ABSTRACT

The aim of home automation is to control home devices from a central control point. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a low cost but yet flexile and secure radio frequency based home automation system. The communication between the remote and devices is wireless. RF transmission is robust, reliable and can be used up to 100mtrs. It uses the RF transmitter/receiver which operates a 434 Mhz and comprises of a pair of encoder/decoder. The proposed work has been done experimentally and has been verified in real time.

INTRODUCTION
Automation is today’s fact, where more things are being completed every day automatically, usually the basic tasks of turning on or off certain devices and beyond, either remotely or in close proximity. The control of the devices when completely taken over by the machines, the process of monitoring and reporting becomes more important. There are clearly many benefits to home automation. The first is greater comfort and convenience especially for old and disabled. A second is improved safety and security. A third is a high level of control over operating costs (e.g., energy conservation). The remote control technologies have been used in the fields like factory automation, space exploration, in places where human access is difficult. With the development of low cost electronic components home automation migrated from being an industrial application to home automation. The home automation, our point of concern deals with the control of home appliances. In this project we introduced a low cost, flexible, wireless solution to the home automation. The novel approach in this paper discusses the migration of the initial control mechanism of devices with simple functionality. The basic aim of this project is to control the electrical appliances through a remote control using RF module. This RF module comprises of an RF Transmitter and an RF Receiver. The transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operates at a frequency of 434 MHz. An RF transmitter receives serial data and transmits it wirelessly through RF through its antenna. The transmitted data is received by an RF receiver operating at the same frequency as that of the transmitter. The RF module is used along with a pair of encoder/decoder. The encoder is used for encoding parallel data for transmission feed while reception is decoded by a decoder. The Power Unit powers up the entire circuit, it contains both AC and DC modes of power i.e. if one of them fails then

By 2050. Market researches claim that most of the homes will be equipped with home automation systems in the very near future. 650 million people live with disabilities around the world 3. According to the World Health Organization. the home automation market in India is growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 30 per cent. flip flops. According to market observers.the other one can compensate. This paper demonstrates how technology and products that have been developed for the broad consumer market can provide great benefits for people who have functional limitations by improving convenience. A step down transformer which steps down 220V AC to 12V AC.The control unit controls all the appliances and to reduce the cost of the whole system we have eliminated the microcontroller and instead have used 4x16 Decoders. The most recent survey on smart homes was written by Chan and describes a general overview of smart home research 1. approximately 20% of th e world’s population will be at least 60 years old 2. quality of life and independence. . resulting in lower cost and weight.A bridge rectifier for conversion of an alternating current (AC) input into direct current a (DC) output which provides full-wave rectification from a two-wire AC input. The 7805 Voltage regulator is used which stabilize the DC voltages used . safety. This growth is mainly driven by the consumer's desire for an up gradation of their lifestyle. Decimal counters and transistors. security.

This modulation technique is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). The transmitter contains the remote. and food preparation appliances. decoder. The basic system includes the transmitter and the receiver. window coverings. our emphasis is on lighting using radio frequency.HOME AUTOMATION USING RF Home automation is the use of one or more logic to control basic home functions and features automatically. encoder IC. 1. It includes the scheduling and automatic operation of water sprinkling. Complete System Deployment Diagram . security systems. RF transmitter and antenna. lighting. In this RF system the digital data is represented as variation in amplitude of carrier wave. heating and air conditioning. Here. The complete system deployment diagram is shown in fig. power source. relay and the appliances which have to be controlled . The receiver contains the receiver.

 We use one encoder ic for data transmission. data is to be transmitting by the radio frequency module. as the name suggests.  All the switches are connected to the encoder. . uses radio frequency to send signals. Decoder deliver the data into 4 bit and we use further control circuit to switch on/off.  As the switch is pressed.  This circuit utilizes the RF module (Tx/Rx) for making a wireless remote. As we press the switch from transmitter end then immediate data is to be transmitting in the air.  In this project we use 433 Mhz modules for data transmission. Encoder ic get the data from the switch and transmit the data in serial by the RF transmitter. In the transmitter part we send the rf code by the transmitter by 4 switch’s and in the receiver we use four relay coil for electrical output. In the receiver circuit we use RF module to get the data and decoded by the decoder. In this project we use two circuits one is transmitter and second is receiver. which could be used to drive an output from a distant place.  These signals are transmitted at a particular frequency and a baud rate.  As we want to switch on any electrical appliances we press the switch of the transmitter.WORKING In this project we show that how we control electrical appliances with the help of WIRELESS REMOTE(Radio Frequency Module).  RF module. Data receive in air by the Radio frequency module and proceed to the electrical appliances circuit.

 A receiver can receive these signals only if it is configured for that frequency. RECEIVER .

TRANSMITTER .

 The input signals.  The transmitter module takes serial input and transmits these signals through RF.  This radio frequency (RF) transmission system employs Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) with transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operating at 434 MHz. .  The outputs from the receiver can drive corresponding relays connected to any household appliance. are taken through four switches while the outputs are monitored on a set of four LEDs corresponding to each input switch. at the transmitter side.

.  The RF module has been used in conjunction with a set of four channel encoder/decoder ICs. transmission and reception. namely. Here HT12E & HT12D have been used as encoder and decoder respectively. HT12 E is encoder ic and HT 12D is decoder ic We use 18 pin version of encoder and decoder ic. In this project we use 4 bit data base to show the basic concept of this project Easily available encoder and decoder’s are HT12 E and HT 12D.  The system allows one way communication between two nodes. The transmitted signals are received by the receiver module placed away from the source of transmission. this digital data base may be 16 bit or 32 bit.  In every card we use one encoder ic with digital data base.

Application Diagram of HT12E encoder The parallel signals generated at transmission end are first encoded (into serial format) by HT12E and then transferred through RF transmitter (434 MHz) at a .COMPONENT ANALYSIS Encoder (HT12E IC) HT12E is an encoder integrated circuit of 212 series of encoders. It is mainly used in interfacing RF circuits. They are paired with 212 series of decoders for use in remote control system applications.

baud rate of around 1-10 kbps. usually with the aid of an antenna. CONTROL UNIT The control unit controls generates binary code by using transistors. the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops. As soon as TE returns to high. The value of resistance R2 is 470 Kohm. . It converts 16 decimal inputs into 4 bit binary data which is fed into the encoder IC.4~12 V. It has a transmission enable pin which is active low and begins a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable. Data rates are more than 10k bps and the output power up to 10dBm [6]. This cycle is repeated as long as TE is kept low. propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio. It performs a low voltage operation down to 2. TRANSMITTER & ANTENNA The RF transmitter is an electronic device which. It uses a low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology whose operating voltage is 2.4. It is shown in fig. The transmitter and receiver are tuned at same frequency.2V.

The alternating . There are primary windings and secondary windings. A transformer consists of a core and two or more windings coupled electromagnetically.The antenna transmits the signal in the ultra-high frequency range which is received by the antenna of the receiver. It is shown below. When the primary winding is energized by sinusoidal voltage.It consists of primary and secondary windings. The winding in which in which energy is delivered is known as the primary winding while the winding to which energy is received is known as the secondary winding. An Ideal Transformer WORKING PRINCIPLE OF A TRANSFORMER A transformer works on the principle of mutual induction between two or more inductively coupled coil . It accomplishes this by electromagnetic induction and where the circuits are in mutual inductive influence of each other. The alternating current so produced in the primary winding set up an alternating magnetic flux in the core . an alternating current flows in the primary winding. TRANSFORMER A transformer is a static electromagnetic device that transfers an electrical power from one circuit to another without change of frequency.

or anode. The type of transformer used in this project is a step-down transformer.flux link up the secondary winding thereby inducing e. Secondary (rechargeable batteries) can be discharged and recharged multiple times.f in the secondary winding. Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded. the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work. the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices.m. Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium ion batteries used for portable electronics. Batteries come in many shapes and sizes. Each cell contains a positive terminal. BATTERY An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Electrolytes allow ions to move between the electrodes and terminals. and a negative terminal. from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers. . which steps the voltage from 220v to 12v. or cathode.

Each cell consists of two half-cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. then the net emf is . An ideal cell has negligible internal resistance. The net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells. in other words. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the negative electrode. Redox reactions power the battery. so it would maintain a constant terminal voltage of until exhausted. if the electrodes have emfs and . A separator allows ions to flow between half-cells. but prevents mixing of the electrolytes. determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. If such a cell .WORKING PRINCIPLE OF A BATTERY Batteries convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy. The electrical driving force or across the terminals of a cell is known as the terminal voltage (difference) and is measured in volts. then dropping to zero. Some cells use different electrolytes for each half-cell. Thus. the electrode to whichanions (negatively charged ions) migrate. Because of internal resistance. Each half-cell has an electromotive force (or emf). Cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode during charging. The electrodes do not touch each other.[14] the terminal voltage of a cell that is discharging is smaller in magnitude than the open-circuit voltage and the terminal voltage of a cell that is charging exceeds the open-circuit voltage. A battery consists of some number of voltaic cells. The terminal voltage of a cell that is neither charging nor discharging is called the open-circuit voltage and equals the emf of the cell. the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the positive electrode electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate. while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode during discharge. the net emf is the difference between the reduction potentials of the half-reactions.

It will then decode the serial signal into 4 bit binary data. The addressing can also be done on the decoder chip to increase the number of rooms to 256. The Receiver Box will get the signals from the remote control. the resulting graphs typically are a curve. With the help of this decimal system we can operate up to 24 or 16 electrical appliances in a room.5 joules of work. The binary data will be then converted into equivalent decimal form. the appliances which were ON remains ON .5 volts and stored a charge of one coulomb then on complete discharge it would perform 1. Symbol of battery RECEIVER The Receiver Box will be fitted into the normal switch board of the room and we can configure the line connections as fully automated or semi-automated. The Receiver Box also has an uninterruptible power system so that incase power fails the conditions of the respective appliances remains same i. the shape of the curve varies according to the chemistry and internal arrangement employed. the internal resistance increases under discharge and the open circuit voltage also decreases under discharge.e. If the voltage and resistance are plotted against time. In actual cells.maintained 1.

A signal on the DIN pin activates the oscillator which in turn decodes the incoming address and data. The RF receiver is shown in fig. the 12 -N bits of data are decoded to activate the output pins and the VT pin is set high to indicate a valid transmission. They are 212 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system.The output of the VT pin is high only when the transmission is valid.4V~12V. For proper operation. application which are paired with 212 series of encoder. The Operating voltage is 2. If the received address codes all match the contents of the decoder’s local address. where N is the address code number.. a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be chosen.9. and its application diagram is shown in fig. They interpret the first N bits of code period as addresses and the last 12-N bits as data. Fig. .and the appliances which were OFF remains OFF. This will last unless the address code is incorrect or no signal is received.. RF Receiver DECODER (HT12D IC) HT12D Decoder is used to decode the RF Signal. The decoders will then check the received address three times continuously.

Otherwise it is always low. passing data from one of the strobe inputs . are low. Decimal counters and transistors [9]. flip flops. The demultiplexing function is performed by using the 4 input lines to address the output line. G1 and G2. It utilizes TTL circuitry to decode four binarycoded inputs into one of sixteen mutually exclusive outputs when both the strobe inputs. The application diagram is shown in fig. The 24 pin 7474 IC is used as a 4X16 Decoder.. CONTROL UNIT It uses 4x16 Decoders. The value of resistance R3 is 33 Kohm.

Its connection Diagram is shown in fig. When the transistor switches on . The transistor does a second job. Toggle switch d flip flop using CD 4013 is used to toggle a relay or other load with a momentary push button. And this causes the relay to energize. It connects the negative side of the LED (light emitting diode) to ground which acts as an indicator.is while the output pins are in the process of changing state. Several push buttons can be wired in parallel to control the relay from multiple locations. The only time a significant current flows . The outputs are "complementary". . all outputs are high..it connects the negative side of the relay coil to ground.with the other strobe input low. When either strobe input is high. .

. It isolates AC from DC and also provides switching of AC from DC.RELAYS The appliances are connected to the relay unit.

ADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES  Ease of operability to the owner  Low cost  High level of security  Savings of the energy bills  Less consumption of time  Save life during fire  Highly efficient and flexible  Reliable  Provide comfort to elderly and disabled  All in one user-friendly system .

Security System  Garage Door and Car Door Controllers  Cordless telephone  Other Remote Control System  Wireless security systems  Car Alarm systems  Remote controls. Fire Alarm. Car Alarm. Smoke Alarm.  Sensor reporting .APPLICATIONS  Burglar Alarm.

With microprocessor control however. the work becomes more flexible in order that all the work is done at once. entertainment. Home owners from different social strata have begun seriously contemplating the adoption of technology to ensure comfort. home automation is no longer a futuristic fantasy and just confined to the affluent class but a reality that is being associated with mainstream design as well and is slowly becoming a part of everyday life. energy. Today. and security.. . The novel approach in this paper discusses the migration of the initial control mechanism of devices with simple functionality using radio frequency. flexible. utility. In this paper we introduced a low cost. communication.g. home climate control systems can be programmed to meet precise preferences related to the time of day or the day of the week. This growth is mainly driven by the consumer's desire for an up gradation of their lifestyle. By combining all the types of work which are being done individually by home automation. the home automation market in India is growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 30 per cent. It saves time and money as it is pre-programmed to automatically do daily routine events. convenience and personal security. wireless solution to the home automation.CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE An automated home is convenient and cost-efficient. According to market observers. medical.Home automation has wide scope in the future. Future homes will be able to offer almost all required services e.

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