&er in hair restorer is derived from a verb (restore)' 5erbs& unli.$. drophammer. our . +n fact& almost any pair of nouns can be juxtaposed in English&!so as to form a compound or a phrase % provided that there is something that this compound or phrase could plausibly me!n. on the basis of the meanin s of their t!o components" #or hair restorer. of more examples for the four types at (#-)%(#$)& you will probably find the tas.eeping one1s hair in place& while a butterfly net is for catching butterflies and a mos2uito net is for . nor in the meanings of hair butterfly to y and mosquito The most that one can conclude from these individual meanings is that each is a nit that has something to do with hair& butterflies and mos2uitoes respectively. Ex mples can be found with each of the other main word classes supplying the left!hand element" (13) verb—noun (VN): swearword.) *ost of these are also right! headed& although we will defer further discussion!of headedness to )ection $. %reenstonefainth"art (#$) preposition%noun (#& ')" in&%roup.# as important for distinguishing compound nouns from noun phrases. on th !& ether hinges on the fact that resto. playtime (14) noun—noun (NN): hairnet.AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY properties. outpost. The difference in precision with w !lich we can interpret hair restorer on the one hand and hairnet etc. /n tine other hand& for hairnet. over"oat (ll of these have the main stress on the left % a characteristic identified in )ection $.e most nouns and adjectives& impose expectations and re2uirements on the noun .nowledge of1 the world (that some people collect butterflies& and that mos2uitoes can carry disease4 rather than on purely& linguistic . These changes therefore generate new vocabulary needs that (despite the reservations expressed in Chapter 5 about semantic definitions for word classes) are more readily answered by new nouns than by new verbs or adjectives. butterfly net and mosquito net are spelled with a space does not affect the fact that& from the grammatical point of view& they each constitute one complex word. the answer is surely yes" it most naturally denotes a substance for restoring hair growth.inds of NIN compound. Does each one have a precise interpretation that is clearly the molt natural. +f you try to thin. Consider the four examples at (14). easiest for the '' type at (#. hair restorer (1 ) ad!e"tive—noun (#N): bla"$board. (rriving 4it the precise meanings (!&f these compounds depends ()+&.). mosquito to net. (The fact that hair restorer. 0hat tells us that a hairnet is for . butterfly net. The issue of meaning turns out to play an important part in distinguishing two .eeping mos2uitoes away3 This information does not reside in the meaning of net.nowledge. butterfly net and mosquito netthe answer is less clear.


+t is time to introduce some terminology& for convenience.ind of fulfilment. S . in which the first element is interpreted as the object of the verb contained within the second& a secondary or verbal compound.) =aradoxically& then& although verbs are relatively rare as elements in compounds in English (the s(vearwordpattern is unusual)& verbal compounds& in the sense just defined& are common. 6orexample& with the verb sleep !e expect to find one noun phrase as subject4 with eatwe expect to find also a noun phrase as object4 and with %ive we expect to find& or at least to be able to identify from the context& a third 1indirect object1 noun phrase denoting the recipient of1 the gift. 8ere are some more compounds whose second element is derived from a verb" (#9) sign!writer& slum clearance& crime prevention& wish!fulfilment 6or all of these& the mostnatural interpretation is clear. +n tiis respect they are li.et another term <ometime used is synthetic compound. )e c onda ry c ompounds a re ce rta inly right!he a de d& in tha t for example) "rime prevention denotes a .COMPOUND WORDS.e hairnet or mosquito to net.e hair restorer or slum "learan"e. et us call a '' compound li. 6or example& an 7!restorei& whatever 7 is& something or someone that restores 7. in which the right!hand noun is not derived from& a verb aid whose interpretation is therefore not precisely predictable on a purely linguistic basis& a primary or root compound. (. BLENDS AND PHRASAL WORDS phrases that accompany them in the sentence. 6or present purposes& what matters is that& when the head of a '' compound is derived from a verb& as restorer is& the most natural way to interpret the whole compound is 2uite precise" the first element expresses the object argument of the verb (that is& the person or thing that undergoes the action). (The term 1root compound1 is well established but not particularly appropriate& because primary compounds include! many& such as "limbin% equipment or fitness "ampai%ner. To interpret any of them some other way % for example& to interpret "rime prevention as meaning not 1prevention of crime1 but 1use of crime for preventive purposes1 % seems contrived and unnatural.) et us call a '' compound li.e most '' compounds and most compounds generally % but not all& as we shall see m the next section. These expected or re2uired nominal concomitants tants to a verb are called its arguments.ind of prevention and wish fulfilment denotes a . neither of whose components is a root in the sense of Chapter :.

4 Compound nouns.6. +t is with nouns that compounding ivally comes into its on 1a as 3. surprising. That is ! process in + not surprising. woici1& f1orjiiiiigiii 6iiglish.Cultural and tech +lical change produces more novel artefacts than novel activities or novel .

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