SUNRISE TELECOM ®

RxT GE
MAN-xxxx-001 Rev. A00

User’s Manual

www.sunrisetelecom.com

RxT GigE

Table Of Contents
1
Product Safety & Warnings..................................................................... 5
1.1 Product Safety................................................................................................................................................................5 1.2 Important Information................................................................................................................................................5 1.3 Warranty Information..................................................................................................................................................5 1.4 Warnings and Cautions...............................................................................................................................................5 1.5 EC Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ........................................................................5 1.6 Disclaimer........................................................................................................................................................................5 1.7 FCC Information............................................................................................................................................................6 1.8 Caution: Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation.............................................................................................6 1.9 Hardware Calibration..................................................................................................................................................6 1.10 Limited Warranty...........................................................................................................................................................7

2

Using the RxT............................................................................................ 8

2.1 The System Touchscreen............................................................................................................................................8 2.2 Status Bar ........................................................................................................................................................................8 2.3 RxT Tools...........................................................................................................................................................................9 2.4 RxT Software ..................................................................................................................................................................9 2.5 Hardware Notes ......................................................................................................................................................... 10 2.6 RxT - Ports & Connectors ....................................................................................................................................... 11 2.7 RxT - Front Buttons.................................................................................................................................................... 11 2.8 Module Exchange - Quick Swap........................................................................................................................... 12 2.9 External Storage......................................................................................................................................................... 12 2.10 USB Drive Notes.......................................................................................................................................................... 12 2.11 Sunrise Telecom Transceiver Part Numbers...................................................................................................... 13 2.12 RxT Test Modules’ Software Update.................................................................................................................... 13 2.13 Handling Optical Fiber ............................................................................................................................................ 14 2.14 Battery ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15 2.15 Product Registration and Calibration................................................................................................................. 19

3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

Working With Files ................................................................................ 20
Files - Setup Tab.......................................................................................................................................................... 20 Files - Results Tab....................................................................................................................................................... 20 Files - Reports Tab...................................................................................................................................................... 21 Files - realGate Profile Tab....................................................................................................................................... 21 Files - realGate Results Tab...................................................................................................................................... 21 Files - File Usage Tab................................................................................................................................................. 22 Files - Reports.............................................................................................................................................................. 22 Import/Export a File.................................................................................................................................................. 23

4
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

Throughput Test Mode.......................................................................... 24
Ethernet Connection................................................................................................................................................ 24 Ethernet Throughput Applications .................................................................................................................... 25 Ethernet Port Configuration.................................................................................................................................. 26 Capture MAC Setup................................................................................................................................................... 27 Capture IP Setup........................................................................................................................................................ 27 Capture Error Setup.................................................................................................................................................. 27 Capture VLAN Setup................................................................................................................................................. 27 Capture Length Setup.............................................................................................................................................. 28

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4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 Throughput Test Profile........................................................................................................................................... 28 Throughput Test Setup............................................................................................................................................ 28 Stream Table Setup................................................................................................................................................... 29 Stream Auto Fill ......................................................................................................................................................... 30 Stream MAC Setup.................................................................................................................................................... 30 Stream Frame Setup ................................................................................................................................................ 31 Stream MAC Setup.................................................................................................................................................... 32 Stream IP Setup ......................................................................................................................................................... 33 Stream MPLS Setup .................................................................................................................................................. 35 Stream VLAN Setup .................................................................................................................................................. 36 Stream Payload Setup.............................................................................................................................................. 37 Stream TCP Setup ..................................................................................................................................................... 38 Stream UDP Setup .................................................................................................................................................... 38 Stream TPID/BERT ID Setup ................................................................................................................................... 38 Traffic Shape Constant Setup................................................................................................................................ 39 Traffic Shape Burst Setup ....................................................................................................................................... 39 Traffic Shape Ramp Setup....................................................................................................................................... 40 Summary Results....................................................................................................................................................... 41 Aggregate Results ..................................................................................................................................................... 43 Thoughput Stream Results..................................................................................................................................... 44 Error Injection ............................................................................................................................................................ 46 Test Patterns................................................................................................................................................................. 47 Sunrise Tags Notes..................................................................................................................................................... 48

5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17

RFC-2544 Test Mode.............................................................................. 49
RFC2544 Test Profile.................................................................................................................................................. 49 RFC2544 Test Setup Mode ..................................................................................................................................... 49 RFC2544 NE Stress Test............................................................................................................................................ 50 RFC2544 Test Notes .................................................................................................................................................. 51 RFC2544 Test Types................................................................................................................................................... 51 RFC2544 Applications.............................................................................................................................................. 52 RFC2544 Throughput Application ...................................................................................................................... 53 RFC2544 Frame Size Setup..................................................................................................................................... 54 RFC-2544 Frame Loss & Back to Back Setup..................................................................................................... 55 RFC-2544 PDV Setup................................................................................................................................................. 56 RFC2544 Throughput Latency Setup.................................................................................................................. 56 RFC2544 Summary Results..................................................................................................................................... 57 RFC2544 Throughput Latency Results............................................................................................................... 58 RFC2544 Throughput Chart Results.................................................................................................................... 58 RFC2544 Back-to-Back Table Results................................................................................................................... 58 RFC2544 Frame Loss Table Results .................................................................................................................... 58 RFC2544 Frame Loss Chart Results...................................................................................................................... 59

6
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

Advanced IP Test Mode.......................................................................... 60
Advanced IP Test Profile........................................................................................................................................... 60 Advanced IP Test Setup........................................................................................................................................... 60 IP Address Setup........................................................................................................................................................ 61 Test Ping Setup........................................................................................................................................................... 61 Echo Results................................................................................................................................................................. 62 Test Traceroute Setup............................................................................................................................................... 63 VLAN Setup.................................................................................................................................................................. 63

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RxT GigE
6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 ARP Scan Setup........................................................................................................................................................... 64 Test FTP Setup............................................................................................................................................................. 64 FTP Setup...................................................................................................................................................................... 65 FTP Web Results.......................................................................................................................................................... 66 IP Advanced HTTP Setup......................................................................................................................................... 67 HTTP Setup................................................................................................................................................................... 67 IP Summary Results................................................................................................................................................... 68 IP Aggregate Results................................................................................................................................................. 69

7
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.22 8.23

Loopback Test Mode.............................................................................. 72
Loopback Test Profile................................................................................................................................................ 72 Configure a Loopback Test..................................................................................................................................... 72 Loopback Diagram.................................................................................................................................................... 73 Loopback Responder................................................................................................................................................ 73 Loop Control Setup................................................................................................................................................... 74 Ethernet Settings....................................................................................................................................................... 74 Technology: Ethernet Overview........................................................................................................................... 76 Technology: Ethernet Standards.......................................................................................................................... 77 Technology: Ethernet Frames................................................................................................................................ 78 Technology: IP Overview......................................................................................................................................... 80 Technology: Ethernet Frame Size and Efficiency ........................................................................................... 82 Technology: Frame Size Details............................................................................................................................ 82 Technology: Frame Interval ................................................................................................................................... 82 Technology: Ethernet Optical Line Encoding ................................................................................................. 83 Technology: MAC Addresses ................................................................................................................................. 84 Technology: Ethernet Inter-Frame Gap............................................................................................................. 85 Technology: MPLS .................................................................................................................................................... 85 Technology: Multicast Frames .............................................................................................................................. 86 Technology: Unicast/Multicast Testing Note................................................................................................... 86 Technology: Undersized Frames ........................................................................................................................ 86 Technology: Gaussian Frame Probability.......................................................................................................... 87 Technology: VLAN Tagging ................................................................................................................................... 87 Technology: Ethernet Frame Size and Efficiency ........................................................................................... 89 Technology: Frame Size Details............................................................................................................................ 89 Technology: Frame Interval ................................................................................................................................... 89 Technology: Ethernet Optical Line Encoding ................................................................................................. 90 Technology: MAC Addresses ................................................................................................................................. 90 Technology: Ethernet Inter-Frame Gap............................................................................................................. 91 Technology: MPLS .................................................................................................................................................... 91

8 Technology............................................................................................. 76

Glossary.......................................................................................................... 93 Index............................................................................................................... 97

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User’s Manual

1

Product Safety & Warnings
Always follow the basic precautions listed below to avoid the possibility of serious injury or death from electrical shock, short circuit or other hazards.

1.1 Product Safety

1.2 Important Information
The RxT provides not only sophisticated technical specifications, but easy to use applications for the verification, turn-up, and hand-off of Ethernet services. Use RxT in conjunction with another test set or loopback device (such as the Metro Responder), to qualify network performance and verify quality of service per ITU and MEF standards and service level agreements.

1.3 Warranty Information
Complete the Warranty Registration Card and return it immediately to Sunrise Telecom. Sunrise Telecom Incorporated must receive your warranty registration information either online or by the enclosed card in order to provide you with updated software releases.

1.4 Warnings and Cautions
Using the supplied equipment in a manner not specified by Sunrise Telecom may impair the protection provided by the equipment. This is a Class 1 LASER product. Avoid looking directly at the Transmitter source. For added safety, turn off the laser when not in use. DO NOT dispose of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) as unsorted municipal waste. For proper disposal return the product to Sunrise Telecom. Please contact our local offices or service centers for information on how to arrange the return and recycling of any of our products.

1.5 EC Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive aims to minimize the impact of the disposal of electrical and electronic equipment on the environment. It encourages and sets criteria for the collection, treatment, recycling, recovery, and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

1.6 Disclaimer
Contents of this help system are subject to change without notice and are not guaranteed for accuracy

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RxT GigE

1.7 FCC Information
FCC ID: UEBXT5000 This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense. Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.

1.8 Caution: Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation
To comply with FCC RF exposure compliance requirements, this device must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EN61000-4-2) The instrument bears the CE mark and complies with all requirements described in EN61326-1 and an EU EMC Conformity Assessment relating to ESD Immunity, Criterion C when used in industrial environment. However the ESD environment installation should always be evaluated prior to the operation of the instrument. The risks of use in uncontrolled ESD environments should be understood and acceded to Operator’s responsibility to ensure that an ESD environment for the instrument is maintained, so that the instrument performs as intended. Do not operate the instrument in close proximity to sources of strong ESD environment this may interfere with the proper function of the instrument and may also lead to incorrect results.

1.9 Hardware Calibration
Under normal usage, the RxT does not require calibration. However, the optical power measurement on the optical module should be checked every 12 months. Perform a level measurement with a hard loop at the optical transceiver module. If the level measured falls outside the transmit level limits of the transceiver module, even after performing an optical connector cleaning, then the optical module may need to be replaced. Contact Sunrise Telecom Customer Service for technical assistance, or contact your local Sunrise Telecom sales representative or authorized distributor to purchase a replacement transceiver module.

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1.10 Limited Warranty
SUNRISE TELECOM INCORPORATED WARRANTS ITS BATTERY PRODUCTS TO BE FREE FROM DEFECTS IN MATERIAL AND WORKMANSHIP, UNDER NORMAL USE AND IF PROPERLY INSTALLED, FOR A PERIOD OF ONE YEAR FROM DATE OF PURCHASE. Notice: The information presented in this document is generally descriptive only and it is not intended to make or imply any representation, guarantee or warranty with respect battery packs. Please refer to individual product manuals and data sheets for specific information. This document is subject to change without notice. Contact Sunrise Telecom for the latest information

Express Limited Warranty
This Sunrise Telecom product is warranted against defects in materials and workmanship during its warranty period. The warranty period for this product is contained in the warranty page on http://www. sunrisetelecom.com. Sunrise Telecom agrees to repair or replace any assembly or component found to be defective under normal use during this period. The obligation under this warranty is limited solely to repairing or replacing the product that proves to be defective within the scope of the warranty when returned to the factory. This warranty does not apply under certain conditions, as set forth on the warranty page on http://www. sunrisetelecom.com. Please refer to the website for specific details. THIS IS A LIMITED WARRANTY AND THE ONLY WARRANTY MADE BY SUNRISE TELECOM. SUNRISE TELECOM MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTY, REPRESENTATION OR CONDITION, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

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RxT GigE

2

Using the RxT
RxT is a touch-screen unit. Use your finger or the stylus to make selections. The status bar is the double black row at the top of the screen; it provides system information. The Action Bar of buttons at the left of the screen gives access to many functions. Here is an overview on using the touchscreen: »» Select a button once to activate the function, »» Select a button twice to access configuration screens. »» Available buttons will be light grey with yellow text. Active selections are orange with black text. »» Select START to begin taking measurements. »» Select STOP to stop taking measurments. »» Select TEST RESULTS view the results of the test in the results screen. »» Select TEST PROFILES to select a new test mode from the menu. »» Select TEST SETUP to configure the test.

2.1 The System Touchscreen

2.2 Status Bar
Item Description
Soft virtual LEDs show the logical and physical state of the selected port. Module Status Panel: Get module data, such as the port, test mode, transmission, and alarm generation status. System Status Panel: Get system-related information, including the battery charge status, and the ? button, which is used to access this Help system. Select ? again to exit Help

Action Bar
Use the action bar on the RxT to preform the following functions

Item
Start Stop Laser

Description
Starts test Stops test Activate the laser for testing. Turn the laser off for safety. The two SFP ports are connected; if the laser is off on one port, it’s off on the other. Both lasers must be on to use either one. Exception: Remove the SFP from the laser you don’t want to turn on. Configure/Inject errors in the payload. Start capturing packets. L2 Loop: Access Loopback Control Flow: Transmits a flow control (pause) frame, according to parameters set on the active port. LED Reset: Clears LEDs of historical data. Flow: Zero all results statistics, according to parameters set on the active port. Start or Stop transmitting data, if Start TX Coupled is not checked on Measurement Setup.

Error Inj Capture Control

Reset TX Start TX Stop

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Test Features Bar
The Test Features Bar is located at the bottom of the screen.

Item
Test Modes Test Results View Test Records Test Features Tests/Ports Tools

Description
Select test type: Ethernet, IntelliSAM, etc. View the measurements screens. In measurement screens, it appears as Test Setup. Work with saved files; measurement results, reports, captured packets, test profiles. Access features specific to the test setup. Choose the test port; view/select/quickly access the tests and results for each port, and summary ports and tests. Access test tools: realGate Setup, System Status, Software Options, System Upgrade, Set Operation Mode

RxT Software Notes
Select Alt+F6 to move between the RxT screens. »» System: Access RxT system information and setups. »» Brightness Control: Set the screen brightness on the LCD Control popup window. »» Regional Setup: Enter the current Date, Time, and select your Time Zone and language on the pop up window. »» Network Setup: Enter the local settings; these settings apply to RxT itself, NOT the test ports. Proceed carefully-changing these settings may cause the module to lose connection with the system.

2.3 RxT Tools
»» Software Option »» Software Upgrade »» Calibrate Touchscreen: Recalibrate the touch screen if screen response seems off. Touch each ‘x’. »» System Administrator »» System Status »» Wireless Network Setup »» GPS & Location Tags »» Package Recovery: Recover and continue the upgrade; use, for example, if power was lost while performing an upgrade. Choose to upgrade the Platform, or the test Module.

2.4 RxT Software
»» Web Browser »» PDF Viewer »» Calculator »» File Manager - Nautilus File Manager. »» Mail & Calendar - Evolution Mail Client »» KMPlayer: Media player. »» Text Editor: Open a text editor. »» Power: Shut down (power off) or Reboot (restart) RxT. »» Eject USB Drive/2: Safely eject a USB memory drive at USB1 or USB2. See the USB notes. Note : External memory devices must be ejected properly, using the appropriate button, in order to safeguard your data. Failure to eject a drive properly may result in lost data.

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RxT GigE

2.5 Hardware Notes
RxT is a touch screen test set; use your finger or a stylus to make selections. However, you may find attaching and using a mouse is fastest. Plug the power cord in on the left side, and select and release the top round button to turn the unit on (or off).

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2.6 RxT - Ports & Connectors
Port
USB 2.0 Ethernet Stylus Microphone

Details
x2 USB 2.0 Host x1 USB 2.0 Client x1 Built in Ethernet port. x1 Stylus x1

Description
Use to connect USB Hard Drives or Flash Drives.

Use with RxT touch interface.

The top connector panel holds the test ports and a USB 2.0 host port. Small form-factor pluggable (SFP) are hot-swappable. Handle the bale carefully, and avoid touching the end of the connector. See Handling Optical Fiber. The two SFP ports are connected; if the laser is off on one port, it’s off on the other. Both lasers must be on to use either one. Exception: Remove the SFP from the laser you don’t want to turn on.

2.7 RxT - Front Buttons
Power
»» Normal Power ON: Press the power button briefly, and the unit powers on. The power LED on the top left will turn on to indicate that the RxT is ON. Normal shut down: Press and release the power button. Select Shut Down from the menu which pops up (also includes Restart and Recovery). Please wait until the power LED turns off before removing the module or battery and before storing the RxT in its carrying case. »» Note: Only use the system recovery function when instructed by a Customer Support representative. This function is used to recover the system in the event of an accidental file corruption. »» Forced Shut Down: Press and hold the power button for several seconds to Force a hard emergency shut down. »» Warning: Only use this method when instructed by a Customer Support representative, in emergency situations (for example if the RxT is being subject to hazardous environmental conditions, like accidentally getting wet, or in the event that the RxT becomes unresponsive). »» Note: Performing a hard shut down could cause loss of information and file corruption, requiring system recovery. »» Emergency Shut Down: In the event that the RxT reaches critical temperature levels (e.g. blocked vents or accidentally left on in confined containers) the system will notify the user of the high temperature condition; if no action is taken to improve ventilation the RxT would initiate an automated emergency shut down procedure for safety and to prevent any damage to the hardware.

Directional Pad
»» Use the up, down and left and right arrowhead buttons on the right side of the chassis to move around in the screens. For example, to scroll up and down in results screens. They do not increase/ decrease numeric values.

Escape
»» Go back one screen.

Alt
»» The ALT key is used to preform alternative functions when pressed in combination with the F Keys.

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RxT GigE

Function Keys
Also known as F Keys »» F1: Increase system volume. »» F2: Decrease system volume. »» F3: Increase screen brightness. »» F4: Decrease screen brightness. »» F5: Access the on-screen keyboard. »» F6: Toggle between the RxT Platform, the RxT application, and any other open functions (e.g. the File Manager). »» ALT+Function Keys; press one to activate the function on the screen button directly above it. Used with the blue Alt key for system functions (see Alt above)

2.8 Module Exchange - Quick Swap
To remove a module, simply press the module release button on the back of the chassis, then gently pull the module straight up and out. Place a module into the chassis straight down, gently, pressing it into place. Be sure to power the RxT off before swapping modules.

2.9 External Storage
If you are using external storage with the RxT (USB drive), and have written files to the external volume, you must cleanly dismount the volume from the RxT Platform before removing it, or the files may not be written safely to the external storage volume. See the USB notes. Use a desktop icon to safely remove hardware (eject the USB drive).

2.10 USB Drive Notes
USB drives, also known as thumb drives and USB sticks, etc., may be used with the RxT system. Plug them in a host USB slot (see the diagram). Several seconds after plugging a USB drive, a “Ready to use” message will appear (press OK).

To dismount a drive
1. On the system desktop, Select Eject USB Drive/Eject USB Drive 2. Or 2. In File Manager, select usbdrive under Places. 3. Select File > Unmount Volume.

USB Drive Tips
»» If you see a “Device not recognized” message upon inserting the USB drive, remove it and reinsert it. »» Make sure the drive is fully inserted into the port. »» Using a partitioned drive with RxT may lead to unexpected results. If so, use a freshly formatted drive.

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2.11 Sunrise Telecom Transceiver Part Numbers
STT-3822 STT-3823 STT-3824 STT-3801 SA580-850 SA580-1310 SA580-1550 SSMTT-28-FXM SSMTT-28-FXS

2.12 RxT Test Modules’ Software Update
Each module’s Test Application GUI needs to be updated independently. Test modules can be updated via Ethernet or USB Drive. »» If using LAN, connect the cable from the RxT to the Ethernet data outlet. »» If using USB Drive, connect external drive to one of the USB ports and wait for confirmation that it has been recognized and ready to use. Insert the test module that needs to be updated in the RxT Platform. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Turn the RxT on and wait for the Test Application Interface (module GUI) to display. Select Tools (F5) from the Test Application Interface Select Module Upgrade. Select Version List. Select the latest software version available. Select Reboot Verify that the AC/DC charger is plugged in (the battery icon on the top right of the screen would show an AC plug inside the icon). 8. Select Install. Note The unit will reboot when finished. Wi-Fi does not reconnect during the boot up process. Go to System > RxT Tools Wireless Network Setup to connect to an access point. LAN (DHCP) will not reconnect automatically if Ethernet cable is not plugged in during the boot up process. Select System > Network Setup to reconnect.

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RxT GigE

2.13 Handling Optical Fiber
In general, handle fiber patch cords and connectors carefully. Always replace dust covers. Keep the optical connectors clean, and make a practice of not looking into fiber ends. An optical fiber is a strand of glass about the same diameter as a human hair. Though it is remarkably durable, careful handling is required to ensure continued high performance and long life. »» Do not pull or kink patch cords, as the glass strand in the middle might become damaged or broken. »» A sharp bend will cause excessive signal loss. »» Keep patch cord bend radiuses no less than an inch. »» Use specialized optical cable raceways and plenums whenever they are available. »» Don’t use tie wraps as you would with electrical cables. Tie wraps will put strain on the fiber. The next figure shows the proper method of wrapping and securing fiber patch cords.

SC LC Fiber Optic Cable

Duplex Fiber Optic Cable

There are several types of optical connectors in use today. This figure shows the two most popular for Ethernet, SC and LC.

Duplex LC Cable
When using optical connectors, insert or remove the ferrule straight into the sleeve. Minimize wiggling the connector as this may loosen the tight fit that is required for the ferrule and sleeve. For SC connectors, orient the prominent key on the connector body with the slot in bulkhead adapter. Push the connector in until it clicks. To remove, pinch the connector body between your thumb and finger, and gently pull straight out. LC connectors evolved from the basic RJ-45 connector design, and are placed on and removed in the same fashion as an RJ-45. Simply push the rear prongs together to release the connector. Listen for the click when you seat the connector.

Cleaning Optical Fiber
Fiber optic connectors must be kept clean to ensure long life of the connectors and to minimize transmission loss at the connection point.

Precautions
When not in use, always replace dust covers and caps to prevent deposits and films from airborne particles. A single dust particle caught between two connectors will cause significant signal loss. Dust particles can scratch the polished fiber end, resulting in permanent damage. Do not touch the connector end or the ferrules, since this will leave an oily deposit from your fingers. Do not allow uncapped connectors to drop on the floor.

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How to Clean
Should a fiber connector become dirty or exhibit high loss, carefully clean the entire ferrule and end face. Special lint-free pads should be used with isopropyl alcohol. Even though not very accessible, the end face in a bulkhead adapter on test equipment can be cleaned by using a special lint-free swab, again with isopropyl alcohol. In extreme cases, a test unit may require more thorough cleaning at the factory. Cotton, paper, or solvents should never be used for cleaning since they may leave behind particles or residues. Use a fiber optic cleaning kit especially made for cleaning optical connectors, and follow the directions. Canned air can do more harm than good if not used properly. Again, follow the directions that come with the kit.

2.14 Battery
The battery charge status is represented by an icon in the Status Bar. The hardware battery icon reflects charging status; green-full charge, orange-charging, red-low power; the plug icon indicates the unit is plugged in and charging. The screen icon shows as green when the battery is fully charged, or connected to AC power. The green diminishes and red fills the icon as the available power decreases. When the battery is charging (note the plug icon within), the red will give way to green. When there is approximately 10% battery life remaining, you will see a warning message pop up to remind you to plug in the power adapter. At approximately 4% remaining power, RxT will pop up warning, save results for the test in progress, then shut down.

Battery Replacement
To replace the battery, remove the two screws at the bottom of the back battery cover. The screws will stay attached to the cover. Pull the battery pack out, then replace it with the new one. Replace the cover, and replace the screws, without overtightening.

Battery Care and Storage
Lithium Ion battery packs (also referred as Li-ion, secondary, or rechargeable) are small, compact, with high energy concentration, and ideal for providing long lasting power to portable test equipment in demanding applications. Li-ion battery packs contain Li-ion cells and battery monitoring & protection circuitry, both sealed in a plastic container or wrap that shall not be disassembled. For safety reasons these batteries packs and products containing them MUST be used, charged, and handled properly, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Improper use can result in product damage, electrolyte leaks, serious injury, and fire hazard. Sunrise Telecom’s Li-ion battery packs are tested and certified to UN38.3 and related safety regulations. Performance and life expectancy of batteries depend heavily on how battery packs are used. In order to ensure safety, be sure to carefully read and understand this document and to keep it handy. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact Sunrise Telecom Incorporated immediately at 1-800-701-5208 / 1-408-360-2200, support@sunrisetelecom.com or visit http://www.sunrisetelecom.com/support.

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Lithium-Ion Advantages
The biggest Li-Ion advantage batteries have is the improvements in cell voltage and capacity over nickel cadmium (NiCd) or nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. Li-Ion batteries are therefore said to have a much higher energy density compared with NiCd or NiMH batteries. Unlike NiCd or NiMH batteries, Li-Ion batteries have no memory effect. This translates into a more productive test set that can be used un-corded for longer periods or handle higher end applications, which are usually more demanding. »» Much lighter batteries, compared to the same capacity NiCd. »» No cadmium. As most people know, cadmium is highly toxic and is known to accumulate in biological systems, which is why NiCd batteries must be disposed of carefully and in the right places, following local regulations. Although there are many other technical advantages that make Li-Ion the current chemistry of choice for high-end portable equipment, much greater care is required for Li-Ion batteries. Fortunately, more precise equipment and monitoring systems are built-into these battery packs for performance and safety reasons. A more rigorous approach, plus a profound awareness of Li-Ions, is vital to the wellbeing and SAFETY of users, bystanders, equipment, and premises. It’s important to remember that, like other batteries, these batteries to will explode if abused!

General Warnings
»» Do not place the battery pack or cells on or near fires, heaters, other high temperature locations, or apply heat to the battery. »» Do not pierce the battery with any sharp objects, strike the battery with a hammer, tools, or heavy objects, step on the battery pack, or otherwise damage the outer casing. »» Do not subject the battery pack to strong impacts or shocks. »» Do not expose the battery to water or any other type of liquid, or allow the battery to get wet. »» Do not leave the battery in direct sunlight, and avoid storing spare battery packs inside cars in extreme hot weather. Doing so may cause the battery to generate heat, rupture, or ignite. Using the battery in this manner may also result in a loss of performance and a shortened life expectancy. When a battery becomes too hot, the built-in protection circuitry is activated, preventing the battery from charging further. Heating the battery can destroy the safety devices, and can cause additional heating, rupture or ignition of the battery cells. »» Never short-circuit, reverse polarity, disassemble, damage or heat the battery pack over 100°C (212°F). »» If an exposed lithium-ion battery does start a fire, it may burn even more violently if it comes into contact with water or even the moisture in the air. DO NOT THROW WATER ON A BURNING LI-ION BATTERY! A class C fire extinguisher must be used. »» Although most battery packs have protected (recessed) connectors, do not carry individual battery packs in your pockets as they could short-circuit against other metal items. »» In the case of a high-impact event to the test system or the battery pack (e.g. car crash or drop > 0.75m/30 in) you must carefully inspect the battery for damage and properly discard it if damaged. Always observe the battery carefully for at least 20 minutes after an impact. »» The pack may look fine but a perforation or damaged wire means the pack must be disposed of according to local regulation. Contact Sunrise Telecom if in doubt. »» Do not disassemble or modify the battery pack. The battery contains safety and protection devices which, if damaged, may cause the battery to generate heat, rupture or ignite. »» Any modification may damage the battery pack or cells and will invalidate any warranty claim. »» If you happen to get any electrolyte from the cells on your skin, wash thoroughly with soap and water. If in your eyes, do not rub. Rinse thoroughly with water and seek medical assistance. »» Keep battery packs away from untrained personnel and children!

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User’s Manual

Charging and Storing the Battery Pack
For safety reasons, rechargeable battery packs are not fully charged when they are shipped. Please read the following instructions carefully. New battery packs need to be fully charged and discharged up to five times before performing at full capacity. Always use the Sunrise Telecom’s charger that came with the device. Do not attempt to charge the battery pack by any other means. The portable instrument, its external chargers, and the battery pack itself continuously monitor the conditions of the cells for safety and maximum performance. Do not use the Sunrise Telecom’s Lithium Ion Charger on other lithium batteries or on any other type of battery – fire or explosion may occur. Never modify or repair the charger supplied. Never use a NiCd charger or any other charger to recharge the Li-ion battery pack as this is very dangerous. Never charge your Li-Ion battery pack near heat or flammable objects. The required charging time will depend upon the remaining charge level of the battery, and will vary from product to product. Charging the battery while the test set is being used will increase the charging time. Required charging time may also increase at lower temperatures. The temperature range over which the battery can be charged is typically 0°C to 45°C (32°F to 113°F). Therefore, charging efforts outside the prescribed temperature range may automatically be blocked by the protection circuitry of the battery pack. If a battery pack can not maintain charge for long periods, even when it is being charged correctly, this may indicate it is time to replace the battery. If the product or battery pack becomes too hot to the touch during charging, disconnect and switch off immediately. Contact Sunrise Telecom. Do not charge battery packs if the battery has expanded or swollen in size, or if the battery cells have been punctured, even if this is the first time the battery is going to be charged. Do not charge or use the battery if any mechanical damage has occurred. Do not continue charging the battery if it does not recharge within the specified charging time. Doing so may cause the battery to become hot, rupture, or ignite. Please consult the product’s manual and data sheet. Because batteries utilize a chemical reaction, battery performance will naturally deteriorate over time, even if stored for a long period without being used. In addition, if the various conditions such us charge, discharge, ambient temperature, etc. are not maintained within the specified ranges, the life expectancy of the battery may be shortened, or the device in which the battery is used may be damaged by electrolyte leakage. Storage: For long term storage, the battery pack should be stored at room temperature (around 20°C/68°F)), charged at about 30 to 50% of its capacity. We recommend that spare battery packs are charged and used at least once per year to prevent over-discharge. If you have spare (extra) battery packs, rotate the packs regularly, so they all stay active and avoid over-discharge. It is recommended to charge and use battery packs at least every three months. Battery packs shall not go without reconditioning (recharging) for more than six months. After extended storage battery packs may reach deep discharge state and/or enter into sleep mode. For safety reasons, Li-ion batteries in deep discharge state may take up to 24 hours to pre-recharge, before starting the regular fast charging cycle. Charging indicators (e.g. LEDs) may not turn on during the precharging state.

IATA Classification
Medium and large capacity Lithium-ion battery packs may be classified as Class 9 – Miscellaneous dangerous goods. Shipments of such products must be identified by a Class 9 label on the shipping package and may be considered restricted cargo in passenger aircrafts. Individual Li-ion battery packs must be declared as: UN 3480 for Lithium-ion batteries or battery packs being shipped alone. If they are contained inside a piece of equipment or packed along with a piece of equipment, they must be declared as: »» UN 3481 for Lithium-ion batteries contained in equipment »» UN 3481 for Lithium-ion batteries packed with equipment.

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Using Battery Packs
For the expected performance of each individual battery pack and test set, please refer to their specific manuals and data sheets. Sunrise Telecom battery packs shall only be used with the Sunrise Telecom product for which they were intended to be used. Follow the product’s low battery indication and warnings. Do not over discharge a Li-Ion battery pack. If the voltage does drop below specifications, and you can get your battery to take a charge, it may not give its full capacity and deterioration in performance will occur. This will invalidate all warranty claims. Do not discharge the battery pack using any device except for the specified test set it came with. The test set constantly monitors and controls the discharge rate to keep it within specifications. If used in devices aside from the specified devices, it may damage the performance of the battery pack, reduce its life expectancy, and if such device causes an abnormal current flow, it may cause the battery to become hot, rupture, or ignite, and could cause serious injuries. The temperature range over which the battery can be discharged is -10°C to 60°C (14°F to 140°F). Use of batteries at temperatures outside this range may damage the performance of the battery pack or may reduce its life expectancy. To avoid short circuits, make sure the battery pack’s contacts are not exposed when transported outside the intended device (e.g. spares). Every deep discharge cycle decreases their capacity. Battery life will be extended by proper storage, and by charging the pack at least once per year to prevent over discharge.

Battery Pack Disposal
Batteries must be recycled or disposed of properly. Follow local regulations and ordinances for the disposal batteries. Do not throw away the battery pack. Before disposing the battery pack or cells, insulate any exposed terminals with adhesive tape or similar material to prevent short circuits.

Shipping and Transportation (Air)
Air transportation of Li-ion batteries is regulated in several countries, and by United Nations through the International Air Transportation Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations, among others. Please check local regulations and with the common carrier before shipping Li-ion battery packs or products containing relatively large Li-ion battery packs. As of January 1, 2008, the US Department of Transportation (DOT) through the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) no longer allows loose lithium batteries in checked baggage. Sunrise Telecom’s Li-ion batteries are tested in accordance with specifications detailed in UN 3090 (UN manual of Tests and Criteria, Part III, subsection 38.3). This safety precaution safeguards against the shipment of defective battery packs. Do not ship or carry recalled or damaged batteries on an aircraft. Check battery information and instructions at Sunrise telecom’s website or contact Customer Support at 1 (800) 701- 5208 / +1 (408) 360-2200 or support@sunrisetelecom.com. If the original packaging is not available for shipping spare batteries, effectively insulate any exposed battery terminals by isolating the batteries from contact with other batteries and metal. Do not permit a loose battery to come in contact with any metal objects.

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Li-ion (Secondary) Battery Category Definition & Restrictions
Relative Capacity Capacity (W/h) Lithium Content (ELC) Small Medium <100 Wh 100 to 312 Wh <8g 8g to 25g UN38.3 Tested Yes Ground: Non-restricted Air: Non-restricted Yes Ground: Non-restricted Air: Fully-regulated Class 9 hazardous material Yes Ground: Fully-regulated Class 9 hazardous material Air: Fully-regulated Class 9 hazardous material Shipping Regulations

Large

>312 Wh

>25g

Note: Check with your carrier for any required forms, labels and local regulations. Li-ion battery pack capacity may be printed on the battery.

2.15 Product Registration and Calibration
Registration is a very important step in the ownership of your instrument. For warranty and safety purposes all Sunrise Telecom products must be registered by the owner and/or end user. Customers would not only benefit from service notes and safety notifications, but from access to a wide range of improvements (e.g. software updates, new features, new documentation, etc.). Please follow the registration instructions that came with your product. Registration is the sole responsibility of the end user and owner. Products must also be registered, and contact information must be updated, whenever the end user, responsible person, or contact information changes. Customer and end user shall follow the recommended calibration, verification and/or preventive maintenance cycles for each specific product, to keep it under warranty and assure safety. During these procedures the battery pack will be checked for any sign of degradation, leakage or any other possible defect that may affect safety. Refer to the specific manual and data sheet for the suggested maintenance period. Copy of this document shall be kept with the product at all times. Customer Service Contact Information SUNRISE TELECOM INCORPORATED 302 Enzo Dr., San Jose, CA 95138, USA E-mail: support@sunrisetelecom.com Tel.: +1 (800) 701-5208 / +1 (408) 360-2200 Web: http://www.sunrisetelecom.com/support

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3

Working With Files
Access saved files. »» Results Tab Work with saved View Files -Setup results files »» Reports Tab Work with previously generated .csv and .pdf results reports »» File Usage Tab View detailed memory/storage information on saved files. Note: Results, Captures, and Reports may be exported.

3.1 Files - Setup Tab

Setup Feature Buttons
Item
Save View Load Load Default Delete Rename Copy Import/Export Upload

Description
Saves the current test file. View configuration information. Load a selected file. Loads a default configuration. Deletes file. Renames file. Copies file. Import a file from an SD Card or USB Drive. Export a file to local storage or to SD Card or USB Drive. Uploads the configuration file to realGate.

3.2 Files - Results Tab
Highlight a file, then select View to look at its details. For each saved results file, view the file name, Application (test module; e.g.: Ethernet), and Test Mode (e.g. Throughput or RFC2544 for an Ethernet Application) in the header »» Summary Tab Shows a summary of the test. Contains information such as TX Utilization, Line Rate, Data Rate, Frame Rate and length of time that the test ran. »» Aggregate Tab Shows information such as Line Rate, Data Rate, Bit Error, FCS?CRC Errors, Collisions, etc. »» Streams Tab Shows information such as Line Rate, Data Rate, Bit Error, FCS?CRC Errors, Collisions, etc.

Results Feature Buttons

Item
View Delete Rename Copy Export Generate Report Upload

Description
View the selected result. Delete the selected result. Rename the selected result. Copy the selected result. Export the selected result. Creates a PDF report of the result file. Upload selected result to realGate.

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3.3 Files - Reports Tab
View a list of saved reports, with identifying information such as test type and creation date

Reports Feature Buttons.

Item
View Delete Rename Copy Export

Description
View a PDF of the selected report. Delete the highlighted report. Rename the highlighted report. Save a copy of the report. Export report for external use.

Note: If you are exporting a file with remote operation, a pdf viewer appears when the report has generated, showing the file you exported. Make sure to select Save to save the file for future use.

3.4 Files - realGate Profile Tab
Use the realGate Profile tab to download profiles from the realGate system. All files available for download are listed.

realGate Profile Buttons

Item
Save View Load Load Default Delete Rename Copy Import/Export Upload

Description
Saves the profile Displays the profile. Loads the profile to RxT Loads the default profile to RxT. Deletes the profile file. Renames the profile file. Copies the profile file. Imports or exports the profile. Upload the results.

Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

3.5 Files - realGate Results Tab
Use the realGate Results tabs to download results from the realGate system. The table below describes the functions available on the Results tab.

realGate Results Buttons

Item
View Delete Rename Copy Export Generates Report Upload

Description
Displays the results. Deletes the results. Renames the results file. Copies the results file. Exports the results file. Generates a report of the results. Uploads the results.

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3.6 Files - File Usage Tab
View detailed memory/storage information. »» View the Total storage available, in megabytes. »» View the amount of file storage currently in use, in MB. »» Views the remaining Available Storage, in MB.

Open a Saved File via the File Manager
1. To open a saved file via the RxT Platform. 2. Select Alt+F6 on the front of the chassis to switch to the system desktop. 3. Under Places, select File System. Touch View As above the display to choose View as List or View as Icons, as you prefer. 4. Open the Media folder. 5. Choose the location of your file; a USB drive. 6. Browse to the required file, and open it.

3.7 Files - Reports
View a list of saved reports, with identifying information such as test type and creation date.

Item
View Delete Rename Copy Export

Description
Open a saved file to review it. Delete the highlighted profile, or saved file Rename the highlighted file, Save a copy of the file under a new name. Export file for external use.

Note: If you are exporting a file with remote operation, a pdf viewer appears when the report has generated, showing the file you exported. Make sure to select Save to save the file for future use.

Files - Export
Export (save) the file in a new place.

Item
File Name File Size File Created

Description
Name of the file. Size of the report. Date the report was created.

Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

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3.8 Import/Export a File
Import
Import or export a profile you have previously used 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select Files - Setup > Import Export. Select the Import tab. Select Media, browse to the USB Flash Drive. Select the file exported file. Select Load to import the profile.

Export
To export a profile for future use 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select Files - Setup > Import Export. Select the Import tab. Select the profile to work with it; it will be highlighted in orange. In the Import/Export window, select the Export tab. Select Destination and choose a location to export the profile to. Select OK to export the file.

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4

Throughput Test Mode

4.1 Ethernet Connection
Before you begin testing, verify the link. »» Make sure to use the right type of connectors when connecting the test port to the fiber access point of the network. »» Make sure the laser is turned on for optical ports. »» The two SFP ports are connected; if the laser is off on one port, it’s off on the other. Both lasers must be on to use either one. »» Exception: Remove the SFP from the laser you don’t want to turn on. »» Verify the port has a green LINK LED. If there is no link, go to the Port window and select Auto-Negotiation (on both units, if applicable). If that doesn’t work, de-select Auto-Negotiation, and configure the test set to match the DUT settings.

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4.2 Ethernet Throughput Applications
Select Throughput as the Carrier Class Ethernet test type on the Test Profile window. Before you begin testing, make sure the link is up. To send loopback commands in a test, press the L2 Loop button in the Action Bar.

BERT Applications
Select BERT as the Test Type on the Throughput Test Setup tab.

Layer 1 BERT
Layer 1 testing is used for verifying the quality of the physical layer connection. Most commonly, this is done for basic point-to-point fiber connections, whether over a single fiber pair or through a DWDM network.

Layer 2 BERT
Run a BERT between two testers. Layer 2 testing is often performed to verify the quality of service provided over an Ethernet network. Unlike a Layer 1 BERT, the Layer 2 BERT generates valid MAC frames so that the test traffic can traverse through bridges and switches.

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4.3 Ethernet Port Configuration
Item
(1) (2)

Select a RJ45/SFP Test Port button to change the port in use. Configure a port Address if necessary.

Options
SFP (1), RJ45 (1) SFP (2), RJ46 (2)

Description
Select the physical interface. • Tests can run on both ports at the same time. Ports can’t be selected as RJ-45 and SFP at the same time; only one interface at a time. • The two SFP ports are connected; if the laser is off on one port, it’s off on the other. Both lasers must be on to use either one. Exception: Remove the SFP from the laser you don’t want to turn on.

Pause Frame
Item
Pause

Options
Enabled: the unit will stop transmitting on receipt of flow control pause packets. Disabled: RxT GigE will not stop TX even if it receives a pause frame from remote peer. 0 to 3355 uS

Description
Set how the local device will respond to pause packets.

Delay

Set the length of time indicated by the Pause frame sent by the module.

Auto Negotiation
If Auto-Negotiation is enabled (N/A 100FX), PAUSE is communicated to the link partner. Pass/fail status is reported. Select START to begin the negotiation process. Pass/Fail status is reported. Select Result to see the details. If you don’t select this , set the Interface parameters.

Media SFP
Item
1000BX 100FX

Description
A type of Fast Ethernet, over a single strand of optical fiber, at 1000 Mbit/s A type of Fast Ethernet, over two strands of optical fiber, at 100 Mbit/s

Auto-Negotiation Results
To automatically negotiate the highest rate on the Ethernet port, on the Ethernet Port Configuration window, Select Start under Auto Negotiation, to begin the negotiation process. Pass/Fail status is reported. Select Result to see the details, as shown here.

Item
Link Status Link Rate Duplex Pause Auto Negotiation Fiber Flag Laser

Description
Up/Down link status. Negotiated rate (1GE, 10GE). Full or Half Duplex. Disable or Enabled status. Disable or Enable status. Shows when fiber optic cable is in use. Disabled or Enabled laser status.

Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

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4.4 Capture MAC Setup
On the Capture tab, configure MAC filters. Select an element to turn it on.

Item
MAC Source/Destination MAC Unicast MAC Multicast MAC Broadcast Ethertype

Description
Enter the 48 bit Media Access Control (MAC) Address. MAC Unicast frames. MAC Multicast frames. MAC Broadcast frames Some Ethertype values, such as 0800 and AAAA, are considered invalid. To avoid potential problems with how a network device interprets the Ethertype field, 0800 is automatically chosen when IP is selected for the frame setup.

Select Start to confirm your entries and close the window.

4.5 Capture IP Setup
On the Capture tab, set IP filters. Select an element to turn it On, then configure any follow up settings.

Item
IP Source/Destination IP Unicast IP Multicast IP Broadcast

Description
Enter the Address. Unicast frames. Multicast frames. Broadcast frames.

4.6 Capture Error Setup
Item
TCP/UDP Checksum IP Checksum Bit Error FCS Error

Description
Frames containing Layer 4 Transmission Control or User Datagram Protocol. IP checksum errors received. Packet Bit Errors. Frame Check Sequence errors.

Select OK to confirm your entries and close the window.

4.7 Capture VLAN Setup
On the Capture tab, set VLAN filters. Select an ID to enable, and then enter a value.

Item
ID

Options
0-4095

Description
Enter the optional Virtual LAN identification number. VLAN tags conform to IEEE 802.1Q and IEEE 802.1P.

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4.8 Capture Length Setup
On the Capture tab, set packet length count filters. Select a packet length. The RxT will now capture data based on the selected packet length. »» Test Frame »» Non Test Frame: Frame not matching test configuration »» Packet Length Jumbo: over 1518 bytes »» Packet Length 1024 – 1518 »» Packet Length 512 – 1023 »» Packet Length 256 – 511 »» Packet Length 128 – 255 »» Packet Length 65 – 127 »» Packet Length 64 »» Packet Length (< 64): runt packets Select OK to confirm your entries and close the window.

4.9 Throughput Test Profile
Point-to-Point throughput is the basic test setup.

Configure a Throughput Test
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select Throughput under Carrier Class Ethernet Select Setup. If not already set, choose a port by selecting the RJ45/SFP button. Configure the Stream Table (L2/3/4 only) Select Start > Test Results.

»» Before you begin testing, make sure the link is up. »» See Operation Mode if you are working with a MTT -28 or -29, or want to work in Monitor Mode. »» To send loopback commands in a L2/3/4 test, Select the L2 Loop button in the Action Bar. »» To start the test, select Start on the Action Bar.

4.10 Throughput Test Setup
The signal graphic both reflects the Ethernet frame and gives you access to the associated configuration screens (Layer 2 tests). »» RxT must be in P2P_P2P or C_28/29 mode for Throughput testing. »» Click on the graphic to configure the Stream Table. »» If necessary, press the dark blue button on the left to choose a port interface and set its configuration (shown by the connector; SFP/RJ-45 and rate), then configure the rest of the setup. »» To select a different port, press Ports/Tests and select the another port to test on. »» BERT: Out-of-service testing; traffic will be disrupted; perform a throughput/BER test. Tests can run on both ports at the same time.

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Throughput Options
Item
Layer

Options
L1: The BERT is performed at OSI Layer 1 (physical layer, using the FCS or the CRC field defined for an Ethernet frame, without the MAC header. L2/3/4: The BERT is performed at OSI Layer 2 (data link). View/set the number of streams in use; 1-16.

Description
Select the test layer. L1 Note: Configure the Test Pattern payload and Traffic Shape. L2/3/4 Note: Configure the Stream Table.

Total Streams

Use the -/+ buttons to enter a new quantity of streams for the table if necessary. N/A Layer 1.

Measurement Setup: Configure how and when results are taken. »» Select Start to begin the test. »» Select Test Results to see the results of the test. Remember to select TX START to start the transmitter if Start Tx Couple is not checked on the Measurement Setup.

4.11 Stream Table Setup
To configure a stream, tap a stream row. The Stream: X window will pop up, for configuring the stream in detail; configure each tab. When there are multiple streams, the window will have scroll arrows for moving between Stream Number x windows. Applies to L2/3/4 tests. »» Each stream may be configured independently. See Auto Fill to configure multiple streams. »» Throughput tests support up to 8 streams for a 1G test. RFC 2544 tests support one stream. »» Traffic shaping is not available in Layer 1, Unframed mode.

Item
Total Streams

Description
View/set the number of streams in use. Use the -/+ buttons to enter a new quantity (1-8) of streams for the table if necessary. The number in use is shown on the Total Stream gadget on the Setup as well. When deleting streams, the last stream is removed first. Highlight a stream, then use the Move Up/Move Down button to move it one row up or down. Automatically fill in the addresses of all streams in the table. Edit the TPID directly in the field if required; applies only when VLAN is in use. 8100 is the standard IEEE 802.1Q/802.1P value. A TPID is available for each VLAN. Technology: VLAN Tagging BERT ID: Ox40 to 0x8100. The RxT GigE place the BERT ID value in the IP Header (Identification field) so the tester can easily identify whether IP traffic is BERT traffic or not.

Move Up/Move Down Auto Fill TPID/BERT ID Note: This is a global settings; all BERT streams get the same ID.

Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

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4.12 Stream Auto Fill
Configure the fill parameters:
1. Select the frame element to configure, using the Auto Fill Item pull down. 2. Enter the required Auto Fill Item data. 3. Select to increment, decrement, or assign a random value to each stream, with a step size of x between streams. 4. Choose the stream to start applying changes from (From Stream), and which one to stop at (To Stream). Example: if you had selected MAC Destination as the Auto Fill item, the field below would appear as MAC Destination. Enter the starting MAC Destination Address.

Auto Fill Setup
To access all the Auto Fill options, you must have 2 or more streams.

Item
Fixed

Details
The frame element settings will be identical for all active streams. The frame element settings will increase by one each time.

Description
Apply the Fixed value to or from the current stream, or from the first stream. Press ‘From Stream’ to enter the number of the stream to start applying the Incremented value from.Press ‘To Stream’ to enter the number of the stream to stop applying the Incremented value to. Set the ‘From Stream’ and ‘To Stream’ values as described above. Only the last 1, 2, or 3 bytes of the frame element Address are determined randomly. The value of the other bytes is based on the value entered in the item button (e.g. ‘MAC Destination’ value). Set the ‘From Stream’ and ‘To Stream’ values as described above. Addresses are not changed during the test.

Increment

Decrement

The frame element settings will decrease by one each time. The last several bytes of the setting are filled with a random value.

Random

Copy

The frame element value is duplicated in each stream.

4.13 Stream MAC Setup
Frame/Ethertype
Configure Layer 2 by setting the MAC Source and Destination addresses for the streams. Configure the Source and Destination addresses separately. See Auto Fill to configure multiple streams. Select Streams -/+ to configure the element for the next/previous stream.

Item
Frame EtherType

Options
Ethernet II, IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3: Ethertype= Length Ethernet II: 64-5535

Description
Select the Ethernet standard to use.. Choices depend on the Frame Type. 802.3: LLC and SNAP are used. Enter the Ethertype value in its field. Some Ethertype values, such as 0800 and AAAA, are considered invalid. To avoid potential problems with how a network device interprets the Ethertype field, 0800 is automatically chosen when IP is selected for the frame setup.

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MAC Source/Destination
Select OK to save your changes, and return to the Stream Table

Item
MAC Source/Destination Default

Options
Enter the Address.

Description
Touch the MAC field. Use the number pad which appears to enter the data. Each MAC Address source and destination pair defines traffic flow. Reset the MAC source Address of that port to the factory set default. The settings for each port, along with the factory settings of the MAC addresses can be found on System>Port Address. Obtain the MAC destination Address for each test stream via ARP. A pop up reports the status of the ARP process; IP ON only. Troubleshooting ARP • Check the cables on both units. • Make sure the Destination IP on the unit sending the ARP request matches the Source IP on the unit receiving the request. • Make sure IP is enabled . • Make sure you’ve hit the Apply button on the unit receiving the ARP request.

ARP

4.14 Stream Frame Setup
View/set the frame structure. The frame diagram at the bottom of the screen shows the possible elements. To access the window, on the Stream Table, select a row to configure that stream. Select an element to turn it On; a setup tab will appear for that element. Some elements, such as MPLS and IP, are connected. The graphic at the bottom of the window reflects the structure in use. Configure each tab. »» Mac in Mac N/A »» MAC »» VLAN »» MPLS »» IP »» TCP »» UDP »» Payload »» Traffic Shape Select Apply to All to have the selected frame elements used by every stream in the Stream Table. Select Stream -/+ to configure the element for the previous/next stream.

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Frame Type Distribution
Item
Set at Fixed.

Options
Select the frame length distribution to use.

Description
Fixed: All frames transmitted will be of the same length, as indicated in the Frame Size field. • The most common means of testing a network is to use a fixed frame size. In this way, the network performance can be characterized for different frame lengths. • For instance, the frame loss rate may be very different for 64-byte frames than for 1518-byte frames. By sending only frames 64 (or 1518) bytes long, the frame loss rate can be calculated for each. • You will also need to enter the Frame Size. Enter the total length of the Ethernet frame in the number pad which pops up.

Frame Size

60-12,000 bytes, depending on the rate*.

»» The Rx allows for undersized and oversized frames. »» See the Frame size details table for the maximum and minimum frame sizes.

4.15 Stream MAC Setup
Configure Layer 2 by setting the MAC Source and Destination addresses for the streams. Configure the Source and Destination addresses separately. Select Streams -/+ to configure the element for the next/ previous stream.

Frame/Ether Type
Item
Frame

Options
Ethernet II, IEEE 802.3

Description
Select the Ethernet standard to use. • Choices depend on the Frame Type. • 802.3: LLC and SNAP are used. Enter the Ethertype value in its field. • Some Ethertype values, such as 0800 and AAAA, are considered invalid. To avoid potential problems with how a network device interprets the Ethertype field, 0800 is automatically chosen when IP is selected for the frame setup.

EtherType

IEEE 802.3: Ethertype= Length Ethernet II: 64-5535

Mac Source/Destination
Item
MAC Source/Destination

Options
Enter the Address.

Description
Touch the MAC field. Use the number pad which appears to enter the data. • Each MAC Address source and destination pair defines traffic flow. Reset the MAC source Address of that port to the factory set default. The settings for each port, along with the factory settings of the MAC addresses can be found on System>Port Address. Obtain the MAC destination Address for each test stream via ARP. A pop up reports the status of the ARP process; IP ON only. Check the cables on both units. • Make sure the Destination IP on the unit sending the ARP request matches the Source IP on the unit receiving the request. • Make sure IP is enabled . • Make sure you’ve hit the Apply button on the unit receiving the ARP request.

Default

ARP

Select OK to save your changes, and return to the Stream Table.

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Port Address
Configure the local port settings, if necessary. These settings apply to the RxT module’s test ports. For each port, set the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway addresses, and view the factory default MAC Source Address. The port numbers refer to the port labels on the outside of the unit. Make sure to press ‘Laser On’ in the Action Bar to activate the laser when required. Access this tab in the System menu.

4.16 Stream IP Setup
Use the IP tab to configure the IP addresses for the stream/s, after selecting IP as part of the Frame Setup on the Stream Table. See Auto Fill to configure multiple streams. To configure IP addresses for additional streams, use -/+ at the bottom of the screen.

Address Input
Item
IP Source IP Destination IP Gateway Subnet Mask DHCP Offer

Options
Enter the new IP Address source and destination pairs to use. Specify the gateway addresses. Specify the subnet mask.

Description
Enter the Address using the pop up number pad. The IP Address is the network layer Address that identifies the source and destination of the test frames. Leave the gateway value as 000.000.000.000 to indicate no gateway. For non-DHCP (static) systems. The unit will acquire the IP Address of Test Ports via DHCP. You will see a ‘waiting; message, then the Local IP Address, Net Mask, and Gateway IP Address will be changed if successful.

IP Header
Item
IP Option IP Version Protocol (IPv4) • The protocol value selected is the number placed into the IP header; it doesn’t indicate the proper datagram or payload of the payload.*

Options
Select to enable. IPv4 or IPv6 View/select the originating protocol module.

Description
include the “option type” IP header field. View/select the IP Version. Select TCP in a TCP/UDP configuration. The assigned values are maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Commonly used values include 6 (TCP) or 17 (UDP). Setting the Protocol field to 001, which indicates an ICMP payload, does not create an ICMP payload in the test traffic. This can cause problems with network elements who look at the Protocol field and attempt to process the non-existent protocol payload. Select the TOS protocol. • This selection determines the rest of the third column. • See RFC-1340 or RFC-2474 These form the header. A setting of 5 indicates an IP header of 20 bytes. Select whether or not to fragment the packet.

Type of Service (IPv4)

RFC1349, RFC2474

IP Header Length (IPv4) Precedence Don’t Fragment Flag (IPv4)

Set the number of 32-bit (4byte) words. 0-7 Yes, No

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Flag More Fragment (IPv4)

Options
1: Additional fragments follow the current one; 0: No additional fragment bits follow. 0-8191 bits

Description
The packets generated by the RxT GigE are never actually fragmented, even if the fragmentation bits are set otherwise. Enter the position of the fragment in the original datagram. • Leave at 0 if you are unsure of what to select. Enter the time to live. 64 and 128 are commonly used. Enter the Precedence using the number pad. See RFC1349

Fragment Offset (IPv4)

TTL (IPv4) Precedence

0-255 hops 0-7

Type of Service Parameters
Item
Precedence MBZ TOS Value

Options
3 digit value 0, 1

Description
See RFC1349 Select a MBZ (Must Be Zero) on the Number Pad. Enter the type of service. • Leave it at 0 if you are unsure of what to select. • See RFC 1349 and RFC 2474 for technical details.

DSCP Currently Unused

Bits 0-5 0,1 for two bits

Enter the DSCP bits. See RFC 2474 Enter the two bits. Reserved

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4.17 Stream MPLS Setup
Activate MPLS
MPLS 1 is set on. For MPLS 2 and MPLS 3, the labels toggle from Off to On. To configure MPLS for the next or previous, use Stream -/+ at the bottom of the screen.

MPLS Type
Unicast, Multicast. Select the frame type. For each label selected , set the following:

Item
ID Exp S TTL ( Time to Live)

Options
Up to seven digits Up to seven digits One digit 0-255 hops

Description
Enter the next hop label. Enter the Experimental label. Enter the end-of-stack label. The Time Time to Live label expires at the conclusion of this number of hops.

MPLS Label Parameters
See Auto Fill to configure multiple streams. Enable the Multi Protocol Label Switching architecture by selecting MPLS to On on the Stream Table Frame Setup tab. Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

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4.18 Stream VLAN Setup
VLAN 1 is set on. For VLAN2 and VLAN3, the labels toggle from Off to On. To configure VLAN for the next or previous, use the Stream -/+ at the bottom of the screen.

Item
TPID

Options
0x40 to 0x8100

Description
Edit the TPID if required • 8100 is the standard IEEE 802.1Q./802.1P value. Enter the User Priority value, per IEEE 802.1Q. • User Priority 0 is the default for Ethernet networks. • The Number Pad will appear to facilitate numeric entry. • The Priority Table shows the traffic types by priority. The CFI should almost always be set to 0 to be compatible with Ethernet switches. Enter the optional Virtual LAN tags into the field for each stream. VLAN tags conform to IEEE 802.1Q. and IEEE 802.1P.

Priority

0-7

CFI ID

0, 1 0-2045

C_28/29: VLAN editing options match MTT-28/29 options: EDIT(F1), NONE(F2), SINGLE(F3), MORE(F4), Q-in-Q(F3).

VLAN Options
The last TPID should always be 0x8100; this means the first TPID is set to 0x8100 if only one VLAN is in use. When an additional VLAN is enabled, it will automatically increment. However, you may edit the value. When a VLAN is enabled in such a way that it is not the innermost VLAN, it will assume the last saved value. The use of two and sometimes three tags is referred to as ‘Stacked VLAN Tags’ or ‘Q-in-Q’. C28/29 Note EtherType II frame type. Single or dual VLANs with 0x8100 and 0x88A8 TPIDs respectively. If VLAN tags are selected, they must have same values across all streams. Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

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4.19 Stream Payload Setup
Select the Payload tab on the Stream X window to configure the test payload elements. To configure the Payload for the previous or next stream use the -/+ at the bottom of the screen.

Item
Sunrise Tag Tag: SN

Options
Set to on. On, Off

Description
Useful proprietary tagging. A sequence number is inserted in the payload of each frame. It allows you to detect the number of lost frames, latency checking, and other important information. See above. A time stamp is inserted into the payload of each frame. The selected test pattern will be transmitted inverted. Select a test pattern to perform a BERT with. • Not all patterns are available for all configurations. • C28/29 and L1 Note: Only 2e31-1 and 2e23-1 PRBS Normal patterns are available. Pattern Setup appears. Enter the test pattern in hexadecimal format with the number pad.

Tag: TS Invert Pattern Type

On, Off On, Off 2^31, 2^31C, 2^23, 2^23C, 2^20, 2^15, 1111, 1010, 0000. User32, User 16*

(User) Data 16

Frame Size

48-11,000 bytes

Layer 1 only.

Apply to All Apply the Tag, Type, and Pattern selections to all of the streams in the table, in a multiple stream setup. N/A Layer 1. Select OK to apply the new settings and close the window.

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4.20 Stream TCP Setup
Use the TCP tab to configure the TCP ports and header, after selecting TCP as part of the Frame Setup on the Stream Table. See Auto Fill to configure multiple streams. To configure TCP for the next or previous, use Streams -/+ at the bottom of the screen. Selecting TCP puts a TCP header into the IP packet datagram but does not establish a true TCP connection with the far end. This ”static TCP” is useful for entering a proper TCP port value to pass traffic through firewalls and similar security features on a router, but does not test a live TCP connection.

Port Setup
Item
Source Port Destination Port

Options
1-65,535 0x1 to 0xFFFF

Details
Enter the port Address,using the pop up number pad. Enter the port Address,using the pop up number pad.

Header Setup
Item
Seq. Number Ack. Number Data Offset Window Size Urgent Pointer PSH RST SYN FIN URG

Options
Hex Hex Hex Hex Hex Binary (0 or 1) Binary (0 or 1) Binary (0 or 1) Binary (0 or 1) Binary (0 or 1)

Details
Sequence number. Acknowledgment number.

Push function flag. Reset function flag. Syncronize sequence number flag. End of TCP Stream flag. Urgent Pointer flag.

4.21 Stream UDP Setup
Item
UDP Source UDP Destination

Options
0x1 to 0xFFFF 0x1 to 0xFFFF

Details
Enter the port Address,using the pop up number pad. Enter the port Address,using the pop up number pad.

4.22 Stream TPID/BERT ID Setup
On the Stream Table, select TPID/BERTID to modify the TPID(s) for the stream. Edit the TPID directly in the field if required. »» A TPID is available for each VLAN. »» 8100 is the standard IEEE 802.1Q/802.1P value.. »» BERT ID: Ox40 to 0x8100.

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4.23 Traffic Shape Constant Setup
For Constant Traffic Shaping, traffic is transmitted at a constant rate (from 0.01% to 100.00% bandwidth) for the entire duration of the test. For Layer 2/3/4 tests, to configure Constant Traffic Shape for the previous or next stream, use Stream -/+ at the bottom of the screen.

Traffic Shape - Constant
Item
Rate Rate: Percentage

Options
Percentage, Low Rate Range: 0.1% to 100.00%

Details
Determine the traffic rate. Commonly, Ethernet traffic is referred to in terms of the percentage of bandwidth used. At 100%, the gap between frames is at its minimum. As the percentage is reduced, the IPG is increased. View the interpacket gap.

IPG

L1: Set at 6714240.00 µs L2: Set at 8800.00 µs

Apply to All Apply this traffic configuration to all streams. N/A Layer 1.

Data Input
Item
Constant, Bandwidth

Options
Percentage: 0.1% to 100.00% Low Rate: See Details

Details
Percentage: Enter the percentage of bandwidth which will be constantly filled directly in the field. Low Rate: Select from 16 kpbs to indicated upper rate.

Select OK to apply the new settings and close the window.

4.24 Traffic Shape Burst Setup
With Burst traffic, traffic is transmitted at a variable rate. Traffic is transmitted at Burst 1 Bandwidth rate (from 0.00% to 100.00%) for Burst 1 Duration seconds, then at Burst 2 Bandwidth rate (from 0.00% to 100.00%) for Burst 2 Duration seconds. Gigabit Ethernet has a minimum burst of 0.01%. This sequence is repeated for the duration of the test. To configure Traffic Shape for the previous or next stream, select Stream -/+ at the bottom of the screen.

Traffic Shape
Item
Rate Rate: Percentage

Options
Percentage, IPG (ns), Bit Rate 0.01% to 100.00%

Details
Determine the traffic rate. Ethernet traffic is expressed in terms of the percentage of bandwidth used. At 100%, the gap between frames is at its minimum. As the percentage is reduced, the IPG is increased. Service disruption threshold.

Disruption Threshold

0-10,000,000 mS

Select Apply to All Apply this traffic configuration to all streams.

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RxT GigE

Data Input
Item
Burst Bandwidth/ 1/2 Burst 1/2 Duration

Options
1-100% 1-100

Details
Enter the size of the burst the RxT will transmit. Enter the number of seconds the first or second burst of traffic will last.

Select OK to apply the new settings and close the window.

Burst Bandwidth Accuracy
The accuracy of the burst bandwidth is reduced when the burst duration is shorter than the time to send approximately 100 frames at 100% bandwidth. The minimum recommended durations follow:

Burst Size
64 bytes 1519 bytes 4096 bytes 12000 bytes

Duration
0.0051 ms 0.0121 ms 0.3278 ms 0.9600 ms

4.25 Traffic Shape Ramp Setup
Item
Rate Rate: Percentage

Options
Percentage, IPG (ns), Bit Rate 0.01% to 100.00%

Details
Determine the traffic rate.* Ethernet traffic is expressed in terms of the percentage of bandwidth used. At 100%, the gap between frames is at its minimum. As the percentage is reduced, the IPG is increased. The interpacket gap (IPG) is the delay between successive frames. The bit rate, given as a number of kbps, is a direct function of the bandwidth percentage. Because the frame length can be random, there is no fixed relationship between bit rate and data rate.

Rate: IPG (ns) Rate: Bit Rate

The minimum IPG is 12 bytes or 96 bit times.

Disruption Threshold

0-10,000,000 microseconds

Service disruption threshold.

Select Apply to All to apply this traffic configuration to all streams. . Note: When changing units from Percentage to IPG to Bit Rate, the display will reset back to the last value entered for those units. The following parameters are explained in terms of percentages, but would appear as ns or kbps if Percentage was not selected as the Rate.

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Data Input

Item
Start Bandwidth Stop Bandwidth

Options

Details
Enter the bandwidth percentage the RxT will start transmitting at the beginning of the test. Enter the bandwidth percentage where the RxT will stop ramping. After transmitting at this bandwidth (e.g. 100%) for the determined Step Duration, the unit will continue transmitting frames at this maximum rate.

Step Duration

1-60 seconds

Number of seconds the RxT will transmit each bandwidth step. The time scale on the graph is based on this unit of time. Enter the bandwidth percentage the unit will increase each step up. When set to On,, the ramp sequence will repeat until you stop the test; left off, the ramp sequence will run one time, and stop. Applies to Rate: IPG only.

Step Bandwidth Repeat

0-100%

4.26 Summary Results
Get an overview of the test results. It may take a few seconds for results to appear after starting a test. »» Elapsed : How long the test has been running (time elapsed). »» Remaining: How long remains in a scheduled test, or Continuous. »» Banner: A message summary banner of the status of the test. It reports any errors or alarms, along with a date and time stamp. »» Below the banner, view a list of logged events: received errors and/or alarms, e.g. Lost Frame, including a count of the number of errors, with a resolution of one second. »» The right columns shows more specific results as applicable. »» In a Live throughput test, statistics are taken on frames, but the test does not look for pattern synchronization or bit errors (no Bit statistics appear). »» For a Monitor test, only receive (RX) statistics are reported, for both ports. »» Use -/+ to scroll through results for all available streams.

Status
Item
TX Utilization (%) TX Line Rate (kbps) TX Data Rate TX Frame Rate RX Utilization (%) RX Line Rate RX Data Rate RX Frame Rate

Description
Transmitted bandwidth as a percentage of maximum traffic rate (minimum frame gap). Transmitted bit rate (in kbps, bps, etc.) of the Ethernet frames, ignoring the frame gap, preamble, and SAD. The data rate is always less than the line rate. Transmit data rate (in kbps, bps, etc.). This includes the frame headers but not the IPG or Preamble. Thus, the data rate reflects both the frame rate and frame size. Transmit frame rate (in kbps, bps, etc.). Received bandwidth as a percentage of maximum traffic rate (minimum frame gap). Received bit rate, based on the current utilization.(in kbps, bps, etc.). Received bit rate of the Ethernet frames, ignoring the frame gap, preamble, and SAD. The data rate is always less than the line rate (in kbps, bps, etc.). Received frame rate (in kbps, bps, etc.).

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Signal
The signal information (vendor, wavelength, optical power, etc.) is provided by the SFP/XFP module. Not all manufacturers supply this information, and Sunrise Telecom Inc. is not responsible for modules provided by other vendors.

Item
Vendor Wavelength RX Optical Power

Description
Name of the vendor. Optical wavelength is use at the port. Received uW and dBm.

Summary Notes
The Throughput Summary results window includes banners and event status reports.

Status Banners
Banner
MEAS STOPPED NO ERRORS ERRORS/ALARMS ERRORS HISTORY

Description
No test is underway. Test is underway with no errors or alarms. Errors or alarms currently received in the test. Test underway; errors or alarms were received in the past, but are not currently being received. Either the RX Rate is zero or the received traffic does not match the stream table settings for that port. The Ethernet link is down.

Color
Yellow banner Green banner Red banner Red banner

NO BERT TRAFFIC

Yellow banner

NO LINK

Red banner

Events
»» REC Start: Start recorded »» REC Stop: Stop recorded »» Link Up »» Link Down

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4.27 Aggregate Results
View information on transmitted and received frames, errors received, and frame statistics, for a Throughput, Monitor, Loopback Test, Ping, or RFC2544 test. »» For the following test frame types, view the frame count or Current frame rate (frames per seconds, the Average frame rate (fps) at which the error was received, and possibly the Utilization rates (percentage of bandwidth). Counts and rates may show for the Transmit and/or Receive directions. »» Not all statistics will show for all ports or setups. »» In Live and Monitor Test Modes, only Receive Statistics appear. »» For information about frame component usage, see the Ethernet Technology Overview.

Item
Line Rate (kbps) Data Rate (kbps)

Description
Bit rate, based on the current utilization. Transmit data rate (in kbps, bps, etc.). The data rate includes the frame headers but not the IPG or Preamble. Thus, the data rate reflects both the frame rate and frame size. Percentage of current bandwidth in use. Count of the number of bit errors since the beginning of the test. Bit error ratio since the beginning of the test. Frame Check Sequence or Cyclic Redundancy Check errors. Average CRC (frame check sequence) error rate since the start of the test. Count of collisions since the start of the test (reported N/A in full-duplex mode). Number of undersized/fragments frames received. Count of excess collisions since the start of the test (N/A in full-duplex mode). Count of late collisions. Count of pattern loss occurrences since the start of the test Pattern Loss Seconds. Count of times signal was lost. Total count of seconds where signal was lost. Count of frames lost. Number of IP checksum errors received. Frames which arrive out of numerical sequence. Frames where the Sequence Number was duplicated. The test pattern could not be synched on. Count of seconds where signal was disrupted. Count of all seconds where signal was disrupted. Total count of test frames received, rate frames received at currently and on average.

Utilization Current (%) Bit Error Bit Error Rate FCS/CRC Error FCS/CRC Error Rate (%) Collisions Runts XS COL LT COL PATL (Pattern Loss) PATLS LOS Event LOS Aggregate (secs) Lost Frames Total IP Checksum Error Out of Sequence Error Total Duplicate Sequence Error No BERT Traffic Service Disruption (µs) Service Disruption Total (µs) Total Frames/Rate Current/Rate Average

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Frame Sizes Broadcast Test Frames Multicast Frames/Total Average Unicast Frames Total/ Average Flow Control Total VLAN Frames Single-Tagged/TwoTagged/Three-Tagged VLAN Frames MPLS Frames TCP Frames UDP Frames Keep Alive Mac Frames

Description
Count of frames of each size: Under 64 Bytes/64-127/128-255/256-511/512-10234/ 1024-1518/ Over 1518 Bytes (aka jumbo frames). A broadcast frame is a frame that is intended for all of the devices on the network, the destination MAC Address is set to FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF Counts and averages of Layer 2 multicast frames transmitted and received. Count and averages of Layer 2 Unicast frames transmitted and received. Frames with flow control. Frames containing VLAN tags. Frames containing one/two/three VLAN tags.

Total count and Average of frames with MPLS tags. Frames containing Layer 4 Transmission Control Protocol. Frames containing Layer 4 User Datagram Protocol. Total count and Average of frames with MAC Keep Alive signal.

4.28 Thoughput Stream Results
»» Results apply to the stream number highlighted at the top of the screen. »» Select another stream button to see results for another active (orange) stream. »» For information about frame component usage, see the Ethernet Technology Overview.

Item
Line Rate (kbps) Data Rate (kbps) Utilization Current (%) Bit Error Bit Error Rate FCS/CRC Error FCS/CRC Error Rate Collisions

Description
Bit rate, based on the current utilization. Bit rate of the Ethernet frames, ignoring the frame gap, preamble, and SFD. The data rate is always less than the line rate. Bandwidth as a percentage of maximum traffic rate (minimum frame gap). Count of number of bit errors since the beginning of the test. Transmitted and received bits per second. Count of CRC (frame check sequence) errors since the beginning of the test. Average CRC (frame check sequence) error rate since the start of the test. Count of collisions since the start of the test (reported N/A in full-duplex mode). Collisions are likely to happen if more than one device is transmitting simultaneously on an halfduplex network. Number of undersized/fragments frames received. Count of excess collisions since the start of the test (N/A in full-duplex mode). Count of late collisions. Count of pattern loss occurrences since the start of the test. Number of Lost Frames in the incoming traffic. This measurement is only available if the sequence number is enabled (on the local and remote test sets).

RUNTS XS COL Excess Collisions LT COL Late Collisions PATL Pattern Loss Lost Frames

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Total IP Checksum Error Total Out of Sequence Error Total Duplicate Sequence Error Frame Interval µ Frame PDV µ Total Frames Frame Current (fps) Frame Average (fps) Frame Minimum (fps) Frame Maximum (fps) Frame Size Broadcast Frames Multicast Frames Unicast Frames FLOW CTRL Total VLAN Frames Single-Tagged/ Two-Tagged/ Three-Tagged VLAN Frames Total MPLS Frames Frame Rate Average (fps) Total TCP Frames Frame Rate Average (fps) Total UDP Frame/Average Keep alive MAC Frames

Description
Count of header IP checksum errors. N/A Layer 1/2. Number of frames that are received out of sequence. This is only available if the sequence number is enabled (local and remote test sets). Number of received/transmitted frames. Min, max and average frame PDV. Number of received/transmitted frames. Current received frame rate. Average transmitted (TX) and received (RX) frames per second over the duration of the test. Minimum transmitted (TX) and received (RX) frames per second since the beginning of the test. Maximum transmitted (TX) and received (RX) frames per second since the beginning of the test. Count of frames of each size: Under 64 Bytes/64 Bytes/65-127/128-255/256-511/512-10234/ 1024-1518/ Over 1518 Bytes (aka jumbo frames). A broadcast frame is a frame that is intended for all of the devices on the network, the destination MAC Address is set to ’r;FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF’. Counts and averages of Layer 2 multicast frames transmitted and received. Count and averages of Layer 2 Unicast frames transmitted and received. Frames with flow control. Count of frames containing VLAN tags. Single-Tagged/Two-Tagged/Three-Tagged VLAN Frames

Percentage of frames containing MPLS tags. Average received frame rate. Count of frames with TCP protocol. Average frames per second. Count of frames with UDP protocol. Total count and Average of frames with MAC Keep Alive signal.

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4.29 Error Injection
Use Error injection to insert defects into the traffic generated by the test module, in the Throughput test mode. 1. Select the type of error. 2. Choose to inject the error into all streams (Broadcast), or one or more streams (Multiple; chose the streams). 3. Choose to inject a Single error, or many in a Burst. 4. Select Send. 5. Select Cancel to stop the test.. To inject an error, you must first start the measurement and transmit traffic.

Stream
Select the button corresponding to the stream you want to inject errors into.

Mode
Select the error injection method. »» Continue - Inject an individual error. »» Burst - Inject a set number of errors (0-9999) each time you select the Send or Error Inject button. After selecting Burst, enter the number of errors you wish to inject in a burst when the Send button is pressed. Send a burst of up to 999 errors for Ethernet.

Error Type Details
Error
FCS/CRC Bit Error

Description
Frame Check Sequence/Cyclic Redundancy Check error. Bit error in the frame payload/pattern. Pattern bit errors are inserted before the FCS/CRC is calculated, and therefore do not cause an FCS/CRC error, or cause the frame to be dropped. 8B/10B encoding error. Running disparity error. IP Checksum error.

Code Disparity IP Checksum

To configure error injection, select the error injection button on the Action Bar.

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4.30 Test Patterns
Pattern Description
2^31 2^23 2^20 2^15 2^11 2^9 2^7 2^6 1111 1010 0000 CJPAT Industry-standard 231-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 31-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up to 30 zeros in a row. Industry-standard 223-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 23-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up to 22 zeros in a row. Industry-standard 220-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 20-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up to 19 zeros in a row. Industry-standard 215-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 15-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up to 14 zeros in a row. Pseudorandom 2047 bit code. The pattern conforms to the ITU O.152 technical standard. Pseudorandom 511-bit code. The pattern conforms to the ITU V.52 technical standard. This is the pseudorandom 127-bit code. This is the pseudorandom 63-bit code. Industry-standard all 1s pattern. Industry-standard alternating ones and zeros pattern. Industry-standard all zeros pattern. Continuous Jitter Test Pattern is used for jitter measurements. It is intended to expose a receiver’s CDR (Clock and Data Recovery circuit) to instantaneous phase jumps. The pattern alternates repeating low transition density patterns with repeating high transition density patterns. Continuous Random Test Pattern is intended to provide broad spectral content and minimal peaking that can be used for the measurement of jitter at either a component or system level. The 1 in 4 pattern is used for stress testing circuits. The 1 in 16 pattern is used for overstressing AMI lines. It violates industry standards for pulse density. Therefore an AMI circuit that fails this test could still be a good circuit. The pattern is frame aligned (“f” is the framing bit) as shown in its binary form: f 0100 0000 0000 0000. The 1 in 8 pattern is used for stress testing AMI and B8ZS lines. The pattern is also called 1:7 in older literature. The pattern is frame aligned (f is the framing bit) as shown in its binary form: f 0100 0000. The Daly 55 Octet pattern is a special stress pattern that obeys industry standards for pulse density and maximum consecutive zeros in both AMI and B8ZS coded circuits. It is used for stress testing T1 circuits and network elements. If transmitted in a framed signal with AMI coding, it will violate the 15-zero constraint. It does not violate the zeros constraint in an unframed signal. If framed, the framing bit is inserted at octet boundaries. The Daly 55 octet pattern replaced the original 55 octet pattern. Here is the Daly 55 octet pattern: 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 01, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, C0, 80, 80, 80, 80, E0, 80, 80, 80, 80, AA, AA, AA, AA, 55, 55, 55, 55, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80. Industry-standard FOX pattern is used in data communications applications. The ASCII translation of the pattern is the “ Quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dogs 0123456789 “ sentence. The pattern is frame aligned to ensure proper ASCII translation of the bits. It is recommended that the pattern be sent with framed signals, otherwise, ASCII translation is not possible. Here is the pattern: 2A, 12, A2, 04, 8A, AA, 92, C2, D2, 04, 42, 4A, F2, EA, 72, 04, 62, F2, 1A, 04, 52, AA, B2, 0A, CA, 04, F2, 6A, A2, 4A, 04, 2A, 12, A2, 04, 32, 82, 5A, 9A, 04, 22, F2, E2, 04, 8C, 4C, CC, 2C, AC, 6C, EC, 1C, 9C, 0C, B0, 50. Quasi Random Signal pattern. Formed from a 20-stage shift register and is zero-constrained for a maximum of 14 consecutive zeros. When transmitted in a framed signal, up to 15 consecutive zeros will occur, in accordance with AMI minimum density requirements.

CRPAT 1-4 1-16

1-8

DALY55

FOX

QRSS

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RxT GigE Pattern Description
OCT55 This is the original 55-octet pattern; used for stress testing T1 circuits and network elements. If transmitted in a framed signal with AMI coding, it will violate the 15-zero constraint. It does not violate the zeros constraint in an unframed signal. If framed, the framing bit is inserted at octet boundaries. Here is the actual pattern: 80, 80, 80, 80, 80 80, 00, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, C0, 80, 80, 80, 80, E0, 80, 80, 80, 80, AA, AA, AA, AA, 55, 55, 55, 55, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80. The Daly 55 Octet pattern is a special stress pattern that obeys industry standards for pulse density and maximum consecutive zeros in both AMI and B8ZS coded circuits. It is used for stress testing T1 circuits and network elements If transmittedin a framed signal with AMI coding, it will violate the 15-zero constraint. It does not violate the zeros constraint in an unframed signal. If framed, the framing bit is inserted at octet boundaries. Note that the Daly 55 octet pattern replaced the original 55 octet pattern. Here is the Daly 55 octet pattern: 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 01, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, C0, 80, 80, 80, 80, E0, 80, 80, 80, 80, AA, AA, AA, AA, 55, 55, 55, 55, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, 80, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, FF, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80, 01, 80.

DALY55

To send a standard test pattern with its 1s and 0s reversed, select Invert. Here is a list of standard test patterns the RxT GigE supports. Availability depends on configuration. Pattern Inversion: Transmit the selected pattern in an inverted form (1s and 0s reversed). Remove the check mark to send the pattern normally. User: Edit and send your own test pattern. The corresponding field will become active. Enter up to a 16bit pattern in the field. Previous User patterns are stored. You may select a previously programmed User pattern from the drop down list. Remember to deselect the ‘User’ button when you want to return to using a standard pattern; the button text will turn from orange to gray.

4.31 Sunrise Tags Notes
When Sunrise tags are enabled, a sequence number will be inserted in the payload of each frame. The sequence number will allow you to detect the number of lost frames, latency checking, and other important information. This is a Sunrise Telecom proprietary feature. »» In P2P_P2P mode, SUNRISETAG is enabled. »» In C_28/29 mode, SUNRISETAG is disabled. »» A frame loss can only be detected when the BERT is running between two Sunrise Telecom Ethernet testers (RxT, STT or MTT) with the sequence number tags enabled on each side. »» Measurements will only display counters for Lost Frames, Duplicate Frames, and Out-Sequence frames if a Sunrise Tag is used. »» If a stream as enabled SN/TS of the Sunrise Tag and receives STAG on the incoming traffic, it will lose pattern sync. The reverse is not true; a stream set for STAG will achieve pattern sync if the incoming stream has a SN/TS tag. »» RxT measures the time it takes for each test frame to pass through the DUT. The value reported for latency only applies when the far end is in loopback mode. »» If two test units are performing and end-to-end Throughput test with the Sunrise Tag enabled, the displayed latency results will not be accurate.

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5

RFC-2544 Test Mode
The RFC 2544 standard, established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards body, is the de facto methodology that outlines the tests required to measure and prove performance criteria for carrier Ethernet networks. The standard provides an out-of-service benchmarking methodology to evaluate the performance of network devices using throughput, back-to-back, frame loss and latency tests, with each test validating a specific part of an SLA. The methodology defines the frame size, test duration and number of test iterations. Once completed, these tests will provide performance metrics of the Ethernet network under test.

5.1 RFC2544 Test Profile
In the Carrier Class Ethernet mode, perform RFC 2544 testing. The signal graphic both reflects the port and test setup, and gives you access to the associated configuration screens.

Test Sequence
Check the types of tests to run.

Item
Throughput

Description
RFC 2544 tests use a binary search to determine the maximum traffic rate (expressed as a percentage) the DUT can pass without losing any frames. For RFC2544 & NE Test Determines the round trip delay of the frame through the DUT. • Standard follows the guidelines of RFC 2544, which can take several hours for a complete test. • Quick measures the round trip delay while it is performing the Throughput test and takes no extra time. Results from failed throughput tests are discarded, and only the results from the highest successful throughput test are kept and recorded. Generates a table that shows the percentage of lost frames as a function of frame rate, expressed as a percentage. • RFC2544 Frame Loss: Scans DOWN from start rate, with Step Rate, until there are two consecutive no frame loss (for all frames in the setup) results, or until the test reaches the 0 frame rate. • NE Test Frame Loss: Scans UP from the Start Rate, until the Stop Rate, with Step Rate. Determines the maximum number of frames sent back to- back at 100% frame rate that the DUT can process without losing frames View an estimation of how long it will take to run the selected tests, in a days, hours, minutes format. This allows you to weigh the detail of the RFC 2544 test vs. the time it will take.

Latency/Quick Latency

Frame Loss

Back to Back Estimated Test Time

5.2 RFC2544 Test Setup Mode
To Configure a RFC-2544 Test
1. 2. 3. 4. Select Test Profiles > RFC-2544 > Setup. Configure the Type, Test Type (RFC-2544), and Test Sequence as explained below. Select Streams Setup to configure the Stream Table. Select Start > Test Results.

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Test Sequence
Item
Type

Options
RFC2544 NE TEST

Description
An RFC2544 test tests a device by transmitting various frame lengths at different rates to find the maximum throughput rate. An NE test stresses a NE at a variety of rates, which you define. RFC-2544 tests require the use of two ports. For a Dual setup, configure the second port (port 2 or 3) which appears as required. RFC 2544 may be run between two different ports. • If you need to change the connection, touch first the TX port, then the RX port you want to have work with it. • Pair the TX port with the matching RX port, unless otherwise indicated by your design.

Multi-Port

Point to Point (P1) Dual Ports (P2, P3)

Throughput/Latency
Determine the maximum frame rate that has no lost frames and measure the time it takes for the test frame to pass through the device under test. The latency of each frame is measured.

Frame Loss and Back to Back
Generates a graph that shows the frame loss rate as a function of the frame rate. The test begins at the starting rate (usually 100%), sends a number of frames, and then calculates the frame loss rate as a percentage based on the following equation: [(Input count – output count ) x 100]/(Input count) Back to Back determines the maximum number of frames which can be sent at 100% bandwidth, with minimum inter-frame gap, before a frame is lost. It is also called burstability.

Estimated Time
As you select and configure tests, view the predicted time the tests will take to run. However, there are times when the TX and RX test port need to be different, such as when testing a switch or when the TX and RX line rates are different.

5.3 RFC2544 NE Stress Test
To stress an RFC2544 network element, tests are performed incrementally for each frame size. This is a burn-in test. 1. Select RFC-2544 under Carrier Class Ethernet on the Test Profiles screen. then select Setup. 2. On the Test Setup window, »» If not already set, choose a port and rate by selecting RJ45/SFP. »» Select NETEST as the test type »» Select Dualport to run a test with one module, or Point to Point to test with two modules. »» Select Throughput to configure the test sequence. 3. Select NE Setup to configure frame and test details. 4. Configure the Frame Sizes as required. 5. Configure the Throughput/Latency tab. »» Start Rate: 10% »» Stop Rate: 100% »» Rate Step size: 10% 6. Select Streams Setup to configure the Stream Table. 7. Make sure the laser is on, then select Start on the Action Bar to start the NE test.

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5.4 RFC2544 Test Notes
Test Layers
RFC2544 is designed for Layer 2 and Layer 3 devices. As such, each test frame must have a valid MAC header, preamble, and inter packet gap. For testing Layer 3 devices, such as routers, a valid IP header is also required. Though VLAN support is not mentioned in RFC 2544, VLAN-based services should include the appropriate VLAN tags. Unframed testing, where the payload data is not encapsulated into a valid Ethernet frame, is not compatible with RFC2544 device testing. RxT uses a frame payload that consists of a sequence number, a time stamp, and a test pattern specified by the user. The sequence number and time stamp are used to accurately measure lost frames and latency, respectively.

Frame Sizes
The standard frame sizes for Ethernet testing are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, and 1518 bytes. With systems that support jumbo frames, such as 4096- or 9000- byte frames, these frame sizes should be tested as well. The RxT defaults to the frame size defined in RFC 2544, but allows you to set the frame size to any valid value.

5.5 RFC2544 Test Types
Throughput
The throughput test determines the maximum frame rate without lost frames the DUT can manage. The test begins at 100% frame rate by sending a predetermined number of frames, or, more commonly, sending the frames for a predetermined length of time. If any frames are lost, the test is repeated at a lower frame rate. This process continues until the maximum throughput is determined. Sunrise Telecom uses a binary search algorithm for determining the throughput. The standard test method reduces the throughput by a set increment, such as 10%. This is not the most efficient algorithm available especially for determining the throughput with a better resolution, such as 1%. The binary search changes the throughput value by ever decreasing increments: 50%, 25%, etc. The throughput is increased or decreased depending on the results of the previous test. The algorithm continues to run until the throughput is determined to within the specified resolution, typically 1% to 10%.

Latency
The standard latency test is to run test traffic at the predetermined throughput rate or two minutes, and measure the latency of a single tagged frame sent at least one minute into test. The reported latency is the average of twenty such tests. Strict adherence to the standard would require 280 minutes, over four hours, to complete for all frame sizes. The RxT provides the option to instead perform a ‘Quick Latency” test that eliminates the need to run a separate and time consuming latency test. During the throughput test, the latency of the test frames is measured and averaged. Results from failed throughput tests are discarded. The latency results from the highest successful throughput test are kept and reported. Latency results as a function of frame size and throughput are tabularized.

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Frame Loss Rate
The frame loss rate test plots the frame loss as a function of utilization. Similar to the throughput test, the test begins at 100% frame rate by sending a predetermined number of frames, and recording the percentage of lost frames. The bandwidth is reduced by a preset amount, 10% or less, and the test is repeated. If two successive trials result in no frame loss, the lower rates are not tested and assumed to have zero frame loss. This test is repeated for each frame size.

5.6 RFC2544 Applications
RxT uses UDP echo request frames, as specified by RFC2544.

RFC2544 Throughput Test
RFC2544 is an automated test which will transmit a variety of frame lengths at different frame rates to find the optimal performance of the device under test (DUT). The signal configuration is the same as BERT, but without the need to specify frame length, traffic setting, or test pattern. The Test Layer selection and Stream Table for RFC2544 is identical to that for BERT. To configure an RFC2544 throughput test, select RFC2544NE Test as the test mode on the IP Test Setup window. Configure the Layer and Filter Selection (if desired). Only 1 stream is allowed.

RFC2544 NE Stress Test
In a Network Element (NE) stress test, tests are performed incrementally for each frame size. NE tests are particularly useful for longer burn-in tests.

To configure an NE stress test
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Select Test Profile > RFC2544 NE Test. Select Test Setup > Test Mode and select the NE test Type. Select the Throughput Latency tab. Set the Starting and Stop Rates. Set the Step Size. Select Start on the Action Bar to start a test.

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5.7 RFC2544 Throughput Application
Test Notes
The following sample test presumes the use of an RJ-45 port for a RFC2544 throughput test. The test operates between two RxT GigE modules or two test ports on the same module. Configure your port, then follow this procedure. 1. Select Test Profile > RFC-2544 as the Carrier Class Ethernet test. 2. Select Test Setup > RFC2544 or NETEST as the test type. 3. Select Dual Port to run a test with one module, or Point to Point to test with two modules 4. Configure the Test Sequence. Select each test you want to run: »» Throughput »» Latency »» Frame Loss. 5. Select the graphic. The RFC2544 Setup window opens. 6. Select the Throughput/Latency tab. Configure the following items. »» Duration: Enter a value of 10 seconds. When performing delay measurements over a network with more than 1 ms of delay, the average reported delay may be smaller than the minimum reported delay. Use the Maximum delay as the benchmark for delay testing. »» Starting Rate: 100%. »» Resolution: As desired—1% is typical. 7. Select the Frame Size tab. Configure the following items: »» Check 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, and 1518. Selecting fewer frames will decrease testing time proportionately. 8. Select the Frame Loss/Back to Back tab. Configure the following items: »» Duration: Enter a Time of 10 seconds; longer values will increase testing time proportionately. »» Starting Rate: 100%. »» Step size: As desired; 10% is typical. 9. Configure the second test port or the far end module with a software loopback as follows: »» Menu test type: Loopback »» Mode: Manual »» Layer: Layer 2 10. Make sure the laser is on, then Select Start on the Action Bar to start the RFC2544 tests. The Summary measurement window will open automatically after a few moments.

RFC2544 Applications Diagram

RFC2544 Throughput and NE Test Setup
»» For single testing, connect RxT GigE to the DUT; this is a straight through setup; use one port to receive and transmit on. »» For network testing, have a loopback at the far end; this is straight-forward coordination on both ends.

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5.8 RFC2544 Frame Size Setup
Set the frame sizes to test. RxT GE offers the standard frames sizes: 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, 1518, 4096, 8192, 12,000. The Frame Length row shows frame sizes in bytes. »» Check the corresponding box above for each frame size you want to test; active sizes are highlighted in orange. »» The default frame sizes are based on RFC 2544, but all are user-configurable.

To Edit Frame Sizes and Thresholds
To enable Thresholds, check ‘Thresholds Enabled’ below the frame grid. Select each Frame Length you want to test. . Select Edit, and configure the Frame Length, Throughput rate, and Latency. Select OK to save the configuration. Select OK to keep the changes and return to the RFC2554 Setup window, or select Cancel to simply close the Frame Length window. 5. Non-standard (user) frame sizes are used to test frame sizes that are outsized, such as a jumbo or undersized frames. 1. 2. 3. 4. These thresholds have no direct effect on the RFC2544 Throughput or Latency results. They are intended to go beyond the RFC2544 standards and provide a means to standardize minimum acceptable results of these tests.

Frame Sizes
Item
Frame Length Throughput % Latency

Options
34-12,000 frames 1-100 percent Configure the allowable Latency.

Description
Set the required frame size. Configure the required Throughput percentage. 1-999,999 ms

Note: When testing with VLAN and/or MPLS tags, 64 bytes is no longer a proper frame length, and it does not appear on the list of frame sizes. However, it can be added using the Custom Frame Size field.

RFC Frame Size
Set the RFC2544/NE throughput parameters. Select RFC2544/NE Test as the test type on the RFC2544 Test Setup window to perform RFC-2544 tests. Use the -/+ buttons to decrease or increase each value on the pop up window.

Item
Frame Length (bytes) Throughput % Latency

Options
1 to 12,000 frames 1 to 100 % Configure the allowable Latency.

Description
Set the required frame size. Minimum 60 bytes. Configure the required Throughput percentage. 1 to 100 ms

Non-standard (user) frame sizes are used to test frame sizes that are outsized, such as a jumbo or undersized frames. Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

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5.9 RFC-2544 Frame Loss & Back to Back Setup
Configure the RFC-2544 frame loss and back-to-back tests.

Frame Loss
The following table describes the various Frame Loss fields.

Item
Test Type Duration Time/ Frames

Options
TIME, FRAMES Time: 2-100 seconds Frames: 1,000100,000 .01-100% .01-100% .01-100%

Description
Set how measurements will be taken Time: Base measurements on a length of time, which you enter at the ‘Time’ button. Frames (N/A FE): Base measurements on a number of frames. Set the rate at which frames will begin being transmitted. • The rate recommended by RFC2544 is 100%. Set the rate at which frames will stop being transmitted. N/A RFC2544 test. Determine the size (percentage) of each rate step. The RFC 2544 default is steps of 10%.

Start Rate Stop Rate Rate Step Size

»» RFC2544 Frame Loss: Scans DOWN from start rate, with Step Rate, until there are two consecutive no frame loss (for all frames in the setup) results, or until the test reaches the 0 frame rate. »» NE Test Frame Loss: Scans UP from the Start Rate, until the Stop Rate, with Step Rate.

Back to Back
Back-to-Back testing determines the maximum number of frames sent back-to-back at 100% frame rate that the DUT can process without losing frames.

Items
Time Duration Max Duration

Options
2 to 100 seconds 2 to 100 seconds

Description
Enter the amount of time the frames will be sent initially. Enter the longest amount of time, in seconds, the frames will be sent backto-back. • In a perfect network, the duration is infinite, so the maximum duration is used to place a realistic cap on the time it takes to run the test. Enter the number of times the test will be run. • The average result will be taken over all repetitions. Each repetition of the test can include many cycles of changing the duration and the number of frames sent.

Repetitions

1 to 100

The average result will be taken over all repetitions. Each repetition of the test can include many cycles of changing the duration and the number of frames sent. Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

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5.10 RFC-2544 PDV Setup
Packet Delay Variation is the difference in end-to-end delay between selected packets, with any lost packets ignored. Tick PDV on the RFC2544/NE Test Setup Test Sequence panel.

Item
Duration Repetitions Start Rate Rate Step Size Stop Rate

Options
2 to 999 Seconds 1-50 1-100% 1-100% THROUGHPUT, CUSTOM :Enter value of bandwidth

Description
Set how long the test will run. Set the number of repetitions taken for averaging. Custom: Enter the start rate. Custom: Enter the rate increase size between steps. A PDV test has a 100% default bandwidth.

5.11 RFC2544 Throughput Latency Setup
Set the RFC2544/NE throughput parameters. Select RFC2544/NE Test as the test type on the RFC2544 Test Setup window to perform RFC-2544 tests.

Throughput/Quick Latency - NE
Item
Duration

Options
Time, Frames

Description
Set how measurements will be taken. TIME: Base measurements on a length of time. FRAMES: Base measurements on a number of frames Duration = Frames Duration = Time Set the rate at which frames will begin being transmitted. • 100% is a good starting rate for a standard RFC test, recommended in RFC 2544. • For NE testing, select the rate applicable to your setup. Set the rate at which frames will stop being transmitted. 100% is typical. Each step increases (or decreases) the traffic rate by the specified amount. The NE Test tests the throughput and/or latency at different test rates and gives the result for each one.

Frames Time Start Rate

10/100M: N/A GigE Options: 10004-60 seconds 01-100%

Stop Rate Rate Step Size * (N/A RFC2544 test)

01-100% 01-100%

*RFC2544 specifies a default resolution of 10%. This means if the true throughput rate of the DUT was 98.5%, the test would report 90%.

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Standard Latency
Latency measures the time it takes for the test frame to pass through the device under test. The latency of each frame is measured. Set Standard or Quick Latency in the Test Sequence area on the setup window

Item
Duration Start Rate,Stop Rate Rate Step Size

Options
2-999 seconds

Description
Determine for how long each frame size will be transmitted see above Each step increases (or decreases) the traffic rate by the specified amount. The NE Test tests the throughput and/or latency at different test rates and gives the result for each one.

Warm-up Repetitions

.01-100 seconds 1-50

N/A RFC2544 test Determine the amount of time to transmit frames before taking the latency measurement.

Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

5.12 RFC2544 Summary Results
View the overall RFC2544 results, including a Status report, such as Pass or Fail »» NE test results include the throughput status for each frame rate, with “Pass” or “Fail” result. »» For Throughput, the “Pass/Fail” message is an indication of whether or not any frames were lost during the test. This has no bearing on the Thresholds set in the configuration. »» E Time: Time elapsed since the test was started. »» R Time: Time remaining in the test; a countdown, or Continuous.

Left Results Table
Item
Seq Test Size Rate Frames Status

Description
Sequence number denoting the order and repetitions of the tests. Type of test. Frame size under test. The throughput rate currently being tested is reported, in percentage of bandwidth. Number of frames tested. Applies to Back-to-Back frames test. See Status table below.

Status
To view the link status and test summary when a test active, press Ports/Tests on the Test Setup window

Item
TX Utilization (%) TX Line Rate (kb/s) TX Data Rate (kb/s) RX Utilization (%) RX Line Rate (kb/s) RX Data Rate (kb/s)

Description
Transmitted percentage bandwidth utilization Transmitted data rate (in kbps, bps, etc.). Transmit data rate (in kbps, bps, etc.). Received percentage bandwidth utilization. Receive data rate (in kbps, bps, etc.). Receive data rate (in kbps, bps, etc.).

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Signal
The signal information for optical interfaces (vendor, wavelength, optical power, etc.) is provided by the SFP module. Not all manufacturers supply this information, and Sunrise Telecom Inc. is not responsible for modules provided by other vendors. »» Vendor: Name of the vendor; »» Wavelength: Optical wavelength in use at the port. »» RX Optical Power (Uw) received in microamps.

5.13 RFC2544 Throughput Latency Results
View the throughput, latency, and PDV results for each selected frame size, in tabular form.

Item
Frame Size Throughput

Description
Frame size, in bytes. Percentage: View Throughput percentage. Status: View In Progress/Pass/Fail/No Link status. • The rate passes if it meets or exceeds the throughput standard. Latency results are shown by Average frame size and throughput, in microseconds and link Status for each frame size. Quick Latency: Results from the highest successful throughput test. Standard Latency: Runs traffic at the set throughput rate for two minutes, measuring the latency of a single tagged frame sent a minute into the test; the reported latency is the result of twenty such tests. View the Average rate at which the PDV test was performed. It is reported as a percentage, and the PDV in milliseconds (ms).

Latency

PDV

5.14 RFC2544 Throughput Chart Results
The graph presents Throughput results. »» Horizontal axis: Size of each frame under test »» Vertical axis: Frame rate (percentage of 100% maximum). »» Each result is the maximum throughput rate for the frame size. »» Hover over a graphic element to see its value. »» See the Throughput/Latency tab for exact values. »» If you use very small values, you will need to zoom in to see the results.

5.15 RFC2544 Back-to-Back Table Results
This function determines the maximum number of frames sent back-to-back with minimal IPG (in other words, at 100% frame rate) that the DUT can process without losing frames. The test begins with a specified number of frames and repeats with more or fewer frames until it determines the maximum number. As always, this is repeated for each frame size. The Average, Minimum, and Maximum number of frames processed without error for each frame size is shown in the table.

5.16 RFC2544 Frame Loss Table Results
View the percentage of frames of each size lost for the indicated Input Rate. Frames are plotted as a function of bandwidth utilization. See the Frame Loss Chart for a graphical representation of the results.

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5.17 RFC2544 Frame Loss Chart Results
View the percentage of frames of each size lost for the indicated input rate; each rate has its own color. See the Frame Loss Table for the table of the results. The graph plots the frame loss as a function of frame rate (as a percentage of the maximum frame rate) and frame size. Different frame sizes are shown in different colors (see the color/size key to the right side the graph itself for reference). A perfect test results on 0.00% frame loss for all throughput rates and frame sizes. This will cause the graph to appear blank. Confirm the results with the tabular results.

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6

Advanced IP Test Mode
After turning up the Ethernet link, select IP ADVANCED FEATURES. Perform advanced IP connectivity analysis, with expert PING testing with statistics, traceroute testing, ARP and VLAN scans.

6.1 Advanced IP Test Profile

To Configure an IP Test
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select Test Modes > IP Advanced Test > Setup. If not already set, choose a port by selecting the RJ45/SFP/XFP button. In the IP Test Type combo box, select a desired test. Configure the Address Setup, VLAN Setup, and Protocol Setup. Select Start, then view the TEST RESULTS.

To send loopback commands in a test,
1. Select L2 Loop. 2. Select Start. 3. The results Summary screen will appear.

Test Features
Cable Test: Measure the length of copper Ethernet cable.

6.2 Advanced IP Test Setup
For IP features, the module uses it’s default unique MAC Address based on the serial number of the test set chassis. The signal graphic both reflects the Ethernet frame and gives you access to the associated configuration screens. To configure the Port and Rate, select SFP/RJ-45 to access the parameters.

Item

Options
PING

Description
Commonly used to discover whether two remote LAN segments, using TCP/IP protocol, are connected. Trace the route (see each hop) packets take from one device to another File transfer testing Web access testing Query the network and receive their corresponding MAC addresses. Scan and report all VLAN IDs observed on the test interface.

Traceroute IP Test Type FTP HTTP ARP Scan VLAN Scan

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6.3 IP Address Setup
The following table describes the IP Address setup fields.

Item
Source IP Mode

Options
DHCP: The test port will obtain an IP source and gateway Address from a DHCP server. A status field shows the message exchange, under ‘Detail’. Select Reset to reStart the process. Static: Manually assign the network parameters;the port will use the same IP Address each time it connects. Enter the Static IP Address to use in the test. Enter the Gateway IP Address. Enter the Subnet Mask.

Description
Set how the unit will obtain an IP source and gateway Address.

Source IP Gateway Subnet Mask

Static Only Static Only Static Only Default Subnet Masks Class A: 255.0.0.0 Class B: 255.255.0.0 Class C: 255.255.255.0 Static Only

DNS

Enter the DNS server IP Address.

Select OK to confirm your changes.

6.4 Test Ping Setup
The IP test evaluates end-to-end connectivity between active IP stations, providing various performance related statistics. The signal graphic both reflects the Ethernet frame and gives you access to the associated configuration screens (Layer 2 tests).

To Configure an Advanced IP Test
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select Test Modes > IP Advanced Test > Setup. If not already set, choose a port by selecting the RJ45/SFP/XFP button. In the IP Test Type combo box, select Ping Configure the Address Setup, VLAN Setup, and PING Setup. Select Start, then view the TEST RESULTS.

Item

Options
PING Traceroute FTP HTTP ARP Scan VLAN Scan

Description
Ping and trace route tests typically requires two RxT modules, or a RxT and a MTT-28/-29/-50 module. However, the ping test can also be used to ping a distant router directly, provided its IP Address or URL are known, and the end router has been configured to respond to pings.

IP Test Type

Caution: If you are sending packets to your responder via a router or other device with its own IP Address, make sure to set the Destination MAC to the MAC Address or router, NOT the responder. Otherwise, the router will likely discard the packets (without ARP in use).If you are staying down at layer 2 (MAC) this does not apply. IP works fine if all the devices are on the same local network segment. This applies when sending traffic off your local network segment.

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Ping Test Setup
Verify connectivity to the far end network by sending an ICMP echo message of “echo request” to another device.

Item
Ping Rate (per second) Frame Length

Options
1-20 Pings per second 64-1550 bytes Continuous: Sends pings continually for the duration of the test. 1-9999 pings, Continuous 1 to 256 hops

Description
Set the rate at which pings are sent. Set the length of the ping frame.

# of Ping Packets TTL (Time to Live)

Set the number of pings the module will send during the test. Set the time to live. This places an effective maximum on the number of hops to the destination device. Set how long the RxT GigE will wait for a response to a ping before timing out.

Time Out

1 to 5 seconds

Destination IP/URL Selection
Set the number of addresses pings will be sent to with the -/+ bar. A corresponding number of IP/URLs will become available. Select a row to configure a ping destination using the popup keyboard. For each ping destination, enter the domain name or IP Address using the popup keyboard.

6.5 Echo Results
Get details on the transmitted pings and received ping echoes. Observe the following for each ping response: »» Source addresses »» Destination Address »» PING size in bytes »» PING round-trip time, in microseconds »» TTL of the inbound packet The details are for reference only. Only one line is displayed per second, even if the ping rate is higher.

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6.6 Test Traceroute Setup
The IP test tests end-to-end connectivity between active IP stations, providing various performance related statistics. TRACEROUTE maps each hop to the far end. The signal graphic both reflects the Ethernet frame and gives you access to the associated configuration screens (Layer 2 tests).

Configure an Advanced IP Trace Route Test
1. Select Test Modes > IP Advanced Test > Setup »» If necessary to select a different port, select Ports/Tests and select the port to test on. »» If not already set, select the dark blue button on the left to choose the port interface and set its configuration (shown by the connector; SFP/RJ-45 and rate), then configure the rest of the setup. 2. Select the IP Test Type combo box and select Traceroute. 3. Configure the Address Setup and VLAN Setup by selecting each item. 4. Select Start, then view the Test Results.

Advanced IP Setup Options
Item Options
PING Traceroute IP Test Type FTP HTTP ARP Scan VLAN Scan

Description
Select the type of test.

Note: If you are sending packets to your responder via a router or other device with its own IP Address, make sure to set the Destination MAC to the MAC Address or router, NOT the responder. Otherwise, the router will likely discard the packets (without ARP in use). If you are staying down at layer 2 (MAC) this does not apply. IP works fine if all the devices are on the same local network segment. This applies when sending traffic off your local network segment.

6.7 VLAN Setup
To add VLAN tags, select the corresponding VLAN box. »» Up to three VLANS are available. »» Enter the TPID, PPI, CFI, and VLAN ID for each VLAN; Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

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6.8 ARP Scan Setup
Query the network by inputting a single or range (255 maximum) of IP addresses. The network will then return their corresponding MAC addresses. An example of a single IP Address is 192.168.1.1 An example of a range of IP addresses would be 192.168.1.1-192.168.1.255, with the first IP Address being the first Address on the network to scan, and the 2nd IP Address being the last Address on the network to scan. All IP addresses between 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.255 will be scanned if Range is selected.

Item
IP Range Start IP Range End IP

Options
Single Range

Description
enter a single IP Address or a range of IP addresses to scan. Enter the Start of the range of IP addresses to scan Enter the name of the range of IP addresses to scan

To Start the ARP scan, select Start. The test set sends an ARP request to all the devices on the network (with the corresponding IP addresses that were entered), and receives the ARP replies from these devices. The ARP replies contain the MAC and IP Address information, which is displayed on the results on the right side of the screen. Select OK to save your changes and close the window. Select Cancel to exit without saving your changes.

6.9 Test FTP Setup
The IP test tests end-to-end connectivity between active IP stations, providing various performance related statistics. FTP tests web file transfer. The signal graphic both reflects the Ethernet frame and gives you access to the associated configuration screens (Layer 2 tests).

To Configure an Advanced IP FTP Test
1. Select Test Modes > IP Advanced Test > Setup. »» If not already set, choose a port by selecting the RJ45/SFP/XFP button. 2. In the IP Test Type combo box, select FTP 3. Configure the Address Setup, VLAN Setup, and FTP Setup. 4. Select Start,then view the test results.

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6.10 FTP Setup
FTP is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a network, such as the Internet. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and utilizes separate control and data connections between the client and server. FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it.

Item
FTP Test Type

Options
Download: Transfer the test file from the RxT. Upload: Transfer a file to the RxT via FTP.

Description
Select the type of test.

User Password File Name

Enter the FTP user name. Enter the FTP users password. Input the path and the name of the file to download.

Warning: FTP does not use encryption and all login information will be sent in clear text. FTP sessions could be easily captured by a host configured to monitor network traffic. Please keep this in mind when testing using FTP with login credentials.

Destination IP/URL Selection
Enter the IP Address of the transfer location with the soft key board which pops up. A list of IP/URLs is also available. »» Select a row to configure a destination using a popup keyboard.. »» Select OK > Start. After selecting Start, you will begin to see the FTP Results.

File Browsing
Browse local/remote file systems. »» To transfer a file, select Upload. The browsing screen will disappear. The main Start/Stop button shows Stop. »» To stop a file transfer, select Stop. »» If a file transfer is stopped, the File Browsing screen reappears. »» To close the File Browsing window, select Disconnect. »» Download: remote filename »» Upload: ‘filename’ = local filename.

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6.11 FTP Web Results
Select FTP as the IP Test Type on the IP Advanced signal setup window to run a FTP test.

FTP Test Statistics

Item
Test Status

Options
Current status of the test.

Description
PASS -Test completed, no errors LOGIN FAIL - Failed to login to FTP server due to invalid user name or password mismatch UNKNOWN HOST - FTP server is not available FILE NOT FOUND - Specified file is not available ACCESS DENIED - Not enough privilege to access the file IN PROGRESS - Transfer is in progress STOPPED - Test stopped by user NO LINK - No link FAIL - Test failed, unknown reason

FTP Server IP URL File Name Transfer Type Transferred Bytes Transferred Time (ms) Transferred Rate Average Transferred Rate (KB/s) Minimum Transferred Rate (KB/s) Maximum Transferred Rate (KB/s)

FTP servers IP Address FTP servers URL Name of the file transferred. Upload or Download Number of bytes transferred Length of time the transfer took (in milliseconds) Speed of the transfer Average transfer rate during session Slowest transfer rate during session Fastest transfer rate during session

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6.12 IP Advanced HTTP Setup
The IP test tests end-to-end connectivity between active IP stations, providing various performance related statistics. HTTP tests web access. The signal graphic both reflects the Ethernet frame and gives you access to the associated configuration screens (Layer 2 tests).

To Configure an Advanced IP HTTP Test
1. Select Test Modes > IP Advanced Test > Setup. »» If not already set, choose a port by selecting the RJ45/SFP/XFP button. 2. In the IP Test Type combo box, select HTTP 3. Configure the Address Setup, VLAN Setup, and HTTP setup. 4. Select Start, then hen view the test results.

Item

Options
PING Traceroute FTP HTTP ARP Scan VLAN Scan

Description
HTTP Test

IP Test Type

Caution: If you are sending packets to your responder via a router or other device with its own IP Address, make sure to set the Destination MAC to the MAC Address or router, NOT the responder. Otherwise, the router will likely discard the packets (without ARP in use).If you are staying down at layer 2 (MAC) this does not apply. IP works fine if all the devices are on the same local network segment. This applies when sending traffic off your local network segment.

6.13 HTTP Setup
Download a web page (specified by IP Address or URL), then view statistics on the download. See

Destination IP/URL Selection
»» Enter the IP Address of the destination with the soft key board which pops up. »» A list of IP/URLs is also available. »» Select a row to configure a destination using a popup keyboard.

HTTP Web Results
Item
Test Status

Options
Test Status: PASS: Test complete, no errors IN PROGRESS: Transfer is in progress NO LINK: No link FAIL: Test failed, unknown reason IP Address of specified URL. IP Address or domain name of the HTTP server to be connected to. Average rate that data was uploaded/downloaded from site Minimum rate that data was uploaded/downloaded from site Maximum rate that data was uploaded/downloaded from site Number of bytes downloaded Total download time

HTTP Server IP URL Average Transferred Rate (KB/s) Minimum Transferred Rate (KB/s) Maximum Transferred Rate (KB/s) Transferred Bytes Transferred Time (ms)

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6.14 IP Summary Results
The top left of the results displays test status: »» Elapsed Time: How long the test has been running. »» Remaining Time: How long remains in the scheduled test, or Continuous. »» Banner: A message summary banner of the status of the test. It reports any errors or alarms, along with a date and time stamp. Below the banner, view a list of logged events: received errors and/or alarms, e.g. Lost Frame, including a count of the number of errors, with a resolution of one second.

Status
Even though the test set generates pings, there are circumstances which cause the pings not to be sent. For example, the port could lose link or be paused, preventing the transmission of the Ethernet frames in which the ping packets reside. In these situations, the number of pings sent will not be displayed to avoid confusion.

Item
TX Utilization TX Line Rate

Options
Transmitted bandwidth as a percentage of maximum traffic rate (minimum frame gap) Transmitted bit rate (in kbps, bps, etc.) of the Ethernet frames, ignoring the frame gap, preamble, and SAD. The data rate is always less than the line rate. Transmit data rate (in kbps, bps, etc.); includes the frame headers but not the IPG or Preamble. Thus, the data rate reflects both the frame rate and frame size. Received bandwidth as a percentage of maximum traffic rate (minimum frame gap). Received bit rate, based on the current utilization (in kbps, bps, etc.). Received bit rate, based on the current utilization (in kbps, bps, etc.).

TX Data Rate

RX Utilization RX Line Rate RX Data Rate

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6.15 IP Aggregate Results
View frame statistics and information on received errors. The top line of the results tables shows you the port number and the type of test the statistics are for (e.g.: PING or TRACEROUTE). »» Both the specific count of the error and the average rate at which the error was received may be displayed for each type of error. »» Frame statistics are shown for both the transmit direction and the receive direction, as appropriate. »» For both the Transmit and Receive directions, view the Total number of frames transmitted/received, and the Current, Minimum, Maximum and Average Frame Rates, as well as the Current, Minimum, Maximum and Average Data Rate. Results are aggregate totals since the beginning of the test, for all test streams and live traffic.

Item
Total Frames Total Bytes Frame Rate

Description
Number of received/transmitted frames. Number of received/transmitted bytes. Transmitted and received frames per second. Frame Rate Current: Current rate at which frames are being TX and RX at Frame Rate Average: Average transmitted and received frames per second over the duration of the test. Frame Rate Minimum: Minimum TX and RX frames per second since the beginning of the test. Frame Rate Maximum: Maximum TX and RX frames per second since the beginning of the test Percentage of bandwidth in use: Current, Maximum, Minimum, and Average usages. Transmitted bit rate, based on the current utilization. Transmitted bit rate of the Ethernet frames, ignoring the frame gap, preamble, and SFD. The data rate is always less than the line rate. Number of undersized/fragmented frames with a length of less than 64 bytes. Some VLAN and MPLS frames may be undersized even if they fall within standard Ethernet frame sizes. For example, a 64-byte frame with VLAN is too short—the length must be at least 68 bytes. For Unframed tests, only Bit Errors are reported. Count of frames with a length of 64 bytes. Count of frames with a length of 65-127 bytes. Count of frames with a length of 128-255 bytes. Count of frames with a length of 256-511 bytes. Count of frames with a length of 512-1023 bytes. Count of frames with a length of 1024-1518 bytes. Count of jumbo frames with a length of 1519 or more bytes. View statistics on frames matching the stream table. Frame Rate Current (fps):Current rate at which frames are being transmitted and received at this second. Frame Rate Average (fps): Average transmitted and received frames per second over the duration of the test. Utilization Current (fps):Current percentage of bandwidth in use. Utilization Average (fps):Average Percentage of bandwidth in use.

Utilization Line Rate Data Rate Frame Size Under 64 Bytes

FS 64 bytes FS 65-127 FS 128-255 bytes FS 256-511 FS 512-1023 FS 1024-1518 FS Over 1518 Test Frames

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Non Test Frames

Description
Number of received frames that do not match the ports Stream Table, such as live traffic. Multicast and broadcast frames are reported as nontest frames. Frame Rate Current (fps):Current rate at which non-test frames are being transmitted and received at this second. Frame Rate Average (fps): Average transmitted and received non-test frames per second over the duration of the test. Utilization Current (fps):Current percentage of non-test bandwidth in use. Utilization Average (fps):Average Percentage of non-test bandwidth in use. Number of Layer 2 unicast frames transmitted and received. View the Current and Average Unicast Test Frame rates, and the Current and Average Unicast Bandwidth Utilization. Number of Layer 2 multicast frames transmitted and received. Multicast Test Frame rates, and the Current and Average multicast bandwidth utilization. Number of broadcast frames transmitted and received. A broadcast frame is a frame that is intended for all of the devices on the network, the destination MAC Address is set to ‘FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF’. View Broadcast Test Frame rates and the Current and Average multicast bandwidth utilization statistics. Number of MAC frames which don’t match the Stream Table. View Invalid MAC Frames Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average Invalid MAC Frames bandwidth utilization statistics Number of frames which match the Stream Table. View Good Frames Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average Good Frames bandwidth utilization statistics. Number of frames containing errors. View Error Frames Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average Error Frames bandwidth utilization statistics. Number of frames containing VLAN tags. View Total VLAN Frames Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average Total VLAN Frames bandwidth utilization statistics. Number of frames containing exactly one VLAN tag. View Single Tag VLAN Frames Current and Average Frame rates, and Current and Average Single Tag VLAN Frames bandwidth utilization statistics. Number of frames containing exactly more than one VLAN tag (Stacked/Q-in-Q). View Multi-Tagged VLAN Frames Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average Multi-Tagged VLAN Frames bandwidth utilization statistics. Number of frames containing MPLS labels. View MPLS Frames Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average MPLS Frames bandwidth utilization statistics. Number of frames containing IPv4. View: IPv4 Frames Current and Average Frame rates IPv4 Current and Average IPv4 Frames bandwidth utilization statistics. IPv4 Multicast Current and Average Frame Rates, as well as Current and Average utilization rates. IPv4 Broadcast Current and Average Frame Rates, as well as Current and Average utilization rates. Number of frames containing TCP. View TCP Frames Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average TCP Frames bandwidth utilization statistics.

Unicast

Multicast

Broadcast Test Frames

Invalid MAC Frames:

Good Frames

Error Frames

Total VLAN Frames

Single Tag VLAN Frames

Multi-Tagged VLAN Frames

MPLS Frames

IPv4 Frames

TCP Frames

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UDP Frames

Description
Number of frames containing TCP. View UDP Frames Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average UDP Frames bandwidth utilization statistics Count of received pause frames. View the Minimum, Maximum, and Average frame gap. The minimum IPG is 12 bytes or 96 bit times. Count of received service disruptions. Service Disruption Duration: The longest packet interval detected during the measurement is displayed in microseconds. Service Disruption Min/ Max/Avg: Minimum, Maximum, and Average disruptions. Measures the time it takes for each test frame to pass through the device under test. Sunrise Tagging required. View Minimum, Maximum, and Average statistics. These measurements assume a loopback at the far end. If you have two units back to back, the latency results will be erroneous. Count of the number of times signal has been lost (LOS). Count of seconds of loss of signal: Minimum, Maximum, Current and Average. Count of the number of times synchronization has been lost View the Seconds and Min, Max, Current, and Average counts of LOSync. Count of frames containing FCS/CRC error codes. FCS/CRC Error Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average FCS/CRC Error bandwidth utilization statistics. Count of frames containing IP Checksum error codes. IP Checksum Error Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average IP Checksum Error bandwidth utilization statistics. Count of frames containing UDP Checksum error codes. UDP Checksum Error Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average UDP Checksum Error bandwidth utilization statistics. Count of frames with no sequence number. Lost SN Error Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average Lost SN Error bandwidth utilization statistics Count of frames received out of sequence. Out of Sequence Error Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average Out of Sequence Error bandwidth utilization statistics. Count of frames with duplicated sequence numbers. Duplicate SN Error Current and Average Frame rates, and the Current and Average Out of Duplicate SN Error bandwidth utilization statistics.

Pause Frames Frame Gap Service Disruption Events

Latency Min/Max/Avg

LOS LOSS LOSync FCS/CRC Error

IP Checksum Error

UDP Checksum Error

Lost SN Error

Out of Sequence Error

Duplicate SN Error

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7

Loopback Test Mode
Perform Loopback testing. Loopbacks are useful performing Throughput BERT and RFC2544 tests. RxT GigE can Control a loopback or act as a loopback responder. See the diagram.

7.1 Loopback Test Profile 7.2 Configure a Loopback Test
1. Select Test Modes > Loopback Test. 2. Select Setup. 3. Select Start to begin the test.

Loopback Test Type
Item
Manual

Options
Selecting Start will immediately start looping the incoming traffic on the selected port. The RxT will act as a responder

Description
Layer 1: The test set will retransmit the incoming frames without modifying them. Layer 2/3: The test set will retransmit incoming frames RxT will scan incoming traffic for a loop up command; Select Address STATUS for Address details. As soon as loop up command is received, RxT will switch to loopback mode, and will loop back all incoming traffic on the port. The responder will remain in loopback mode until it receives a loop down frame, or STOP is selected.

Responder

Layer Type
Item
Layer 1

Description
Layer 1: The test set can transmit a Layer 1 loop up or loop down command to a remote test set configured as a responder. Upon receiving the Layer 1 loop up command, the remote test set will retransmit the incoming frames without modifying them. Layer 2/3/4: The test set can transmit a Layer 2 or Layer 3 loop up or loop down command to a remote test set configured as a responder. Upon receiving the Layer 2/3/4 loop up command, the remote test set will retransmit the incoming frames and swap the source and destination MAC Address fields, adding IP addresses for Layer 3

Layer 2/3

Use caution when using loopback mode because some network equipment may not allow the loopback of some unicast frames. »» RxT GigE will not respond to any loop commands until you select START. »» After the test starts, the RxT GigE will go into a waiting for loopback command state. A message informs you that the test set is in the waiting for loopback command state. »» Once RxT GigE receives a loop-up command from the received traffic, it will begin looping back frames based on the layer indicated in the loop command frame: Layer 1, Layer 2, or Layer 3. »» A message will appear, informing you that the test set is in an active loopback state. »» When RxT GigE receives a loop-down command from the received traffic, it will cease looping back frames and re-enter the waiting for loopback command state. »» Once you stop the test, RxT GigE will return to the waiting for loopback command state.

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7.3 Loopback Diagram
In Monitor Pass Through mode, the test set is inserted between two devices and will monitor frames in either direction. In Splitter mode, the test set is inserted between two devices using splitters. In this mode you can insert and remove the test set without interrupting the traffic.

7.4 Loopback Responder
In order to configure the RxT to respond to loopbacks, select Responder from the Loopback Test Type dropdown in the Loopback Test Profile Setup screen. RxT will enact a L1, L2/L3 loopback depending on how the Layer dropdown option is configured.. Use caution when using loopback mode, because some network equipment may not allow the loopback of some frames. It can cause such equipment to shut down the port. »» The graphic on the Signal window shows how Loopback mode works. In Loopback mode, a red ‘LB’ status banner appears in the Status Bar, reporting status such as “LB Running” or “LB Waiting.” »» The test set will only respond to those loop commands addressed to it. »» In this mode the layer is NOT selected. »» RxT will not respond to any loop commands until you press START. Once the test has started, RxT 10GE will go into a waiting for loopback command state. A screen message informs you that the test set is in the waiting for loopback command state. »» The test set’s MAC and IP Address appear, as appropriate. »» Once RxT GE receives a loop-up command from the received traffic, it will begin looping back frames based on the layer indicated in the loop command frame: Layer 1, Layer 2, or Layer 3. »» A screen message appears, informing you that the test set is in an active loopback state. »» When RxT GE receives a loop-down command from the received traffic, it will cease looping back frames and re-enter the waiting for loopback command state. »» Once you stop the test,RxT GE will return to the waiting for loopback command state.

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7.5 Loop Control Setup
To perform loopback testing, select Loopback Test as the test type in the Test Modes window, or select the L2 Loop Control button on the Action Bar to access the Loopback Control screen, The commands are sent as configured here, on the Control tab. »» When the test has started, the Summary and Aggregate results windows appears. »» RxT can loop-up and loop-down Sunrise Telecom Ethernet testers, using the standard Sunrise Telecom loop commands. »» RxT reports if the loop-up or loop-down was successful. »» The loop-up command indicates the layer:1, or 2/3. »» The loopback command contains the MAC and IP Address of the test set to be looped, as appropriate. The RxT 10GE can loop-up and loop-down Sunrise Telecom Ethernet testers, using the standard Sunrise Telecom loop commands.

7.6 Ethernet Settings
Item
Layer 1

Description
Layer 1: The test set can transmit a Layer 1 loop up or loop down command to a remote test set configured as a responder. Upon receiving the Layer 1 loop up command, the remote test set will retransmit the incoming frames without modifying them. Layer 2/3/4: The test set can transmit a Layer 2 or Layer 3 loop up or loop down command to a remote test set configured as a responder. Upon receiving the Layer 2/3/4 loop up command, the remote test set will retransmit the incoming frames and swap the source and destination MAC Address fields, adding IP addresses for Layer 3

Layer 2/3

These frames will not be looped: Errored Frames, MAC Broadcast, MAC Multicast, Frames with identical Source and Destination MAC Addresses (such as a keep alive frame), IP Broadcast, IP Multicast, IP Multicast, Frames with identical Source and Destination IP Addresses. For a standard Ethernet test, select ARP to have the RxT 10GE ARP for the MAC Address of the remote RxT 10GE unit which is set in Loopback Responder mode.

Item
MAC/IP Source MAC/IP Destination

Description
The Source addresses are those used by the test port sending the command. The Destination addresses must match the MAC and IP addresses of the port or unit to be looped. • A Destination IP may need to be configured even for a Layer 2 loopback. • Select ARP to send a request; a pop up window shows the ARP status. Required if the device to be looped is outside the local subnetwork. Specify the subnet mask. For a Layer 2/3 loopback, touch VLAN-1/-2/-3 to turn the VLAN tag on. Enter the VLAN Priority level (UPI), CFI and ID information.

IP Gateway Subnet Mask VLAN

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Start Loopback Control
1. Select Apply to confirm the settings. 2. Select Loop Up or Loop Down to send the indicated command from the Control tab. The Status field reports on the status of the loop. »» The loop-up command indicates the Layer 1, or Layer 2/3. »» The loopback command contains the MAC and IP Address of the test set to be looped, as appropriate. For a standard Ethernet test, Select ARP to have the RxT send an ARP for the MAC Address of the remote unit which is set in Loopback Responder mode. When the test has started, the Summary and Aggregate results windows appear.

Possible Status Messages
You may see these for each test layer: »» Waiting for response.... »» Timeout »» Loopup Successful! »» Loopdown Successful!

Address Status
In a Manual loopback, view Address details. »» Source IP: RxT’s IP Address »» Source MAC: RxT’s MAC Address

Loopback Results
View the Loopback status. The test layer is reported.

Loopback Ports Note
Different ports on the Sunrise Telecom XTT, STT and MTT behave differently in Loopback mode, based on the type of MAC frame received.

Frame
MAC Unicast Multicast Broadcast Keepalive*

STT FE
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

STT GE
Yes No Yes Yes Yes

STT 10GE
Yes No No No No

MTT-28/-29
Yes No No No No

Yes: The frame will be looped back. No: The frame will not be looped back * Identical Source and Destination addresses

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8

Technology
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs) commercially introduced in 1980. Standardized in IEEE 802.3, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies. Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into individual packets called frames. Each frame contains source and destination addresses and error-checking data so that damaged data can be detected and re-transmitted. The standards define several wiring and signaling variants. The original 10BASE5 Ethernet used coaxial cable as a shared medium. Later the coaxial cables were replaced by twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches. Data rates were periodically increased from the original 10 megabits per second, to 100 gigabits per second. Since its commercial release, Ethernet has retained a good degree of compatibility. Features such as the 48-bit MAC Address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols. Ethernet interface rates today span from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps. Typically, Ethernet is carried over UTP (unshielded twisted pair) or fiber optic cable (single-mode or multi-mode, depending on wavelength), but other options exist, including thin coaxial cable. 10G LAN has a line rate of 10 Gbps. 10G WAN encapsulates Ethernet traffic into an OC-192c/STM-64c frame has thus has a line rate of 9.953 Gbps. The 10 gigabit Ethernet (10GE or 10GbE or 10 GigE) computer networking standard was first published in 2002. It defines a version of Ethernet with a nominal data rate of 10 Gbit/s (billion bits per second), ten times as fast as gigabit. 10GB Ethernet defines only full duplex point to point links which are generally connected by network switches. Half duplex operation, hubs and CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access with collision detection) do not exist in 10GbE.

8.1 Technology: Ethernet Overview

Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)
The Metro Ethernet Forum is an industry alliance which develops technical specifications for carrier Ethernet worldwide. Over a dozen specifications are online at http://www.metroethernetforum.org.

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8.2 Technology: Ethernet Standards
Ethernet is controlled by the IEEE 802.3 body of standards, but its historical development has also lead to deviations, such as the DIX Ethernet (also known as Ethernet II), as well as vendor-specific implementations (such as 1000BASE-LH for long-haul Ethernet). Except where noted, the following refers to IEEE standards.

IEEE Standards
The following 802 standards are available for free download from the IEEE web site at http://standards.ieee.org/about/get/index.html »» IEEE 802®: Overview & Architecture »» IEEE 802.1™ Bridging & Management »» IEEE 802.2™: Logical Link Control »» IEEE 802.3™: CSMA/CD Access Method »» IEEE 802.5™: Token Ring Access Method »» IEEE 802.11™: Wireless »» IEEE 802.15™: Wireless Personal Area Networks »» IEEE 802.16™: Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks »» IEEE 802.17™. Resilient Packet Rings »» OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier) Public Listing »» IAB (Individual Address Block) Public Listing »» OUI-36 Public Listing »» EtherType Field Public Listing »» Manufacturer ID Public Listing »» LLC (Logical Link Control) Public Listing »» Standard Group MAC Address Public Listing »» URN (Unique Registration Numbers) Public Listing »» IEEE 802.16 Operator ID

Requests for Comments (RFC) Documents
RFC documents are a series of memoranda on internet technologies, techniques, and innovations. Organized through the Internet Society, RFCs are the best resource for technical information on these technologies and protocols. Some RFCs become internet standards through the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). All RFCs are available for free online at the RFC Editor: http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc.html, but most can be found easily simply by typing the RFC number (such as ”RFC 791”) into a web browser. The most common RFCs for Ethernet services testing are: »» RFC 768 User Datagram Protocol »» RFC 793 Transmission Control Protocol »» RFC 791 Internet Protocol »» RFC 792 Internet Control Message Protocol »» RFC 826 Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol »» RFC 2544 Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices »» RFC 2889 Benchmarking Methodology for LAN Switching Devices.

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8.3 Technology: Ethernet Frames
Technology: Ethernet Frames

Preamble and SFD
Preceding each frame is a preamble of 7 bytes and a 1-byte SFD. The preamble is a pattern of alternating 1s and 0s (10101010) for all 7 bytes. The SFD has a pattern of 10101011. The preamble allows devices to detect and synchronize to incoming Ethernet frames; the SFP marks the end of the preamble. For the purposes of calculating frame lengths, the 8 bytes of Preamble and SFP are not included.

Ethernet frame
Consists of a MAC (Media Access Control ) header, followed by the frame payload, and ends with a FCS (Frame Check Sequence).

MAC header
14-bytes- consists of a 6-byte Destination Address, a 6-byte Source Address, and a 2-byte Ethertype field (see MAC Address Overview).

Ethertype field
Used as a frame length indicator or as protocol indicator, depending on which Ethernet standard is being used. IEEE 802.2 uses the field to indicate the frame length (in hex). Ethernet II standard uses the field to indicate the type of data being transmitted. In most IP-based applications, the Ethernet II standard is used and the field is set to an Ethertype of 0x0800 to indicate an IP version 4 payload. Ethertype values: http:// standards.ieee.org/regauth/ethertype/eth.txt

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Payload Size
Frame sizes above 1518, called jumbo frames, are allowed by some systems, and are an effective means of increasing the efficiency of the network. The presence of VLAN tags changes the effective minimum and maximum frame sizes . »» The minimum payload size is 46 bytes. »» Frames with fewer payload bytes are considered undersized. »» The minimum Ethernet frame size is 64 bytes. »» The maximum frame size is 1518 bytes.

FCS
A 4-byte CRC performed over the entire Ethernet frame. Sometimes the FCS is called the CRC field. To avoid confusion, it is sometimes written as the FCS/CRC field. When an Ethernet device receives a frame, it performs a CRC calculation and compares it to the frame’s FCS field. If they match, the frame is processed. If they do not match, the frame is discarded. Due to the limits of the error-checking capabilities of a 4-byte CRC, the largest practical size for an Ethernet frame is roughly 12,000 bytes. Because errored frames are discarded, performing a bit error test at the Ethernet layer is very different than for TDM networks. The presence of a bit error that does not also cause a CRC error is exceedingly rare. In the vast majority of cases, a bit error translates into a lost frame. For this reason, most Ethernet QoS (Quality of Service) standards use lost frames as its primary metric and do not rely on bit error or BER (Bit Error Ratio).

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8.4 Technology: IP Overview

TCP/IP Packet Header

IP
Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol used for relaying datagrams (packets) across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite. Responsible for routing packets across network boundaries, it is the primary protocol that establishes the Internet. IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering datagrams from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose, IP defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation. Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974, the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet Protocol Suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP. The design principles of the Internet protocols assume that the network infrastructure is inherently unreliable at any single network element or transmission medium and that it is dynamic in terms of availability of links and nodes. No central monitoring or performance measurement facility exists that tracks or maintains the state of the network. For the benefit of reducing network complexity, the intelligence in the network is purposely mostly located in the end nodes of each data transmission, cf. end-to-end principle. Routers in the transmission path simply forward packets to the next known local gateway matching the routing prefix for the destination Address. The only assistance that the Internet Protocol provides in Version 4 (IPv4) is to ensure that the IP packet header is error-free through computation of a checksum at the routing nodes. This has the side-effect of discarding packets with bad headers on the spot. In this case no notification is required to be sent to either end node, although a facility exists in the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to do so.

ICMP and Ping
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. It is chiefly used by the operating systems of networked computers to send error messages indicating, for example, that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached. ICMP can also be used to relay query messages. It is assigned protocol number 1. ICMP differs from transport protocols such as TCP and UDP in that it is not typically used to exchange data between systems, nor is it regularly employed by end-user network applications (with the exception of some diagnostic tools like ping and traceroute).

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As a rough guide, anything more than about 10% packet loss will break TCP, and anything more than 1% will tend to make it painfully slow. A well engineered network should have negligible packet loss. Each time we send an echo request, we can time how long it takes for the echo reply to come A router is a device that forwards data packets between telecommunications networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When data comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the Address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey or drops the packet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through networks that constitute the internetwork until it gets to its destination node.

Gateways
A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes, while the nodes that connect the networks in between are gateways. For example, the computers that control traffic between company networks or the computers used by internet service providers (ISPs) to connect users to the internet are gateway nodes.

DNS
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most importantly, it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide.

DHCP
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network configuration protocol for hosts on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Computers that are connected to IP networks must be configured before they can communicate with other hosts. The most essential information needed is an IP Address, and a default route and routing prefix. DHCP eliminates the manual task by a network administrator. It also provides a central database of devices that are connected to the network and eliminates duplicate resource assignments. In addition to IP addresses, DHCP also provides other configuration information, particularly the IP addresses of local caching DNS resolvers, network boot servers, or other service hosts. Hosts that do not use DHCP for Address configuration may still use it to obtain other configuration information. Alternatively, IPv6 hosts may use stateless Address autoconfiguration. IPv4 hosts may use link-local addressing to achieve limited local connectivity.

ARP
The ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) allows a networked computer to search for a computer with a particular IP Address. ARP is important on LANs, such as Ethernet, where there may be many computers attached to the network, but IP packets should only be sent to one of them. To find another computer, an ARP message is sent saying “who has IP Address 192.168.1.2?” All of the computers on the network will see that message, but only the one with that IP Address will respond, saying ”r;that’s me, at Ethernet Address 12:34:56:78:9A:BC”. From then on, IP packets for 192.168.1.2 will be sent to Ethernet Address 12:34:56:78:9A:BC, so that only that compute

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8.5 Technology: Ethernet Frame Size and Efficiency
Because each frame is followed by a frame gap and preamble, there is an inherent inefficiency built into Ethernet traffic. The percentage of bandwidth lost to the 20 bytes of IPG and preamble is lower for larger frames than smaller frames, as shown:

Data size
64 Bytes (512 bits) 128 Bytes (1024 bits) 512 Bytes (4096 bits) 1024 Bytes (8192 bits) 1518 Bytes (12144 bits)

Frame Overhead
160 bits 160 bits 160 bits 160 bits 160 bits

Frames (sec)
1,488,095 844,594 234,962 119,731 81,274

Total Bits Lost
238,095,238 135,135,135 37,593,984 19,157,088 13,003,901

Bandwidth Lost (%)
23% 13% 3.7% 1.9% 1.3%

8.6 Technology: Frame Size Details
64 or 1518 bytes are used most often since these represent the normal minimum and maximum frame size allowed by the network. The standard frame sizes for Ethernet testing are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, and 1518 bytes. When testing RFC2544 with VLAN and/or MPLS tags, 64 bytes is no longer a proper frame length. With systems that support jumbo frames, such as 4096- or 9000- byte frames, these frame sizes should be tested as well. The RxT defaults to the frame size defined in RFC 2544, but allows you to set the frame size to any valid value.

Test Layer
Layer 1: FCS/ CRC Layer 2: MAC L2 + VLAN Layer 3: MAC + IP L3 + VLAN

Undersized
N/A Under 64 Under 68 Under 64 Under 68

Oversized
N/A Over 1518 Over 1522 Over 1518 Over 1522

FE
20—20480 38—20480 42—20480 58—20480 62—20480

GE
20—65535 38—65535 42—65535 58—65535 62—65535

8.7 Technology: Frame Interval
A frame interval is the time between the start of one frame and the start of the next frame. The frame interval increases as the frame size increases. However, as the effect of frame size is usually very small compared to the duration of traffic problems, the frame interval is useful for measuring service disruptions.

Minimum Frame Interval Note
Under normal network conditions, the smallest possible frame interval is for two 64-byte frames with a minimum frame gap. This is: (64 + 20 bytes) x 8 bits / byte or 672 bit times. For Gigabit Ethernet, the bit time is 1.0 ns, making the minimum frame interval 672 ns over Gigabit Ethernet. Undersized frames or abnormally small frame gaps will reduce the frame interval further.

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Maximum Frame Interval Note
If there is a network disruption on the far side of a switch from the test set, the only indication of a problem will be an increase in the frame interval. Because these disruptions are on the order of tens of milliseconds, the minor variances in frame interval caused by shorter or longer frames is negligible. Note: This value is also used as the basis for the Service Disruption measurement.

8.8 Technology: Ethernet Optical Line Encoding
Before being transmitted across optical fiber, the bits of the Ethernet signal are converted using an encoding scheme known as 8B/10B encoding (for Gigabit Ethernet) or 64B/66B encoding (for 10 Gigabit Ethernet). A receiving device reverses the encoding, so that the encoding is completely transparent to the user. Encoding helps to ensure a balanced transmission of 1s and 0s in the signal which aids in DC balance and clock recovery.

8B/10B Encoding
8B/10B encoding takes each block of 8 bits and translated them into a code word that is 10 bits long. For a Gigabit Ethernet, this means the number of bits transmitted is actually 1.25 Gbps (1 Gbps x 10 bits / 8 bits). With 10 bits, there are 1024 unique code words for mapping 256 possible 8-bit data blocks. »» Many code words are not used. »» Some are reserved for link-level signaling. »» In many cases, a single 8-bit block can be mapped into one of two code words that are bitwise inverts of each other. Code words are chosen in such a manner so as the number of 1s and 0s balance out in a process called running disparity. A violation of these rules is called a disparity error.The 8 data bits are actually first broken into 5-bit and 3-bit blocks which are encoded separately into 6- and 4-bit code words, but for the purposes of this discussion, thinking of the encoding process as a single step of 8-bits to 10-bits is sufficient.

64B/66B Encoding
64B/66B encoding serves a similar function but uses a different method of mapping data bits into code words. »» The 64 data bits (8 bytes) are scrambled, and then a 2-bit synchronization header is added. »» For 10GE LAN, the physical line rate is actually 10.3125 Gbps (10G x 66 bits / 64 bits). »» For 10GE WAN, the encoding is done before the Ethernet payload is placed side the OC-192c/STM64c payload envelope.

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8.9 Technology: MAC Addresses
A Media Access Control Address (MAC Address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are used for numerous network technologies and most IEEE 802 network technologies including Ethernet. Logically, MAC addresses are used in the Media Access Control protocol sub-layer of the OSI reference model. MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface card (NIC) and are stored in its hardware, the card’s read-only memory, or some other firmware mechanism. If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC Address usually encodes the manufacturer’s registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in Address. It may also be known as an Ethernet hardware Address (EHA), hardware Address or physical Address. A network node may have multiple NICs and will then have one unique MAC Address per NIC. »» The first three bytes contain a vendor code, also known as the OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier) or company_id. »» The last three bytes contain a unique station ID. Vendor codes are assigned and administered by the IEEE.
Note: The OUI for Sunrise Telecom is 00-D0-DD. The station IDs are assigned by the manufacturers are often tied to the serial number of the device.

MAC Address Format
Unicast
transmission is the sending of messages to a single network destination identified by a unique Address

Broadcast
Ethernet traffic is sent to all stations on the network; such frames are given a MAC destination of all-ones: FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF. Because broadcast traffic is very polluting, it should be avoided whenever possible. A broadcast Address is a logical Address at which all devices connected to a multiple-access communications network are enabled to receive datagrams. A message sent to a broadcast Address is typically received by all network-attached hosts, rather than by a specific host.

Multicast
is the delivery of a message or information to a group of destination computers simultaneously in a single transmission from the source creating copies automatically in other network elements, such as routers, only when the topology of the network requires it. Multicast is most commonly implemented in IP multicast, which is often employed in Internet Protocol (IP) applications of streaming media and Internet television. In IP multicast the implementation of the multicast concept occurs at the IP routing level, where routers create optimal distribution paths for datagrams sent to a multicast destination Address.Multicast traffic is designated by setting the first bit of the Address to 1. Because the least significant bit is transmitted first, this means the last bit of the first byte is set to 1; in other words, the byte value is odd. The MAC vendor code used for IP multicast packets it typically 01-00-5E-xx-xx-xx, as specified by RFC 1112.

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8.10 Technology: Ethernet Inter-Frame Gap
The gap of time between the end of one frame and the start of the preamble for the next frame is called the inter frame gap (IFG); the delay between successive frames. Because most Ethernet traffic carries IP packets, the IFG is often called the IPG (Inter Packet Gap). In fact, the terms packet and frame tend to be used interchangeably by users even though they refer to very distinct entities. The minimum IFG is 12 bytes, or 96 bit-times. The minimum IFG thus depends on the interface rate, as follows:

Interface
10Mbit 100Mbit 1Gbit 10GBit

Bit Time
100.0 ns 10.0 ns 1.0 ns 0.1 ns

Minimum IFG
9.6 s 0.96 s 96 ns 9.6 ns

To improve efficiency, some network elements support frame gaps lower than 12 bytes, but the nonstandard implementation is not wide-spread and not generally recommended.

8.11 Technology: MPLS
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks which directs and carries data from one network node to the next with the help of labels. MPLS makes it easy to create virtual links between distant nodes. It can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS is a highly scalable, protocol agnostic, data-carrying mechanism. In an MPLS network, data packets are assigned labels. Packet-forwarding decisions are made solely on the contents of this label, without the need to examine the packet itself. This allows one to create end-to-end circuits across any type of transport medium, using any protocol. The primary benefit is to eliminate dependence on a particular data link layer technology, such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay, Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) or Ethernet, and eliminate the need for multiple layer-2 networks to satisfy different types of traffic. MPLS belongs to the family of packet-switched networks.

MPLS Structure
The MPLS header contains a ‘stack’ of one or more labels. A label has four fields: »» 20-bit label value »» 3-bit field for CoS priority (experimental) »» 1-bit bottom of stack flag. If used, it signifies the current label is the last in the stack »» 8-bit TTL (time to live) field; The Time to Live label will expire at the conclusion of this number of time-to-live hops. »» The Experimental field can be used to distinguish classes of service, or per hop behavior, for differing classes of traffic traveling within the MPLS tunnel (AKA Label Switched Path - LSP). Alternatively, an LSP carrying a single traffic class uses the label to determine the per hop behavior of the class.

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8.12 Technology: Multicast Frames
Layer 2 Multicast Frames
Typically, a multicast frame is a frame that is intended for multiple devices on the network. They use a special 24-bit prefix of 01-00-5E for the destination MAC Address field; but any frame with an odd value in the first byte of the destination Address is counted as a multicast frame: x1-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx x3-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx x5-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx x7-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx x9-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx xB-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx xD-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx xF-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx where “x” can be any value, 0 to F.

8.13 Technology: Unicast/Multicast Testing Note
Most Ethernet testing is performed with unicast traffic. One tester generates unicast frames that are received by the far end unit, which is either sending unicast traffic of its own or looping the frames by swapping the source and destination addresses. Furthermore, different test streams can be designated by their MAC addresses. When testing multicast services, some care must be taken. Loopback devices will not loop multicast (or broadcast) traffic. Also, the use of multicast MAC destination addresses may cause problems designating test traffic. As shown below, the MAC addresses sent by a tester do not match the MAC addressed received.

MAC Source
Generated Received 00-D0-DD-12-34-56 00-D0-DD-AB-CD-EF

MAC Destination
01-00-5E-00-00-05 01-00-5E-00-00-06

Sample MAC Addresses
Thus, when running this test, the test summary will show “NO BERT TRAFFIC” since the incoming traffic does not match that sent. Fortunately, all normal traffic statistics and measurements can be made, with the exception of bit errors and BER.

8.14 Technology: Undersized Frames
Some VLAN and MPLS frames may be undersized even if they fall within standard Ethernet frame sizes. For example, a 64-byte frame with VLAN is too short — the length must be at least 68 bytes. For Unframed tests, only Bit Errors are reported.

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8.15 Technology: Gaussian Frame Probability
The probability that a given frame length will be sent is given the following function: Χ is the frame length, μ is the mean o r average, and σ is the standard deviation. The variance determines the width of the distribution (as measured at half its maximum value). In the RxT GigE, you specify the width (Width at 50%), which then sets the standard deviation of the distribution. Approximately two-thirds of the frames sent will be within one standard deviation of the mean.

8.16 Technology: VLAN Tagging
A virtual LAN (or VLAN) is an independent logical LAN within a physical network. For example, with in a single enterprise LAN, different divisions may be grouped within their own VLANs. VLAN tags provide a secure means of sub-diving networks, control broadcast domains, and manage user access. VLANs are defined in the IEEE 802.1p and 802.1q standards. VLANs are designated by a VLAN tag that is added to the MAC frame after the MAC source Address. The 4-byte tag consists of a 2-byte Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) and 2-byte Tag Control Information (TCI). The TPID has a value of 0x8100.

VLAN Tag
Note: The TPID can actually be thought of as an Ethertype designation, identifying the payload as a VLAN. The original MAC frame’s Ethertype field is moved to the inside of the VLAN payload, following the TCI. The TCI contains the 12-bit VLAN identification, 3-bit priority field, and 1-bit canonical format indicator (CFI). The VLAN ID can have a value between 0 and 4095. However, values 0, 1, and 4095 are reserved and best avoided. The priority field allows the network administrator to assign a value from 0 to 7 based on the type of traffic. The CFI is always set to 0 for Ethernet traffic.

VLAN Tagging

VLAN Tagging

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VLAN Membership
Ethernet traffic can be assigned VLAN memberships through several means:

By Port:
All traffic through a particular switch port is assigned the same VLAN. »» Fast traffic forwarding »» Easy to maintain for network administrators »» VLAN membership tied to geographic location

By MAC Address:
Each MAC source Address is assigned a specific VLAN ID. »» Great flexibility »» VLAN lookup tables require manual configuration by network administrators »» MAC Address lookup takes more processing time

By Protocol:
VLAN IDs are assigned based on IP Address, or protocol used (such as AppleTalk). »» Great flexibility »» Protocol lookup takes more processing time

By Authentication:
VLAN IDs are assigned based on authentication credentials or the result of IEEE 802.1X authentication results. »» Improved security »» Ideal for wireless connectivity

Stacked VLAN Tags
IEEE 802.1ad amends 802.1q by providing a means to stack multiple VLAN tags for traffic management and bridging. This technique of placing one 802.1q tag inside another is often called ”Q-in-Q”. Stacking VLAN tags is an efficient means of differentiating traffic through a network backbone, especially when then the user data may itself have VLAN tags. The outer tag, also known as the service tag or S-tag is distinguished from the customer tag, or C-tag. The TPID of the C-tag is usually 0x8100, as for normal VLAN traffic. The TPID of the S-Tag may have a proprietary value, depending on the implementation by the vendor.Each tag layer has its own priority setting. The priority of the outer tag allows the network provider to achieve the desired quality of service for the bridged traffic.

VLAN and Frame Size
Because the minimum payload size for an Ethernet frame is 46 bytes, the presence of the 4-byte VLAN TPID and TCI pushes the minimum frame size from 64 bytes to 68 bytes. Likewise, the largest, non-Jumbo frame size increases from 1518 to 1522 bytes. Stacked VLAN tags also increase the minimum and maximum frame sizes by 4 bytes per VLAN tag. When a device receives a VLAN tagged frame that is only 64 bytes, and it must remove theVLAN tag and forward the Ethernet payload, it is left with a frame that is only 60 bytes long. At this point, the device may simply drop the frame. Some systems may add 4 bytes of filler at the end of the payload to create a legal 64-byte frame.

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8.17 Technology: Ethernet Frame Size and Efficiency
Because each frame is followed by a frame gap and preamble, there is an inherent inefficiency built into Ethernet traffic. The percentage of bandwidth lost to the 20 bytes of IPG and preamble is lower for larger frames than smaller frames, as shown:

Data size
64 Bytes (512 bits) 128 Bytes (1024 bits) 512 Bytes (4096 bits) 1024 Bytes (8192 bits) 1518 Bytes (12144 bits)

Frame Overhead
160 bits 160 bits 160 bits 160 bits 160 bits

Frames (sec)
1,488,095 844,594 234,962 119,731 81,274

Total Bits Lost
238,095,238 135,135,135 37,593,984 19,157,088 13,003,901

Bandwidth Lost (%)
23% 13% 3.7% 1.9% 1.3%

8.18 Technology: Frame Size Details
64 or 1518 bytes are used most often since these represent the normal minimum and maximum frame size allowed by the network. The standard frame sizes for Ethernet testing are 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, and 1518 bytes. When testing RFC2544 with VLAN and/or MPLS tags, 64 bytes is no longer a proper frame length. With systems that support jumbo frames, such as 4096- or 9000- byte frames, these frame sizes should be tested as well. The RxT defaults to the frame size defined in RFC 2544, but allows you to set the frame size to any valid value.

Test Layer
Layer 1: FCS/ CRC Layer 2: MAC L2 + VLAN Layer 3: MAC + IP L3 + VLAN

Undersized
N/A Under 64 Under 68 Under 64 Under 68

Oversized
N/A Over 1518 Over 1522 Over 1518 Over 1522

FE
20—20480 38—20480 42—20480 58—20480 62—20480

GE
20—65535 38—65535 42—65535 58—65535 62—65535

8.19 Technology: Frame Interval
A frame interval is the time between the start of one frame and the start of the next frame. The frame interval increases as the frame size increases. However, as the effect of frame size is usually very small compared to the duration of traffic problems, the frame interval is useful for measuring service disruptions.

Minimum Frame Interval Note
Under normal network conditions, the smallest possible frame interval is for two 64-byte frames with a minimum frame gap. This is: (64 + 20 bytes) x 8 bits / byte or 672 bit times. For Gigabit Ethernet, the bit time is 1.0 ns, making the minimum frame interval 672 ns over Gigabit Ethernet. Undersized frames or abnormally small frame gaps will reduce the frame interval further.

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Maximum Frame Interval Note
If there is a network disruption on the far side of a switch from the test set, the only indication of a problem will be an increase in the frame interval. Because these disruptions are on the order of tens of milliseconds, the minor variances in frame interval caused by shorter or longer frames is negligible. Note: This value is also used as the basis for the Service Disruption measurement.

8.20 Technology: Ethernet Optical Line Encoding
Before being transmitted across optical fiber, the bits of the Ethernet signal are converted using an encoding scheme known as 8B/10B encoding (for Gigabit Ethernet) or 64B/66B encoding (for 10 Gigabit Ethernet). A receiving device reverses the encoding, so that the encoding is completely transparent to the user. Encoding helps to ensure a balanced transmission of 1s and 0s in the signal which aids in DC balance and clock recovery.

8B/10B Encoding
8B/10B encoding takes each block of 8 bits and translated them into a code word that is 10 bits long. For a Gigabit Ethernet, this means the number of bits transmitted is actually 1.25 Gbps (1 Gbps x 10 bits / 8 bits). With 10 bits, there are 1024 unique code words for mapping 256 possible 8-bit data blocks. »» Many code words are not used. »» Some are reserved for link-level signaling. »» In many cases, a single 8-bit block can be mapped into one of two code words that are bitwise inverts of each other. Code words are chosen in such a manner so as the number of 1s and 0s balance out in a process called running disparity. A violation of these rules is called a disparity error.The 8 data bits are actually first broken into 5-bit and 3-bit blocks which are encoded separately into 6- and 4-bit code words, but for the purposes of this discussion, thinking of the encoding process as a single step of 8-bits to 10-bits is sufficient.

64B/66B Encoding
64B/66B encoding serves a similar function but uses a different method of mapping data bits into code words. »» The 64 data bits (8 bytes) are scrambled, and then a 2-bit synchronization header is added. »» For 10GE LAN, the physical line rate is actually 10.3125 Gbps (10G x 66 bits / 64 bits). »» For 10GE WAN, the encoding is done before the Ethernet payload is placed side the OC-192c/STM64c payload envelope.

8.21 Technology: MAC Addresses

A Media Access Control Address (MAC Address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. MAC addresses are used for numerous network technologies and most IEEE 802 network technologies including Ethernet. Logically, MAC addresses are used in the Media Access Control protocol sub-layer of the OSI reference model. MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface card (NIC) and are stored in its hardware, the card’s read-only memory, or some other firmware mechanism. If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC Address usually encodes the manufacturer’s registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in Address. It may also be known as an Ethernet hardware Address (EHA), hardware Address or physical Address. A network node may have multiple NICs and will then have one unique MAC Address per NIC. »» The first three bytes contain a vendor code, also known as the OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier) or company_id. »» The last three bytes contain a unique station ID. Vendor codes are assigned and administered by the IEEE.
Note: The OUI for Sunrise Telecom is 00-D0-DD. The station IDs are assigned by the manufacturers are often tied to

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the serial number of the device.

MAC Address Format
Unicast
Transmission is the sending of messages to a single network destination identified by a unique Address

Broadcast
Ethernet traffic is sent to all stations on the network; such frames are given a MAC destination of all-ones: FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF. Because broadcast traffic is very polluting, it should be avoided whenever possible. A broadcast Address is a logical Address at which all devices connected to a multiple-access communications network are enabled to receive datagrams. A message sent to a broadcast Address is typically received by all network-attached hosts, rather than by a specific host.

Multicast
Is the delivery of a message or information to a group of destination computers simultaneously in a single transmission from the source creating copies automatically in other network elements, such as routers, only when the topology of the network requires it. Multicast is most commonly implemented in IP multicast, which is often employed in Internet Protocol (IP) applications of streaming media and Internet television. In IP multicast the implementation of the multicast concept occurs at the IP routing level, where routers create optimal distribution paths for datagrams sent to a multicast destination Address.Multicast traffic is designated by setting the first bit of the Address to 1. Because the least significant bit is transmitted first, this means the last bit of the first byte is set to 1; in other words, the byte value is odd. The MAC vendor code used for IP multicast packets it typically 01-00-5E-xx-xx-xx, as specified by RFC 1112.

8.22 Technology: Ethernet Inter-Frame Gap
The gap of time between the end of one frame and the start of the preamble for the next frame is called the inter frame gap (IFG); the delay between successive frames. Because most Ethernet traffic carries IP packets, the IFG is often called the IPG (Inter Packet Gap). In fact, the terms packet and frame tend to be used interchangeably by users even though they refer to very distinct entities. The minimum IFG is 12 bytes, or 96 bit-times. The minimum IFG thus depends on the interface rate, as follows:

Interface
10Mbit 100Mbit 1Gbit 10GBit

Bit Time
100.0 ns 10.0 ns 1.0 ns 0.1 ns

Minimum IFG
9.6 s 0.96 s 96 ns 9.6 ns

To improve efficiency, some network elements support frame gaps lower than 12 bytes, but the nonstandard implementation is not wide-spread and not generally recommended.

8.23 Technology: MPLS
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks which directs and carries data from one network node to the next with the help of labels. MPLS makes it easy to create virtual links between distant nodes. It can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS is a highly scalable, protocol agnostic, data-carrying mechanism. In an MPLS network, data packets are assigned labels. Packet-forwarding decisions are made solely on the contents of this label, without the need to examine the packet itself. This allows one to create end-to-end circuits across any type of transport medium, using any protocol. The primary benefit is to eliminate dependence on a particular data link layer technology, such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Frame Relay, Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) or Ethernet, and eliminate the need for multiple layer-2 networks to satisfy different types of traf-

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fic. MPLS belongs to the family of packet-switched networks.

MPLS Structure
The MPLS header contains a ‘stack’ of one or more labels. A label has four fields: »» 20-bit label value »» 3-bit field for CoS priority (experimental) »» 1-bit bottom of stack flag. If used, it signifies the current label is the last in the stack »» 8-bit TTL (time to live) field; The Time to Live label will expire at the conclusion of this number of time-to-live hops. »» The Experimental field can be used to distinguish classes of service, or per hop behavior, for differing classes of traffic traveling within the MPLS tunnel (AKA Label Switched Path - LSP). Alternatively, an LSP carrying a single traffic class uses the label to determine the per hop behavior of the class.

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Glossary
0
0000 Industry-standard all zeros test pattern.

1
1010 Industry-standard alternating ones and zeros test pattern. 1111 Industry-standard all 1s test pattern.

2
2e15-1, 2^15 Industry-standard 215-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 15-stage shift register and is not zero constrained. This pattern contains up to 14 zeros in a row. 2e20-1, 2^20 Industry-standard 2e20-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 20-stage shift register and is not zero constrained. This pattern contains up to 19 zeros in a row. 2e23-1, 2^23 Industry-standard 2e23-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 23-stage shift register and is not zero constrained. This pattern contains up to 22 zeros in a row. 2e31-1, 2^31 Industry-standard 2e31-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed from a 31-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up to 30 zeros in a row.

A
AGC Automatic Gain Control Avg Average

B
BERT Bit Error Rate Test. BRI Basic Rate Interface

C
CFI Canonical Format Indicator CJPAT Continuous Jitter Test Pattern is used for jitter measurements. It is intended to expose a receiver’s CDR (Clock and Data Recovery circuit) to large instantaneous phase jumps. The pattern alternates repeating low transition density patterns with repeating high transition density patterns. CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check CRPAT Continuous Random Test Pattern is intended to provide broad spectral content and minimal peaking that can be used for the measurement of jitter at either a component or system level.

D
DASS2 Digital Access Signaling System 2; British Telecom ISDN protocol DEC Decrease DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol; a network application protocol used by devices (DHCP clients) to obtain configuration information for operation in an Internet Protocol network. DNS Domain Name System: Internet system to translate names into IP addresses. DPNSS Digital Private Network Signalling System; British Telecom protocol DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point

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DUT Device Under Test

E
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute; worldwide telecom standards body

F
FTP File Transfer Protocol; network protocol used to transfer data from one computer to another through a network (Internet).

G
GigE Gigabit Ethernet GUI Graphic User Interface

H
H.323 H.323 is an umbrella Recommendation from the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) that defines the protocols to provide audio-visual communication sessions on any packet network. HP SDH High Path section HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a networking protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.

I
IFG Inter Frame Gap; same as IPG. INC Increase IP Internet Protocol IPG Inter Packet Gap; The gap of time between the end of one frame and the start of the preamble for the next frame is also called the inter frame gap (IFG). ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network

K
Kbps A unit of data transfer rate equal to 1,000 bits per second.

L
L1 Layer 1; OSI layer L2 Layer 2; OSI layer LAN Local Area Network LFS Link Fault Signalling; 10G fault indicator, Remote or Local. LLC LLC (Logical Link Control) IEEE Public Listing; upper sublayer of the OSI data link layer. LOF Loss Of Frame occurs when 4 or 5 consecutive frames are received with errored framing patterns. LOP LOP occurs when N invalid pointers or New Data Flags are received. Available for Administrative and Tributary Units (SDH), and for STS Path and Virtual Tributary (SONET).

M
Mbps Megabits per second; a unit of data transfer rate equal to 1,000,000 bits per second. As there are 8 bits in a byte, a transfer speed of 8 megabits per second (8 Mbit/s) is equivalent to 1,000,000 bytes per second. MAN Metropolitan Area Network

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MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching; provides a unified data-carrying service for both circuit-based clients and packet-switching clients providing datagram service model; carries Ethernet frames.

N
NT Network Terminal

O
OOF Out of Frame errors

P
PDV Packet Delay Variation PLM Payload Label Mismatch error occurs when the C2/V5 signal label bytes received are different from what was expected. PRBS Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence; test pattern PRI Primary Rate Interface

R
RDI Remote Defect Indication signal is returned to the transmitting TE when the far end detects a Loss Of Signal, Loss of Frame, AIS, Trace Identifier Mismatch or Unequipped. Available for the Multiplex Section and Higher Path (SDH), Server, Connectivity and Path for VCGs, and for Line and Path (SONET). REI Remote Error Indication RFC 1349 Type of Service in the RFC for Internet Protocol Suite RFC2474 RFC for the Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers RS Regenerator Section; SDH section. RX Receive

S
SFP Small form-factor plugable optical transceiver, for rates up to but not including 10G. SIP Session Initiation Protocol; signalling protocol, used for setting up and tearing down multimedia communication sessions. SN Sequence Number; Sunrise Tag SNMP Simple Network Managemnet Protocol SNAP Subnetwork Access Protocol; allows multiplexing of additional protocols on IEEE 802.2 LLC networks. SSID Service set identifier; identifies a particular 802.11 wireless LAN. STAG Sunrise Tag

T
TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. It manages the individual conversations between web servers and web clients. TE Terminating Equipment TEI Terminal Endpoint Identifier: identifies the user device. TIM Trace Identifier Mismatch TPID Tag Protocol Identifier; part of a VLAN tag. Triple Play High speed interne, television, and telephone service all provided over one broadband con-

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nection. TS Time Stamp; Sunrise Tag TX Transmit

U
UDP User Datagram Protocol; timely data protocol, oft used for real-time service such as VOIP. URL Uniform Resource Locator; often used to mean a website Address.

V
VLAN Virtual LAN; a network of hosts not actually on the same physical LAN, but grouped that way. VOIP Voice over IP. A protocol optimized for the transmission of voice through the Internet or other packet switched networks.

W
WAN Wide Area Network WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy WPA Wifi Protected Access; 802.1X-compliant WPA2 Wifi Protected Access; 802.11i compliant

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Index
A
Address 64 ARP 31, 32, 61, 62, 64, 65, 68, 76, 77, 83 Scan 61, 62, 64, 65, 68

M
MAC 31, 32, 44 Destination 31, 32, 86, 88, 93 Source 32 Mode , 4, 9, 20, 24, 28, 46, 50, 53, 54, 61, 62, 74, 87, 93 Monitor 17, 66, 75

B
Bandwidth 39, 40, 41, 43, 51, 53, 57, 58, 59, 69, 70, 71, 72, 84, 91 BERT 3, 25, 28, 29, 37, 38, 42, 43, 48, 53, 74, 88, 95

N
NE Test 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58

C
C_28/29 28, 36, 48 Capture 2, 8, 27, 28 IP 2, 27 Length 2, 28 MAC 2, 27 VLAN 2, 27 Configure 8, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 46, 50, 51, 53, 55, 61, 63, 64, 66, 68, 75

O
Operation Mode 9, 28

P
P2P 28, 48 PDV 3, 45, 57, 59, 97 Ping 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 70 Ports 8, 9, 11, 13, 24, 26, 28, 33, 38, 41, 43, 51, 54, 71, 77 Power 9, 11, 42, 59 Protocol 27, 33, 35, 44, 61, 79, 82, 83, 86, 89, 90, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98

D
Download 21, 66, 68, 79

E
Ethernet 5, 9, 11, 13, 14, 20, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 96, 97

Q
Quantity 29

F
Frame Sizes 32, 52, 55, 60, 70, 81, 84, 88, 90, 91 Type 30, 32 FTP 4, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 96

R
realGate 2, 9, 20, 21 Profile 2, 21 Results 2, 21 RFC 9, 11, 42, 59 RxT 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 21, 22, 26, 28, 29, 33, 34, 40, 41, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55, 62, 63, 66, 74, 75, 76, 77, 84, 89, 91

G
GPS 9

H
HTTP 4, 61, 62, 64, 68, 96

S
Session 67 Setup , 4, 8, 9, 13, 20, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 74, 75, 76 IP , 27, 33, 64 SFP 8, 11, 24, 26, 28, 42, 51, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 68, 80, 97 Stream 3, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 44, 46, 50, 51, 53, 71 IP 3, 33 MAC 3, 30, 32 Table 3, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 35, 38, 50, 51, 53, 71 TCP 3, 38 UDP 3, 38 System 2, 8, 9, 13, 22, 31, 32, 33, 83, 95

I
IP Address 33, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 75, 76, 77, 83, 90

L
LASER 5 Loopback 4, 8, 43, 54, 74, 75, 76, 77, 88

97

RxT GigE

T
TCP 3, 27, 31, 33, 38, 44, 45, 61, 71, 72, 82, 83, 97 Technology 4, 29, 43, 44, 78, 79, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93 Traceroute 61, 82 Traffic 3, 29, 31, 39, 40, 43 Transfer 61, 65, 66, 67, 96

U
UDP 3, 27, 31, 33, 38, 44, 45, 53, 72, 82, 98 Upgrade 9, 13

V
VLAN , 4, 27, 29, 31, 36, 38, 44, 45, 52, 55, 61, 62, 64, 65, 68, 70, 71, 76, 81, 84, 88, 89, 90, 91, 97, 98

98

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