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1 Some notations

In this paper, C will denote various large absolute constants, and c will

denote various small absolute constants.

[a, b] denotes the integers from a to b inclusive. Similarly define the

[a, b), etc. If E is a set, |E| will denote the cardinality of E. N will be

0-0

a large integer, and 0 < δ < 1 will be a parameter, and ε = ε(δ) > 0 be

a quantity depending continuously on δ.

Let M = M (N ) be a slowly growing function of N such that ε−C

M N c ; one could take for instance M = log(N ), although one can

get away with a much larger M actually. The exact choice of M is only

important if one is interested in the dependence of N on δ to be chosen

later.

For any function f on ZN , define the Fourier transform fˆ by

X

fˆ := f (m) exp(2πimn/N ),

m∈ZN

kf kA∞ := kfˆkl∞ (ZN ) = sup |fˆ(n)|,

n∈ZN

We write Y & X if Y is not of the form o(X).

0-1

2 The main idea of the proof

Szemerédi asserts that for any integers k, if N is sufficiently large de-

pending on δ and k, then every set E ⊂ [0, N ] with |E| > δN must

contain a non-trivial arithmetic progression of length k.

We are going to deal with the case k = 4.

The main idea is to show by induction. Let S be the set of all

0 < δ < 1 such that the Szemerédi theorem hold for k = 4. It is

easy to see that all the δ > 3/4 belong to S, since there is at least one

of a, a + 1, a + 2, a + 3 lies in A, furthermore, we shall prove that if

δ + ε(δ) ∈ S then δ ∈ S.

Assume these, we can give the proof of the theorem.

and since δ0 + ε(δ0 ) ∈ S, we get δ0 ∈ S by induction. By the continuity

of ε, we get

δ + ε(δ) → δ0 + ε(δ0 ), δ → δ0 − .

0-2

Therefore there exists δ1 < δ0 such that

δ1 + ε(δ1 ) = δ0 ,

done.

let E ⊂ [0, N ) be such that |E| > δN , by refining E if necessary we may

assume that

|E| = δN (1)

we can assume that

|E ∩ P | 6 (δ + ε)|P | (2)

for all arithmetic progressions P ⊂ [0, N ) of length M by induction.

This is the only place where we shall use the induction hypothesis.

0-3

3 Proof of the induction above

Lemma 3.1. We have

(i) if 0 < |r| N/M . Then we can partition P into the disjoint union of

genuine arithmetic progressions of the same step size r, simply by making

a cut every time the progression wraps around the end of 1, · · · , N .

Except possibly for the first and last progression, each of the genuine

progressions has length at least M , and so the density of A in those

genuine progressions is at most δ + ε by (2). Adding up all these density

estimates for those genuine progressions of length at least M , we obtain

the bound

|E ∩ P | 6 (δ + ε)|P | + 2M.

0-4

(ii) Assume r is arbitrary. Consider the first O(M ) multiples of r in Z/N Z.

By the pigeonhole principle, two of them must be N/M apart, thus

we can find a non-zero j = O(M ) such that |jr mod N | N/M . We

can then partition P into |j| disjoint progressions, all of length ∼ |P |/|j|,

with step size jr mod N . Applying the previous estimate to all of these

progressions and adding up, we obtain

and X

k1E∩(E+k) kȦ∞ = O(εN 2 ). (5)

k∈ZN

0-5

1

Assume (4) and (5) hold, we show that E contains ∼ δ 4 N 2 + O(ε 4 N 2 )

genuine arithmetic progression of length 4, and the induction follows.

It suffices to show that

1

X

1E 0 (a)1E 0 (a + r)1E (a + 2r)1E (a + 3r) ∼ δ 4 N 2 + O(ε 4 N 2 ) (6)

a,r∈ZN

if N is sufficiently large. From (1) and (3), we see that

|E\E 0 | = |E ∩ (0.6N, 1.4N )| 6 (δ + ε)0.8N

hence we have

|E 0 | = δ 0 N

for some δ 0 ∼ δ. Write

X

f (a) = 1E 0 (a + r)1E (a + 2r)1E (a + 3r).

r∈ZN

1

X

0 2

(f (a) − δ δ N ) = O(ε N 2 ).

4

a∈E 0

0-6

By Cauchy-Schwarz, it suffices to show that

1

X

0 2

(f (a) − δ δ N ) = O(ε 2 N 3 ).

2

a∈E 0

1

X

(f (a) − δ 0 δ 2 N )2 = O(ε 2 N 3 ).

a∈ZN

X

f1 (k)f2 (l)f3 (m) 6 kf1 k2 kf2 k2 kf3 kA∞ (7)

k,l,m∈ZN :ak+bl+cm=0

1 X ˆ

f1 (an)fˆ2 (bn)fˆ3 (cn),

N

n∈ZN

0-7

which can then be estimated using Cauchy-Schwarz by

1 ˆ

kf1 k2 kfˆ2 k2 kf3 kA∞ .

N

The claim then follows from Plancherel’s theorem.

Corollary 3.3. For any a, b, c ∈ ZN \{0}, we have

X

f1 (k)f2 (l)f3 (m) = N 2 E(f1 )E(f2 )E(f3 )+O(kf1 k2 kf2 k2 kf3 kA

k,l,m∈ZN :ak+bl+cm=0

(8)

Similarly for permutations.

Proof. Note that

kf kȦ∞ = kf − E(f )kA∞ . (9)

Then the corollary can be got from Lemma 3.2, (9)and the identity

X

(f1 (k) − E(f1 ))(f2 (l) − E(f2 ))(f3 (m) − E(f3 ))

k,l,m∈ZN :ak+bl+cm=0

X

= f1 (k)f2 (l)f3 (m) − N 2 E(f1 )E(f2 )E(f3 )

k,l,m∈ZN :ak+bl+cm=0

0-8

.

Proposition 3.4. For any F ⊂ ZN , we have

X

||F ∩ (E + u)| − δ|F || = O(εN 2 ). (10)

u∈ZN

X

(|F ∩ (E + u)| − δ|F |) = O(εN 2 )

u∈A

X X

| (|F ∩ (E + u)| − δ|F |)| = | 1A (u)1F (k)(1E (k − u) − δ)|

u∈A u,k∈ZN

6 N k1E kȦ∞

= O(εN 2 ),

and the claim follows.

0-9

Remark: In Lemma 3.4, if we take F = E, we get

X

||E ∩ (E + u)| − δ 2 N | = O(εN 2 ).

u∈ZN

1

Hence we get for all but at most O(ε 2 N ) values of u such that

1

|E ∩ (E + u)| = δ 2 N + O(ε 2 N ). (11)

0-10

X X X

0 2

(f (a) − δ δ N ) = ( 1E 0 (a + r)1E (a + 2r)1E (a + 3r) − δ 0 δ 2 N )

a∈ZN a∈ZN r∈ZN

X X

= ( 1E 0 (b)1E (b + r)1E (b + 2r) − δ 0 δ 2 N )

b∈ZN r∈ZN

X X

= 1E 0 (b)1E (b + r)1E (b + 2r) − δ 0 δ 2 N 2

b∈ZN r∈ZN

X X

= ( 1E (b + r)1E (b + 2r) − δ 2 N )

b∈E 0 r∈ZN

X X

= ( 1E (u)1E (2u − b) − δ 2 N )

b∈E 0 u∈ZN

X

= (|2E ∩ (E + b)| − δ 2 N )

b∈E 0

= O(εN 2 ).

0-11

Hence we have X

f (a) = δ 0 δ 2 N 2 + O(εN 2 ).

a∈ZN

Therefore

1

X

(f (a) − δ 0 δ 2 N )2 = O(ε 2 N 3 )

a∈ZN

1

X X

2 0 2 02 4

⇐⇒ f (a) − 2δ δ N f (a) + δ δ N = O(ε N 3 )

3 2

a∈ZN a∈ZN

1

X

02 4

⇐⇒ 2 3

f (a) = δ δ N + O(ε N 3 ) 2

a∈ZN

0-12

By Corollary 3.3 and (5),

X

f 2 (a)

a∈ZN

X X X

= 1E 0 (a + r)1E 0 (a + s)1E (a + 2r)1E (a + 2s)1E (a + 3r)1E (a + 3s

a∈ZN r∈ZN s∈ZN

X X X

= 1E 0 ∩(E 0 +u) (a + r)1E∩(E+2u) (a + 2r)1E∩(E+3u) (a + 3r)

a∈ZN u∈ZN r∈ZN

X X

= 1E 0 ∩(E 0 +u) (b)1E∩(E+2u) (b + r)1E∩(E+3u) (b + 2r)

u∈ZN b,r∈ZN

X X

−1 0 0

= N |E ∩ (E + u)||E ∩ (E + 2u)||E ∩ (E + 3u)| + O(N k1E∩(E+3u)

u∈ZN u∈ZN

X

−1

=N |E 0 ∩ (E 0 + u)||E ∩ (E + 2u)||E ∩ (E + 3u)| + O(εN 3 )

u∈ZN

1

X

|E 0 ∩ (E 0 + u)||E ∩ (E + 2u)||E ∩ (E + 3u)| = δ 02 δ 4 N 4 + O(ε 2 N 4 )

u∈ZN

0-13

By the remark after the lemma 3.4,

1

|E ∩ (E + 2u)| = δ 2 N + O(ε 2 N ),

1

|E ∩ (E + 3u)| = δ 2 N + O(ε 2 N )

1

for all but at most O(ε 2 N ) values of u. Therefore

X

|E 0 ∩ (E 0 + u)||E ∩ (E + 2u)||E ∩ (E + 3u)|

u∈ZN

1 1

X

0 0

= |E ∩ (E + u)|(δ N + O(ε N )) + O(ε N 4 )

2 2 2 2

u∈ZN

1 1

X

4 2 2 0 0

=(δ N + O(ε N )) 2 |E ∩ (E + u)| + O(ε N 4 ) 2

u∈ZN

1 1

=(δ 4 N 2 + O(ε 2 N 2 ))|E 0 |2 + O(ε 2 N 4 )

1 1

=(δ 4 N 2 + O(ε 2 N 2 ))δ 02 N 2 + O(ε 2 N 4 )

1

=δ 4 δ 02 N 4 + O(ε 2 N 4 ).

That’s the end of the proof, all the left is to show (4) and (5).

0-14

3.1 The proof of (4)

Proposition 3.5. We have

X X

| exp(2πiφs (j)/N )| = O(εN |P0 |) (12)

s∈ZN j∈E∩(P0 +s)

constant quadratic functions φ0 , φ1 , · · · , φN −1 with integer coefficients.

X X

| exp(2πiφs (j)/N )| = O(εN |P0 |).

s∈ZN j∈E∩(P0 +s)

0-15

For a fixed 1 6 n 6 N − 1, take φs (j) = nj, we get:

X X

O(εN |P0 |) = | exp(2πinj/N )|

s∈ZN j∈E∩(P0 +s)

X X

=| 1E (j) exp(2πinj/N )|

s∈ZN j∈P0 +s

X

= ||P0 | 1E (j) exp(2πinj/N )|

j∈ZN

We shall prove Proposition 3.5. Fix the functions φ0 , φ1 , · · · , φN −1

and the ZN arithmetic progression P0 , we can reduce to the case when

P0 is the arithmetic progression [0, r) for some M C r < N since N is

prime.

P n

cover ZN if the function j=1 1Pj is a constant on ZN .

0-16

Lemma 3.8. Let P1 , P2 , · · · , Pn be ZN arithmetic progression of length

M 3 which evenly cover ZN . Then we have

n

X n

X

||E ∩ Pj | − δ|Pj || = O(ε |Pj |). (13)

j=1 j=1

Pn

if |E ∩ Pj | − δ|Pj | > 0. Write f = j=1 1Pj , then

n n N n

X X X |E| X |E| X

(|E ∩ Pj | − δ|Pj |) = f −δ |Pj | = f− |Pj | = 0

j=1 j=1

N N j=1

x∈E k=1

n

X n X

X N N X

X n N

X

|Pj | = 1Pj (k) = 1Pj (k) = f.

j=1 j=1 k=1 k=1 j=1 k=1

0-17

Hence,

n

X n

X n

X

||E ∩ Pj | − δ|Pj || = 2 (|E ∩ Pj | − δ|Pi |)+ = O(ε |Pi |).

j=1 j=1 j=1

arithmetic progressions Ps,1 , · · · , Ps,ns of length |Ps,j | M 3 such that

for each 1 6 j 6 ns , the function exp(2πiφs (·)/N ) is within o(1) of a

constant on Ps,j , j = 1, · · · , ns .

Assume this lemma for the moment and complete the proof of (12).

Proof of (12): Firstly we observe that when s ranges over ZN and

j ranges from 1 to ns , the progressions Ps,j evenly cover ZN . By Lemma

3.8, we have

ns

X X X

||E ∩ Ps,j | − δ|Ps,j || = O(ε |Ps,j |) = O(εN |P0 |). (14)

s∈ZN j=1 s∈ZN

0-18

By Lemma 3.9, we have

X

exp(2πiφs (k)/N )

k∈E∩Ps,j

|E ∩ Ps,j | X

= exp(2πiφs (k)/N ) + o(|Ps,j |)

|Ps,j |

k∈Ps,j

= exp(2πiφs (k)/N ) + o(|Ps,j |)

|Ps,j |

k∈Ps,j

X

=δ exp(2πiφs (k)/N ) + O(||E ∩ Ps,j | − δ|Ps,j ||) + o(|Ps,j |).

k∈Ps,j

0-19

X

| exp(2πiφs (k)/N )|

k∈E∩(P0 +s)

X Xns

=δ| exp(2πiφs (k)/N )| + O( ||E ∩ Ps,j | − δ|Ps,j ||) + o(|P0 |).

k∈P0 +s j=1

X X

| exp(2πiφs (k)/N )|

s∈ZN k∈E∩(P0 +s)

X X ns

X X

=δ | exp(2πiφs (k)/N )| + O( ||E ∩ Ps,j | − δ|Ps,j ||) + o(N |P0 |)

s∈ZN k∈P0 +s s∈ZN j=1

X X

=δ | exp(2πiφs (k)/N )| + O(εN |P0 |)

s∈ZN k∈P0 +s

0-20

we observe that

X

exp(2πiφs (k)/N ) = o(|P0 |). (15)

k∈P0 +s

It remains to prove Lemma 3.9. Fix s, without loss of generality we

can assume that s = 0. It suffices to partition [0, r) into ZN arithmetic

progression P0,j of length ∼ rc for some small c such that

φ0 (k 0 ) − φ0 (k)

|| || = o(1)

N

for all k, k 0 ∈ P0,j . Let dj be the step size and kj the initial element of

P0,j . Assume φ0 (k) = A2 k 2 + A1 k + A0 , then

a2 A2 d2j

|| || = o(1),

N

0-21

(2A2 kj + A1 )dj a

|| || = o(1)

N

hold for all |a| . rc . It thus suffices to obtain the conditions

A2 d2j (2A2 kj + A1 )dj

|| ||, || || = O(r−3c ). (16)

N N

By a quantitative version of Weyl’s theorem (Weyl: Let k > 2,

2

232k

t > 2 , N > t and a ∈ ZN . Then there exists p 6 t such that

k+1 c

|pk a/N | 6 t−1/k2 . Here we take k = 2, t = r 7 .)

c

We can find d 6 r 7 such that

A2 d2

|| || = o(r−100c ).

N

Fix this d and partition [0, r) into arithmetic progressions P 1 , P 2 · · ·

of step d and length ∼ r5c . For each such progression P t , let k t be an

element of it. By pigeonhole principle we can find an integer mt = O(r3c )

such that

(2A2 kt + A1 )mt d

|| || = O(r−3c ).

N

0-22

Now partition each P t into arithmetic progressions P0,j of step mt d and

length ∼ r5c /mt M 3 . The first condition of (16) is clear. To verify

the latter we observe that

kj = kt + ud

|| || = || + ||

N N N

(2A2 kt + A1 )mt d 2A2 umt d2

6 || || + || ||

N N

−3c A2 d2 5c 3c

= O(r ) + O(|| ||r r )

N

= O(r−3c )

as desired.

0-23

3.2 The proof of (5)

Lemma 3.10. For any ZN arithmetic progression P of length M C

|P | = o(N ) and (λ, µ) ∈ ZN × ZN − {(0, 0)} we have

X

|1̂E∩(E+k) (λk + µ)|2 = O(εN 2 |P |). (17)

k∈P

Assume this lemma, we can now prove (5). Suppose for contradiction

that (5) failed, we get ∀c > 0, ∀N0 > 0, ∃N > N0 such that

X

k1E∩(E+k) kȦ∞ > 2cεN 2 .

k∈ZN

|B| > cεN such that

||1E∩(E+k) ||Ȧ∞ > cεN.

In fact, let B be the set of all such k that

||1E∩(E+k) ||Ȧ∞ > cεN.

0-24

Hence we have

X

2

2cεN 6 k1E∩(E+k) kȦ∞

k∈ZN

X X

= k1E∩(E+k) kȦ∞ + k1E∩(E+k) kȦ∞

||1E∩(E+k) ||Ȧ∞ <cεN ||1E∩(E+k) ||Ȧ∞ >cεN

X X

6 cεN + N 1

k∈ZN ||1E∩(E+k) ||Ȧ∞ >cεN

= cεN 2 + N |B|.

Therefore |B| > cεN .

We can therefore find a function φ : B → ZN − {0} such that

|1̂E∩(E+k) (φ(k))| > cεN (18)

for all k ∈ B. Fix B, φ, and let Ω denote the graph of φ:

Ω := {(k, φ(k)) : k ∈ B}.

Ω has considerable arithmetic structure:

0-25

Lemma 3.11. We have

]{(a, b, c, d) ∈ Ω4 : a + b = c + d} > (cε)12 N 3

Proof. Square (18) and use the identity

X X

2

|1̂A (n)| = exp(2πiun/N ) (19)

u∈ZN s∈A∩(A+u)

X X

exp(2πiuφ(k)/N ) > c2 ε2 N 2 .

u∈ZN s∈E∩(E+k)∩(E+u)∩(E+k+u)

X X X

3 3 3

c ε N 6 exp(2πiuφ(k)/N )

k∈B u∈ZN s∈E∩(E+k)∩(E+u)∩(E+k+u)

X X X

= 1B (k) exp(2πiuφ(k)/N )

u∈ZN k∈ZN s∈E∩(E+k)∩(E+u)∩(E+k+u)

X X X

= 1E∩(E+u) (s)1E∩(E+u) (s − k)1B (k) exp(2πiuφ(k)/N )

u∈ZN k∈ZN s∈ZN

0-26

By Lemma 3.2, we have

X X X

3 3 3

c ε N 6 exp(2πiuφ(k)/N )

k∈B u∈ZN s∈E∩(E+k)∩(E+u)∩(E+k+u)

X

6 ||1E∩(E+u) ||2 ||1E∩(E+u) ||2 ||1B (·) exp(2πiuφ(·)/N )||A∞

u∈ZN

X

6N ||1B (·) exp(2πiuφ(·)/N )||A∞ .

u∈ZN

Hence, X

||1B (·) exp(2πiuφ(·)/N )||A∞ > c3 ε3 N 2 .

u∈ZN

0-27

Since

X

||1B (·) exp(2πiuφ(·)/N )||A∞ > c3 ε3 N 2

u∈ZN

X X

= max | ||1B (s) exp(2πiuφ(s)/N ) exp(2πims/N )|

m∈ZN

u∈ZN s∈ZN

X X

= max | 1Ω (s, t) exp(2πi(ut + ms)/N )|

m∈ZN

u∈ZN (s,t)∈ZN ×ZN

X

= max |1̂Ω (m, u)|,

m∈ZN

u∈ZN

we have X

sup |1̂Ω (m, u)| > c3 ε3 N 2 .

m∈ZN

u∈ZN

X

sup |1̂Ω (m, u)|4 > (cε)12 N 5

m∈ZN

u∈ZN

0-28

and hence X

|1̂Ω (m, u)|4 > (cε)12 N 5

u,m∈ZN

as desired.

With this lemma and use Balog -Szemerédi theorem which asserts

that we can find a subset Ω0 ⊂ Ω with |Ω0 | > cε N and

|Ω0 + Ω0 | 6 Cε N.

finite set of integers and if ]{(ai , aj , ak , al ) ∈ A4 |ai +aj = ak +al } > cN 3 ,

then there are positive integers c1 and c2 and a subset A0 ⊂ A such that

|A0 | > c1 N and |A0 + A0 | 6 c2 N .

Apply Freiman’s theorem to conclude that Ω0 is contained in a proper

multi-dimensional ZN ×ZN arithmetic progression P1 +P2 +· · ·+Pd = Q

0-29

of dimension dε 1 and cardinality at most Cε0 N . Assume |P1 | > |Pi |

for all 1 6 i 6 d.

Claim that there exists a ∈ ZN × ZN such that

or else, we have

X

|Ω ∩ Q| 6 |(a + P1 ) ∩ Q|

a∈P2 +···+Pd

X

6 cε Cε0−1 |P1 |

a∈P2 +···+Pd

6 cε Cε0−1 Cε0 N

= cε N.

is a contradiction. Fix such a a, since Ω is a graph, a + P1 can not be a

0-30

vertical line segment, hence there exists a ZN arithmetic progression P0

1

of length N ε , and

d

X

|1̂E∩(E+k) (φ(k))|2

k∈P0

X

= |1̂E∩(E+k) (λk + µ)|2

k∈P0

>c2 ε2 N 2 |P0 |

contradict to Lemma 3.10.

We have already shown (5) , all the remains is to prove lemma 3.10.

Proof of lemma 3.10: In the case λ 6= 0. From (19) and rewrite

the left hand side of (17) as

X X X

exp(2πiu(λk + µ)/N ).

k∈P u∈ZN s∈E∩(E+k)∩(E+u)∩(E+k+u)

X 1 X X

f (u) = f (u + l),

|P |

u∈ZN u∈ZN l∈P

0-31

X X X X X

[ f (u + l) = f (k) 1 = |P | f (k)]

u∈ZN l∈P k∈ZN u∈k−P k∈ZN

we get

X

|1̂E∩(E+k) (λk + µ)|2

k∈P

1 X X X X

= exp(2πi(u + l)(λk + µ)/N )

|P |

k∈P u∈ZN l∈P s∈E∩(E+k)∩(E+u+l)∩(E+k+u+l)

1 X X XX

= 1E+k (s)1E+u+l (s)1E+k+u+l (s) exp(2πi(u + l)(λk + µ)/N

|P |

s∈E u∈ZN k∈P l∈P

1 X X X X

= 1(s−E)∩P (k)1(s−u−E)∩P (l)1(s−u−E)∩(P +P ) (k + l) exp(2

|P |

s∈E u∈ZN k∈ZN l∈ZN

1 X X

6 | f1,s (k)f2,s−u (l)f3,s−u (k + l)|

|P |

s∈E,u∈ZN k∈ZN ,l∈ZN

1 X

6 ||f1,s ||A∞ ||f2,s−u ||2 ||f3,s−u ||2 ,

|P |

s∈E,u∈ZN

0-32

where

f1,s (k) = 1(s−E)∩P (k) exp(2πiφ1 (k)/N ),

Since X

||f2,s−u ||22 =| exp(4πiφ2 (l)/N )| 6 |P |

l∈P ∩(s−u−E)

and

||f3,s−u ||22 6 |P + P | 6 2|P |

0-33

we get

X

2 1 X X X

|1̂E∩E+k (λk + µ)| . |P |||f1,s ||A∞ = N ||f1,s ||A∞ .

|P |

k∈P s∈E u∈ZN s∈E

It suffices to show X

||f1,s ||A∞ = O(εN |P |).

s∈E

From proposition 3.5, we see

X

||f1,s ||A∞

s∈E

X X

= | f1,s (m) exp(2πimn(s)/N )|

s∈E m∈ZN

X X

6 | exp(2πi(φ1 (m) + mn(s))/N )|

s∈ZN m∈(s−E)∩P

X X

= | exp(2πi(φ1 (s − j) + (s − j)n(s))/N )|

s∈ZN j∈(s−P )∩E

=O(εN |P |)

0-34

since φ1 (s − ·) + (s − ·)n(s) is a non-constant quadratic function for every

s.

In the case λ = 0 and µ 6= 0, By a rescaling, we may assume that

the progression P = [0, r). It then suffices to show that

X m

ψ( )|1̂E∩(E+m) (µ)|2 = O(εN 2 r)

r

m∈ZN

for some suitable real even bump function ψ. We can rewrite the left

hand side as

1 X r(n − n0 )

2

rψ̂( )1̂E (n)1̂E (µ − n)1̂E (n0 )1̂E (µ − n0 )

N 0

N

n,n ∈ZN

1̂E (n0 )1̂E (µ − n0 ) = O(εN 2 )

and so it suffices to show that

X r(n − n0 )

|ψ̂( )||1̂E (n)||1̂E (µ − n)| = O(N 2 )

0

N

n,n ∈ZN

0-35

But this follows from Schur’s test, Plancherel, and the rapid decay of ψ̂.

0-36

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