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Hymowitz

Abstract: Due to the increasing complexity of power systems and the costs involved in breadboarding and testing preliminary designs, engineers have been turning to computer based simulations for assistance in the design phase. This paper explains, in depth, how to create SPICE models for the most important and pervasive element in power electronics, that of the transformer and its accompanying saturable core.

Outline: I Transformer Models II Saturable Reactor Model III How The Core Model Works IV Calculating Core Parameters V Using and Testing The Core VI A Complete Transformer Model VII References Total: 11 Pages, 12 Figures

its related equations and relationship to an ideal transformer with added leakage and magnetizing inductance is shown in Figure 1.Models For Power Electronics Transformer Models The usual method of simulating a transformer using ISSPICE is by specifying the open circuit inductance seen at each winding and then adding the coupling coefficients to a pair of coupled inductors. provide a transformer that is simple to create and simulates efficiently. The ideal transformer with discrete inductances and their relationship to the coupling coefficient is shown on the right.LE/LM Figure 1. Page 2 . unlike a real transformer. will operate at DC. and has a unity coupling coefficient and infinite magnetizing inductance. K V1 L1 L2 V2 LE LE 1:N = V1 LM V2 V1 = L1 di1 + M di2 dt dt V2 = M di1 + L2 di2 dt dt M = K L1 ∗L2 If K ≅ 1 L1 = LM L2 = N2∗L1 K = 1 . This property is useful for modeling the operation of DC-DC converters. however. It does. but it cannot provide access to LE and LM or be used as a building block. is computationally efficient. left. The coupled inductor type of transformer. it is necessary to construct an ideal transformer and model the magnetizing and leakage inductances separately. The ideal transformer. This technique tends to loose the physical meaning associated with leakage and magnetizing inductance and does not allow the insertion of a nonlinear core. The ideal transformer is one that preserves the voltage and current relationships. The coupled inductor transformer. shown in Figure 2. In order to make a transformer model that more closely represents the physical processes.

Parameter passing allows the transformer to simulate any turns ratio. Polarity “dots” are on terminals 1 and 3 as shown in Figure 2.2 (primary). Symbol of an ideal transformer with the voltage to current relationships. The coupling coefficient of a transformer wound on a magnetic core is nearly unity when the core is not saturated and depends on the winding topology when the core is saturated.4 (secondary) to winding 1. The ISSPICE equivalent circuit for an ideal transformer is shown in Figure 3 and implements the following equations: V1 ∗ RATIO = V2 I1 = I2 ∗ RATIO RP and RS are used to prevent singularities in applications where terminals 1 and 2 are open circuited or terminals 3 and 4 are connected to a voltage source. Page 3 . The work of Hsu. The ISSPICE ideal transformer model allows operation at DC and the addition of magnetizing and leakage inductances. as well as a saturable core to make a complete transformer model. . RATIO is the turns ratio from winding 3. showing that relatively simple measurements of input inductance with shorted outputs yield the necessary model information.SUBCKT XFMR 1 2 3 4 E 5 4 1 2 {RATIO} F 1 2 VM {RATIO} VM 5 6 RP 1 2 1MEG RS 6 3 1U .ENDS F RS 1U VM V1 RP 1MEG V2 E Figure 3.1 N1 + N2 + 3 V2 = V1 ∗ N2 / N1 I1 = I2 ∗ N2 / N1 V1 2 I1 I2 V2 4 Figure 2. Middlebrook and Cuk [3] develops the relationship of leakage inductance.

Page 4 . The transformer is center tapped and V2 will equal V3. causing added loss.Multi-winding topologies can also be simulated by using combinations of this 2 port representation. As the MMF is increased. the domains rotate like small DC motors. RATIO equals V2/V1. Eddy currents are induced as the flux changes. Multiple winding transformers may be built out of combinations of the ideal transformer. the domains rotate one by one until they are all in alignment and the core saturates. Now that the ideal transformer has been constructed. B. The core consists of a number of tiny magnetic domains made up of magnetic dipoles. The magnetic flux density. These domains set up a magnetic flux that adds to or subtracts from the flux set up by the magnetizing current. After overcoming initial friction. to become aligned with the applied field. ISSPICE Subcircuit Call X1 1 2 3 4 5 XFMR {RATIO=xxx } ISSPICE Subcircuit Definition .SUBCKT XFMR-TAP 1 2 3 4 5 E1 7 8 1 2 {RATIO} F1 1 2 VM1 {RATIO} RP 1 2 1MEG RS 6 3 1U VM1 7 6 F2 1 2 VM2 {RATIO} E2 9 5 1 2 {RATIO} R5 8 4 1U VM2 9 8 . Saturable Reactor Model A saturable reactor is a magnetic circuit element consisting of a single coil wound around a magnetic core. magnetizing inductance can be added using a separate saturable core model described next. which is proportional to ampere turns.ENDS ISSPICE Netlist V1 V2 V1 1 3 V2 2 4 V3 V3 5 ISSPICE Symbol Actual Topology Figure 4. The presence of a magnetic core drastically alters the behavior of the coil by increasing the magnetic flux and confining most of the flux to the core. is a function of the applied MMF.

The parameters that must be passed to the subcircuit include: Flux Capacity in Volt-Sec (VSEC) Initial Flux Capacity in Volt-Sec (IVSEC) Magnetizing Inductance in Henries (LMAG) Saturation Inductance in Henries (LSAT) Eddy current critical frequency in HZ (FEDDY). The equations in the subcircuit (inside the curly braces) are then evaluated and replaced with a value making the equation based subcircuit compatible with any SPICE program.ENDS Top (+) Flux Test Point Bottom (-) Figure 5. A special subcircuit test point has been provided to allow the monitoring of the core flux. hysteresis. To use the saturable core model just place the core across the transformer's input terminals and evaluate the equations in curly braces. Since there are two connections in the subcircuit. To make the model even more useful it has been parameterized.SUBCKT CORE 1 2 3 F1 1 2 VM1 1 G2 2 3 1 2 1 E1 4 2 3 2 1 VM1 4 5 RX 3 2 1E12 CB 3 2 {VSEC/500} + IC={IVSEC/VSEC*500} RB 5 2 {LMAG*500/VSEC} RS 5 6 {LSAT*500/VSEC} VP 7 2 250 D1 6 7 DCLAMP VN 2 8 250 D2 8 6 DCLAMP .The saturable reactor cannot be modeled using a single SPICE primitive element. At the time of the simulation. just replace all the equations in the curly braces with numerical values. Page 5 . utilizing the ISSPICE subcircuit feature. To make the netlist for the saturable core subcircuit SPICE compatible. and eddy current losses. The key parameters are shown in bold. This is a technique which allows the characteristics of the core to be determined just by the specification of a few key parameters.28*FEDDY*500*LMAG)} VJ=25) . a saturable core “macro model”. Therefore. A call to the saturable core subcircuit using ISSPICE would look like the following: X1 2 0 3 CORE {VSEC=50U IVSEC=-25U LMAG=10MHY LSAT=20UHY FEDDY=20KHZ} . the specified parameters are passed into the subcircuit. The saturable core may be added to the model of the ideal transformer to create a more complete transformer model. The saturable core model is capable of simulating nonlinear transformer behavior including saturation. must be created.MODEL DCLAMP D(CJO={3*VSEC/ + (6. no connection need be made at the top subcircuit level other than the dummy node number.

The output current from F is shaped as a function of flux using the voltage sources VN and VP and diodes D1 and D2. µmag. This is done by integrating the voltage across the core and then shaping the flux analog with nonlinear elements to cause a current to flow proportional to the desired function. The symbol below the schematic displays the core's connectivity and flux test point. Page 6 . is integrated using the voltage controlled current source. A simple B-H loop model detailing some Bm core parameters that will be used for later calculations. The novel saturable reactor subcircuit configuration.How The Core Model Works Modeling the physical process performed by a saturable core is most easily accomplished by developing an analog of the magnetic flux.Lmag H The input voltage. and the capacitor CB. Voltage VP and VN represent the saturation flux. The inductance in the high permeability region is proportional to RB. This gives good results when there is no hysteresis as illustrated in Figure 6. I INTEGRATION F VP SHAPING FLUX CB E VM RS RB D1 VN 2 3 X1 CORE 0 V(3) FLUX D2 Figure 7. V(2). An initial condition across the capacitor allows the core to have an initial flux. while the inductance in the saturated region is proportional to RS. Lsat Figure 6. B µsat. Core losses 2 G 0 3 V VS. G.

The model shown in Figure 7 simulates the core characteristics and takes into account the high frequency losses associated with eddy currents and transient widening of the B-H loop caused by magnetic domain angular momentum. as seen on the previous page. simulating high frequency core behavior. as is done here. providing reasonable results for most applications. The DC B-H loop hysteresis. For permalloy cores the transition out of saturation is less pronounced. is not modeled because of the extra model complexity. Current in this capacitive element is differentiated in the model to produce the effect of resistance at the terminals. The hysteresis. The capacitance can be made a nonlinear function of voltage which results in a loss term that is a function of flux. To account for the different response the capacitance value in the diode model (CJO in DCLAMP). causing a prediction of lower loss at low frequencies. including magnetic amplifiers. CJO. A noticeable increase in MMF occurs when the core comes out of saturation. however. These model properties agree closely with observed behavior [2]. Page 7 . The model is set up for orthonol and steel core materials which have a sharp transition from the saturated to the unsaturated region. usually unnecessary for most applications. Losses will increase linearly with frequency. Losses will increase linearly with frequency simulating high frequency core behavior. should be scaled down. an effect that is more pronounced for square wave excitation than for sinusoidal excitation as shown in Figure 8. A simple but effective way of adding the nonlinear capacitance is to give the diode parameter. scaling the voltage sources VN and VP down will soften the transition. causing their recomputation if VP and VN are changed. the capacitor's polynomial coefficients are a function of saturation flux. Also. however. however. does appear as a frequency dependent function. a value. The other option is to use a nonlinear capacitor across nodes 2 and 6. which affects core losses.can be simulated by adding resistance across the input terminals. another equivalent method is to add capacitance across resistor RB in the simulation.

81M 1. The saturable core model is capable of being used with both sine (below) and square (above) wave excitation as shown in these ISSPICE simulations.2 197.12M 28.27M -11. Ac.85M -76.69M 41.4 -25.394.46M Square Wave Excitation Figure 8.62M -20.1 Flux o ts U 0 -197.58M SIN Wave Excitation Calculating Core Parameters The saturable core model is setup to be described in electrical terms.654M FLUX vs.0 188.4 FLUX in Volts -12. and Bm and would be more useful for studying previously designed circuits.1 1 -394. µ. The saturable core model's behavior is defined by the set of Page 8 . After the design is completed. 389.18 Flux -212. The core could then be described in terms of N.93U FLUX vs. I(VM1) in Amps 20.8 1 -413. But the electrical based model is better suited to the natural design process. thus allowing the engineer to design the circuitry first without knowledge of the core's physical makeup. the final electrical parameters can then be used to calculate the necessary core magnetic/size values. Ml. The core model could be altered to take as its input magnetic and size parameters. I(VM1) in Amps 15.2 -41.

44 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ F ∗ N ∗ 10-8 and E = 4. The core's magnetic/size values can be easily calculated from the following equations which utilize cgs units. The parameter VSEC can then be determined by integrating the input voltage resulting in: Page 9 . 4 Eq. E = 4.electrical parameters. 3 Eq. shown in Figure 6 and Figure 9. and F is the design frequency. Equation 3 is for sinusoidal conditions while equation 4 is for a square wave input. 2 where Bm is the flux density of the material in Gauss. N is the number of turns and ϕ is the flux of the core in maxwells. The total flux may also be written as: ϕT = 2 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac Then. which defines the relationship between flux and voltage is: E = N dϕ/dt ∗ 10-8 Eq. 1 where E is the desired voltage. Ac is the effective core cross sectional area in cm2. from 1& 2. Parameters Passed To Model Core Capacity in Volt-Sec Initial Condition in Volt-Sec Magnetizing Inductance in Henries Saturation Inductance in Henries Frequency when LMAG Reactance = Loss Resistance in Hz VSEC IVSEC LMAG LSAT FEDDY Bm H Ac N Ml µ Equation Variables Maximum Flux Density in Gauss Magnetic Field Strength in Oersteds Area of the Core in cm2 Number of Turns Magnetic Path Length in cm Permeability Faraday's law.0 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ F ∗ N ∗ 10-8 Eq.

from a curve of permeability versus magnetic flux. 6 The initial flux in the core is described by the parameter IVSEC.∫ e dt = NϕT = N ∗ 2 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ 10-8 = VSEC Eq. ∫ e dt = Li Eq. shown in Figure 4. and 7 we have L = N2 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ (. sat) = µ(mag. sat) ∗ N2 ∗ . Then. By choosing the approximate 3 db point for µ. the proper values of µ may be chosen. 9 The values for LMAG and LSAT can be determined by using the proper value of µ in Eq. i is the current through N turns. 5 also from E = L di/dt we have. and Ml is the magnetic path length in cm. The values of permeability can be found by looking at the B . 6. From equations 5.4 ∗ π ∗ 10-8) / H ∗ MI with µ = B/H we have L(mag. the eddy current critical frequency. the corresponding frequency can be determined. To use the IVSEC option you must put the UIC keyword in the ISSPICE ". 8 Page 10 . The value of µ in the saturated region will have to be an average value over the range of interest.H curve and choosing two values for the magnetic flux.4 ∗ π ∗ 10-8 ∗ Ac / Ml Eq.TRAN" statement. The relationship between the magnetizing force and current is defined by Ampere's law as H = . Eq. 9.4 ∗ π ∗ N ∗ i / Ml Eq. The value of FEDDY. 7 where H is the magnetizing force in oersteds. one value in the linear region where the permeability will be maximum and one value in the saturated region. can be determined from a graph of permeability versus frequency.

The permeability versus frequency graph is used to determine the value for FEDDY. The test circuit shown in Figure 10 can be used to evaluate the saturable core model. Page 11 . 3 and 4 to get an idea of the voltage levels necessary to saturate the core. Use the approximate 3 db point on the curve for FEDDY value. Using And Testing The Saturable Core INPUT V(4) VIN R1 100 V(3) VOUT V(5) VS. The core parameters must remain reasonable or the simulation may fail.TRAN statement may also need adjustment depending on the frequency specified by the V2 source. plotting V(5) versus I(VM1) (Flux vs. The . Saturable core test circuit schematic and ISSPICE simulation results. Frequency Figure 9. Pass the core parameters in the curly braces into the saturable core subcircuit and adjust the voltage levels in the "V2 4 0 PULSE" or "V2 4 0 SIN" statements to insure that the core will saturate.µ. I(VM1) I(VM1) V2 PULSE VM1 X2 XFMR R2 50 X1 CORE V(5) FLUX FLUX Figure 10. After the simulation is complete. Permeability The Feddy value can be selected at various points depending on the core gap. You can use Eq. Current through the core) will result in a B-H plot.

does not represent all cases. A Complete Transformer Model The magnetizing inductance is added by using the saturable reactor model across any one of the windings of the ideal transformer.OPTIONS LIMPTS=1000 *SPICE_NET . Coupling coefficients are inserted in the model by adding the series leakage inductance for each winding as shown in Figure 12. The leakage inductances are measured by finding the short circuit input inductance at each winding and then solving for the individual inductance. Page 12 . This model. A Complete Transformer Model.LIB . The final model.1US 50US *INCLUDE DEVICE.3} VM1 2 1 V2 4 0 PULSE -5 5 0US 0NS 0NS +25US *Use the Pulse statement for square wave excitation *V2 4 0 SIN 0 5 40K *Use the Sin statement for sine wave excitation *Adjust voltage levels to insure core saturation .END Figure 11. XFMR.TRAN . These leakage inductances are independent of the core characteristic shown by ref [3]. incorporating the CORE and XFMR subcircuits along with the leakage inductance and winding resistance is shown in Figure 12.OPTIONS LIMPTS=1000 *ALIAS V(3)=VOUT *ALIAS V(5)=FLUX *ALIAS V(4)=VIN . as most simulations.PRINT TRAN V(3) V(5) I(VM1) V(4) R1 4 2 100 R2 3 0 50 X1 1 0 5 CORE {VSEC=25U IVSEC=-25U + LMAG=10MHY LSAT=20UHY FEDDY=25KHZ} X2 2 0 3 0 XFMR {RATIO=. and some leakage inductance and series resistance to create a complete model of a transformer. The saturable core may be combined with the ideal transformer. Equivalent ISSPICE netlist for the saturable core test circuit. SPICE models cannot represent all possible behavior because of the limits of computer memory and run time.Test Circuit . Leakage Inductance Series Resistance V1 Saturable Core Ideal Transformer V2 Figure 12.

. CA 94720 [2] DESIGN MANUAL FEATURING TAPE WOUND CORES.G. (c) IEEE. 2. Electronics Research Laboratory. Page 13 . however. 68. Berkeley. some applications may experience saturation in a small region of the core. Butler PA 16001 [3] TRANSFORMER MODELING AND DESIGN FOR LEAKAGE CONTROL Shi Ping Hsu. Box 391. Meares. College of Engineering. causing some windings to be decoupled faster than others. Magnetics. Memorandum No. Middlebrook. R. copyright 1981 [5] NEW SIMULATION TECHNIQUES USING SPICE L. ERL-M520. vol. Applications like this can frequently be solved by replacing the single magnetic structure with an equivalent structure using several transformers. Inc. Another limitation of this model is for topologies with magnetic shunts or multiple cores. Feb. University of California. Components Div. each using the model presented here. Applied Power Electronics Conference. A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO SIMULATE SEMICONDUCTOR CIRCUITS Laurence W.D. Power conversion International.. April-May.Modeling the core (in Figure 12) as a single element referred to one of the windings works in most cases. Middlebrook and Slobodan Cuk. 9 May 1975. Nagel.D. 1982 [4] ADVANCES IN SWITCHED-MODE POWER CONVERSION Slobodan Cuk and R. pg. invalidating the model. 1986. References [1] SPICE2.

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HOW TO MODEL TRANSFORMERS IN SPICE

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- SPICE MODELLING FOR POWER ELECTRONICS

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