norm
Norm
sugeno
sugeno
sugeno
sugeno
sugeno
sugeno
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6
Fig. 9. ANFIS layout
In layer 2 of ANFIS layout, the triangular membership
function is same as that of the fuzzy controller model.
The function is given by:
0
2
= µ
1
, p
2
, p
3
, …
Layer 3 indicates the pro (product) layer and its output
is product of inputs, which is given by:
0
3
= p
ì
(c) · p
]
(Δc)
Layer 4 represent Norm and it calculates the ratio of i
th
firing strength to sum of all firing strengths. The obtained
output is normalized firing strength, which is given by:
0
4
=
w
ì
∑w
Layer 5 is an adaptive node with functionality as
follows:
0
5
= w
ì
¡
ì
= w
ì
(p
ì
(c) +q
ì
(Δc) +r
ì
)
That p
i
, q
i
, r
i
are consequent parameters, which are
initially are set to 0.48, 0.25 and 1 respectively. Then
they are adaptively adjusted with Hebbian learning
algorithm. Layer 6 calculates the output which is given
by :
0
6
=
∑w
ì
¡
ì
∑w
ì
Fig. 10 shows the overall structure of Adaptive Neuro
Fuzzy model.
Fig. 10. Overall NeuroFuzzy simulation model
VI. Results and Discussion
Modeling and simulation of Induction motor in
conventional, fuzzy and ANFIS method is done using
MATLAB/SIMULINK.
The parameters chosen for simulation are given in
Appendix. The results of simulation for induction motor
are shown by Figs. 11, 12, 13 that show the speed
responses.
From Figs. 11, 12, 13, it is observed that the rising
time drastically decreases when fuzzy controller is added
to simulation model.
Fig. 11. Speed Response of Conventional Controller
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Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 5, N. 5
2013
Fig. 12. Speed Response of Fuzzy Controller
Fig. 13. Speed Response of ANFIS
ANFIS shows better results against the FC, and all the
three results are taken in same period of time. As
apparent in Fig. 12 the induction motor speed after fuzzy
logic controller application shows less rising time to
arrive the final value.
For example at sample time '4' the speed of the
induction motor using fuzzy controller reaches steady
state value faster than conventional controller and ANFIS
controller. Figs. 15, 16, 17 show the graphical
representation of the torques. In Fig. 15, it is observed
that the torque at noload condition converges to zero at
second sample time but in dynamic model the
convergence is happening five times later.
Fig. 14. Torque Response of Conventional Controller
Fig. 15. Torque Response of Fuzy Controller
Fig. 16. Torque Response of ANFIS
As it is apparent from Figs. 14, 15, 16, the torque
response for ANFIS and Fuzzy converging to zero in less
duration of time when compared to conventional
controller.
Fig. 17. Stator Current of Conventional Controller
Fig. 18. Stator Current of Fuzzy Controller
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Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 5, N. 5
2014
Fig. 19. Stator Current of ANFIS
Fig. 20. Rotor Current of Conventional Controller
Fig. 21. Rotor Current of Fuzzy Controller
Fig. 22. Rotor Current of ANFIS
From simulation results, it is observed that the rising
time drastically decreases when FC is added and ANFIS
shows better results against the FC, and all three results
are taken in same period of time.
For understanding how is effect of ANFIS on the
motor activity improvements, the comparative approach
will clarify the difference between conventional
simulation, Fuzzy controller based simulation and
ANFIS simulation. After modeling, simulation of
Induction motor in conventional, fuzzy and ANFIS
based models are done on MATLAB/SIMULINK. Figs.
19, 20, 21 and 22 show the stator currents and rotor
currents of 3 different controller under dynamic
conditions. Table II shows numerical comparison
between these three different methods in the speed
domain of induction motor.
TABLE II
SPEED COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL, FUZZY CONTROLLER
AND ANFIS CONTROLLER
Speed
Time line
Speed in conventional
Simulation (rpm)
Speed in FC based
simulation (rpm)
Speed in
ANFIS based
simulation
(rpm)
0.5 65 400 600
1 150 800 1000
2 240 1680 1710
4 580 1710 1710
8 1460 1710 1710
10 1640 1710 1710
It is observed from the table that at different time
intervals, the peak speed reached for FC and ANFIS is
very high and fast when compared to conventional
controller.For example at time 4 sec ,speed in
conventional controller is 580 rpm where as with fuzzy
and ANFIS it is 1710 rpm.
VIII. Conclusion
In this paper, simulation results of the induction motor
are presented in conventional, fuzzy control and ANFIS
based models.
As it is apparent from the speed curve in two models,
the fuzzy controller drastically decreases the rising time,
in the manner which the frequency of sin waves are
changing according to the percentage of error from
favorite speed, so firing signals of IGBTs in PWM are
continuously changing, then the frequency of applied
voltage to IM naturally will increase.
According to the direct relation of induction motor
speed and frequency of supplied voltage the speed will
increase also. With results obtained from simulation, it is
clear that for the same operation condition of induction
motor using fuzzy controller had better performance than
the conventional controller.
And also with comparing ANFIS model with FC
model it is apparent adding learning algorithm to the
control system will decrease the rising time more than
expectations and it proves ANFIS to better than FC
Conventional controller.
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Copyright © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l.  All rights reserved International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 5, N. 5
2015
Appendix
Following are the parameters of the induction motor
chosen for the simulation studies:
V = 220 f = 60 HP = 3 R
s
= 0.435
R
r
= 0.816 X
ls
= 0.754 X
lr
= 0.754 X
m
= 26.13
p = 4 J = 0.089 rpm = 1710
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2016
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Authors’ information
1
Faculty of Electronics, Military College of Electronics and
Mechanical Engineering, Secunderabad500015 and Research Scholar,
EEE Dept., Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur
515002, Andhra Pradesh, India
Email: prashant_menghal@yahoo.co.in
2
Dept of EEE, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, College of
Engineering, Kukatpally, Hyderabad500085, Andhra Pradesh, India
Email: ajl1994@yahoo.co.in
P. M. Menghal was born in Khapa (Village),
Nagpur (District), Maharashtra India on 7
th
Feb
1975. He received B.E. degree in Electronics
and Power Engineering from Nagpur
University, Nagpur in 1998. He received his
Master Degree in Control Systems, from
Government College of Engineering, Pune,
University of Pune, India in 2000 and pursuing
Ph.D. at JNT University, Anantapur. Presently he is working as a
Faculty in Radar and Control Systems Department, Faculty of
Electronics, Military College of Mechanical Engineering,
Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh , India. He is a Member of IEEE,
Institute of Engineers (M.I.E.), Kolkata India, Indian Society of
Technical Education(M.I.S.T.E.), IETE, Indian Science Congress and
System Society of India (S.S.I.) . He has many research publications in
various international and national journals and conferences. His current
research interests are in the areas of Real Time Control system of
Electrical Machines, Robotics and Mathematical Modeling and
Simulation
Dr. A. Jaya Laxmi was born in Mahaboob
Nagar District, Andhra Pradesh, on 07111969.
She completed her B.Tech. (EEE) from
Osmania University College of Engineering,
Hyderabad in 1991, M. Tech.(Power Systems)
from REC Warangal, Andhra Pradesh in 1996
and completed Ph.D.(Power Quality) from
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
College of Engineering, Hyderabad in 2007. She has five years of
Industrial experience and 13 years of teaching experience. She has
worked as Visiting Faculty at Osmania University College of
Engineering, Hyderabad and is presently working as Associate
Professor, JNTU College of Engineering, JNTUH, Kukatpally,
Hyderabad. She has 30 International Journals to her credit. She has 70
International and National papers published in various conferences held
at India and also abroad. Her research interests are Neural Networks,
Power Systems & Power Quality. She was awarded “Best Technical
Paper Award” for Electrical Engineering in Institution of Electrical
Engineers in the year 2006. Dr. A. Jaya laxmi is a Member of IEEE and
IAO, Life Member of System society of India, Fellow of Institution of
Electrical Engineers Calcutta (M.I.E) and also Life Member of Indian
Society of Technical Education (M.I.S.T.E), MIETE, Indian Science
Congress.
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International Review on Modelling and Simulations
(IREMOS)
(continued from outside front cover)
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