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8085 Microprocessor
Stepper Motor
Interfacing
PROF. MUTHURAMAN RAMASAMY
Lecture
Prof. Muthuraman Ramasamy 2
Demultiplexing AD7-AD0
Given that ALE operates as a pulse during T1, we
will be able to latch the address. Then when ALE
goes low, the address is saved and the AD7 AD0
lines can be used for their purpose as the bi-
directional data lines.
A15-A8
Latch
AD7-AD0
D7- D0
A7- A0
8085
ALE
Stepper Motors
more accurately controlled than a normal motor
allowing fractional turns step by step
low speed, and lower torque than a comparable D.C.
motor
useful for precise positioning for robotics
Servomotors require a position feedback signal for
control
Stepper Motor Types
Permanent Magnet
Variable Reluctance
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how a stepper motor works
To understand how a stepper motor works,
you just need to know the fact that a coil will
attract a magnet when a current flows and it
will repel the magnet when the current flows
in the opposite direction
Full Step Stepper Motor
The rotor of a permanent magnet stepper motor consists of permanent
magnets and a stator which has two pairs of windings. Just as the rotor aligns
with one of the stator poles, the second phase is energized. The two phases
alternate on and off and also reverse polarity. There are four steps. One phase
lags the other phase by one step. This is equivalent to one forth of an
electrical cycle or 90.
Half Step Stepper Motor
The commutation sequence for a half-step stepper
motor has eight steps instead of four. The main
difference is that the second phase is turned on
before the first phase is turned off. Thus, sometimes
both phases are energized at the same time. During
the half-steps the rotor is held in between the two full-
step positions.
Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor (VR)
The VR motor does not have a permanent magnet on
the rotor. Instead, the rotor is made of soft iron, and
performs a teethed disk like a gear. The stator has
more than 4 coils. The coils are energized in opposite
pairs, and will attract the rotor. The lack of a
permanent magnet has a negative affect on the
torque that is significantly decreased. But it has a
great advantage. These motors have no detent
torque. The detent torque, is the torque generated by
the rotor permanent magnets that are magnetized to
the stators armature, when no current flows within
the coils.
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Variable Reluctance Motors
This is usually a four wire motor the common
wire goes to the +ve supply and the windings are
stepped through
Our example is a 30
o
motor
The rotor has 4 poles and the stator has 6 poles
Variable Reluctance Motors
To rotate we excite the 3 windings in sequence
W1- 1001001001001001001001001
W2- 0100100100100100100100100
W3- 0010010010010010010010010
This gives two full revolutions
hybrid stepper motor
6 coils are in pairs of two, each one with its opposite
coil. Although someone would expect to find these
pairs with angle difference of 60o, it is not so. If we
suppose that the first pair is the most top and most
bottom coil, then the second pair is with angle
difference of 60+5o from the first, and the third 60+5o
from the second. This angle difference is the reason
why the motor moves! Full and half stepping can be
applied, as well as single-coil excitation for power
saving.
Unipolar Stepper Motor
Unipolar Stepper Motor has two windings per
phase, one for each direction of magnetic field.
You can remember the word "Uni" means only
one direction of current is needed for this type of
motor
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Bipolar Stepper Motor
A Bipolar Stepper Motor has a single winding
per phase. The current in a winding needs to be
reversed (thus the prefix "Bi" ) in order to reverse
a magnetic pole, so the driving circuit must be
more complicated, typically with an H-bridge
arrangement.
Unipolar Motors
To rotate we excite the 2 windings in sequence
W1a - 1000100010001000100010001
W1b- 0010001000100010001000100
W2a - 0100010001000100010001000
W2b- 0001000100010001000100010
This gives two full revolutions
Basic Actuation Wave Forms
Unipolar Motors
To rotate we excite the 2 windings in sequence
W1a - 1100110011001100110011001
W1b- 0011001100110011001100110
W2a - 0110011001100110011001100
W2b- 1001100110011001100110011
This gives two full revolutions at 1.4 times greater
torque but twice the power
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Enhanced Waveforms
better torque
more precise control
Unipolar Motors
The two sequences are not the same, so by
combining the two you can produce half stepping
W1a - 11000001110000011100000111
W1b- 00011100000111000001110000
W2a - 01110000011100000111000001
W2b- 00000111000001110000011100
Interfacing to Stepper Motors
INTERFACING WITH STEPPER MOTOR
ROTATION PER SEQUENCE = 360/NT
NT= NUM.OF TURNS
FOUR PATTERN SWITCHING SEQUENCE
W4 W3 W2 W1
0 0 1 1
1 0 0 1
1 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1
CLOCK WIS ANTI-CLOCK
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Stepper motor interface Diagram
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PROGRAM TO ROTATE THE STEPPER MOTOR
CONTINUOUSLY IN CLK.WISE DIRECTION
FOR FOLLOWING SPECIFICATION
NT = NO.OF TEETH ON ROTOR = 200
SPEED OF MOTOR =12 ROTATIONS/MINUTE
CPU FREQUENCY = 10MHZ
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ALGORITHM
THE DELAY BETWEEN EACH PATTERN IS CALCULATED AS FOLLOWS
SPEED = 12 ROTATIONS/MINUTE
TO COMPLETE ONE ROTATION 5 SEC REQUIRED
200 TEETH ROTATION = 5 SEC
1 TOOTH ROTATION = 5/200 = 1/40 SEC= 25MILLI.SEC
DELAY BETWEEN EACH PATTERN = 25msec
CPU FREQ = 10MHZ
1 CLOCK CYCLE = 100nsec
LOOP INSTRUCTION TAKES 17CLOCK CYCLES
TIME TAKEN FOR 1 ITERATION 17X 100ns=1.7micro sec
No.of iteration(count) requires for 25m.sec delay = 25 x 1000/1.7 = 14705
SEND THE FIRST VALUE AS 33H. ROTATE IT BY ONE POSITION TO GET
NEXT PATTERN.
33H IS CHOOSEN IN PLAC E OF 03H SO THAT ROTATION OF
8-BIT DATA GIVES CORRECT VALUE
SEND ALL PATTERNS AND CONTINUE THE SET OF PATTERN INDEFINITELY
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