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Outline

The fundamental equations of fluid dynamics The continuity equation (principle of conservation of mass) The energy equation (Bernoulli equation) Application of the energy equation

Objectives

Derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation Use of the Bernoulli Equation Introduce the momentum equation for a fluid Demonstrate how the momentum equation and principle of conservation of momentum is used to predict forces induced by flowing fluids

kinetic energy

1 1 2 2 Kinetic energy , KE = mV = V 2 2

1 2 2 1 2 2 2

KE mV V V = = = Weight g 2g

Potential energy Due to gravity

P.E = mgh = gh

P.E. P.E gh = = =h Weight W gh

Pressure head Fluids have energy in the form of pressure.

From

Deriviation of Bernoulli equation Pressure forces:

upstream end downstream end +pdA -(p+dp)dA

dG cos a = gdAds cos a = gdAds dz = gdAdz ds

pdA

F = ma

( p + dp ) dA gdAdz

= dAds

du dt

du du ds du d u2 = =u = ( ) dt ds dt ds ds 2

pdA ( p + dp ) dA gdAdz = dAds du dt

d p u2 (z + + )=0 ds g 2 g

p u2 z+ + =C g 2 g

Bernoulli Equation

p u2 + z + = C 2g g

p g

= Pressure head

Elevation head

z= 2 u = Velocity head 2g

p g

+ z =

p u2 + z + = g 2g

Total head

It is often convenient to plot mechanical energy graphically using heights. Hydraulic Grade Line P HGL = + z g Energy Line (or total energy)

Fig Energy Grade Line (EGL) and Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) for an one-dimensional flow

p u2 ( + z + ) g 2g

p + z

()

2 p1 u12 p2 u 2 z1 + + = z2 + + g 2 g g 2 g

Eliminate

Bernoulli

Three selections of steps for solving problems and one solving-method . 1.Selecting the datum plane. 2.Selecting computation cross sections: It should be the cross-section in uniform or gradually varied flows with variables already known as many as possible. 3.Selecting the computed point : For the tube flow, it is usually on the tube axis; while for the open channel flow, it is usually on the free surface. 4.Listing the energy equation and solving the problem.

Reservoir (V = 0)

Put one point on the surface, one point anywhere else

z Pressure datum

1 2

p u2 +z + =C 2g g

Elevation datum

p2 p 1 +z1 = +z2 g gp

z1 z 2 =

V2 z g + z + 2g = C p

V2 2g

g

z

Real fluid steady total flow energy equation ( per unit weight fluid ) In which, zspecific elevation energy elevation head specific pressure energy pressure head, piezometric weight ) 2

v

2g

z+ p g

p g

specific kinetic energy velocity head) specific potential energy piezometric head) total specific energy total head

p v 2 H = z+ + g 2 g

We have assumed in the derivation of Bernoulli equation that the velocity at the end sections (1) and (2) is uniform. But in a practical situation this may not be the case and the velocity can very across the cross section. A remedy is to use a correction factor for the kinetic energy term in the equation.

= u dA / V A

3 3

1v12

2g

v

2g

hw

2v22

2g

p1

p2 2

z1 1 0

z 2

z2 0

1v12

2g 1

hw

Total head line

Water surface

Piezometric head line

2v22

2g 2

v1 z1 1

v2 2

z2

Summary

That energy can be converted between pressure, elevation, and velocity That we can understand many simple flows by applying the Bernoulli equation

However, the Bernoulli equation can not be applied to flows where viscosity is large or where mechanical energy is converted into thermal energy.

Question

A diffuse pipe locates horizontally, as is shown in the figure. If the head loss is neglected, then the character of the pressures exerting on the crosssection's center is:

A. p1>p2 C. p1<p2

B. p1=p2 D. uncertain.

Stagnation tube Pitot tube Free Jets Orifice Venturi Sluice gate Sharp-crested weir

Pitot Tubes

Can connect a differential pressure transducer to directly measure V2/2g Can be used to measure the flow of water in pipelines

Point measurement!

Pitot Tubes

Static pressure tube

H. De Pitot (1675-1771)

2 B

2g

pB pA = g g

p A = g ( H 0 + h)

p B = gH 0

B =

2

( p A p B ) = 2 gh

Given: Water 20oC, V1=2 m/s, p1=150 kPa, D=6 cm, d=3 cm Find: p2 and p3 Solution: Continuity Eq. D d

2 1

2

V1 A1 = V2 A2 A D V2 = V1 1 = V1 A2 d

Bernoulli Eq.

p1 V2 p V2 + z1 + 1 = 2 + z2 + 2 2g 2g

Similarly for 2 3, or 1 3

p2 = p1 + = p1 +

p3 = 150 kPa

Pressure drop is fully recovered, since we assumed no frictional losses Knowing the pressure drop 1 2 and d/D, we can calculate the velocity and flow rate

V2 = 2( p1 p2 )

2 (V12 V2 )

[1 (D / d )4 ]V12

= 150,000 +

[1 (d / D )4 ]

Example

Given: Velocity in outlet pipe from reservoir is 6 m/s and h = 15 m. Find: Pressure at A. Solution: Bernoulli equation

p1 V12 p A VA2 + z1 + = + zA + 2g 2g 0 pA VA2 +h+ = +0+ 2g 2g 0 18 VA2 ) p A = (h ) = 9800(15 2g 9.81 p A = 129.0 kPa

Point 1

Point A

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