You are on page 1of 50

A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS

Solar PV, Diesel Generators, Batteries and Electrical Grid


Telecom Center of Excellence (RiTCOE)
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
Ashok Jhunjhunwala


Bhaskar Ramamurthi


Sriram Narayanamurthy


Janani Rangarajan
Sneha Raj


POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


Foreword
1elecommunlcaLlons neLworks are crlLlcal lnfrasLrucLure LhaL needs assured power
supply 24x7. 8efore Lhe advenL of cellular wlreless LelecommunlcaLlons, wlred
Lelecom lnfrasLrucLure used Lo be largely conflned Lo Lelephone exchanges. Lven lf
Lhere were remoLe unlLs wlLh elecLronlcs on Lhe sLreeLs, Lhese unlLs requlred modesL
levels of power, and Lhls power was supplled from Lhe exchange uslng Lhe cable
lnfrasLrucLure. WlLh cellular sysLems replaclng wlred sysLems ln a blg way, and wlLh
coverage becomlng ublqulLous, Lhe number of base sLaLlons ln Lhe counLry has grown
enormously. CurrenLly, Lhe number of slLes hosLlng base sLaLlons ls ln excess of 4
lakhs. 1hese base sLaLlons are on roofLops of bulldlngs ln Lhe clLles, and aL Lhe bases
of remoLely locaLed Lowers ln rural areas. 1hey need grld power supply and
auLonomous power backup.
1he amounL of power needed aL each base sLaLlon ls also much hlgher, exceedlng a
couple of kllowaLLs, dependlng on Lhe slze and age of Lhe sysLems deployed. CfLen,
Lhe elecLronlcs needs coollng as well. 1he locaLlons, aL whlch Lhese base sLaLlons are
presenL, lack rellable power supply and some have no grld avallablllLy ln Lhe flrsL
place. 1hus Lhere arlses a need Lo provlde power backup ln Lhe form of generaLors
and sLorage baLLerles. 1hese backup sysLems were lmplemenLed ln a band-ald
fashlon over Lhe years, slnce (a) Lhey were noL requlred ln many oLher geographles
before Lhe large lndlan deploymenL sLarLed, and Lhus no well-englneered soluLlon
was readlly avallable, and (b) Lhe scale of Lhe backup needed ln lndla Loo kepL
lncreaslng as power supply became more erraLlc and cellular coverage began
peneLraLlng rural areas.
1he consequence ls LhaL we have Loday back-of-Lhe-envelope soluLlons LhaL are noL
opLlmally englneered, LhaL are ofLen over-deslgned ln order Lo meeL unknown fuLure
needs wlLhouL heedlng efflclency, and LhaL lgnore Lhe beneflLs LhaL could accrue
from renewable sources such as solar phoLo-volLalcs (v). lf Lhe flnanclal and
envlronmenLal cosLs of such sub-opLlmal deslgns were negllglble, one could lgnore
Lhe lssue. Powever, Lhe hlgh operaLlonal expendlLure on accounL of back-up power
supply, and Lhe envlronmenLal cosL of uC seLs and back-up baLLerles, has forced us Lo
look afresh aL Lhe enLlre problem.
1hls reporL ls a comprehenslve efforL Lo grapple wlLh Lhe lssue of provldlng power
backup for Lelecom base sLaLlons. lL makes no ! #$%&$% assumpLlons nelLher abouL Lhe
sulLablllLy or oLherwlse of baLLerles, uC seLs, or solar v, Lhe avallablllLy of grld
power nor Lhe power consumpLlon of Lhe base sLaLlons. 1he key aspecL of Lhe
approach Laken ls LhaL Lhe opLlmal back-up soluLlon ls found Lhrough slmulaLlons,
glven Lhe seL of assumpLlons. A sophlsLlcaLed slmulaLor has been developed lnLo
whlch one can lnpuL Lhe parameLers, and obLaln Lhe opLlmal mlx of baLLery backup,
solar v capaclLy, and uC seL capaclLy. 1he requlred power level, Lhe LemperaLure
proflle, grld avallablllLy proflle, relaLlve cosLs of uC power, solar v, and baLLery
sLorage can be fed lnLo Lhe slmulaLor Lo arrlve aL Lhe opLlmal soluLlon. Cne can also
conslder reLroflLLlng older base sLaLlons Lo reduce power requlremenLs (malnly
coollng requlremenLs) and changlng Lhe opLlmal mlx. Cne can perform "whaL-lf"
analysls Lo deLermlne how Lhe opLlmal mlx wlll change lf grld avallablllLy changes,
and plan a more robusL soluLlon lf such ls needed. When grld avallablllLy lmproves aL
a locaLlon, one can change Lhe backup arrangemenLs aL Lhe nexL avallable
opporLunlLy, or lncrease Lhe elecLronlcs aL Lhe slLe lf needed.
1hus, Lhe meLhodology espoused by Lhls reporL ylelds a |ocat|on-spec|f|c so|ut|on,
wh|ch opt|m|zes cap|ta| and operat|ona| expend|ture. CperaLors can dynamlcally
Lrack Lhe opLlmallLy of Lhelr lmplemenLaLlons ln a locaLlon-speclflc manner as Lhe
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


assumpLlons change, and elLher forLlfy Lhe power backup, remove excess capaclLy, or
add Lo Lhe base sLaLlon elecLronlcs as needed. 1he slmulaLor and sysLem-
dlmenslonlng Lool ls very useful boLh for !" $%$&$' deslgn of new slLes, and for Lracklng
Lhe performance and up-gradaLlon of exlsLlng slLes.
Several hundred examples of Lyplcal base sLaLlons conflguraLlons, power backup
capaclLles, and grld avallablllLy assumpLlons have been consldered and Lhe cosL of
Lhe backup power evaluaLed, wlLh reallsLlc models for Lhe cosL of flnance. Whlle
Lhese serve as examples for Lhe way ln whlch Lhe meLhodology and slmulaLor ls Lo be
used, Lhey also enable us Lo arrlve aL some broad recommendaLlons for Lhe way
forward wlLh regard Lo Lhe use of solar v, uC seLs, and baLLerles ln Lhe rlghL mlx Lo
achleve a cosL and energy-efflclenL power backup soluLlon. We are also able Lo polnL
ouL Lhe crlLlcal areas where furLher research wlll lead Lo slgnlflcanL lmprovemenLs.
We hope Lhe user communlLy - Lelecom manufacLurers, Lower lnfrasLrucLure
companles, power backup sysLem provlders, operaLors, regulaLor, and pollcy-maklng
governmenL agencles - flnd Lhls reporL and Lhe slmulaLor/Lool useful. We belleve lL ls
a flrsL, and lmporLanL sLep, ln addresslng Lhese presslng lssues of cosL effecLlveness,
energy efflclency and carbon fooLprlnL of our Lelecom lnfrasLrucLure. 1he 8ellance-ll1
Madras, 1elecom CenLre of Lxcellence (8l1CoL) was seL up, among slx oLhers ln slsLer
lnsLlLuLlons, wlLh a speclflc mandaLe for conducLlng research on energy-relaLed
lssues. WlLh Lhe release of Lhls reporL, 8l1CoL has made lLs flrsL ma[or conLrlbuLlon ln
Lhls regard.
1he problem of energy efflclency ln Lhe lndlan conLexL has only begun Lo be
addressed. Much more remalns Lo be uncovered, and much remalns Lo be
accompllshed. We hope LhaL Lhe uLlllLy of Lhls work wlll serve Lo emphaslze Lhe need
for sLrong research efforLs wlLhln Lhe counLry as Lhe only way Lo properly address our
speclflc Lechnologlcal challenges. We also hope LhaL Lhls work also demonsLraLes Lhe
effecLlveness and value of academla-lndusLry collaboraLlon, whlch was ploneered ln
an lnsLlLuLlonal framework Lhrough Lhe 1CoLs. We look forward Lo crlLlques of Lhls
reporL, as well as feedback from Lhe use of Lhe slmulaLor. We are commlLLed Lo
conLlnue our work ln Lhls area, and Lo lmprove Lhe slmulaLor and Lhe approach lLself
ln subsequenL releases.
1he auLhors would llke Lo Lhank 8ellance CommunlcaLlons, ueparLmenL of
1elecommunlcaLlons, and ll1 Madras for Lhe supporL and encouragemenL provlded Lo
8l1CoL.


8haskar 8amamurLhl
Chalrman, Covernlng Councll, 8l1CCL, ll1 Madras








POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Basic Introduction 1
1.1 Powering the Indian BTS sites 2
1.2 So are there alternatives? 5

2. Simulation Tool to Analyze and Optimize
Energy Usage at BTS sites 7
2.1 Loads at the BTS shelter 7
2.2 Site Specific Data 8
2.3 Types of Shelter 8
2.4 Typical Energy Sources used at BTS site 9
2.4.1 Diesel Generator 9
2.4.2 Battery 10
2.4.3 Solar PV 12
2.4.4 Integrated Power Unit (IPU) 13
2.4.5 Grid Assumptions and Costs 14
2.5 Simulation Technique 15
2.5.1 Outputs of the Simulator 15

3. Powering Options for the Indian BTS sites:
Energy Costs as obtained using Simulations 19
3.1 The BTS site-variety 19
3.2 Parameters used in Simulations: 19
3.2.1 Grid Availability 19
3.2.2 Diesel Generator Parameters 20
3.2.3 Battery used in Simulations 21
3.2.4 Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Panels used in Simulations 22
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


3.2.5 Solar Insolation and Temperature Profile used in simulations 22
3.2.6 Types of BTS Sites Simulated 23
3.2.7 Simulation cases: Variety of Energy Sources used 24
3.2.8 Financial Parameter Assumptions in Simulations 25
3.3 Simulation Results 25
3.3.1 Detailed Simulation Results for a specific case 25
3.3.2 Summary of Simulation Results and Discussions 29
3.3.2.1 Conventional Indoor BTS Shelter 29
3.3.2.2 Outdoor BTS 32
3.3.2.3 Retro-Fitted Indoor Shelters 35
3.3.3 Optimization 37
3.4 Conclusion 39

4. Recommendations 42
4.1 Research & Development 42
4.2 Adaptation 42
4.3 Policy Measures 43
4.4 In the end 44

References 45





SECTION 1 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


1
Section 1: Basic Introduction
1he lndlan Lelecom secLor ls one lndusLry, whlch has rapldly grown ln Lhe lasL decade
and ls sLlll expecLed Lo grow sLeadlly. As on May 31
sL
2012 [1], lndla's urban Lele-
denslLy was 169.17 whlle Lhe rural Lele-denslLy was 40.21. Cf Lhe 960 mllllon
subscrlbers, Lhe share of rural subscrlbers ls [usL 33. 1hese flgures lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe
fuLure markeL wlll be Lhe rural area.

ln recenL Llmes, however, Lhe moblle operaLors are undergolng serlous dlfflculLy ln
prevenLlng flnanclal loss. CompeLlLlon has broughL down Larlff slgnlflcanLly and
reduced Lhe margln. AL Lhe same Llme, Lhere has been an lncrease ln cosL due Lo
hlgher cosL of specLrum as well as Lhe lack of rellable 24x7 grld power. Cne of Lhe
casualLles of Lhls squeeze ls Lhe delay ln Lhe rollouL of wlreless broadband servlces ln
lndla, whlch, ln Lhe absence of wlre llne lnfrasLrucLure, ls Lhe maln hope for lndla Lo
caLch up wlLh Lhe resL of Lhe world.
Cne soluLlon Lo Lhe presenL Langle ls Lo brlng-down Lhe operaLlon cosLs. ln Lhe
absence of poor and unrellable elecLrlcal-power lnfrasLrucLure, Lhese operaLlon cosLs
are domlnaLed by energy-cosLs aL Lhe cell-slLes [2]. As Lhe neLwork expands more
lnLo rural areas, Lhls cosL rlses furLher as Lhe power-shorLage lncreases. More Lhan
70 of Lhe 400,000 8ase 1ranscelver SlLes (81S) slLes ln lndla are faced wlLh Lhe lack
of power supply for over 8 hours a day, many face much larger power-cuLs. uurlng
power-cuLs, Lhe Lelecom operaLors have Lo power Lhese slLes wlLh dlesel generaLors
and baLLery back-ups, whlch Loday have prohlblLlve cosLs.

1he lndlan Lelecom lndusLry consumes more Lhan 2 bllllon llLers of dlesel and emlLs
over 3 meLrlc Lons of CC
2
. lurLher, dlesel also geLs pllfered ln Lhe rural areas. Lnergy,
power and fuel amounL Lo 30-33 of LoLal neLwork CLx. Pence lf Lhe Lelecom
lndusLry has Lo expand ln Lhe rural areas, Lhere ls an urgenL need for an alLernaLlve
source of power supply so as Lo cuL Lhe cosLs and conLaln Lhe amounL of non-
renewable energy belng consumed.

1here have been several research reporLs ln recenL Llmes on Lhls Loplc. 1hey have
polnLed ouL Lo Lhe facL LhaL powerlng 81S slLes wlLh dlesel has Lwo adverse
lmpllcaLlons:
1. Plgh CosLs: 1he cosL lnvolved ln uslng dlesel ls very hlgh and lL ls esLlmaLed
LhaL Lhe lndlan Lelecom lndusLry spends over 83 bllllon rupees on dlesel
every year [3]
2. 1he depleLlon of a non-renewable energy source whlch leads Lo hlgh carbon
fooLprlnLs and ls hazardous for Lhe envlronmenL [4]

Some of Lhe recenL reporLs have also concluded by saylng LhaL Lhe use of renewable
energy sources llke solar energy and wlnd energy can be explored as a vlable opLlon
for replaclng dlesel ln powerlng Lhe 81S slLes worldwlde [3] and speclflcally ln lndla
[6].




| SECTION 1
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


2
1.1 Powering the Indian BTS sites
ln lndla Loday, Lhe 81S slLes are prlmarlly powered by Lhe elecLrlcal power-grld, a
baLLery back-up and a dlesel generaLor. 1he power from Lhe grld ls avallable aL a
Larlff of !3 Lo 6 per unlL (kWh). lf Lhls power were avallable 24 hours a day, lL would
noL amounL Lo such a hlgh power cosL. Powever, Lhls ls noL Lhe case ln mosL of lndla.
Whlle ln urban areas, Lhe Lyplcal power-cuLs may be Lwo Lo elghL hours a day, lL may
go up Lo 20 hours a day ln rural areas. lurLher, almosL 18 of 81S slLes [7] are off-
grld.

As Lelecom servlce ls Lo be provlded 24 hours a day, wlLhouL any lnLerrupLlon, all
Lelecom equlpmenL have baLLery back-ups. 1he baLLerles used are malnly Lead-Acld,
Lhough ln recenL Llmes, LlLhlum-polymer baLLerles are belng lncreaslngly used. 1hese
baLLerles are mosLly consldered as a parL of CaplLal expendlLure (CALx) and rarely
does one compuLe lLs lmpacL ln Lerms of operaLlon expendlLure and compare lL wlLh
Lhe cosL of power from Lhe elecLrlcal grld. 1hese baLLerles have a flnlLe llfe assoclaLed
wlLh a number of charge-dlscharge cycles and need regular replacemenL. 8ox 1.1
presenLs Lhe speclflcaLlons and cosL of Lhe baLLerles and Lhe resulLs of an exerclse Lo
LreaL some Lyplcal baLLerles as purely an operaLlonal expendlLure (CLx). uslng 14
as flnance cosL (lnLeresL raLe), Lhe CALx ls converLed lnLo yearly lnsLallmenLs Lo be
pald Lo a bank for flnanclng Lhe baLLery and cosL per unlL of power (kWh) ls
compuLed and ploLLed as a funcLlon of number of charge-dlscharge cycles used ln a
day. 1wo commonly used baLLerles, one Lead-Acld and anoLher LlLhlum-olymer are
used for Lhls exerclse, Lhese are noL Lhe hlgh-performlng baLLerles avallable Loday
1
,
buL Lhe ones Lyplcally used Llll recenLly by many operaLors.

1he resulLs are asLonlshlng. 1he Lead Acld baLLery cosL ls over !23 per unlL of
elecLrlclLy for one charge-dlscharge cycle per day and falls Lo !23 per unlL even wlLh
four charge-dlscharge cycles per day. lor LlLhlum baLLery, Lhe slLuaLlon ls equally
dlsmal, sLarLlng close Lo !23 per unlL for a slngle charge-dlscharge cycle and falllng Lo
[usL over !19 per unlL for four cycles per day. 1hls cosL ls over and above Lhe cosL of
charglng Lhe baLLery. 1oday, hlgher performance Lead Acld and LlLhlum-olymer
baLLerles are avallable, whlch would (as dlscussed laLer) reduce Lhe cosLs. 8uL sLlll Lhe
!"##$%&'(#)%"*$ ,)(#( -$% ./0# )1 $2$,#%0,0#& 3).24 3)%5 ).# ($6$%"2 #07$( #8"#
)!#"0/$4 1%)7 #8$ *%04'-)3$%.

As baLLerles are recognlzed Lo be expenslve, dlesel generaLors are also used aL mosL
slLes. 1yplcal generaLors used are of 13kvA capaclLy, cosLlng abouL !2.3 Lakhs and
have a Lyplcal llfe of 10 years. 1he amounL of dlesel used per unlL of elecLrlclLy ls
glven ln 8ox 1.2, noLe LhaL lL varles wlLh Lhe load LhaL Lhe generaLor drlves, and for
low load percenLage (of maxlmum load of 12kW), Lhe quanLlLy of dlesel requlred per
unlL of elecLrlclLy produced goes up drasLlcally. 1aklng Lhe currenL cosLs of dlesel aL
!43 per llLer and cosL of malnLenance of generaLor as !7 per hour, Lhe unlL cosL of
elecLrlclLy produced ls ploLLed verses Lhe generaLor load ln Lhe 8ox. Cnce agaln, Lhe
cosL per unlL of elecLrlclLy dellvered by Lhe dlesel generaLor ls several Llmes LhaL of
grld-Larlff. Worse, Lhe cosL per unlL lncreases sharply as percenLage load goes down.
MosL 81S slLes use uC aL low load for a slgnlflcanL percenL of Llme.

lurLher, dlesel ls a commodlLy, whlch ls pllfered raLher easlly, exacL consumpLlon of
Lhe dlesel Lowards powerlng of 81S slLe ls dlfflculL Lo measure
2
. llferage adds
slgnlflcanLly Lo Lhe cosLs of dlesel aL a 81S slLe. 1hls has noL been lncluded ln Lhe cosLs
presenLed ln 8ox 1.2.



9
:$##$% ;$"4 ",04 "/4 ;0#80.7 <)2&7$% !"##$%0$( 3022 !$ .($4 2"#$% 0/ #8$ %$-)%# 1)% ",#."2 ,)(#
,)7-.#"#0)/(
=
>/ #8$ 2"(# ,).-2$ )1 &$"%(? #8$%$ 8"( !$$/ " 8)(# )1 ,)7-"/0$( "##$7-#0/* #) "44 $@.0-7$/# #)
7$"(.%$ #8$ $A",# ,)/(.7-#0)/ )1 40$($2 %$7)#$2&B 8)3$6$%? #8$ !$/$10# )1 #8$($ $11)%#( 8"6$ /)#
!$,)7$ &$# )!60).( #) "/ )-$%"#)%? *06$/ #8"# #8$%$ "%$ ,)(#( 0/6)26$4 0/ "440/* #8$($ $A#%"
$@.0-7$/#C
SECTION 1 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


3
1hus, we have a scenarlo where mosL of Lhe 81S slLes ln lndla are powered by a
comblnaLlon of supply from Lhe elecLrlc grld (wherever and whenever posslble),
baLLerles and dlesel generaLors. 1he hlgh-cosL of baLLery back-ups and dlesel
generaLors skew Lhe LoLal power cosL for Lhe 81S slLes Lo a very slgnlflcanL exLenL.
Plgher Lhe unrellablllLy of Lhe grld-power avallablllLy, hlgher would be Lhe LoLal
power cosL aL Lhe slLe. As one goes away from Lhe meLros Lo Lhe Lowns and Lo Lhe
vlllages, Lhe avallablllLy of grld-power decreases. 1he CLx assoclaLed for rural slLes
Lherefore ls much hlgher Lhan LhaL for an urban slLe. Clven LhaL Lhe rural slLes are
less loaded (as Lhe subscrlber denslLy ls less) and Lhe Average 8evenue per user
(A8u) ln rural area ls less Lhan for urban areas, Lhe rural 81S slLe becomes LhaL
much less aLLracLlve for an operaLor. 1he operaLors sLarL neglecLlng Lhe rural slLes
affecLlng Lhe avallablllLy and CuallLy of Servlce (CoS) ln rural areas.

















BOX 1.1: UNIT COST OF ENERGY DELIVERED BY SOME TYPICAL BATTERIES
3





!
#$$ %&'() *%+&+ ,)( -.*$/0(01 2,3-&,$ 453(.0-&/)( %6 &'( 7,&&()8 -+ *%.+-0()(0 &% 7( 6-.,.*(0 ,& ,.
-.&()(+& *%+& %6 9:;1 <-6( %6 &'( 7,&&()8 -+ *%=3/&(0 7,+(0 %. ./=7() %6 *',)>(?0-+*',)>( *8*$(+ 3()
0,8 ,.0 &%&,$ $-6( *8*$( %6 &'( 7,&&()81 @+-.> &'-+A 6-.,.*( *%+&+ 3() 8(,) 6%) &'( 7,&&()8 ,)( *%=3/&(01
@+-.> &%&,$ /.-&+ %6 (.()>8 0($-B()(0 -. , 8(,) C./=7() %6 *8*$(+ 3() 0,8 5 7,&&()8 *,3,*-&8 5
0-+*',)>( 3()*(.&,>( ,$$%D(0 5 !EFGA &'( /.-& *%+& %6 (.()>8 0($-B()(0 78 &'( 7,&&()8 -+ %7&,-.(01
<%++(+ ,)( ,$+% &,H(. -.&% ,**%/.&1 2%+& %6 (.()>8 6%) *',)>-.> &'( 7,&&()8 -+ .%& -.*$/0(0A ,+ -& D-$$
0(3(.0 %. +%/)*( /+(0 6%) *',)>-.>1
"#$% $&'% "'()'*+ ,-".+#/
Llfe 1lme (Charge ulscharge Cycles) 700 2000
CosL per kWh (say 24v, 40Ah) ln ln8 3000 23000
ulscharge ln each cycle 40 80
Lnergy Loss ln charglng/dlscharglng 13 3

!
#
$!
$#
%!
%#
&!
! $ % & ' # ( )
C
o
s
t

p
e
r

U
n
i
t

(
R
s
/
k
W
h
)

No of Cycles
Battery Cost per Unit v/s No of Charge-Discharge
Cycles in a day
Lithium Polymer
Lead Acid



| SECTION 1
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


4























BOX 1.2: PER UNIT COST OF ELECTRICITY DELIVERED BY A TYPICAL AC DIESEL GENERATOR (DG)
4






"
# $% &'# #( )*+*,-./, )01*2 - 3-40353 /6 $7 89 /6 :/;*, <=>? :/;*,@6-A./,B> CD* A-:0.-E A/2. 02
!7%=F=== ;D0AD 02 60+-+A*G -. 0+.*,*2. ,-.* /6 $"H 6/, 0.2 E06*@.03* /6 $=F=== ,5+ D/5,2I 6/, *4-3:E*
6/, .D,** D/5,2 /6 JK 52-)* :*, G-LF E06* ;/5EG M* +*-,EL .*+ L*-,2F A/+.,0M5.0+) ./ L*-,EL A/2. /6
!%=F$%?> CD* 3-0+.*+-+A* A/2. 02 .-&*+ -2 !N :*, D/5, /6 52-)*> J0*2*E A/2. 02 .-&*+ -2 !"% :*, E0.*,>
C/.-E A/2. :*, 5+0. /6 *E*A.,0A0.L )*+*,-.*G 02 .D*+ A/3:5.*G -GG0+) .D* L*-,EL A/+.,0M5.0/+ G5* ./
.D* A/2. /6 )*+*,-./,F 3-0+.*+-+A* A/2. -+G A/2. /6 65*E 52*G 6/, G066*,*+. )*+*,-./, E/-G0+) -+G 6/,
OF P -+G $7 D/5,2 - G-L 52-)*>






SECTION 1 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


5
1.2 So are there Alternatives?
Clven Lhe above scenarlo, ls Lhere a soluLlon Lo lower Lhe hlgh CLx for 81S slLes
conLrlbuLed by power? 1here have been a number of soluLlons LhaL have been
proposed over Lhe lasL few years. A number of Lrlals have been conducLed, and ofLen
vendors, Lower-operaLors and Lelecom operaLors have declared LhaL Lhey have found
Lhe maglc wand. 8uL none of Lhese alLernaLlve soluLlons scale. As soon as one
aLLempLs Lo use Lhem ln some subsLanLlal numbers, Lhe cosL-beneflL raLlo sLarLs
geLLlng skewed. 1he promlsed pro[ecLlons go awry and Lhe deploymenL sLarLs flzzllng
ouL.

8efore we dlscuss why Lhe soluLlons fall Lo fulflll Lhe promlsed poLenLlal, leL us look aL
Lhe klnd of elemenLs LhaL Lhese alLernaLlves bulld upon. 1hey are:

1. !"# %& '#((#) '*((#)+#": 8oLh Lhe Lead Acld as well as LlLhlum olymer
baLLery have been lmprovlng rapldly. use of beLLer baLLery and beLLer baLLery
managemenL cerLalnly helps.

2. !"# %& ,+&&#)#-( .+-, %& ,+#"#/ 0#-#)*(%)": uC generaLors do have much less
varlaLlon ln Lhe amounL of dlesel used per unlL of elecLrlclLy wlLh Lhe
generaLor-load as compared Lo LhaL for AC generaLor. 1hey, Lherefore, help
as Lhe loads vary. Slmllarly, use of a governor wlLh an AC generaLor lmproves
lLs efflclency for lower loads. uslng Lhese alLernaLlves reduces Lhe amounL of
dlesel consumpLlon aL a slLe.

3. !"# %& '#((#) )#1%(# 1%-+(%)+-0 *-, 1*-*0#1#-(: MonlLorlng enables one
Lo flgure ouL whaL ls golng wrong, remoLe managemenL enables one Lo
aLLempL Lo opLlmlze use of dlfferenL sources. lL promlses prevenLlon of
pllferage and reducLlon of LoLal cosL by opLlmlzed use of sources.

4. !"# %& )#-#2*'/#"3 #"4#5+*//6 "%/*) 47%(%89%/(*+5 :;<= *" * "%>)5# (% 4%2#)
?@A "+(#": As dlscussed Lhe cosLs of solar v has been falllng rapldly and lL
promlses lnLeresLlng opporLunlLles.

Lach of Lhese elemenLs helps ln reduclng operaLlonal expendlLure aL 81S slLe. 8uL Lhe
reason why none of Lhe soluLlons have made slgnlflcanL dlfference so far ls because
of Lhe greaL dlvergence ln condlLlons aL dlfferenL slLes. WhaL works aL some slLe may
noL work aL anoLher place. Some slLes have very frequenL power fallure, whereas
oLhers have less. Some have hlgh loads (mulLlple 81S and alr-condlLloners), whereas
oLhers have much less. 1he Lenancy (number of operaLors ln sharlng Lhe shelLer) ls
dlfferenL for dlfferenL slLes. 1he LemperaLure aL some 81S slLes ls very hlgh, whlle aL
oLhers, Lhe cllmaLe ls more LemperaLe. 1herefore Lhere cannoL be a slngle soluLlon,
whlch wlll apply across all Lhe slLes. Also, Lhese are noL new slLes. LqulpmenL has
already been purchased and deployed. So one cannoL LoLally change Lhem and Lhe
CALx / CLx need Lo be Laken lnLo accounL, when new Lechnlques are lnLroduced.
keeplng Lhese varlaLlons ln mlnd, a need for analyzlng Lhe energy consumpLlon ln Lhe
81S shelLer becomes lmporLanL.

1he reporL Lherefore proposes and uses * "+1>/*(+%- (%%/ developed aL 1CCL, ll1
Madras, where each slLe could be lndependenLly analyzed. ulfferenL power-sources
(exlsLlng and proposed) and Lhelr speclflcaLlons can all be glven as lnpuLs. 1he slLe
geography ls glven as an lnpuL, Lhereby enabllng an esLlmaLlon of LemperaLure proflle
and sunllghL avallablllLy proflle, Lhe geography also enables one Lo provlde an
esLlmaLe of grld-avallablllLy durlng 24 hours. 1he loads aL Lhe slLe are glven as lnpuLs.
1he loglc used Lo conLrol each source ls also an lnpuL. 1he slmulaLlon Lool Lhen
slmulaLes Lhe sLaLe of power generaLed and used every mlnuLe and compuLes Lhe
cosLs lnvolved. 1he slmulaLlon ls carrled ouL for mulLlple days and usage of each
source and Lhe cosL assoclaLed wlLh each ls Lhen compuLed. 1he slze and naLure of
sources chosen and Lhe loglc used Lo Lurn Lhem on and off can be varled and Lhe
resulLs analyzed and compared Lo Lhe oLher, so as Lo flnd Lhe mosL opLlmum soluLlon
for Lhe slLe.
| SECTION 1
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


6

"#$% &'()&* (&)+$,'% - !"#$%&%#%&'( #$#*+,&, ). *#' +-&$)/% 0)%*% $1+)2+', $1 ()3'&$14
5"6 %$*'% $1 71,$-8 "#$% &'()&* ,)'% - ,'*-$2', 0)9(/*-*$)1 ). 0)%*% &'2-*', *)
()3'&$14 5"6 %$*'% 3$*# ,$..'&'1* 0)1.$4/&-*$)1%: 4')4&-(#;: *$9' ). *#' ;'-& -1,
/%$14 ,$..'&'1* ./'2 %)/&0'%8 "#' &'()&* -2%) <&$14% )/* #)3 *#' /%-4' ). &'1'3-<2'
'1'&4; #'2(% $1 =/-1*$*-*$+' *'&9%8 >/&*#'&9)&': *#' &'()&* -2%) 2$%*%
&'0)99'1,-*$)1% 0-*'4)&$?', /1,'& *#&'' %'49'1*% 1-9'2; @'%'-&0# A
B'+'2)(9'1*: C,-(*-*$)1 A C,)(*$)1 -1, D)2$0; E'-%/&'%8

SECTION 2 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


7
Section 2: Simulation Tool to Analyze and
Optimize Energy Usage at BTS sites
As menLloned prevlously, a slngle power soluLlon wlll noL sulL Lhe needs of all Lhe 81S
slLes ln lndla. Pence, a cusLomlzable slmulaLlon Lool has been developed Lo
quanLlLaLlvely analyze Lhe energy usage ln Lhe base sLaLlon shelLer and conLrol
dlfferenL sources of power, enabllng opLlmlzaLlon of energy usage and cosLs for each
slLe. 1he soluLlon evaluaLes Lhe energy usage dependlng on Lhe geography and Lhe
Llme of Lhe year. 1he slmulaLlon enables varlous sources of power Lo be mlxed
[udlclously so as Lo drlve Lhe load opLlmally, ensurlng a reducLlon of CLx.
AddlLlonally, Lhls slmulaLor faclllLaLes Lhe addlLlon of new parameLers and alLerlng
Lhe values of Lhe exlsLlng parameLers.
1he secLlon sLarLs wlLh a brlef descrlpLlon of loads aL 81S shelLer, whlch Lhe slmulaLor
Lakes lnLo accounL. lL Lhen dlscusses Lhe slLe-speclflc daLa requlred by Lhe slmulaLor.
lurLher, lL descrlbes how Lhe daLa wlLh respecL Lo energy sources are provlded Lo Lhe
slmulaLor. lL Lhen brlefly descrlbes Lhe Lechnlque used by Lhe slmulaLor. llnally lL
dlscusses ln deLall Lhe dlfferenL ouLpuLs LhaL are obLalned uslng Lhe slmulaLor and
could be used for opLlmlzaLlon of energy usage aL Lhe 81S slLe.

2.1 Loads at the BTS shelter
81S Lower provldes communlcaLlon access Lo Lhe moblle phone subscrlbers locaLed
wlLhln a cerLaln radlus from Lhe Lower. 1he 81S (8ase 1ranscelver SLaLlon) equlpmenL
forms Lhe core componenL of Lhe Lower, provldlng radlo access Lo Lhe moblle phones
and hence needs Lo be powered 24 x 7 Lhree-slxLy-flve days a year wlLhouL any
lnLerrupLlon, for ensurlng rellable connecLlvlLy. 1he 81S used Lo have lLs elecLronlcs ln
a shelLer near Lhe Lower and slgnals were Laken up Lo Lower where Lhe Lranscelvers
and anLennas were mounLed. 1hls ls referred Lo as lndoor 81S. 1he elecLronlcs of Lhe
81S ls deslgned Lo operaLe aL a maxlmum LemperaLure of 33 Lo 43C and Lherefore
needs Lo be cooled. 8lower-fans could be used aL lower LemperaLures, buL as Lhe
amblenL LemperaLure exceeds 33C, one needed alr-condlLloners Lo cool Lhe shelLer.

lurLher, baLLerles are placed ln Lhe shelLer, Lo provlde Lhe back up ln case of power-
fallure. 1yplcal baLLerles need Lo operaLe aL 27C so LhaL Lhelr llfeLlme performance
does noL deLerloraLe. 1he shelLer also has a power comblner and converLor unlL
(called lnLegraLed ower unlL or lu), whlch comblnes varlous sources of power and
converLs lL Lo 48v uC, baLLery used ls 48v uC and all Lelecom equlpmenL are
deslgned Lo have 48v uC as lLs power lnpuL.
1he energy-loads aL a shelLer Lherefore conslsL of 81S load, coollng load and
mlscellaneous loads.
nowadays, many a Llmes, one uses ouLdoor-81S where Lhe elecLronlcs ls ouLdoors aL
Lhe base of Lhe Lower or mounLed on Lhe Lower along wlLh Lhe Lranscelvers and
anLenna. 1he baLLerles are Lhen placed ouLdoor ln a chlller and shelLers are avolded.


| SECTION 2
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


8
BTS Load: As Lhe power consumed by Lhe 81S does noL vary very slgnlflcanLly
over Lhe day, Lhe load proflle ls assumed Lo be a consLanL. 1yplcally 800W ls
consumed by a new 81S.
Cooling Load: 1he energy consumed by equlpmenL whlch ls used ln removlng
heaL from Lhe shelLer or condlLlonlng of Lhe requlred elecLronlcs are classlfled here as
coollng loads.
Air Conditioner: As Lhe 81S elecLronlcs have a maxlmum LemperaLure of
operaLlon and also Lhe heaL generaLed by Lhe elecLronlcs ls Lo be removed from Lhe
shelLer, an alr condlLloner ls requlred, Lhe alr-condlLloner can be seL up Lo sLarL
operaLlon aL some speclflc LemperaLure. uependlng on Lhe amblenL LemperaLure and
Lhe sunllghL falllng on Lhe shelLer, Lhe elecLrlclLy requlred by Lhe alr-condlLloner
would vary and can be glven as an lnpuL Lo Lhe slmulaLor. 1he cuL-off LemperaLure of
Lhe alr condlLloner ls Lyplcally seL Lo 33'C and Lhe maxlmum power consumpLlon of
Lhe alr condlLloner ls Lyplcally 2kW.
Battery Chiller: 1he llfeLlme of a baLLery ls a funcLlon of Lhe amblenL
LemperaLure dependlng upon Lhe Lype of Lhe baLLery. As Lhe LemperaLure lncreases
by 10'C, Lhe llfeLlme of a Lyplcal lead acld baLLery ls reduced Lo half of lLs acLual
value. 8aLLerles also produce heaL whlle charglng, whlch accounLs for lncrease ln Lhe
LemperaLure of Lhe baLLery unlL. 1he experlmenLal resulLs show LhaL a Lyplcal baLLery
has Lhe besL llfeLlme when malnLalned aL 27'C. lf Lhe baLLery ls placed ln Lhe shelLer,
Lhe alr-condlLloner ln Lhe shelLer malnLalns lLs LemperaLure Lo 27C. Slnce oLher
equlpmenL ln Lhe shelLer can operaLe aL hlgher LemperaLures, Lhls resulLs ln excesslve
coollng and hlgh power-bllls. An alLernaLlve used someLlmes nowadays, ls Lo place
Lhe baLLery ln a separaLe cablneL, whlch ls cooled separaLely. A baLLery-chlller ls used
for Lhls purpose. uependlng on Lhe slze and Lhe naLure of baLLerles used, Lhe power-
consumpLlon of Lhe chlller would vary. 1yplcally a chlller consumes 100 Lo 300W of
power.
Miscellaneous Loads: 8aLLery charglng ls also a load LhaL needs Lo be
consldered. CLher addlLlonal loads lnclude fans and llghLs ln a shelLer, whlch Lyplcally
consume 100W.

2.2 Site Specific Data
1he locaLlon of a slLe and Lhe day of Lhe year play an lmporLanL role ln deLermlnlng
Lhe power-usage aL a 81S slLe. 1he amblenL LemperaLure proflle for each
geographlcal locaLlon deLermlnes Lhe coollng load on Lhe alr condlLloner and Lhe
sun's lrradlance deLermlnes Lhe amounL of power LhaL a solar panel, lf used, would
provlde. 1he slmulaLlon has hourly LemperaLure and solar-lrradlance (also called
lnsolaLlon proflle) as lnpuL parameLers.

2.3 Types of Shelter
1he shelLer deslgn plays an lmporLanL role ln deLermlnlng Lhe amounL of coollng load
LhaL would be requlred aL any slLe. 1he Lyplcal slze of a 3A shelLer ls around 20 m
2

and can conLaln up Lo 3 Lenancy 81S. 1oday, Lhe 81S used are elLher of Lhe lndoor or
Lhe ouLdoor Lype. 1he lndoor 81S ls placed ln shelLers llke Lhe 3A shelLer, whereas
Lhe ouLdoor 81S ls mounLed on Lhe Lower, Lhe baLLerles are placed ln a chlller and
Lhe power equlpmenL ls kepL ln a sulLable houslng. ln recenL Llmes, Lhere have been
some aLLempLs Lo reLro-flL Lhe exlsLlng 81S shelLer, so as Lo have separaLe
comparLmenLs for baLLerles and Lhe resL of Lhe equlpmenL, wlLh Lhe Lwo belng
SECTION 2 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


9
BOX 2.1: CONVENTIONAL INDOOR BTS
SHELTER
1yplcally, a convenLlonal 81S shelLer
conLalns Lhe 81S equlpmenL, Lhe
power unlL (AC-uC), baLLerles and an
alr condlLloner. 1he shelLer ls
malnLalned aL 27 degrees cenLlgrade
by a 1.3 Lon alr condlLloner for
ensurlng opLlmal llfeLlme of Lhe
baLLerles. ln Lhe absence of baLLerles,
Lhe shelLer ls cooled Lo 33 degrees
cenLlgrade for safe operaLlon of Lhe
81S elecLronlcs. Maxlmum power
consumpLlon of Lhe alr condlLloner ls
Lyplcally 2kW. lL consumes 30 of
power Llll Lhe amblenL LemperaLure
reaches 33C and llnearly lncreases Lo
lLs maxlmum value when lL reaches
43C. 1he varlaLlon of power
consumpLlon of Lhe alr condlLloner
wlLh Lhe amblenL LemperaLure ls
provlded as an lnpuL Lo Lhe slmulaLor.




BOX 2.2: RETRO FITTED BTS
ln a reLro flLLed Lype of 81S, Lhe
equlpmenL and Lhe baLLerles are
cooled separaLely. 1he baLLery bank ls
separaLely enclosed ln chlller cablneL
malnLalned aL 27'C. A fan ls used Lo
remove Lhe heaL Llll Lhe LemperaLure
of Lhe shelLer remalns below 40C and
lf Lhe LemperaLure rlses above lL, Lhen
a 2kW alr condlLloner ls used. 1he
varlaLlon of power consumpLlon of Lhe
baLLery chlller wlLh Lhe LemperaLure ls
provlded as an lnpuL Lo Lhe slmulaLor.
An lllusLraLlon of Lhe same has been
dlscussed ln SecLlon 3.2.6.




cooled Lo dlfferenL LemperaLures, hence opLlmlzlng Lhe coollng load. 1he Lhree Lypes
of slLes are descrlbed ln 8oxes 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3.

2.4 Typical Energy Sources used at
BTS site
A 81S slLe ls Lyplcally powered by mulLlple sources, whlch lnclude
Lhe grld supply, Lhe dlesel generaLor (uC), solar-v and baLLerles.
ueLalled daLa abouL Lhe sources needs Lo be fed lnLo Lhe
slmulaLor, before lL ls run. 1he seL of daLa requlred for each of Lhe
sources ls dlscussed below.

2.4.1 Diesel Generator
When Lhe grld falls, Lhe baLLery drlves Lhe load and ln Lhe process
dlscharges Lo a cerLaln level. 1o prevenL baLLerles from
dlscharglng furLher, a uC ls Lurned Cn Lo drlve Lhe load as well as
Lo recharge Lhe baLLery. LssenLlally, a uC ls Lurned on when all
oLher sources LogeLher are noL able Lo meeL Lhe power-demand of
Lhe slLe.
1he capaclLy of Lhe uC varles accordlng Lo Lhe Lenancy (number of
operaLors uslng Lhe slLe) of Lhe 81S shelLer. WlLh an lncrease ln
Lhe Lenancy of Lhe 81S shelLer, Lhe slze of Lhe dlesel generaLor
goes up. 1he fuel consumed by Lhe uC depends on Lhe load aL
whlch Lhe generaLor ls operaLlng (as a percenLage of uC's
capaclLy). 1here are Lwo klnds of dlesel generaLors. 1he
convenLlonal uC ls Lhe AlLernaLe CurrenL (AC) generaLor, where
Lhe 230v AC power slgnal ls converLed Lo 48v ulrecL CurrenL (uC)
power before lL ls used for charglng Lhe baLLery or for drlvlng Lhe
Lelecom equlpmenL. 1he AC ls used Lo drlve Lhe alr-condlLloner
dlrecLly. 1he uC dlesel generaLor, on Lhe oLher hand, has uC
ouLpuL, whlch charges Lhe baLLery dlrecLly and drlves Lhe Lelecom
equlpmenL. 1he uC ouLpuL needs Lo be converLed Lo AC Lo power
Lhe alr-condlLloner. 1he relaLlon of fuel efflclency aL varlous
loadlng percenLages ls shown ln llg. 2.1 for a Lyplcal AC uC wlLh a
capaclLy of 13kvA and uC uC of 12kW capaclLy
3
: .

!
#$%&' () *+& ,($' $* -+./+ *+& 01 .% (2&3$*&'4 *+& /(%* (5 36)).)7 *+& 01 2&3 +(63 .% /$,/6,$*&'8 9+&
:$.)*&)$)/& /(%*;+(63 .% $''&' *( *+.% *( $33.<& $* *+& (2&3$*.()$, /(%* (5 36)).)7 *+& 01 2&3 +(638
9+& =>?@A /(%*% $%%(/.$*&' $3& '.%/6%%&' ,$*&3 .) %&/*.() B8C8C
| SECTION 2
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


10
BOX 2.3: TYPICAL OUTDOOR BTS
A Lyplcal CuLdoor 81S ls deslgned Lo
operaLe aL hlgher LemperaLure
condlLlons wlLh [usL a fan and
ellmlnaLes Lhe need of an alr
condlLloner. 1he baLLerles are encased
separaLely ln a chlller cablneL, whlch ls
malnLalned aL Lhe LemperaLure
requlred Lo enhance Lhe llfeLlme of Lhe
baLLerles. 1he power varlaLlon of Lhe
chlller wlLh Lhe LemperaLure ls
provlded as an lnpuL Lo Lhe slmulaLor
and ls furLher dlscussed ln secLlon
3.2.6.



FIGURE 2.1: EFFICIENCY OF AC AND DC DIESEL GENERATORS AT DIFFERENT LOADING PERCENTAGES

1he advanLage ln fuel consumed per unlL of elecLrlclLy generaLed ls slgnlflcanL aL
lower loads ln a uC uC, Lhls ls because Lhe speed of Lhe generaLor can be conLrolled
as per Lhe load requlremenL, whereas ln an AC-uC Lhls cannoL be easlly achleved.
lurLhermore as AC Lo uC converslon ls avolded, Lhe losses assoclaLed wlLh lL, whlle
charglng Lhe baLLery or uslng lL Lo drlve Lelecom equlpmenL ls avolded. Powever, as
alr-condlLloners normally use AC power, uC Lo AC converslon losses wlll come ln
when alr-condlLloner ls Lurned on.

2.4.2 Battery
ln lndla, grld fallure ls a common occurrence. ln order Lo ensure
LhaL Lhe funcLlonlng of Lhe 81S shelLer ls unaffecLed durlng Lhe lack
of power supply from Lhe grld, a baLLery ls used as Lhe prlmary back
up source of power. Lead acld baLLerles are predomlnanLly used
because of Lhelr lower prlces and easy avallablllLy. LaLely, LlLhlum
polymer baLLerles LhaL have a much hlgher charglng raLe, depLh of
dlscharge and hlgher llfeLlme are belng used ln 81S slLes. 1he
slmulaLor has been deslgned Lo Lake dlfferenL baLLery speclflcaLlons
and dlfferenL baLLery charglng-dlscharglng models as dlscussed
below. new models can be added as and when necessary.


Battery Parameters and their Impact
1he parameLers of Lhe baLLery LhaL are consldered ln Lhe slmulaLlon and Lhelr lmpacL
are dlscussed ln Lhls secLlon.

a. Battery Nominal Capacity: 1he nomlnal capaclLy of a baLLery, whlch ls
expressed ln Ah or Ampere-hour capaclLy, ls Lhe currenL a baLLery can
provlde over a speclfled perlod of Llme. lor example, 100Ah of 1.73v/cell
baLLery means LhaL Lhe baLLery can provlde 10 Amps for 10 hours Lo an end
SECTION 2 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


11
of dlscharge volLage of 1.73v per cell. 1yplcal values of capaclLy consldered ln
Lhe slmulaLlon for Lead Acld and LlLhlum olymer are 600Ah and 130Ah
respecLlvely.

b. Battery Voltage: A baLLery-sLrlng or baLLery-bank comprlses of a number of
cells/baLLerles connecLed ln serles Lo produce a baLLery or baLLery sLrlng wlLh
Lhe requlred usable volLage/poLenLlal e.g. 6v, 12v, 24v, 48v, 110v. ln 81S
appllcaLlons, Lhe volLage ls predomlnanLly 48volLs, whlle 24 volLs ls used ln
some of Lhe older 81S.


c. Cycle Life: 1he cycle llfe ls Lhe number of cycles (charge/dlscharge) a
baLLery provldes before lL ls no longer usable. A baLLery ls consldered non-
usable lf lLs nomlnal capaclLy falls below 80 percenL. 1he number of cycles
depends on Lhe depLh-of-dlscharge levels of operaLlon of Lhe baLLery. ln mosL
of Lhe Lelecom 81S appllcaLlons Lhe Lyplcal dlscharge percenLage ls around
40 for Lead Acld and 80 for LlLhlum olymer 8aLLery. 1he cycle llfe of a
new baLLery wlLh Lhe above menLloned conflguraLlon ls Lyplcally around 1300
charge-dlscharge cycles for Lead Acld and 6000 charge-dlscharge cycles for
LlLhlum olymer baLLery.

d. Charging Rate (C rate): 1he charglng or dlscharglng raLe of a cell or
baLLery deflnes how fasL Lhe baLLery can be fllled wlLh charge and ls
expressed ln Lerms of lLs LoLal sLorage capaclLy ln Ah or mAh. So a raLe of 1C
dlscharglng raLe means Lransfer of all of Lhe sLored energy ln one hour, 0.1C
means 10 Lransfer ln one hour, or full Lransfer ln 10 hours, 3C means full
Lransfer ln 12mlnuLes, and so on. Slmllarly, charglng raLe of 0.1C would lmply
LhaL a baLLery wlLh zero charge would geL fully charged ln 10 hours. Lead acld
baLLerles have a lower charglng raLe compared Lo LlLhlum olymer baLLery.
1he Lyplcal charglng raLes for Lead Acld and LlLhlum polymer baLLerles are
0.2C and 1C respecLlvely.


e. Partial State of Charging Levels (psoc): 1he baLLerles have a nonllnear
charglng characLerlsLlc, whlch ls based on Lhelr SoC (sLaLe of charge) levels.
1he charglng raLes keep decreaslng as Lhe baLLery reaches a hlgher raLe of
SoC for Lead Acld baLLery and hence we [udlclously conslder Lhe SoC levels Lo
operaLe from 30 Lo 70 SoC levels where Lhe charglng raLe ls almosL llnear
(llgure 2.2).

| SECTION 2
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


12
FIGURE 2.2: TYPICAL RECHARGE CHARACTERISTICS OF A LEAD ACID BATTERY [8]

"# $%& '%()*+,* '%()('$&)+#$+'# -. /+$%+01 2-341&) 5($$&)4 6- ,-$ 7()4 10'%
8+$% $%& 9-: 3&7&3#; 3+,&() '%()*+,* 1-6&3# '(, 5& 0#&6<

.< Battery Efficiency/Energy Loss: =%+# $&)1 6&#')+5&# $%& >)->-)$+-, -. (
#&'-,6()4 5($$&)4?# ,-1+,(3 '(>('+$4; 8%+'% +# 3-#$ 60)+,* '%()*+,*; (,6 ,-$
)&$0),&6 0#+,* 6+#'%()*&< =%& &..+'+&,'4 -. ( /&(6 "'+6 5($$&)4 '(, 5& (# 3-8
(# @AB 8%+3& $%& /+$%+01 2-341&) %(# ( 7&)4 %+*% &..+'+&,'4 -. CCB<

*< Battery Cost/kWh: D($$&)4 1(,0.('$0)&)# >)+'& $%&+) 5($$&)+&# +, $&)1# -.
+$# '(>('+$4 *+7&, +, EF%< =%+# 7(30& +,6+'($&# $%& (1-0,$ -. &,&)*4 $%($ $%&
5($$&)4 '(, 6&3+7&) ($ $%& #>&'+.+&6 7-3$(*& )($+,* 60)+,* +$# 3+.&$+1&< =%&
>)+'& .-) $%& /&(6 "'+6 (,6 /+$%+01 2-341&) 5($$&)4 '(, 7()4 8+6&34 (,6 '(,
5& (# 3-8 (# AGGG !HEF% (,6 (# %+*% (# IAGGG !HEF% )&#>&'$+7&34< J-8&7&);
(# 6&>$% -. 6+#'%()*& (,6 ,015&) -. '%()*&H 6+#'%()*& '4'3&# '(, 7()4
8+6&34; $%+# ,&&6# $- 5& '-,7&)$&6 +,$- '-#$ >&) 0,+$ -. &3&'$)+'+$4 6&3+7&)&6<
=%& '-#$# .-) $%& 5($$&)4 ()& '-,7&)$&6 +,$- K2LM 54 4&()34 +,#$(331&,$ 5(#&6
>(41&,$ 1&$%-6 ($ $4>+'(334 NIB +,$&)&#$ )($& O$%+# '(, 5& '%(,*&6 .-)
#>&'+.+' '(#&#P (# 6+#'0##&6 +, #&'$+-, N<N; D-Q N<N<

2.4.3 Solar PV
R,6+(; 5&+,* ( $)->+'(3 '-0,$)4; %(# %+*% (1-0,$# -. #-3() +,#-3($+-, +, 1-#$
>()$#< S&,&)(334; $%& +,+$+(3 '(>+$(3 &Q>&,6+$0)& +,7-37&6 +, 0#+,* #-3() 2T +#
%+*% (,6 +# 6&$)+1&,$(3 .-) $%& (6->$+-, -. #-3() 2T (# ( #-0)'& -. >-8&)
*&,&)($+-,< D0$; +, $%& )&'&,$ 6(4# $%& .(33+,* >)+'&# -. $%& #-3() 2T #&&1# $-
'%(,*& $%& #'&,()+-< =%& .-33-8+,* D-Q U<I >)&#&,$# $%& '(3'03($+-, -. '-#$
>&) 0,+$ -. &,&)*4< =%& 6&>)&'+($+-, .-) '(>+$(3 *--6# +# 0#&6 $- (33-'($& '-#$#
-, ( 4&()34 5(#+#V $- $%+# $%& 4&()34 +,$&)&#$ '-#$ (,6 $%& K2LM +# (66&6 $-
-5$(+, $%& $-$(3 '-#$# -. &,&)*4 +, ( 4&()< =%& (##01>$+-,# +,'306& !IA >&)
F($$ O>P .-) #-3() >(,&3# (,6 -,34 !NA >&) F($$ O>P .-) )--.$-> +,#$(33($+-,;
SECTION 2 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


13
1800 hours equlvalenL of peak sunllghL ln cenLral parLs of lndla and 11
lnLeresL raLe for a 20-year flnance. Lven lf a sllghLly lower equlvalenL peak
sunllghL hours (1630 hours as appllcable ln Chennal) ls Laken, Lhe cosLs would
be less Lhan !3 per unlL. noLe LhaL Lhls ls Lhe cosL of uC energy generaLed
rlghL aL Lhe slLe, whlch could be used Lo charge baLLery and drlve Lelecom
equlpmenL.

BOX 2.4: ENERGY COSTS OF SOLAR PV PANELS

2.4.4 Integrated Power Unit (IPU)
1he lnLegraLed ower unlL conslsLs of a power-converLor and power-managemenL
unlL wlLhln Lhe 81S shelLer. 1he lu has a remoLe Lransfer unlL, baLLery charger, SCC
measuremenL unlL, uC fuel level sensor, AC-uC converLer, uC-AC converLor (when
needed) and a uC-uC converLer. 1he four prlmary funcLlons of an lu (elaboraLed ln
8ox 2.3) are:

1. 8emoLe monlLorlng of Lhe 81S shelLer
2. ower rocesslng
3. ConLrolled SwlLchlng Lo swlLch rlghL power sources and loads
4. ower-converslon







1he assumpLlons consldered for Lhe calculaLlon of Lhe cosL per unlL from a solar panel are LabulaLed
below:
arameter Va|ue
Cost of V ane| per kW ! 60,000
Losses () 10
Number of sun-hours per day 6h
1ota| number of sun-days per year 300
TABLE 2.1 ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE COST PER UNIT CALCULATION OF THE SOLAR PV
! CosL of a panel along wlLh Lhe 8CS (8alance of SysLem cosLs) ls Laken as !60/Wp.
! 1he CALk |s converted to year|y |nsta||ments payab|e for 20 years w|th 11 |nterest.
! 1oLal unlLs generaLed per year = sun hours per day sun-days per year
uslng Lhe above relaLlon, Lhe LoLal unlLs generaLed per year are calculaLed Lo be 1800.
! rlce per unlL = ear|y |nsta||ment .
1ota| un|ts generated per year k Lff|c|ency
Using the above relation, the price per unit of energy produced by solar PV is !4.65







| SECTION 2
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


14

BOX 2.5: AN OVERVIEW OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE INTEGRATED POWER UNIT

2.4.5 Grid Assumptions and Costs
Crld power-avallablllLy and lLs Llmlngs are speclflc Lo Lhe slLe. 1he Larlff of grld power
ls Lyplcally !3 per kWh, buL could vary from sLaLe Lo sLaLe and would depend on
classlflcaLlon of 81S by power uLlllLles as commerclal or non-commerclal.

Crld- power avallablllLy could vary a loL dependlng upon Lhe sLaLe, speclflc locaLlon
wlLhln Lhe sLaLe, Llme of Lhe year, sLaLe of power-sources and demand aL any speclflc
Llme. lL ls posslble Lo speclfy any arblLrary avallablllLy ln Lhe slmulaLlon. Powever, we
have consldered some scenarlos where Lhe grld supply ls assumed Lo be avallable for
four hours and for elghL hours aL dlfferenL Llmes of Lhe day. 1he grld avallablllLy has
been modeled lnLo elLher slngle bursL or mulLlple bursLs and llsLed as cases. 1hese
models could be readlly used durlng slmulaLlon and one or Lhe oLher may glve a
reasonable undersLandlng for mosL parLs of Lhe counLry aL dlfferenL Llme of Lhe year.

A slngle bursL of 4 or 8 hours ls Laken durlng day or nlghL as shown ln Lable 1 below
(cases 1, 2, 4 and 3). ln cases of mulLlple bursLs, Lhe bursLs are separaLed equally
LhroughouL 24 hours (cases 3, 6, 7).
Remote monitoring of the BTS shelter:
1he 81S has several parameLers (alarms) LhaL can be monlLored remoLely. 1hey lnclude:
! 1he L8 malns fallure alarm, whlch ls used Lo deLecL Lhe grld supply Lo Lhe 81S shelLer and an
alarm Lo lndlcaLe low baLLery.
! An alarm Lo deLecL Lhe uC's fallure Lo sLarL/sLop.
! 1he alarm Lo lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe uC fuel level has fallen below a crlLlcal value.
! An alarm for AC crlLlcal parameLers, whlch lndlcaLes when Lo Lurn on Lhe prlmary AC and Lhe
secondary alarm Lo Lurn Cn Lhe second AC.
! 1he LemperaLure sensor alarm, Lo cauLlon when Lhe LemperaLure rlses beyond a crlLlcal value
ln Lhe 81S shelLer.
! An lndlcaLor alarm Lo menLlon Lhe sLaLe of charge of a baLLery, so as Lo Lurn Cn Lhe uC.
! lndlcaLors Lo monlLor Lhe sLaLe of healLh of Lhe baLLery and of Lhe power equlpmenL
(recLlfler).
Power Processing unit:
As menLloned earller, Lhe 81S shelLer geLs power supplled from Lhree sources, namely Lhe L8
malns, Lhe baLLery and Lhe dlesel generaLors. 1he 81S equlpmenL runs normally on 48v uC. 1he
Lyplcal L8 grld supply Lo Lhe 81S shelLer ls a 3 phase, 230v AC.
1he L8 malns and Lhe dlesel generaLor glve a 230v AC, whlch has Lo be converLed Lo 48v uC. An
AC-uC converLer ls used Lo converL from 230v AC Lo 48v uC. 1he baLLery bank dlrecLly glves a
48v uC.
SECTION 2 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


15

!"#$ &'(#)# *(+, -.(#/ 0+1+23 45 647$( "8"+9":+9+); +2 "
,";
< =+239$ &'(#) > <<61 ? @"1 -A+3.) *(+,/
B =+239$ &'(#) > <<"1 ? @61 -C"; *(+,/
@ D'9)+69$
&'(#)
> <<61 )4 <B"1E F GH"1E
<<"1 )4 <B61E FGH61
> =+239$ &'(#) I <<61 ? J"1 -A+3.) *(+,/
F =+239$ &'(#) I <<"1 ? J61 -C"; *(+,/
H D'9)+69$
&'(#)
I <<61 )4 <B"1E B"1 ? @"1E
F"1 ? H"1E I"1 ? K"1E
<<"1 ? <B61E B61G @61E
F61 ? H61E I61 ? K61
J D'9)+69$
&'(#)
I <<61 )4 <"1E F"1 ? J"1
<<"1 )4 <61E F61 )4 J61
TABLE 2.2: GRID AVAILABILITY CASES
2.5 Simulation Technique
Sources and loads are modeled accordlng Lo Lhelr Lype and characLerlsLlcs. 1he Lool
ensures LhaL all Lhe models and lLs dependencles for processlng lLs lnpuLs are
provlded by Lhe user. 1he power demands of Lhe load models are caLered by Lhe
source models wlLh a resoluLlon of 1 mlnuLe uslng a conLroller block by uslng a
prlorlLy allocaLlon algorlLhm.

L47$( D+M+23 "2, N994O")+42P When Lhe grld ls avallable, lL ls always assumed Lo be
Lhe flrsL Lo be used Lo power Lhe slLe. SlLes wlLh baLLery backup charge when Lhe grld
ls avallable and dlscharges Lo Lhe load durlng lLs absence. When Lhe slLe has no
baLLery backup or lf Lhe baLLery ls dlscharged Lo a speclfled level (whlch needs Lo be
speclfled before slmulaLlon), Lhe uC ls Lurned Cn Lo caLer Lo Lhe load and also
recharge lf appllcable. Slmllarly, Lhe uC Lurn-off when Lhe baLLery ls charged Lo a
speclflc level needs Lo be speclfled.

2.5.1 Outputs of the Simulator
1he slmulaLor ls deslgned Lo analyze Lhe sysLem ln a hollsLlc manner aL every mlnuLe
of Lhe slLe's runLlme. 1he slmulaLor ouLpuL provldes a very deLalled graphlcal
dashboard, whlch enables one Lo correlaLe Lhe sLaLe of load and source condlLlons. lL
also provldes deLalled ouLpuL, whlch can be lmporLed Lo any daLabase for analysls
and vlsuallzaLlon. lL can become a Lool for opLlmlzlng cosLs or carbon emlsslon, lf one
wanLs.
lL ls posslble Lo slmulaLe varlous cases, lnvolvlng a comblnaLlon of uslng Lhe AC
uC/uC uC, Lead Acld baLLery/ LlLhlum olymer baLLery and Lhe addlLlon of v. 1he
classlflcaLlon of cases consldered ln Lhe slmulaLlon ls based on:
1ype of ulesel CeneraLor consldered
o AC uC
o uC uC
1ype of 8aLLery aL Lhe slLe
o Lead Acld baLLery
o LlLhlum polymer baLLery
AddlLlon of v Lo Lhe slLe wlLh baLLery
| SECTION 2
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


16
ln Lhe nexL chapLer, we wlll Lake up slmulaLlon and analysls of several cases, as an
lllusLraLlon. 1he followlng cases wlll be slmulaLed and analyzed:
A AC Cen only
8 AC Cen + Lead Acld baLLery
C AC Cen + LlLhlum olymer baLLery
u AC Cen + Lead Acld baLLery + hoLovolLalc panel
L AC Cen + LlLhlum olymer baLLery + hoLovolLalc panel
l uC Cen only
C uC Cen + Lead Acld baLLery
P uC Cen + LlLhlum olymer baLLery
l uC Cen + Lead Acld baLLery + hoLovolLalc panel
! uC Cen + LlLhlum olymer baLLery + hoLovolLalc panel
TABLE 2.3 LISTING OF SIMULATED CASES

Output Parameters of the Simulator
1hls secLlon presenLs some Lyplcal ouLpuLs of Lhe slmulaLor.

A. Energy Consumption by the loads for 24 hours
1he LoLal energy consumpLlon of Lhe shelLer ls malnly Lhe 81S equlpmenL load
(800W+100W) and Lhe coollng load (2kW Alr CondlLloner). 1he percenLage of
equlpmenL load and Lhe coollng load consumpLlon ln a Lyplcal day ls shown ln
Lable 2.4.

TABLE 2.4: POWER CONSUMPTIONS BY THE LOADS
B. Sources
1he energy produced by each source and Lhe assoclaLed cosL per unlL calculaLed
by Lhe slmulaLor ls dlsplayed ln a Labular form. lurLhermore, Lhere ls a column
whlch shows Lhe LoLal cosL of energy per day. 1able 2.3 capLures some Lyplcal
resulLs.


TABLE 2.5 CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFERENT SOURCES


SECTION 2 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


17
C. DG Output Parameters:
"#$%& '&( )*+'&, )*+ -./ 0)12/ '&3 45/%/*-% -64#7)2 %#892)-:5 :9-49-; %.:<#*$ -./
)8:9*- := =9/2 7:*%98/+ 16 -./ >?; -./ 2:)+#*$ :* -./ $/*/5)-:5 )% )
4/57/*-)$/ := #-% 8)@#898 7)4)7#-6; -./ *981/5 := -#8/% #- <)% %<#-7./+ AB
)*+ #-C% -:-)2 59* -#8/& 0./ $/*/5)-#:* 7:%- #% )2%: 7:849-/+ )*+ #% +#%42)6/+ <#-.
-./ :9-49- 5/%92-%&


TABLE 2.6 DG OUTPUT PARAMETERS


FIGURE 2.3: DG LOADING PERCENTAGES AND TIME FRACTIONS


FIGURE 2.4 PROFILES OF THE SOURCE CURRENTS ACROSS THE DAY

| SECTION 2
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


18
1he generaLor ls Lurned Cn aL varlous lnsLanLs ln a 24 hour perlod and dependlng on
Lhe sLaLe of charge of Lhe baLLery aL Lhe lnsLanL, Lhe duraLlon of Lhe uC run ls
declded. An lllusLraLlon of power produced by Lhe generaLor (luC) and Lhe duraLlon
for whlch Lhe generaLor and grld remalns funcLlonal ls shown ln llg. 2.4. uependlng
on Lhe load aL any lnsLanL, Lhe generaLor ls loaded aL dlfferenL levels, loadlng raLlo ls
raLlo of Lhe load drlven by Lhe generaLor as a percenLage of maxlmum load LhaL Lhe
uC can drlve. 1yplcal loadlng raLlos and Lhelr correspondlng Llme fracLlons are shown
as a ple charL ln llg. 2.3 for a qulck lnLulLlve lnslghL.

D. Battery Output Parameters:
1able 2.7 and llg. 2.3 show some Lyplcal baLLery relaLed parameLers as obLalned from Lhe
slmulaLor.


TABLE 2.3 OUTPUT PARAMETERS FOR THE LITHIUM ION BATTERY WITH LIFETIME OF 6000 CYCLES


FIGURE 2.5 BATTERY CHARGE- DISCHARGE CYCLES

lL can be seen LhaL Lhe slmulaLlon Lool Lakes ln Lo accounL Lhe dlfferenL loads, varlous
sources of energy and oLher daLa relevanL Lo Lhe geography of a 81S slLe and
comprehenslvely slmulaLes Lhe slLe. 1he ouLpuL of Lhe slmulaLlon Lool lncludes Lhe
LoLal energy consumpLlon per day of Lhe 81S slLe, Lhe LoLal cosL of energy per day,
Lhe energy conLrlbuLlon by each source and Lhe assoclaLed cosL per unlL of Lhe
energy generaLed by every source. 1hese calculaLlons glve ln-depLh lnslghLs lnLo Lhe
conLrlbuLlon of each source of energy used Lo Lhe energy cosL of Lhe slLe and hence
alds ln Lhe deslgnlng of an opLlmal cosL effecLlve slLe-speclflc power-soluLlon.
SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


19
3. Powering Options for the Indian BTS
Sites: Energy Costs as obtained using
Simulations
3.1 The BTS site - variety
As menLloned prevlously, mosL of Lhe 81S slLes ln lndla are lndoor 81S shelLers, Lhe
new ones are however Lhe ouLdoor 81S shelLers and Lhere are some sporadlc
aLLempLs Lo reLroflL slLes. Lach of Lhese Lhree Lypes of Lhe 81S shelLers have been
consldered here ln Lhe slmulaLlon. varlaLlon ls however noL llmlLed Lo Lhe Lype of
slLes. 1hough, Lhe baslc conflguraLlon of Lhe slLe consLlLuLes Lhe 81S, grld as an
energy source, baLLery as a backup and uC as an alLernaLe source of energy, Lhe
slzlng, usage and Lype of each of Lhese consLlLuenLs vary slgnlflcanLly beLween
dlfferenL slLes. Some slLes may also be powered by renewable energy sources llke Lhe
v. 1he secLlon Lherefore reporLs Lhe resulLs of slmulaLlon carrled ouL for several of
Lhese varlaLlons encounLered ln a 81S slLe. 1hese varlaLlons glve us a deeper lnslghL
lnLo Lhe cosL and energy assoclaLed wlLh Lhem by enabllng comparlson wlLh lLs
alLernaLlves.
1he resulLs here do Lell us a loL abouL whaL ls llkely Lo work and whaL ls noL llkely Lo
work ln lndla. Powever, lL should be polnLed ouL LhaL Lhe slmulaLlon resulLs are
llmlLed by Lhe cases for whlch Lhe slmulaLlon has been carrled ouL. Someone may
have or come up wlLh a new baLLery wlLh dlfferenL characLerlsLlcs, wlLh a new klnd of
generaLor, wlLh a new source of power, and Lhe resulLs may change. 1he slmulaLor
could Lhen qulckly be used Lo show Lhe poLenLlal of Lhe new sub-sysLems. Also, one
may come up wlLh a dlfferenL sLraLegy for uslng baLLery- generaLor (llke when Lo Lurn
a generaLor on and off) and ln some speclflc condlLlons, one may be able Lo geL very
dlfferenL resulLs. Lach such lnnovaLlon would help and comparlson of Lhe new
soluLlon wlLh oLher soluLlons can be made qulckly uslng Lhe slmulaLor.
1he resulLs presenLed here however do reflecL Lhe general scenarlo of 81S slLes ln
lndla and commonly avallable opLlons. 1he parameLers used ln slmulaLlons are glven
ln secLlon 3.2
3.2 Parameters used in Simulations
3.2.1. Grid Availability
1he duraLlon of grld avallablllLy varles from shelLer Lo shelLer. lurLher, Lhe LoLal Llme
for whlch Lhe grld ls avallable could also be ln a slngle bursL of grld supply or mulLlple
bursLs. 1he duraLlon of grld avallablllLy consldered for Lhe slmulaLlon ls 4hours and
8hours. AddlLlonally, Lhe grld ls modeled elLher as a slngle bursL or mulLlple bursLs
(1hour, 2hours or 4hours) of supply as presenLed ln 1able 2.2 ln secLlon 2 and
reproduced here as 1able 3.1.




| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


20

Case Bursts Grid
(hrs)
Timing of power availability in a
day
1 Single Burst 4 11pm 3am (Night Grid)
2 Single Burst 4 11am 3pm (Day Grid)
3 Multiple Burst 4 11pm to 12am, 5 -6am,
11am to 12pm, 5-6pm
4 Single Burst 8 11pm 7am (Night Grid)
5 Single Burst 8 11am 7pm (Day Grid)
6 Multiple Burst 8 11pm to 12am, 2am 3am,
5am 6am, 8am 9am,
11am 12pm, 2pm- 3pm,
5pm 6pm, 8pm 9pm
7 Multiple Burst 8 11pm to 1am, 5am 7am
11am to 1pm, 5pm to 7pm
TABLE 3.1 GRID-AVAILABILITY CASE USED IN SIMULATIONS

3.2.2 Diesel Generator Parameters

When supply from Lhe grld ls unavallable, Lhe 81S shelLer ls powered by Lhe uC.
1hough AC uCs have been used for a long Llme due Lo Lhelr ease of avallablllLy, Lhese
days uC uCs are also belng lncreaslngly avallable. uC uCs come wlLh Lhe advanLage
of dlrecL uC power and hlgher efflclencles aL lower loadlngs. 1he need for Lwo klnds
of uC has been descrlbed ln secLlon 2.3.1 and hence Lhe slmulaLlons have consldered
boLh AC uCs and uC uCs ln order Lo ald comparlson of cosLs. 1he assumpLlons for
each of Lhese generaLors are as LabulaLed ln 1able 3.2.

!"#"$%&%# () *+ *) *+
,-.% 13kvA 12kW
)"/-&"0 )12& ! 2, 30, 000 2, 30, 000
3-4%&-$% 5617#28 10,000 10,000
9"-:&%:":;% )12&2 5!<617#8 7 7
TABLE 3.2: ASSUMPTIONS FOR AC DG AND DC DG

1he uC load depends on Lhe 81S equlpmenL used aL Lhe slLe and sLaLe of baLLery
when Lhe uC ls Lurned on. 1he fuel efflclency of Lhe uC aL varlous loadlng
percenLages ls as presenLed ln llg. 2.1.
1he cosL of energy produced by Lhe uC ls conLrlbuLed by Lhree elemenLs: CALx for
uC, lLs malnLenance cosL and cosL of Lhe fuel consumed. 1he conLrlbuLlon of CALx ls
compuLed uslng 14 lnLeresL raLe and llnear depreclaLlon over Lhe usage of uC for lLs
llfe-Llme (number of years depends on number of hours of uC usage per day). 1he
fuel cosL depends on Lhe efflclency aL whlch Lhe uC ls runnlng (dependlng upon Lhe
load).
1he calculaLlons could be descrlbed ln Lwo sLeps:
1. ?early lnsLallmenL ls calculaLed based on Lhe CALx, lnLeresL raLe and Lhe
LoLal llfeLlme of Lhe uC. 8ased on Lhls, and Lhe number of hours used ln a
year, we geL Lhe cosL per hour of lLs operaLlon.

SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


21
2. MalnLenance cosL aL !7/hour along wlLh Lhe CLx due Lo fuel consumed ls
Lhen added Lo Lhe value calculaLed ln sLep1 Lo arrlve aL Lhe LoLal CLx of
runnlng Lhe uC per hour.
llg. 3.1 provldes Lhe cosL of Lhe AC and uC generaLor for assumlng dlesel cosLs of
!43 per llLer and assumlng Lhe uC ls used for 3 hours per day. Slmllar curves can be
obLalned for dlfferenL hours of usage, and are used ln Lhe sLlmulaLlons.


FIGURE 3.1: COST PER UNIT OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCED BY AC AND DC DIESEL GENERATORS AT VARIOUS LOADING
PERCENTAGES ASSUMING 3 HOURS OF USAGE PER DAY AND DIESEL PRICE OF 45 PER LITER

3.2.3: Battery used in Simulations
lour dlfferenL baLLerles have been used ln slmulaLlons, one Lype of Lead Acld baLLery
and Lhree dlfferenL Lypes of LlLhlum olymer baLLerles, labeled as LlLhlum1, LlLhlum2
and LlLhlum3. 1he capaclLy of Lead acld baLLerles used ls 600Ah (aL 48v), whereas
smaller LlLhlum olymer baLLerles of 130 Ah or 100 Ah capaclLy (all aL 48v) are used,
as Lhe depLh of dlscharge of Ll baLLerles ls hlgher and because Lhey can wlLhsLand
much hlgher charge-dlscharge cycles. 1he LlLhlum1 used ls hlghesL performlng and
mosL expenslve baLLery, Lhe cosLs of LlLhlum2 and LlLhlum3 baLLerles dlffer by !3000,
Lhe former has hlgh uCu buL less number of cycles whereas Lhe laLLer has lower
uCu, buL hlgh number of cycles. 1he charglng / dlscharglng raLes for Lead Acld
baLLery ls one flfLh of lLs capaclLy(C) of C/3 per hour, whereas LhaL for all Lhe Lhree
Lypes of LlLhlum baLLerles, lL ls as hlgh as C per hour. 1able 3.3 presenLs Lhe
parameLers of Lhe four Lypes of baLLerles.

!"#"$%&%# (%") *+,) (,&-,.$ / (,&-,.$0 (,&-,.$1
2"3"+,&4 5*-67 89: 600 130 130 130
(,;%&,$% 524+<%=6 1300 6000 3000 6000
>?> 40 80 80 60
2@=& ABC- 5!6 6000 43000 23000 20000
2-"#D,ED F"&% C/3 C C C
2-"#D,ED G%&-@) non Llnear Llnear Llnear Llnear
2-"#D% >,=+-"#D% 24+<% H?2 30 - 70 10 - 90 10 - 90 10 - 70
I;;,+,%E+4J 83 99 99 99
TABLE 3.3: PARAMETERS OF FOUR TYPES OF BATTERIES USED IN SIMULATIONS

| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


22
3.2.4. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Panels used in simulations
1he prlces of Solar v has been reduclng rapldly over Lhe lasL year and half and Lhe
panels are avallable beLween !40 and 43 per W (peak). Solar v can be mounLed on
Lhe 81S shelLers wlLh overhang and could also provlde shade Lo Lhe shelLer. CosL of
lnsLalled solar v has been assumed Lo be !60,000 per kW of peak power. 1he Lable
below llsLs Lhe parameLers used ln Lhe slmulaLlons. 1he number of sun-days has been
assumed Lo be 300. 1he sun Lyplcally shlnes ln lndla for 12 hours a day, buL wlLh
varylng solar lnsolaLlon as shown ln llg 3.3, lL Lyplcally amounLs Lo 6 hours of
equlvalenL peak lnsolaLlon. uependlng on Lhe exacL slLe and orlenLaLlon, Lhls 300 x 6
or 1800 hours of peak sunllghL could vary from 1630 Lo 1830 hours ln mosL of lndla.
1he prlce per unlL of elecLrlcal power generaLed by solar v ls compuLed uslng Lhese
parameLers, assumlng 11 lnLeresL raLe
6
and a llfe-Llme of 20 years for Lhe panel,
slmllar Lo Lhe calculaLlons performed ln secLlon 1.2

!"#"$%&%# (")*%
+,-& ,. !( !"/%) 0%# 12 ! 60,000
3,--%- 456 10
7*$8%# ,. -*/9:,*#- 0%# ;"< 6h
=,&") /*$8%# ,. -*/9;"<- 0%# <%"# 300
TABLE 3.4: PARAMETERS FOR THE SOLAR PV

3.2.5 Solar Insolation and Temperature Profile used in
Simulations
Insolation Profile: AvallablllLy of llghL energy by Lhe sun deLermlnes Lhe power-
ouLpuL of a phoLovolLalc panel. 1hls lrradlance daLa ls measured ln waLLs/m
2
and
varles wlLh Lhe geography of Lhe place. 1he slmulaLlon uses Lhe lnsolaLlon daLa for
uelhl (lnulA) durlng Lhe monLh of !uly ls shown ln Lhe llg.3.2.


FIGURE 3.2: TYPICAL IRRADIANCE PROFILE FOR DELHI IN JULY FOR A 24-HOUR PERIOD

"
#$%&' ()*&'&+* ',*& (+ ,++-.&/ 0$' +$1,' 23 ,+ *4& 0(),)5()6 0$' +$1,' 23 (+ 0$' , 1$)67*&'. 8&'($/ $0 9:
;&,'+ ,)/ *4& -8+ ,)/ /$%)+ $0 ()*&'&+* 5,) <& ,=&',6&/ $=&' *4& ;&,'+> ?4(+ (+ 0-'*4&' /(+5-++&/ ()
@&5*($) A>
SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


23

Temperature Profile: As Lhe amblenL LemperaLure due Lo Lhe sun adds on Lo Lhe
heaL load lnslde Lhe shelLer, Lhe LemperaLure proflle for Lhe day ls an lnpuL used for
calculaLlng Lhe coollng load on Lhe alr condlLloner and Lhe chlller. 1he slmulaLlon uses
Lhe LemperaLure proflle for a Lyplcal day ln Lhe monLh of !uly aL uelhl (lnulA) ls glven
ln llg. 3.3.
FIGURE 3.3: TYPICAL TEMPERATURE PROFILE FOR DELHI IN JULY OVER A 24-HOUR PERIOD

3.2.6 Types of BTS Sites Simulated

1he deLalled slmulaLlons were carrled ouL for Lhree Lypes of 81S slLes:
1. ConvenLlonal lndoor 81S referred Lo as lndoor
2. new CuLdoor 81S referred Lo as CuLdoor
3. 8eLroflL of convenLlonal lndoor 81S referred Lo as 8eLroflLLed
1he capaclLy of solar v used for Lhe Lhree slLes ls chosen based on Lhe load
requlremenL for each of Lhe shelLer Lypes and are as shown ln 1able 3.3. 1he
opLlmlzaLlon of v slzlng ls dlscussed ln secLlon 3.3.3

!"#$%#& ()*# +, -.*./0%)
12344& 4.8 kW
56%344& 1.6 kW
7#%&480%%#3 4.8 kW
TABLE 3.5: SOLAR PV CAPACITY USED FOR THE DIFFERENT SITES
Indoor shelter
1he convenLlonal lndoor shelLer has baLLerles, Lhe power-condlLlonlng equlpmenL
(referred Lo here as lnLegraLed ower unlL or lu) and Lhe 81S equlpmenL ln Lhe
slngle shelLer. As heaL ls generaLed by Lhese equlpmenL, lL ls exLracLed by an alr-
condlLloner. 8aLLerles requlre Lhe LemperaLure Lo be malnLalned aL 27C for
maxlmum llfe.
7
1o carry ouL Lhe requlred coollng, Lhe lndoor shelLer ls assumed Lo

!
#$%%&'&() *+))&'$&, +'& +%%&-)&. )/ + .$%%&'&() &0)&() 1$)2 )&34&'+)5'&6 7( ,$358+)$/(, $( )2$, ,&-)$/(9 $)
$, +,,53&. )2+) +88 *+))&'$&, '&:5$'& + -/(,)+() )&34&'+)5'& /% ;!<6
| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


24
have a 1.3 Lon alr-condlLloner wlLh a maxlmum power consumpLlon of 2kW. 1he
power consumpLlon ls a funcLlon of Lhe amblenL and Lhe lnLernal LemperaLure. lL was
assumed LhaL Lhe alr condlLloner operaLes aL 30 loadlng Llll 33C conslderlng Lhe on
and off duLy cycles Lo remove Lhe lnLernally generaLed heaL by Lhe 81S. lrom 33C
Lhe power consumpLlon llnearly lncreases Lo lLs maxlmum value Llll 43
o
C.

Retro Fitted BTS
lL ls posslble Lo reLroflL Lhe convenLlonal 81S slLe, by creaLlng a parLlLlon ln Lhe
shelLer, creaLlng a separaLe parLlLlon for baLLery and for 81S and lu equlpmenL. 1he
baLLery bank ls separaLely enclosed ln chlller cablneL, whlch malnLalns Lhe
LemperaLure aL 27'C, and Lhe parLlLlon does noL requlre alr-condlLlonlng. A fan of
200W ls assumed Lo be used Lo remove Lhe 81S heaL load ln Lhe oLher chamber Llll
Lhe amblenL LemperaLure reaches 40C, Lhe alr-condlLloner ls Lurned on only aL 40C,
and lLs power consumpLlon llnearly lncreases Lo 1 kW for amblenL LemperaLure of
43C and Lhen lncreases a llLLle more rapldly Lo consume Lhe maxlmum alr-
condlLloner power of 2kW aL 30C. 1he coollng load for Lhe baLLery-chlller ls low,
wlLh a maxlmum of 100W for llLhlum polymer and 300W for lead acld baLLery. 1he
power consumpLlon ls assumed Lo be 30 of Lhe maxlmum Llll baLLery cuL-off
LemperaLure (27C) Lo remove heaL due Lo baLLery charge-dlscharge, lL ls assumed Lo
lncrease Lo 100 when Lhls LemperaLure ls crossed.
Outdoor BTS
CuLdoor Lype of 81S can wlLhsLand hlgh LemperaLures and does noL requlre coollng.
1he heaL generaLed ls dlsslpaLed uslng a hlgh ClM fan ln Lhe 81S cablneL lLself.
8aLLerles for Lhe backup are separaLely enclosed ln chlller cablneL, whlch malnLalns
Lhe LemperaLure aL 27'C. 1he coollng load for Lhe chlller ls assumed Lo be same as
LhaL ln 8eLro-flLLed 81S.

3.2.7 Simulation cases: Variety of Energy Sources used
Several dlfferenL comblnaLlons of sources are used for slmulaLlon. 1o begln wlLh we
llsL Len conflguraLlons (A Lo !), where AC or uC generaLor, dlfferenL klnd and slze of
baLLerles and solar v of dlfferenL slze:
A. AC CeneraLor only (no baLLery or solar v)
8. AC CeneraLor plus 600Ah Lead Acld baLLery (no solar v)
C. AC CeneraLor plus 130 Ah LlLhlum-1 baLLery (no solar v)
u. AC CeneraLor plus 600Ah Lead Acld baLLery plus solar v panel of 4.8kW or
1.6kW
L. AC CeneraLor plus 130 Ah LlLhlum-1 baLLery plus solar v panel of 4.8kW or
1.6 kW
l. uC CeneraLor only (no baLLery or solar v)
C. uC CeneraLor plus 600Ah Lead Acld baLLery (no solar v)
P. uC CeneraLor plus 130 Ah LlLhlum-1 baLLery (no solar v)
l. uC CeneraLor plus 600Ah Lead Acld baLLery plus solar v panel of 4.8kW or
1.6 kW
!. uC CeneraLor plus 130 Ah LlLhlum-1 baLLery plus solar v panel of 4.8kW or
1.6 kW
1hese slmulaLlons enable one Lo undersLand Lhe relaLlve merlLs of use of AC and uC
CeneraLor, Lead Acld and LlLhlum olymer baLLery (lllusLraLed by LlLhlum-1 baLLery)
and solar v beLLer. SubsequenLly, elghL more cases are slmulaLed, all of Lhem use
LlLhlum olymer baLLerles, buL of dlfferenL slze and uslng dlfferenL Lechnologles
(LlLhlum-1, LlLhlum-2 and LlLhlum-3 baLLerles speclfled ln Lable 3.2). 1hls ls done Lo
undersLand Lhe lmpacL of Lhese new baLLerles on Lhe resulLs beLLer. 1he elghL cases
use:
SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


25
k. AC CeneraLor plus 100Ah LlLhlum-1 baLLery (wlLh no solar v)
L. AC CeneraLor plus 100Ah LlLhlum-1 baLLery plus solar v panel of 4.8kW or
1.6 kW
M. AC CeneraLor plus 130Ah LlLhlum-2 baLLery plus solar v panel of 4.8kW or
1.6 kW
n. AC CeneraLor plus 130Ah LlLhlum-3 baLLery (wlLh no solar v)
C. AC CeneraLor plus 130Ah LlLhlum-3 baLLery plus solar v panel of 4.8kW or
1.6 kW
. uC CeneraLor plus 100Ah LlLhlum-1 baLLery (wlLh no solar v)
C. uC CeneraLor plus 100Ah LlLhlum-1 baLLery plus solar v panel of 4.8kW or
1.6 kW
8. uC CeneraLor plus 130Ah LlLhlum-2 baLLery plus solar v panel of 4.8kW or
1.6 kW
1hus LoLal numbers of slmulaLlons carrled ouL are: 3 Lypes of 81S slLes x 18 varleLy of
energy sources x 7 klnds of grld avallablllLy or 378 dlfferenL slmulaLlons.

3.2.8 Financial Parameter Assumptions in Simulations
Pere ls a summary of Lhe flnanclal parameLers assumed ln Lhe slmulaLlons:
1. Crld-power Larlff per unlL: !3
2. ulesel prlce per llLer: !43
3. lnLeresL raLe for uC, 8aLLery (mld-Lerm): 14
4. lnLeresL raLes for solar v (long-Lerm): 11

3.3 Simulation Results
1he slmulaLlon ls carrled ouL for 20 days aL a Llme, assumlng LhaL Lhe baLLery ls fully
charged on day zero, buL on subsequenL days, Lhe baLLery charge ls Lhe lefL over
charge of Lhe prevlous day. Carrylng ouL Lhe slmulaLlon for 20 days neuLrallzes Lhe
lmpacL of fully charged baLLery on day zero. 1he resulLs are averaged over all Lhe
days and presenLed as cosL per day for each case. 1emperaLure proflles and solar
lnsolaLlon proflle are assumed Lo be consLanL over Lhese days. We sLarL wlLh deLalled
resulLs of a slmulaLlon ln 3.3.1.

3.3.1 Detailed Simulation Results for a specific case
SlmulaLlon resulLs of one of Lhe cases ls presenLed ln deLall here, Lhe speclflc case
uses all Lhree energy sources, an AC generaLor, 600Ah Lead acld baLLery 4.8kW v
llsLed as case u" ln secLlon 3.2.7. 1he slmulaLlon ls carrled ouL assumlng 4-hour grld
avallablllLy ln Lhe nlghLLlme ln a slngle-bursL, or whaL ls referred Lo as case 1 ln
secLlon 3.2.1. 1he ouLpuL of Lhe slmulaLor conslsLs of graphlcal curves descrlblng Lhe
sLaLe of Lhe slLe for Lhe flrsL 24-hour perlod wlLh a resoluLlon of 1 mlnuLe.
llg. 3.4 provldes Lhe amblenL LemperaLure varlaLlon, and Lhe varlaLlon of load currenL
and source currenLs (due Lo baLLery and v). Lven Lhough Lhe LemperaLure and
currenLs vary every mlnuLe, Lhe ploLs are done uslng hourly average values. lL ls very
evldenL LhaL Lhe load currenL varles wlLh Lhe amblenL LemperaLure due Lo Lhe
lncreased coollng load. As Lhe LemperaLure and lnsolaLlon proflle are hlghly
correlaLed, one mlghL observe LhaL Lhe ouLpuL by Lhe solar v also varles accordlngly.
1he baLLery, as a backup source, plays a very vlLal role durlng Lhe absence of grld (3
A.M Lo 11 .M) compensaLlng for Lhe power produced by Lhe v.

| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


26
FIGURE 3.4: SOLAR PV CURRENT, BATTERY CURRENT, LOAD CURRENT (A) AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (C)

1he sLaLe of charge of Lhe baLLery lndlcaLed ln flgure 3.3 decreases lndlcaLlng lL
drlvlng Lhe load Llll Lhe speclfled lower levels. Cnce Lhe lower levels are reached, Lhe
ulesel generaLor klcks ln as shown ln llg. 3.6. llg. 3.6 also shows Lhe grld-currenL.
noLe LhaL Lhe currenL of Lhe ulesel generaLor droops ln a non-llnear fashlon due Lo
Lhe charglng characLerlsLlcs of Lhe baLLery modeled ln Lhe slmulaLlon and also Lhe
facL LhaL Lhe v ls provldlng a parL of Lhe power.


FIGURE 3.5: STATE OF CHARGE OF THE BATTERY (AH)


FIGURE 3.6: DIESEL GENERATOR CURRENT, GRID CURRENT (A)

SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


27
Dashboard Results:
"#$ %&'#()&*% +),-&.,' %$-&./$% +&/+0/&-$% *$'0/-' )1 -#$ $,$*23 +),'045-.), (3
6&*.)0' /)&%' &,% -#$ $,$*23 5*)%0+-.), (3 $&+# )1 -#$ ')0*+$' &' '#)7, ., "&(/$
89:9


TABLE 3.6: ENERGY PRODUCTION BY EACH SOURCE


TABLE 3.7: LOADS AND THEIR ENERGY CONSUMPTIONS FOR A SPECIFIC CASE

"&(/$ 89; 5*$'$,-' -#$ /)&% &,% $,$*23 +),'045-.), 1)* -#.' '5$+.1.+ +&'$ <.- 7&'
$&*/.$* 5*$'$,-$% 1)* & 2$,$*&/ +&'$ ., '$+-.), =9>9?9@ & %&39 >> 0,.-' )1 $/$+-*.+.-3 &*$
+),'04$% ., -#$ %&3A )1 7#.+# -#$ $B0.54$,- +),'04$' == 0,.-' &,% +))/.,2 /)&%
&4)0,-' -) 88 0,.-' )1 $/$+-*.+.-39 C' -#$ +)'- )1 $,$*23 5*)%0+$% (3 -#$ DE .' (&'$%
), -#$ /)&%.,2 )1 -#$ DEA & 5.$ +#&*- 7.-# /)&%.,2 *&-.)' &,% -#$.* -.4$ 1*&+-.),' .'
%.'5/&3$% &' '#)7, ., F.29 89;9




| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


28

FIGURE 3.7: DG LOADING RATIO

1he average fuel consumed per day by Lhe dlesel generaLor and Lhe number of hours
lL runs are facLors whlch conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe uC energy cosLs, Lhey are presenLed ln
1able 3.8.

TABLE 3.8: DG RELATED PARAMETERS

1he baLLery relaLed parameLers lncludlng Lhe number of charge-dlscharge cycles per
day, lLs LoLal llfeLlme and Lhe amounL of energy used for charglng Lhe baLLery are
presenLed ln 1able 3.9, Lhese parameLers conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe energy cosLs of Lhe
baLLery.

TABLE 3.9: BATTERY RELATED PARAMETERS

SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


29
3.3.2 Summary of Simulation Results and Discussions
1he resulLs for 378 slmulaLlons dlscussed ln secLlon 3.2.7 are LabulaLed and
compared ln Lhls secLlon.

3.3.2.1 Conventional Indoor BTS Shelter
We sLarL wlLh slmulaLlons of convenLlonal lndoor 81S slLe. As dlscussed, Lhe
slmulaLlons are focused on Lhe slLes wlLh poor grld-power avallablllLy, so as Lo brlng
ouL Lhe lmporLance of opLlmlzaLlon. We Lherefore sLarL wlLh Lhe case where Lhe grld-
power ls LoLally avallable only for four hours (slngle and mulLlple bursLs) and Lhen
look aL Lhe cases, where Lhe power avallablllLy ls sllghLly beLLer, say for elghL hours a
day (ln slngle and mulLlple bursLs). We lnlLlally slmulaLe Len klnds of slLes (followed
by elghL more), wlLh dlfferenL klnd of generaLors, baLLerles and solar v panel slzlng.
noLe LhaL v slze, wherever used ls 4.8 kW
1he summary of Lhe resulLs for four-hour grld avallablllLy wlLh 600 Ah (48volLs) Lead
Acld baLLery or 130Ah (48volLs) LlLhlum olymer ls glven ln 1able 3.10.

" #$%&' (&)* +$ $,
%-).'
/01#2
34'5 6 34'5 7 34'5 8
3$'. 9 *4:
!
3$'.9%-).
!
3$'. 9
*4: !
3$'.9%-).
!
3$'. 9 *4:
!
3$'.9%-). !
; ;3 <5- $-=: 33 2200 42 2218 42 2200 42
> ;3 <5- ? @5 ;A)* 33 1372 23 1339 24 1203 22
3 ;3 <5- ? @)B6 33 1343 24 1302 24 1190 22
C ;3 <5- ? @5 ;A)*? DE 33 1082 20 1038 19 833 16
F ;3 <5- ? @)B6 ? DE 33 903 16 1060 19 831 13
G C3 <5- $-=: 33 1789 34 1806 34 1790 34
< C3 <5- ? @5 ;A)* 33 1290 23 1247 23 1143 21
H C3 <5- ? @)B6 33 1296 24 1236 23 1137 21
I C3 <5- ? @5 ;A)*? DE 33 983 18 983 18 826 13
J C3 <5- ? @)B6 ? DE 33 878 16 1026 19 833 13
TABLE 3.10: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 4-HOUR GRID CASE FOR INDOOR BTS; LEAD ACID BATTERY USED IS 600AH
WHEREAS LI-1 BATTERY USED IS 150AH; PV USED IS 4.8 KW

1he followlng are Lhe lnferences drawn from Lhe slmulaLed resulLs presenLed here:
ln general, use of a baLLery along wlLh AC generaLor brlngs down Lhe
operaLlon cosLs per day by 40 Lo 30 and use of solar v along wlLh baLLery
and generaLor furLher reduces Lhe cosLs per day by 23 Lo 30. More deeper
look glves some speclflc lnslghLs:
o When Lhe slLe ls runnlng on uC alone, Lhe uC uC has a clear
advanLage when compared Lo AC uC ln all Lhe 3 cases.
o ln Lhese cases, Lhe naLure (Lechnology) of baLLery used (Lead Acld or
Ll olymer) does noL seem Lo lmpacL Lhe resulLs, only for case 1
(nlghL-grld), Ll-1 baLLery glves appreclable advanLage when AC
generaLor and v ls used. 1he energy cosL reduces Lo !13 Lo 16 per
unlL for case 1 Lo 3.
o When uC uC ls used, havlng a baLLery (of elLher klnd) does glves less
advanLage as compared Lo cases where AC CeneraLor ls used.
| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


30
o ln Cases 1 and 3, Lhe lmpacL of addlng solar v ls more slgnlflcanL.
Powever, ln case 2, where grld avallablllLy ls assumed Lo colnclde
wlLh maxlmum sunllghL avallablllLy, Lhe lmpacL of addlLlon of solar v
ls less.
o Crld avallablllLy ln mulLlple bursL of one hour (case 3) has marglnal
lmpacL as compared Lo LhaL ln case 1, where Lhe grld-avallablllLy ls ln
Lhe nlghL.
o lL should be noLed LhaL when baLLerles are used, LoLal power
consumed lncreases as compared Lo when Lhe baLLerles are noL used
(33kW as compared Lo 33 kW). 1hls ls due Lo coollng requlred by Lhe
baLLerles.
Ll olymer baLLerles are more expenslve (hlgher CALx) Lhan Lead Acld baLLery, buL
can have more number of charge dlscharge cycles and can be used aL hlgher depLh of
dlscharge wlLhouL conslderable reducLlon ln lLs llfeLlme. As shown ln 1able 3.2, Lhere
are greaL varleLy of LlLhlum baLLerles and uslng Lhem ln dlfferenL capaclLles and
Lechnologles may have an lmpacL on energy cosLs per day. 1herefore, we repeaL Lhe
above compuLaLlons, Lhls Llme wlLh dlfferenL LlLhlum olymer baLLerles: 100Ah Ll-1
baLLery, 130Ah Ll-2 baLLery and 130 Ah Ll-3 baLLery. 1he resulLs are presenLed ln
Lable 3.11 ln rows k Lo 8.
" #$%&' (&)* +$ $,
%-).'
/01#2
34'5 6 34'5 7 34'5 8
3$'. 9
*4: !
3$'.9%-).
!
3$'. 9
*4: !
3$'.9%-).
!
3$'. 9
*4: !
3$'.9%-).
!
; <3 =5-> ?)@6 33 1407 26 1376 23 1327 24
? <3 =5-> ?)@6>AB 33 1017 18 1128 21 932 17
C <3 =5->?)@7>AB 33 898 16 1039 19 847 13
+ <3 =5->?)@8 33 1137 21 1128 21 1047 19
D <3 =5->?)@8>AB 33 843 13 888 16 731 13
A E3 =5->?)@6 33 1297 24 1269 23 1231 22
F E3 =5->?)@6>AB 33 940 17 1044 19 873 16
G E3 =5->?)@7>AB 33 870 16 1023 19 831 13
TABLE 3.11: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 4 HOUR GRID CASES FOR INDOOR BTS WITH 100AH LI-1 OR
150Ah LI-2 OR 150Ah LI-3 BATTERIES; PV USED IS 4.8 kW

1he resulLs show LhaL Lhe smaller baLLery does noL make any appreclable dlfference ln
Lhe per day energy cosLs as compared Lo Lhe earller cases, excepL LhaL Ll-3 baLLerles wlLh
v (row C) glves a new low cosL ln all cases (wlLh prlce per unlL of energy as low as !13
per unlL), lndlcaLlng LhaL opLlmlsaLlons can lndeed be carrled ouL as dlfferenL baLLerles
are selecLed. 1he general concluslons however remaln same, l.e.
ln all Lhe cases, Lhe uC uC has an advanLage over Lhe AC uC.

AddlLlon of baLLery brlngs down Lhe cosLs by 40 Lo 30 wlLh AC generaLor (and less
wlLh uC generaLor) and Lhe addlLlon of v furLher brlngs down Lhe cosLs by 23 Lo
30 Also, Lhe lmpacL of v ls more pronounced ln Lhe nlghL grld case (case 1) as
compared Lo Lhe day grld (case 2).


We now move on Lo slmulaLe Lhe case where Lhe grld-power ls avallable for elghL hours.
1able 3.12 presenLs Lhe resulLs for Lhls, when grld-power avallablllLy ls slngle bursL nlghL Llme
(case 4) and day Llme (case 3), as well as for muLlple bursLs of one hour and Lwo hours ln
cases 6 and 7 respecLlvely, as deflned ln Lable 3.1. 1he baLLerles here are 600Ah (48v) Lead
acld baLLery or 130Ah (48v) Ll olymer baLLery (Ll-1).


SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


31
" #$%&' (&)* +$ $,
%-).'
/0'1 2 /0'1 3 /0'1 4 /0'1 5
67# /$'.8
*09
/$'.8
%-).
/$'.8
*09
/$'.8
%-).
/$'.8
*09
/$'.8
%-).
/$'.
8 *09
/$'.8
%-).
: :/ ;1- 33 1813 34 1837 33 1813 34 1821 34
< :/ ;1-= >1 :?)* 33 1266 23 1210 22 773 14 778 14
/ :/ ;1- = >)@A 33 1186 22 1072 19 821 13 1010 18
B :/ ;1-= >1 :?)*=CD 33 823 13 929 17 390 11 386 11
E :/ ;1- = >)@A= CD 33 764 14 916 17 362 10 720 13
F B/ ;1- $-G9 3H 1486 28 1308 28 1489 28 1494 28
; B/ ;1- = >1 :?)* 33 1183 22 1128 21 773 14 778 14
I B/ ;1- = >)@A 33 1143 21 1039 19 820 13 983 18
J B/ ;1-=>1 :?)*= CD 33 776 14 879 16 390 11 386 11
K B/ ;1-= >)@A=CD 33 747 14 890 16 362 10 712 13

TABLE 3.12: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 8-HOUR GRID CASE FOR INDOOR BTS; LEAD ACID BATTERY USED IS
600Ah WHEREAS LI-1 BATTERY USED IS 150Ah; PV USED IS 4.8 kW

1he slmulaLlon shows resulLs LhaL are very slmllar Lo LhaL for four hour grld-avallablllLy case.
Powever, Lhe use of a baLLery along wlLh AC generaLor brlngs down Lhe operaLlon cosLs per
day only by 30 for cases 4 and 3, for cases 6 and 7, lL ls broughL down as 30 slmllar Lo LhaL
ln 4 hour grld case, use of solar v along wlLh baLLery and generaLor furLher reduces Lhe cosLs
per day by 30 Lo 33 for cases 4 and 3 and by 20 Lo 23 for cases 6 and 7. When Lhe slLe ls
runnlng on uC alone, Lhe uC uC has a clear advanLage when compared Lo AC uC ln all Lhe
cases, however lesser Lhan ln 4-hour grld cases. ln mosL of Lhese cases, Lhe naLure
(Lechnology) of baLLery used (Lead Acld or Ll olymer) makes marglnal lmpacL on Lhe resulLs.
When uC uC ls used, havlng a baLLery (of any klnd) does brlng down Lhe energy cosLs only by
20 Lo 23 for cases 4 and 3, buL by 30 for cases 6 and 7. Solar v makes less dlfference ln
case 3, where Lhe grld avallablllLy ls assumed Lo colnclde wlLh maxlmum sunllghL avallablllLy.
8uL ln nlghL Llme grld avallablllLy (case 4) and mulLlple bursLs grld avallablllLy (case 6 and 7),
Lhe solar v lmpacL ls very pronounced. 1he mosL slgnlflcanL resulL ls LhaL Lhe cosL per unlL of
energy ls down Lo !10 Lo 12 per unlL ln some cases, when v ls used.
LeL us agaln look aL cases where oLher Ll-1 (100 Ah) and Ll-2 and Ll-3 baLLery (130Ah) are
used. 1hese resulLs for 8-hour grld are presenLed ln 1able 3.13.
" #$%&' (&)* +$ $,
%-).'
LM7#N
/0'1 2

/0'1 3

/0'1 4

/0'1 5

/$'.
8*09
/$'.8
%-).
/$'. 8
*09
/$'.8%
-).
/$'.
8*09
/$'.8%
-).
/$'.
8*09
/$'.8
%-).
6 :/ ;1-=>)@A 33 1234 22 1141 21 939 17 1133 21
> :/ ;1-=>)@A=CD 33 800 13 1028 19 639 12 831 13
O :/ ;1-=>)@P =CD 33 796 14 1030 19 643 12 849 13
+ :/ ;1- = >)@H 33 1044 19 963 18 734 14 917 17
Q :/ ;1-=>)@H= CD 33 677 12 786 14 431 8 699 13
C B/ ;1-= >)@A 33 1142 21 1068 19 916 17 1060 19
R B/ ;1-=>)@A=CD 33 747 14 930 17 638 12 799 13
S B/ ;1-= >)@P=CD 33 743 14 932 17 642 12 797 14
TABLE 3.13 SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 8 HOUR GRID CASES FOR INDOOR BTS WITH 100Ah LI-1 OR 150Ah
LI-2 OR 150Ah LI-3 BATTERIES; PV USED IS 4.8kW

Cnce agaln, [usL llke ln four-hour grld-avallablllLy case, Lhe resulLs for use of dlfferenL
Ll baLLerles do noL make any appreclable dlfference ln Lhe per day energy cosLs as
compared Lo LhaL when 130Ah Ll-1 baLLery ls used ln Lhese cases. 1he excepLlon ls
use of 130Ah Ll-3 baLLery wlLh AC generaLor and v, ln whlch case Lhe cosLs per day
Louches new lows for each of Lhe case 4, 3, 6 and 7, ln facL, ln case 6, where grld ls
avallable ln one hour bursL, Ll-3 baLLery brlngs down Lhe energy cosLs Lo as low as
| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


32
!431 per day (or down Lo as !8 per unlL). 1he general concluslons remaln same, l.e.
use of any baLLery along wlLh v glves Lhe lowesL energy cosLs, v does noL make as
much a dlfference when grld-avallablllLy colncldes wlLh maxlmum sunllghL-
avallablllLy, buL ln all cases, lL does make a dlfference.
So for Lhe convenLlonal ouLdoor 81S, Lhe general recommendaLlons wlll be as
follows:
1. As mosL slLes already have AC generaLor, fresh CALx expendlLure for a uC
generaLor may noL be advlsable, as proper baLLerles offseL Lhe advanLages.

2. roper baLLerles would be of greaL advanLage, Lhe cholce of baLLery makes
smaller dlfference and LlLhlum olymer baLLery wlll be preferable where Lhe
grld-power-avallablllLy ls very bursLy. Larger Lead Acld baLLery wlLh v glves
greaL performance when long hours of ouLage are expecLed.

3. Solar v wlll always help greaLly, unless grld-avallablllLy colncldes wlLh sun-llghL
hours.

4. Ll-3 has superlor performance vls-a-vls Ll-1 and Ll-2 especlally when v ls used.
1he cosL reducLlon Lo !8 per unlL for 8 hour grld ls very promlslng, as lL ls close
Lo grld prlces.

3.3.2.2 Outdoor BTS Shelters


We now presenL Lhe resulLs for CuLdoors base sLaLlon. Pere Lhe shelLer ls noL used,
consequenLly Lhere ls no alr-condlLloner. 1he baLLery ls placed ln a chlller. 1he LoLal
amounL of power consumed per day comes down slgnlflcanLly and varles beLween 22
and 29 unlLs, dependlng upon Lhe slze of baLLery used (amounLlng Lo losses whlle
charglng Lhe baLLery). 1he solar v slze Lherefore ls reduced Lo 1.6kW, wherever
used. We agaln begln wlLh Lhe resulLs of slmulaLlons for Lhe 4 hour-grld and Lhen
move on Lo LhaL for 8 hour-grld. 1able 3.14 presenLs Lhe resulLs for 4-hour grld
" #$%&' (&)* +$ $,
%-).'
/0'1 2 /0'1 3 /0'1 4
56# /$'.7*08 ! /$'.7%-).
!
/$'.7*08
!
/$'.7%-).
!
/$'.7*08
!
/$'.7%-).
!
9 9/ :1- $-;8 33 1821 83 1821 83 1816 83
< 9/ :1- = >1 9?)* 29 763 26 770 27 460 16
/ 9/ :1- = >)@2 24 706 29 707 29 389 16
A 9/ :1- = >1 9?)* = BC 29 678 23 739 23 402 14
D 9/ :1- = >)@2 = BC 24 390 23 389 23 328 14
E A/ :1- $-;8 33 1312 69 1312 69 1308 69
: A/ :1- = >1 9?)* 29 700 24 706 24 460 16
F A/ :1- = >)@2 24 677 28 678 28 402 17
G A/ :1- = >1 9?)* = BC 29 613 21 674 23 402 14
H A/ :1- = >)@2 = BC 24 338 22 370 24 328 14
TABLE 3.14: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 4-HOUR GRID CASE FOR OUTDOOR BTS; LEAD ACID BATTERY USED IS
600Ah WHEREAS LI-1 BATTERY USED IS 150Ah; PV USED IS 1.6 kW

1he followlng lnferences can be drawn from resulLs:
1he overall cosLs (excepL Lhe cases where only Lhe generaLor powers Lhe slLe)
are slgnlflcanLly lower ln ouLdoor case as compared Lo Lhe cosLs ln Lhe lndoor
slLe.

SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


33
When Lhe slLe runs [usL on Lhe generaLor (AC or uC), Lhe cosLs per unlL of
elecLrlclLy are much hlgher Lhan whaL Lhey are for Lhe same case under Lhe
lndoor 81S slLe, as Lhe generaLor ls large (13 kvA) as compared Lo Lhe load
and consequenLly runs aL a lower load, leadlng Lo lnefflclency and hlgher
cosLs. uslng a 13kvA uC ls noL very meanlngful ln Lhls conLexL, however for
unlformlLy sake, lL was used. 1here ls a sLrong case for smaller slze generaLor
Lo be used. ln facL Lhls ls Lhe case, even when baLLerles are used, for Lhe load
ls sLlll small, leadlng Lo Lhe generaLor belng run on lower efflclency.
1herefore Lhe besL-case unlL cosLs of elecLrlclLy here ls !14 for bursLy grld
case and !21 Lo 23 for cases 1 and 2. 1he comparable flgures for lndoor case,
when generaLor was used wlLh hlgher efflclency was !16 Lo 18 for case 1
(nlghL grld) and case 2 (nlghL grld).

ln Lhe absence of baLLerles, uC uC has a lower cosL per unlL Lhan an AC uC

1he addlLlon of baLLery brlngs down Lhe cosLs heavlly, by 60 Lo 73, and as
expecLed, more wlLh AC generaLor as compared Lo uC generaLor.

use of solar v reduces cosLs furLher by 10 Lo 13, less as compared Lo LhaL
for lndoor cases.

When solar v ls added, lL ellmlnaLes Lhe uC when Lhere are mulLlple bursLs
(Case 3)

now leL us presenL resulLs when dlfferenL LlLhlum baLLerles (wlLh dlfferenL
Lechnology and slzes) are used ln Lhe 4-hour grld case ln 1able 3.13.

" #$%&' (&)* +$ $,
%-).'
/0'1 2

/0'1 3

/0'1 4

567#8 /$'.9
*0: !
/$'.9
%-). !
/$'.9*0: ! /$'.9%-).
!
/$'.9*0: ! /$'.9%-).!
; </ =1- > ?)@2 24 744 31 729 30 744 31
? </ =1- > ?)@2 > AB 24 334 22 633 26 320 22
C </ =1- > ?)@3 >AB 24 339 22 372 24 308 13
+ </ =1- > ?)@4 24 392 23 394 23 393 23
D </ =1- > ?)@4 > AB 24 426 18 309 21 382 16
A E/ =1-> ?)@2 24 664 28 633 27 664 28
F E/ =1-> ?)@2 >AB 24 490 20 373 24 482 20
G E/ =1-> ?)@3 > AB 24 313 21 333 23 308 13
TABLE 3.15: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 4 HOUR GRID CASES FOR INDOOR BTS WITH 100Ah LI-1 OR 150Ah
LI-2 OR 150AH LI-3 BATTERIES; PV USED IS 1.6kW
1he resulLs are ln llne wlLh LhaL for 130 Ah Ll-1 baLLery ln 1able 3.14. Powever as ls
evldenL from rows k and L, Lhe reducLlon ln slze for Ll-1 baLLery ls noL advlsable. Ll-2
baLLery wlLh v glves new low for cosL per unlL of elecLrlclLy, as shown ln rows M and
8. Surprlslngly, Ll-3 baLLery does noL glve as good a resulL as for lndoor case, one may
have Lo opLlmlse lLs slze for usage.
We now move on Lo presenL slmulaLlon resulLs for ouLdoor 81S for 8 hour grld ln
1able 3.16.




| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


34
" #$%&' (&)* +$ $,
%-).'
/01#2
34'5 6 34'5 7 34'5 8 34'5 9
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
< <3 (5- $-=; >> 1487 68 1487 68 1480 67 1483 67
? <3 (5- @ A5 <B)* 29 713 23 712 23 418 14 422 13
3 <3 (5- @ A)CD 24 387 24 389 23 349 13 331 13
E <3 (5-@A5 <B)*@ FG 29 337 12 386 13 337 12 338 12
H <3 (5- @ A)CD @ FG 24 448 19 364 24 301 13 301 13
I E3 (5- $-=; >> 1241 36 1241 36 1233 36 1237 36
( E3 (5- @ A5 <B)* 29 632 22 630 22 418 14 422 13
J E3 (5- @ A)CD 24 368 24 369 24 349 13 331 13
K E3 (5-@ A5 <B)*@ FG 29 337 12 386 13 337 12 338 12
L E3 (5- @ A)CD @ FG 24 438 18 341 23 301 13 301 13
TABLE 3.16: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 8-HOUR GRID CASE FOR OUTDOOR BTS; LEAD ACID BATTERY USED IS
600Ah WHEREAS LI-1 BATTERY USED IS 150Ah; PV USED IS 1.6 kW

1he resulLs agaln show LhaL use of generaLor alone glves very hlgh energy cosLs per
day and very hlgh per unlL energy cosLs, Lhls ls due Lo large slze of generaLor, maklng
lL run aL poor efflclency. 1he cosLs are lower for uC generaLor, buL hlgh noneLheless.
1he resL of Lhe resulLs are ln llne wlLh LhaL for ouLdoor 81S wlLh four hour-grld. use
of any klnd of baLLery drasLlcally reduces cosLs, as generaLor now runs aL hlgher
efflclency. 8uL v here helps far more slgnlflcanLly, especlally wlLh large Lead Acld
baLLery, as shown ln rows u and l, brlnglng down Lhe per unlL cosLs Lo !12 and day
energy cosL Lo as low as !337. 1he lncluslon of v wlLh Ll-1 baLLery does noL glve as
good a resulL ln case 4 (see row L and !), as Lhe slze of Lhe baLLery ls small, buL for Lhe
bursL cases (case 6 and 7), Lhe Ll baLLery performs as well. Ll baLLery wlLh v for case
3 performs poorly as sunllghL hours overlaps wlLh Lhe grld-avallablllLy hours.
We now presenL ln 1able 3.17, Lhe resulLs of slmulaLlons carrled ouL uslng LlLhlum
baLLerles wlLh dlfferenL slzes and Lechnologles.

" #$%&' M&)* +$ $, %-).' 34'5 6 34'5 7 34'5 8 34'5 9
/01#2 3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
N <3 (5- @ A)CD 24 628 26 626 26 324 14 313 21
A <3 (5-@A)CD@ FG 24 433 18 392 23 274 11 423 18
O <3 (5-@A)C>@FG 24 419 17 343 23 277 12 278 12
+ <3 (5- @ A)CP 24 308 21 308 21 244 10 392 16
Q <3 (5-@ A)CP@FG 24 331 13 433 18 213 9 213 9
F E3 (5- @ A)CD 24 368 24 367 24 324 14 484 20
R E3 (5-@ A)CD@FG 24 409 17 330 22 274 11 406 17
S E3 (5-@ A)C>@FG 24 409 17 319 22 277 12 278 12
TABLE 3.17: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 8 HOUR GRID CASES FOR INDOOR BTS WITH 100Ah LI-1 OR 150AH
LI-2 OR 150Ah LI-3 BATTERIES; PV USED IS 1.6kW

1he resulLs ln rows k and L for Ll-1 baLLery of smaller slze shows worse performance
as compared Lo resulLs presenLed ln 1able 3.13 ln rows C and L for cases 4, 3 and 7,
buL for cases 6 (one hour elghL bursL), Lhe smaller baLLery behaves beLLer, brlnglng
down Lhe per unlL energy cosLs Lo !11 when v ls presenL. ln facL use of 130Ah Ll-3
baLLery goes a sLep furLher (8ow C) and along wlLh v brlngs down Lhe per unlL cosLs
of elecLrlclLy Lo !9 and LoLal elecLrlclLy cosLs ln a day Lo as low as !213 for ouLdoor
SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


35
81S ln bursLy cases (case 6 and 7). MosL llkely, Lhe generaLor ls never Lurned on. 1he
resulLs wlLh Ll-2 baLLery are noL as encouraglng.
1he overall concluslons for CuLdoor 81S ls Lherefore as follows:
1. A smaller generaLor should be used.

2. WlLh proper slzlng and selecLlon of baLLery and solar v, lL should be posslble
Lo vlrLually ellmlnaLe generaLor, lf grld ls avallable for 8 Lo 10 hours ln a
bursLy manner.

3. v would make a huge dlfference when grld-avallablllLy ls poor.

3.3.2.3 Retro-Fitted Indoor Shelters
We nexL Lake up reLroflLLed lndoor 81S. As alr-condlLloner ls used ln Lhls slLuaLlon,
Lhe solar v slze chosen for slmulaLlon ls agaln 4.8 kW. 8uL Lhe alr-condlLloner ls
Lurned on only when amblenL LemperaLure ls 40C, furLher a chlller ls used Lo house
Lhe baLLery. 1he LoLal power consumpLlon ls Lherefore hlgher Lhan LhaL for Lhe
CuLdoor case, buL less Lhan LhaL for Lhe convenLlonal lndoor case and varles beLween
38 and 44 unlLs a day, dependlng on Lype of baLLery used (amounLlng Lo baLLery
losses). 1able 3.18 presenLs Lhe resulLs for 4-hour grld.

" #$%& '&() *$ $+
%,(-.
/01#2
34.5 6 34.5 7 34.5 8
3$.- 9
)4: !
3$.-9%,(-
!
3$.- 9
)4: !
3$.-9%,(-
!
3$.- 9
)4: !
3$.-9%,(-
!
; ;3 <5, $,=: 8> 6?@? 32 1927 31 1933 31
A ;3 <5, B C5 ;D() 44 676E 28 1077 24 883 20
3 ;3 <5, B C(F6 40 ?>> 23 936 23 863 22
G ;3 <5, B C5 ;D() B HI 44 J@E 17 828 19 491 11
K ;3 <5, B C(F6 B HI 40 L8" 13 683 17 334 13
M G3 <5, $,=: 8> 6@6? 43 1399 42 1610 42
< G3 <5, B C5 ;D() 44 666? 23 989 22 832 19
N G3 <5, B C(F6 40 ?L" 24 899 22 843 21
O G3 <5, B C5 ;D() B HI 44 JE7 16 762 17 491 11
P G3 <5, B C(F6 B HI 40 @6" 13 636 16 331 13
TABLE 3.18: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 4-HOUR GRID CASE FOR RETROFITTED BTS; LEAD ACID BATTERY USED
IS 600Ah WHEREAS LI-1 BATTERY USED IS 150Ah; PV USED IS 4.8 kW; PV USED FOR CONFIGURATION E FOR
CASE 2 IS HOWEVER ONLY 4.4kW

1he slmulaLlon resulLs are very slmllar Lo LhaL for CuLdoor 81S. 1he lnferences are as
follows:
1he cosL per unlL of energy ls very hlgh as shown ln rows A and l when AC
and uC generaLors alone are used, Lhe generaLors work aL very low efflclency
due Lo low loadlng. Smaller generaLors would ceraLlnly help. ln Lhe absence
of a baLLery, a uC uC ls more cosL effecLlve Lhan an AC uC.

1he lnducLlon of baLLery reduces cosLs by 40 Lo 60 for AC generaLors and 40
Lo 30 for uC generaLor. 1he lnducLlon of solar v furLher reduces cosLs by
abouL 40 for case 1 (nlghL grld) buL by lesser amounL of abouL 30 for case
2 (when grld avallablllLy overlaps wlLh sunllghL), for case Lhe bursLy case
(case 3), Lhe v reduces agaln by 40.

| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


36
lor Lhe AC CeneraLor or uC CeneraLor along wlLh Lead Acld and v (rows u
and l) Lhe energy cosLs come down Lo !491 per day or !11 per unlL. 1he Ll
baLLery has hlgher cosLs.

We now presenL ln 1able 3.19 slmulaLlon resulLs for 8eLroflLLed 81S for LlLhlum
baLLerles of dlfferenL slzes and Lechnologles:

" #$%& '&() *$ $+
%,(-.
/01#2
34.5 6 34.5 7 34.5 8
3$.- 9
)4: !
3$.-9%,(-
!
3$.-9
)4: !
3$.-9%,(-
!
3$.-9
)4: !
3$.-9%,(-
!
; <3 =5, > ?(@6 40 6ABC 27 977 24 1014 23
? <3 =5, > ?(@6> DE 40 FB7 17 801 20 612 13
G <3 =5, > ?(@7> DE 40 F6B 13 669 17 316 13
* <3 =5, > ?(@8 40 HB7 22 779 19 803 20
I <3 =5, > ?(@8> DE 40 JAH 13 393 13 462 12
D K3 =5, > ?(@6 40 CBC 24 881 22 923 23
L K3 =5, > ?(@6 > DE 40 F67 13 716 18 372 14
M K3 =5, > ?(@7 > DE 40 JC8 13 630 16 630 16
TABLE 3.19: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 4 HOUR GRID CASES FOR RETROFITTED BTS WITH 100Ah LI-1 OR
150AH LI-2 OR 150Ah LI-3 BATTERIES; PV USED IS 4.8kW; PV USED FOR CONFIGURATION L, M, Q, R FOR
CASE 2 IS HOWEVER ONLY 4.4kW

lL ls obvlous LhaL smaller Ll-1 baLLery (rows k and L) does noL reduce cosLs. Powever
Ll-3 baLLery wlLh v (row C) does brlng down Lhe energy cosLs per day and per unlL
energy cosL Lo maLch LhaL for Lead Acld baLLery case presenLed ln row u and l ln
1able 3.18. ln facL Lhe acLual energy cosL per day for Ll-3 baLLery wlLh v (row C) for
case 3 ls only !462, a blL lower Lhan LhaL for Lead Acld (!491) presenLed above, even
Lhough per unlL energy cosL for Ll-3 baLLery ls hlgher (!12 raLher Lhan !11), Lhls ls
because Lhe LoLal energy consumed per day ls lower for Ll-3 baLLery, because of hlgh
baLLery efflclencles. 1he concluslon ls LhaL wlLh approprlaLe cholce of Lechnology and
slzes, Lhe Lwo klnds of baLLerles could be made Lo behave equal Lo Lhe oLher ln Lerms
of energy cosLs. 8uL Lhe v helps ln all cases.

We now presenL Lhe slmulaLlon resulLs of 8 hour grld ln 1able 3.20.

H #$%&. '&() *$ $+
%,(-.
/01#2
34.5 " 34.5 J 34.5 F 34.5 B
3$.- 9
)4: !
3$.-9
%,(- !
3$.- 9
)4: !
3$.-9
%,(- !
3$.- 9
)4: !
3$.-9
%,(-
!
3$.- 9
)4: !
3$.-9
%,(- !
< <3 =5, $,N: 8H 1639 43 1384 42 1394 42 1614 42
O <3 =5, > ?5 <P() 44 1118 23 873 20 626 14 637 14
3 <3 =5, > ?(@6 40 986 23 830 21 693 17 882 22
K <3 =5, > ?5 <P()> DE 44 413 9 483 11 442 10 443 10
Q <3 =5, > ?(@6> DE 40 372 14 742 19 434 11 363 14
R K3 =5, $,N: 8H 1331 36 1322 33 1324 33 1338 33
= K3 =5, > ?5 <P() 44 1036 24 811 18 626 14 637 14
S K3 =5, > ?(@6 40 932 24 822 21 692 17 836 21
T K3 =5, > ?5 <P() > DE 44 413 9 483 11 442 10 443 10
U K3 =5, > ?(@6 > DE 40 362 14 717 18 434 11 338 14
TABLE 3.20: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 8-HOUR GRID CASE FOR RETROFITTED BTS; LEAD ACID BATTERY USED
IS 600Ah WHEREAS LI-1 BATTERY USED IS 150Ah; PV USED IS 4.8kW
1he general concluslons are noL Loo dlfferenL form LhaL we have seen earller. 1he lmporLanL
polnL Lo noLe ls LhaL for Lead Acld plus v (rows u and l), Lhe unlL energy cosLs can be as low
SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


37
as !9 Lo !10. lL appears LhaL use of uC ls compleLely ellmlnaLed ln such cases. lor Ll-1 + v
(row L and !), Lhe cosLs are hlgher, Lhe cosLs lncreases conslderably for day-grld, when grld-
avallablllLy and sunllghL overlaps.
llnally we presenL ln 1able 3.21, Lhe resulLs of slmulaLlons for 8 hour grld 8eLroflLLed 81S,
when dlfferenL slzes and Lechnologles of baLLerles are used.

" #$%&' (&)* +$ $,
%-).'
/01#2
34'5 6 34'5 7 34'5 8 34'5 9
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
3$'. :
*4; !
3$'.:%-).
!
< =3 >5- ? @)AB 40 1074 27 934 23 744 19 894 22
@ =3 >5- ? @)AB? CD 40 610 13 739 18 409 10 382 13
E =3 >5- ? @)AF? CD 40 349 14 727 18 417 10 343 14
+ =3 >5- ? @)AG 40 879 22 730 19 602 13 713 18
H =3 >5- ? @)AG? CD 40 317 13 392 13 333 8 462 12
C I3 >5- ? @)AB 40 984 23 849 21 724 18 839 21
J I3 >5- ? @)AB ? CD 40 363 14 678 17 409 10 337 14
K I3 >5- ? @)AF ? CD 40 339 13 702 18 417 10 340 14
TABLE 3.21: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR 8 HOUR GRID CASES FOR RETROFITTED BTS WITH 100Ah LI-1 OR
150AH LI-2 OR 150Ah LI-3 BATTERIES; PV USED IS 4.8kW

1he resulLs are on predlcLed llnes. 100Ah Ll-1 baLLery does noL help. Ll-3 baLLery wlLh
v (row C) glves lowesL cosLs, ln facL, for Lhls case of one-hour bursLy grld (case 6),
Lhe energy cosLs for Lhe day goes down Lo !333 and per unlL energy cosLs reaches a
new low aL !8, falrly close Lo LhaL of Lhe grld.
1he overall concluslons for 8eLroflLLed lndoor 81S are Lherefore slmllar Lo LhaL for
CuLdoor 81S and ls as follows:
1. use of generaLor smaller Lhan 13 kvA needs Lo be explored.
WlLh proper slzlng and selecLlon of baLLery and solar v lL should be posslble Lo
vlrLually ellmlnaLe generaLor, lf grld ls avallable for 8 Lo 10 hours ln a busrLy manner.
Large slze Lead Acld and small slze Ll-3 baLLery glve lowesL cosLs and are comparable
Lo each oLher.

2. v would make a huge dlfference when grld-avallablllLy ls poor.



3.3.3 Optimization
We now presenL some oLher lnLeresLlng resulLs LhaL on Lhe one hand demonsLraLe
Lhe power of Lhe slmulaLor and on Lhe oLher hand, demonsLraLe Lhe lmporLance of
opLlmlzaLlon. We Lake a convenLlonal lndoor cell slLe where sources are presenL as ln
conflguraLlon u, deflned ln SecLlon 3.2.7, lmplylng an AC CeneraLor, 600Ah Lead Acld
baLLery and 4.8 kW solar v. We flrsL examlne varlaLlon of cosL per unlL of elecLrlclLy
used by Lhe slLe as number of hours of grld avallablllLy ls varled. 1he resulLs are
shown ln llg. 3.8 for Lhree cases, one where Lhe grld-power ls avallable ln one hour
bursLs (for example for a 12 hour grld-avallablllLy, Lhe grld power ls avallable every
alLernaLe hour and for 16 hour grld avallablllLy, Lhe grld power ln avallable for an
hour aL a Llme followed by half an hour of grld-fallure). 1he oLher case ls where Lhe
grld-avallablllLy ls for 2 hour bursLs, lmplylng LhaL grld ls avallable aL a Llme for Lwo
hours followed by an absence of grld and Lhen agaln Lwo hour grld-avallablllLy and so
on, Lhe Lhlrd case ls for four hour bursLs. 1he resulLs show LhaL cosL per unlL ls same
for all Lhree cases lf grld-avallablllLy ls for 8 hours a day or more. 1he per unlL cosL
falls rapldly as grld-power avallablllLy lncreases from 0 Lo 12 hours ln all Lhree cases,
and Lhen falls slowly, reachlng !8 per unlL for 24 hours grld-power avallablllLy. 1he
| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


38
reason lL ls hlgher Lhan !3 ls because of Lhe presence of Lhe generaLor and baLLery,
whlch lle ldle now. Lven whlle remalnlng ldle, Lhe caplLal cosLs and lnLeresL cosLs of
generaLor and baLLery would conLlnue Lo conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe per unlL power-cosLs aL
Lhe slLe.

FIG. 3.8: COST PER UNIT OF ELECTRICITY FOR INDOOR BTS SITE AS GRID-AVAILABILITY VARIES FORM
0 HOURS TO 24 HOURS IN A DAY IN BURSTS OF ONE AND TWO HOURS
We now Lake Lhe same slLe wlLh Lhe same conflguraLlon, buL vary Lhe baLLery
capaclLy Lo examlne Lhe varlaLlon of per unlL energy cosLs, whlle Lhe v slze remalns
aL 4.8 kW, Lhe grld ls now assumed Lo be avallable for 8 hours ln a day ln 2 hour and 4
hour bursLs. llg. 3.9 presenLs Lhe resulLs. 1he cosL per unlL of elecLrlclLy ln 4 hour
bursL grld decreases as baLLery capaclLy reaches 600Ah, afLer whlch lL saLuraLes. 1he
2-hour bursL however shows lnLeresLlng resulLs. 1he unlL cosL of elecLrlclLy decreases
Llll Lhe baLLery decreases Lo 300 Ah and Lhen lncreases agaln as baLLery slze ls
lncreased furLher, lmplylng LhaL 300 Ah baLLery wlll be opLlmal ln such a slLuaLlon.


FIG. 3.9: COST PER UNIT OF ELECTRICITY USED BY AN INDOOR BTS SITE AS BATTERY CAPACITY VARIES

We now keep Lhe baLLery capaclLy consLanL aL 600 Ah and grld-avallablllLy Lo 8 hours
and vary Lhe slze of v used. llg. 3.10 presenLs Lhe resulLs for grld wlLh 2 hours and 4
hour bursLs. Surprlslngly, 2 hour bursLs glves lower per unlL cosL and decreases
SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


39
somewhaL rapldly as solar v slze lncreases Lo 3.3 kW and Lhen decreases much less
rapldly. lor Lhe four hours bursL case, Lhe cosL per unlL falls rapldly as v slze
becomes 4.8 kW and Lhen decreases more slowly.


FIG. 310:COST PER UNIT OF ELECTRICITY USED BY AN INDOOR BTS SITE AS SOLAR PV IS VARIED
3.4 Conclusion
We have presenLed here slmulaLlon resulLs for 3 x 378 cases of 81S slLes so far and
analyzed Lhem for Lhelr energy cosLs. lL ls obvlous LhaL each slLe ls unlque and should
be opLlmlzed lndependenLly. ?eL some general concluslons emerge, whlch a 81S slLe
deslgner needs Lo keep ln mlnd. 1hey lnclude:
1. Lven wlLh mlnlmal grld avallablllLy, lL should be posslble Lo use a proper
comblnaLlon of dlesel generaLor, baLLery and v Lo brlng down Lhe energy
cosLs close Lo !10 per unlL, ln facL less Lhan Lhls number lf Lhe grld avallablllLy
ls bursLy.

2. 1he use of dlesel generaLor conLrlbuLes maxlmum Lo Lhe energy cosLs of a
81S slLe, especlally when lL ls used wlLh low loadlng percenLage and
Lherefore used wlLh poor efflclency. 1he caplLal expense of Lhe generaLor and
Lhe malnLenance adds Lo Lhe cosLs. lL ls besL Lo have a slLuaLlon, where uC ls
noL Lurned on aL all. lL ls shown here LhaL wlLh even 8 hours of grld
avallablllLy, !" !$ %&$$!'() "& *+&!, -$!./ 01 2&$" &3 "4) "!2)5 64). $&(*7 89
*., '*"")7: *7) -$), ,!(!/)."(:. 1he uC should be used on rare ralny days
when sunllghL avallablllLy ls poor as well as grld-avallablllLy becomes very
erraLlc. lL ls beLLer Lo have a uC uC, lf one has purchase a new one, however
lf one already has an AC generaLor, one can use lL dlllgenLly.

3. ;&(*7 89 !$ <7!"!<*( "& '7!./ ,&6. "4) <&$"$.

4. lorLunaLely Lhere are a large varleLy of baLLerles avallable Loday. uslng a
4)*("4: '*"")7: 6!(( ') <7!"!<*( Lo savlng energy cosLs. use of larger slze (say
600 Ah) Lead Acld baLLerles or smaller slze (say 130 Ah) Ll-3 or Ll-1 baLLery of
Lhe klnd speclfled ln 1able 3.3 appears Lo glve excellenL resulLs.
8uL before we move on Lo Lhe recommendaLlons, leL us pause and examlne anoLher
lssue. So far, we have looked aL cases, where Lhe grld-avallablllLy was very poor, and
| SECTION 3
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


40
llmlLed Lo aL mosL 8 hour grld-avallablllLy per day. WhaL lf Lhe grld-avallablllLy ls
larger, say 12 hour or 16 hours a day? We Lherefore carry ouL some slmulaLlon for 12
hour and 16-hour grld avallablllLy cases for some llmlLed comblnaLlons of sources.
We Lake up conflguraLlon u, L and C deflned ln secLlon 3.2.7. All Lhese Lhree
conflguraLlons lnclude AC CeneraLor and v, ln addlLlon, case u has 600Ah Lead Acld
baLLery, case L has 130Ah Ll-1 baLLery and case C has 130Ah of Ll-3 baLLery. 1he 12-
hour and 16 hour grld avallablllLy cases are deflned ln 1able 3.22. 1he resulLs for
slmulaLlon for conflguraLlons u, L and C for Lhese grld-avallablllLy cases ls presenLed
ln Lable 3.23.

Case Gr|d Ava||ab|||ty
(hrs)
Gr|d ava||ab|||ty t|m|ngs
8 12 12 mldnlghL - 12 noon
9 12 0-2AM, 4AM-6AM, 8AM-10AM, 12noon-2M, 4M-6M, 8M-10M
10 16 0-2M, 3M-3M, 6M-8M, 9M-11M, 12noon-2M, 3M-3M,
6M-8M, 9M-11M
11 16 8 M-12noon
TABLE 3.22: GRID-AVAILABILITY CASES

Case 8 (12 hrs) Case 9 (12 hrs) Case 10 (16 hrs) Case 11 (16 hrs)
No.of uts]day Cost]day Cost]ut Cost]day Cost]ut Cost]day Cost]ut Cost]day Cost]ut
Convent|ona| (Indoor) 81S
D AC Gen + Le Ac|d + V SS 317 9 323 10 432 8 422 8
L AC Gen + L|-1 + V SS 740 13 611 11 433 8 396 11
C AC Gen + L|-3 + V SS 602 11 348 10 366 7 302 9
Cutdoor 81S
D AC Gen + Le Ac|d + V 29 313 11 314 11 272 9 236 9
L AC Gen + L|-1 + V 24 440 18 278 12 236 11 249 10
C AC Gen + L|-3 + V 24 343 14 199 8 184 8 179 7
ketrof|tted 81S
D AC Gen + Le Ac|d + V 44 391 9 404 9 334 8 323 7
L AC Gen + L|-1 + V 40 313 13 364 9 336 8 321 8
C AC Gen + L|-3 + V 40 420 11 281 7 263 7 232 6
TABLE 3.23: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR DIFFERENT BTS FOR CONFIGURATIONS HAVING AC GENERATOR, PV AND
600AH LEAD ACID, 150AH LI-1 AND 150AH LI-3 BATTERIES

1he resulLs show LhaL for Lhese source conflguraLlons, Lhe energy cosLs per day goes
down Lo !6 Lo !9 per unlL for 16 hour grld avallablllLy (cases 10 and 11) for all Lypes
of base sLaLlons, Lhe resulLs are very close Lo Lhe grld-cosLs. Lven for 12-hour grld
(cases 8 and 9) Lhe cosLs are beLween !7 Lo !10 mosLly, only marglnally hlgher Lhan
LhaL for grld. Ll-1 (row L) glves Lhe worsL resulLs, especlally for CuLdoor 81S.
1hese resulLs conflrm Lhe general concluslons llsLed above. roper comblnaLlon of
dlesel generaLor, well-malnLalned baLLery along wlLh solar v panel can brlng down
SECTION 3 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


41
Lhe 81S slLe energy cosLs close Lo LhaL of grld-cosLs. lor Lhls generaLor has Lo be
made almosL redundanL and used only on some very speclflc days.
8efore we end Lhls secLlon, some general commenLs and cauLlons are llsLed.
1. lL ls lmporLanL LhaL Lhe baLLery managemenL sysLem measures Lhe sLaLe of
charge of baLLery correcLly so LhaL baLLery charglng - dlscharglng Lakes place
well, Lhls ls crlLlcal Lo reduced energy cosLs.

2. Whlle caplLal expenses for dlesel generaLor, baLLery and solar v has been
lncluded ln Lhese compuLaLlons, Lhe CALx for alr-condlLloner, baLLery-
chlller, shelLer and lnLegraLed ower ConverLor unlL (lu) has noL been
lncluded. 1he lu ls a crlLlcal elemenL and lLs efflclency wlll lnfluence Lhe
LoLal energy cosLs, equally lmporLanL ls lLs CALx. A proper lu, whlch
comblnes grld-power, dlfferenL Lype of baLLerles as well as solar v ls sLlll Lo
be deslgned. 1he unlL should also enable remoLe managemenL.








| SECTION 4
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


42
Section 4: Recommendations
1hls reporL has analyzed Lhe dlfferenL energy-cosLs lnvolved ln Lhe funcLlonlng of 81S
slLes by Lhe means of a slmulaLlon Lool. 3 x 378 slmulaLlons for dlfferenL 81S slLe
scenarlos were carrled and resulLs were analyzed here. Whlle Lhere may be a large
number of oLher speclflc scenarlos, Lhe resulLs and analysls presenLed ln Lhe reporL
are sufflclenLly encompasslng and some general recommendaLlons emerge from
Lhese slmulaLlons. 1here wlll always be speclflc cases (whlch ln facL could be
slmulaLed qulckly by uslng Lhe Lool presenLed here), for whlch Lhe opLlmal deslgn of
energy sysLems could be dlfferenL and some of Lhe recommendaLlons glven here
would noL be appllcable. 8uL for mosL 81S slLes ln lndla, Lhese recommendaLlons
would be very useful.
1he recommendaLlons are broadly focused on Lhree areas, namely 8esearch &
uevelopmenL, AdapLaLlon & AdopLlon and ollcy Measures. 1he recommendaLlons ln
each secLlon are dlscussed as Lhose LhaL requlre lmmedlaLe focus, Lhe ones wlLh mld-
Lerm and Lhe ones wlLh long-Lerm ouLlook.

4.1 Research & Development

ConsLanL research Lo flnd soluLlon Lo problems speclflc Lo lndla ls requlred. Some of
Lhe 8&u requlred would be ln Lhe Lechnology fronL whlle some oLhers would requlre
comlng up wlLh lnnovaLlons Lo cusLomlze Lhe exlsLlng Lechnologles Lo solve lssues,
whlch are unlque Lo our counLry. 1he lmmedlaLe 8&u agenda would lnclude Lhe
followlng:
Lncourage lnnovaLlon ln 81S equlpmenL Lo reduce LoLal energy consumpLlon.
ower LlecLronlcs for lu lncludlng subsysLems for measuremenL of SLaLe of
Charge for baLLerles, Charge conLrollers, AC-uC, uC-uC and uC-AC converLors
and SysLems for 8emoLe managemenL of slLes and all lLs equlpmenL.
ueveloplng uC ulesel CeneraLors and AC ulesel CeneraLors wlLh governors,
whlch enable an AC uC Lo have hlgher efflclency even aL lower loads.
ueslgnlng of Solar alr condlLloners and solar chlllers.
1he Long Lerm 8&u would lnvolve:
uevelopmenL of new 8aLLery 1echnology, where Lhe sLorage cosLs could be
under !3 per unlL of energy would be a game changer. 1hls requlres
susLalned and subsLanLlal research.
ueslgnlng solar panels, whlch are damage-reslsLanL, Lhe ouLdoor panels
should noL be easlly damageable by sLones.

4.2 Adaptation

Whlle 8esearch & uevelopmenL are essenLlal Lo come up wlLh soluLlons for any
exlsLlng challenge, lnnovaLlve use of Lechnology Lo faclllLaLe Lhe adopLlon ls essenLlal
for reduclng lmmedlaLe CLx conLrlbuLlon of 81S slLes. SwlLchlng Lo a newly
developed Lechnology lnvolves subsLanLlal lnvesLmenLs Lo be made. ln lndla Lhere are
over 300,000 81S slLes, where deploymenL has already Laken place. lL ls noL posslble
Lo redo Lhe slLe afresh. Cne has Lo enable lncremenLal lnvesLmenLs brlnglng ln
SECTION 4 |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


43
lncremenLal reducLlon ln energy cosLs. MosL of Lhe suggesLlons here can be
lmplemenLed ln shorL-Lerm:
romoLe replacemenL of old equlpmenL wlLh energy efflclenL 81S
equlpmenL by glvlng lncenLlves Lo Lhe Lelecom companles. 1hls ls
parLlcularly lmporLanL for rural areas, where Lhe fundlng can be done
Lhrough uSCl.
8equlre each operaLor Lo monlLor and reporL Lhe LoLal energy
consumpLlon for all Lhelr 81S slLes and also reporL Lhe conLrlbuLlon made
by each source Lo Lhe LoLal energy consumpLlon.
MandaLe movlng of 81S slLes Lo renewable energy progresslvely. 1he alm
should be Lo geL 30 of LoLal 81S slLe energy for each operaLor from
renewables ln flve years, may be 10 each year. lncenLlves and dls-
lncenLlves need Lo be deslgned Lo enable Lhls.
8eLroflLLlng lndoor 81S shelLers could be aLLracLlve Lo reduce energy
cosLs wlLh lncremenLal lnvesLmenLs.
Lncourage addlLlon of solar panels ln a modular manner aL Lhe exlsLlng
81S slLes.

4.3 Policy Measures

ollcy Measures a go a long way ln lnfluenclng dlrecLlons. lf 81S slLes have Lo reduce
Lhelr energy consumpLlon and energy cosLs per unlL, lL ls lmperaLlve LhaL pollcles are
deslgned Lo enable Lhls. Pere we llsL some of Lhe lmmedlaLe pollcy measures, whlch
wlll geL us Lo move qulckly ln Lhe dlrecLlon:
8ank-loans for Lhe purchase of Solar v anels for 81S slLes should be
classlfled as prlorlLy secLor loans by 88l. 1hls ls crlLlcal as Solar v panels
have a long llfe-Llme and lnLeresL raLe plays a ma[or role ln deLermlnlng cosL
per unlL of elecLrlclLy produced by Lhese panels. lf subsldy ls Lo be provlded
for renewable energy, subsldlzed long-Lerm lnLeresL may be Lhe besL
mechanlsm.
lnLroduce Llme of Lhe day meLerlng for elecLrlclLy consumed aL 81S slLes. 1hls
wlll lncenLlvlze elecLrlclLy board Lo conLlnue Lo supply elecLrlclLy Lo Lhe slLes,
even durlng peak-hours. lor CperaLors, lL wlll lncenLlvlze uslng renewables,
aL leasL durlng peak-hours.
1elecom CperaLors who use renewable sources for powerlng Lhelr slLes
(even parLlally) should be provlded wlLh lncenLlves. 1hese lncenLlves could be
reducLlon ln Lhe llcense fee or funds provlded Lo Lhe operaLors from uSCl.
1he pollcy measures LhaL need Lo be Laken up ln medlum Lerm are as follows:
lf Lhe CperaLor generaLes more renewable energy Lhan consumed by Lhe 81S
slLe, Lhey should be able Lo feed Lhe surplus Lo Lhe grld and draw from Lhe
grld aL some oLher Llme. ln a sense, grld would be Lhe sLorage for
renewables. Powever, as Lhe volume lncreases, Llme of Lhe day meLerlng
needs Lo be Laken lnLo accounL for boLh feedlng and drawlng.
1he Lelecom companles should be able Lo feed power Lo a grld aL one place
and be able Lo exLracL lL from anoLher place. CurrenLly Lhls ls posslble for only
large amounLs of power, lL should be made posslble Lo feed and exLracL
smaller amounLs of power.
| SECTION 4
POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


44
4.4 In the end

"# $%&'# ()# *#+&*( ,&( -.'( /0() *#$&11#,23(0&,'4 5)# *#+&*( )3' 6##, 63'#2 &,
7.3,(0(3(08# '(.29 3,2 3,3%9'0' &: #,#*;9 $&,'.1#2 3( 3 <5= '0(# 3,2 0(' $&'('4 >#*9
*#$#,(%9? /# /#*# 0,(*&2.$#2 (& 63((#*0#' @A,# B#32 C$02 3,2 3,&()#* B0()0.1
D&%91#*E? /)0$) /#*# &: 1.$) )0;)#* +#*:&*13,$# ()3, ()# &,#' .'#2 0, '(.29 0, ()#
*#+&*(4 F8#, ()&.;) /# $3,,&( $#*(0:9 ()# $%301' &: 63((#*9 13,.:3$(.*#*' 9#(? /#
+*#'#,( 0, 536%# G4H ()# I#9 '+#$0:0$3(0&,' &: ()# (/& 63((#*0#' 3,2 536%# G4J? /#
+*#'#,( ()# *#'.%(' &: '01.%3(0&, :&* 3 $&,8#,(0&,3% K,2&&* ')#%(#*? /)#*# ()#'#
63((#*0#' )38# 6##, .'#2 G4LM" '&%3* D> +3,#%'? 6.( /0() ,& ;#,#*3(&*4 5)# ;*02
+&/#* 0' 3''.1#2 3' +#* $3'#' G? N? O? L? P? HQ 3,2 HH 3' 2#:0,#2 0, 536%# G4J4 5)#
*#'.%(' 2& ')&/ ()3( ()# $&'(' 3*# (&.$)0,; !N (& O +#* .,0(4 A: $&.*'#? ()#'#
,.16#*' 3*# &6(30,#2 /)#, ;#,#*3(&* 0' ,&( .'#2 3( 3%%? (3I0,; 3/39 ()# :0R#2 $&'('
&: ;#,#*3(&*4 5)#*# 139 6# '&1# *30,9 239' 0, 3 9#3* /)#, ;*02 :30%.*# 0' '#8#*#S
36'#,$# &: ;#,#*3(&* /&.%2 $3.'# 3 +*&6%#1 ()#,4 A,# )3' (& :0;.*# &.( 3%(#*,3(#
/39 &: /)##%0,; 0, +&/#* /0()&.( I##+0,; 3 ;#,#*3(&* :&* '.$) *3*# 239'? /)0$) 322'
,#3*%9 !2 +#* .,0( (& ()# $&'( &: #%#$(*0$0(94 5)# $)3%%#,;#' 3*# 0,2##2 #,&*1&.'? 6.(
()# +&(#,(03% ;30,' 3*# #7.3%%9 '(*&,;4

!"##$%& #&($ )"("*+#&
,-./
0+1*."%2$
3
)&*4$1 )-567 688+*+$9*& 3 )."%2+92
:"#$
;5 <$"= -*+= NQQ GQ TQQQ UUQQ PU Q4TV
;5 <+ >?9 HUQ PQ NQQQ GUQQQ PP V
TABLE 4.1: SPECIFICATIONS OF TWO VERY HIGH PERFORMANCE BATTERIES

-) @$9 A ;+2. ($%8?%B"9*$ <$ -*+= A 5C -) @$9 A ;5 <+A 5C
D?E ?8 F#1 )?1#G="& )?1#GF# )?1#G="& )?1#GF#
)"1$ H II JKK KL JMN KH
)"1$ M II HKO N ILN KP
)"1$ J II HKJ N JPJ KL
)"1$ N II LOP J JKJ KL
)"1$ O II LOQ J HOK O
)"1$ KP II LMH J HHH N
)"1$ KK II LIL M INI KK
TABLE 4.2: SIMULATION RESULTS FOR CONVENTIONAL INDOOR BTS WITH AN AC GENERATOR, 4.8KW PV AND
EITHER HIGH PERFORMANCE LEAD ACID OR LI ION BATTERY AS SPECIFIED IN TABLE 4.


References |

POWERING CELLULAR BASE STATIONS: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY OPTIONS


45
References:
1. 1LLLCCM 8LCuLA1C8? Au1PC8l1? Cl lnulA (18Al) WL8Sl1L:
hLLp://www.Lral.gov.ln/WrlLe8eaduaLa/WhaLsnew/uocumenLs/8-1Su-
May2012.pdf. 8eLrleved on 22/9/2012.
2. 1LLLCCM 8LCuLA1C8? Au1PC8l1? Cl lnulA, ConsulLaLlon aper Cn Creen
1elecommunlcaLlons. 3rd lebruary, 2011, page 2, polnLs 3 and 4, page 16
hLLp://www.ccaol.ln/ul/llnks/fwresearch/concelLaLlon20paper203.pdf.
8eLrleved on 22/9/2012.
3. 1he 1rue CosL of provldlng energy for Lhe 1elecom 1owers ln lndla: WhlLe
paper by lnLelllgenL Lnergy
4. Creen 1elecom: 1he Way Ahead, 8eporL by A1 kearney
3. 1elecommunlcaLlon ower SysLem: Lnergy savlng renewable sources and
envlronmenL monlLorlng, 8eporL by Carmlne LubrlLLo, unlverslLy of naples,
lLaly
6. ulrLy 1alklng? Case of Lelecom Lo shlfL from dlesel Lo renewable, 8eporL by
Creen eace CrganlzaLlon
7. age 3 of Creen 1elecom: 1he Way Ahead by A1 kearney
8. uaLa from Amara 8a[a 8aLLerles LLd.