This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Shayqaltas and Other Small Bags
Female Costume Sa'wkele Ko'k Ko'ylek Kiymeshek Jegde Jewellery The Shayqalta Geographical and Tribal Origin Structure Materials Types of Shayqalta Other Small Bags Historical Background Pronunciation of Karakalpak Terms References
Male Costume Post•n Shekpen Shapan Shayqalta
The Karakalpak shayqalta is a small cloth bag, usually rectangular in shape, lined with printed cotton, and open at the top. It is colourfully decorated with finely executed silk embroidery and is usually edged on all four sides with raspberry red jiyek. A long cord, decorated in red and green chevrons and terminating with a bunch of tassels, normally red and green, is frequently fastened to the upper part of one side. Occasionally this is missing, or else the tassels are attached directly to the bag.
Home Page New Book Lectures & Articles
The Karakalpaks Costume
http://www.karakalpak.com/shayqalta.html (1 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02
Yurts History Karakalpakstan Tour Guide
Glossary External Links About Us Contact Us
Karakalpak shayqalta held by the Savitsky Museum of Art, No'kis.
Shayqalta is simply Karakalpak for tea bag (••• ••••• in Karakalpak), qalta being derived from halta, the old Turkic word for a bag or small sack. Such bags are supposedly designed for carrying dried leaf tea from a man’s waist belt, although every example we have examined shows little sign of any regular wear and no indication at all of ever having been used for holding tea. This is because what may once have been a utilitarian bag for holding tea had, by the early 20th century, been transformed into a symbolic wedding gift. The dowry of every prospective bride included a shayqalta, lovingly embroidered as a present for her future husband and traditionally handed over after the first night of the marriage. As such they were never regularly used or worn, other than at times of major festivities. They seem to be found mainly among the northern Qon’•rat ar•s. They are an unusual item of Karakalpak male costume since embroidery
http://www.karakalpak.com/shayqalta.html (2 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02
hardly ever appears on men’s clothing and when it does it is usually conservatively understated.
A Turkmen embroidered tea bag from the Russian Ethnography Museum, Saint Petersburg.
Of course, shayqaltas are not unique to the Karakalpaks. Somewhat similar bags are found among the neighbouring Uzbeks and Turkmen. According to Anna Morozova, M.S.Andreyev (who collected items from Bukhara for the Uzbek State Museum of Art in 1936) reported that cross-stitch embroidered bags were an obligatory part of Bukharan men's costume during the 19th century. They were hung from the waist-belt and were used for keeping a comb, money and other small things.
Geographical and Tribal Origin
In June 2006 the Karakalpak State Museum of Art named after Savitsky kindly analysed their collection of 66 shayqaltas on our behalf, not only according to design but also by the geographical region and the tribal affiliation of the former owners. This showed that they had originated from all regions of the Aral Delta – Qon'•rat, Moynaq, Qarao'zek, Xojeli, Kegeyli, and No'kis city. Unfortunately only 16 of the 66 had record cards indicating the tribal origin of their former owners:
http://www.karakalpak.com/shayqalta.html (3 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02
karakalpak. The latter stitch is executed on the rear side of the textile. The ush•ga borders and http://www. The most common length is 18 to 19cm. Structure Shayqaltas vary considerably in length from 15½ to 23cm. the black cloth being used to form an outer border around all four sides of the field and the red cloth used to form either a single inner strip at each end or occasionally a complete inner border between the qara ush•ga and the field.html (4 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . Of course the tribe of the owner is not necessarily the same as the tribe of the original maker. and the most common width is 15 to 16cm. The first operation was to embroider the central field of the bag.com/shayqalta. They were made from a rectangular piece of handwoven cotton bo'z. the embroidered field was bordered with narrow strips of contrasting qara and q•z•l ush•ga. although there is a good chance that they belong to the same ar•s since the Qon'•rat live in the north of the delta and the On To'rt Ur•w in the south. twice the length of the required bag. and in width from 9½ to 16cm. a finely checked cloth woven from alternating red and black warps and wefts. Over two thirds of shayqaltas were made specifically from scratch and their basic layout is fairly constant. This was either plain or shat•rash. Once completed.The Shayqalta Ar•s Tribe Number 1 On To'rt Ur•w Q•pshaq Ashamayl• 2 Balg'al• Baymaql• Qon'•rat Q•yat Mu'yten Tog'•z Aq Total 5 2 1 16 3 2 Interestingly 15 of these came from tribes and clans belonging to the Qon’•rat ar•s and only one from the Q•pshaq tribe of the On To'rt Ur•w ar•s. using either cross-stitch or a form of satin-stitch known as teris qay•w (meaning opposite or reverse side) stitch.
The inner face of the bag could now be lined with a similar sized rectangle of commercial printed cotton cloth. thereby creating an alternating pattern of red and green chevrons. http://www. usually with a border of plain raspberry red jiyek.The Shayqalta strips were then embroidered with rows of simple repetitive motifs using chain-stitch. the joins between the central field and the strips of ush•ga being concealed with rows of coloured satin-stitch known as qa'w•p tigis or in rare cases with overstitching using gold metal-wound thread. predominantly white. leaving the outermost edges to be finished. In some cases however.karakalpak. Now a length of narrow braid or tape was handwoven in warp substitution technique using a double set of red and green silk warps. Standard layout of a Karakalpak shayqalta embroidered in cross-stitch. One end of the tape was finished with a set of matching red and green tassels often with small.html (5 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . threads of contrasting colour might be included to form a patterned jiyek edging. beads at their ends.com/shayqalta. in others the red jiyek might be patterned geometrically by means of overembroidery. The qara ush•ga is decorated with shiylaw•sh wood-plane motifs at the top and qum•r•sqa bel or "waist-of-an-ant" motifs down the sides. The Richardson Collection.
There does not seem http://www.com/shayqalta. or a section of jen'ush (sleeve cuff).The Shayqalta The rectangular sides of the bag were then folded in half and sewn along two sides to form a bag. The Richardson Collection. Karakalpak shayqaltas in chain-stitch come in a wide variety of patterns. A gap of about 1 to 2cm was often left at the top of each seam for ease of access to the contents of the bag. the unfinished ends being sewn to a separate cuff. The textile is then folded to form the bag. for example from the orta qara (middle black) of a q•z•l kiymeshek. This one has a version of shayan quyr•q or scorpion's tail motif down the sides. Some were made utilizing sections of patterned embroidery recovered from previously used items. which forms the top opening of the bag. the jag'a (collar) of an aq jegde. However not all bags were made in this fashion.html (6 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . Several of the examples of this type that we have examined have strips of embroidered qara ush•ga bordering the two long sides of the embroidery fragment but not the ends. just like the example above. The tape and tassels were sewn to the top of the bag at one side.karakalpak. The two outer edges and sometimes the internal joins are then finished in strips of red jiyek.
The addition of the cuff (which obviously only has one seam) means that a small gap can only be left on one side and therefore access to the contents of these bags is made slightly more difficult. bo'z lent itself to the embroidery of geometric patterns using cross-stitch.The Shayqalta to be any particular reason for this. The rough ends of the piece of orta qara could just as easily be covered by an insert of embroidered ush•ga as in the normal construction technique. The first of these was a rather coarse handwoven cotton fabric called bo'z. This was woven in plain cotton and could be dyed or left undyed. resulting in a finely checked cloth known as shat•rash. Blue bo’z. Materials Bo’z Karakalpaks used two types of cloth for embroidery. simple ko'yleks (dresses). The Richardson Collection. Ush•ga http://www. The chequered shat•rash exposed above the satin-stitch of the central field.html (7 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 .karakalpak. Because of its coarse grid-like structure. In the example shown below the shat•rash (checked) bo'z is clearly visible above the silk embroidered •rg'aq (zig-zag) pattern. and for the aq jegdes and aq kiymesheks. One form of bo'z was woven with finer spun cotton warps and wefts. was used for ko'k ko'yleks and jen'se (oversleeves). Meanwhile shat•rash was particularly favoured for satin-stitch embroidery. known as matar by the Uzbeks. shirts. It was used for making children’s clothing.com/shayqalta. which both alternated between sections of red and black.
half of the loops on the fingers of one hand and half on the fingers of the other. on duwash•q (amulets for the yurt door). Fragments of this cloth were put to a variety of uses. eight. http://www. To create the "braid" or jiyek. but this is not the case. Of course the latter was hidden internally once the bag was folded and sewn along its sides.karakalpak. a dexterous weaver being able to do this for all pairs of loops at the same time. The jiyek was directly woven onto the textile by means of a finger-weaving method called "warptwining by loop manipulation" using sets of silk cords. the structure of this cloth lends itself to free-flowing embroidery in chain-stitch. on children's clothing. As each subsequent manipulation occurred a further couching thread was added. From the rear of the flattened-out bag this weft thread appears like a coarse blanket stitch. Over 60% of all of the bags we have seen have pieces of both q•z•l (red) and qara (black) ush•ga inserted. The ends of the loops were held by the second weaver so that they passed around the ends of her fingers.html (8 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . This is a machine-made felted woollen broadcloth which was highly prized by the Karakalpaks in the past. Firstly six. This thread effectively became the weft of the braid and was repeatedly looped over the edge of the bag and then sewn back through from the back to the front to form the next weft. Because the warps and wefts of the ush•ga are concealed by the felting. It is therefore not surprising that scraps of this cloth featured heavily in these bags. The loop manipulation involved slipping the loops from the fingers of one hand through the corresponding loops on the other hand. In its red form it was used to make the front of the q•z•l kiymeshek. the first weaver would couch the first set of loops to the textile before the first manipulation by passing a needle threaded with the base colour through the shed formed by the two sets of loops.com/shayqalta. and so on. The initial appearance is of a separately made braid that has been attached to the edges and joins of the bag. or ten long loops of silk cord were attached to the edge of the unfinished bag at a particular point by one of the weavers.The Shayqalta The other fabric that was commonly used by the Karakalpaks was ush•ga. as were the sections on kiymesheks. Jiyek The edges and sections of the bags were often finished with decorative strips of braid called jiyek. raspberry-coloured silk being the most popular. especially in combination with green. It required two people to weave the jiyek.
mainly half diamonds. could be created using different coloured threads. these half diamonds would meet and form a whole diamond. Red floral patterns were especially http://www. Simple motifs.The Shayqalta Warp-twining by loop manipulation. As a short-cut some jiyek was woven in red silk and then overembroidered with contrasting coloured threads using a loop-stitch to create simple geometric patterns.com/shayqalta.html (9 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . using just two loops.karakalpak. Linings Most shayqaltas are lined with machine-printed cotton. When the two edges of the piece of shayqalta were brought together. From "The Techniques of Split-Ply Braiding" by Peter Collingwood. This was imported into Central Asia from Russia in increasingly large quantities from the mid19th century onwards. Image courtesy of Peter Collingwood. Over time the manufacturers changed their designs to reflect the taste of the local buyers.
Gold Metallic Thread Although most stitching was done using silk thread. The Richardson Collection. or sh•r•s tigis.html (10 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . A few bags are left unlined and some have a lining of Bukharan ikat. Types of Shayqalta There are 3 main types of shayqalta: 1.karakalpak. Some bags are lined with a mixture of several different pieces. The central field is embroidered with a diamond lattice using cross-stitch. accounting for about 40% of all examples held by the Savitsky Museum. Gold thread work surrounding the q•z•l ush•ga panel of a satin-stitch shayqalta. more commonly.com/shayqalta. meaning the eyes of the http://www. a few bags incorporate small amounts of gold metallic thread used either as highlights on the bag itself or. and even as turbans.The Shayqalta popular. One favourite pattern was known as ayd•ll• and it is found on the backs of kiymesheks. Kerege Ko’z Pattern in Cross-Stitch Embroidery These are by far the most common type of shayqalta. as a winding on the top of the tassels. obviously utilizing every scrap of fabric available. Karakalpaks call this pattern kerege ko'z nag'•s. as the outer covering of shapans.
The qara ush•ga is decorated with a row of solaq motifs (part of a wooden cart) beneath the qum•r•sqa bel motifs.html (11 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 .The Shayqalta yurt lattice motif. The Richardson Collection. http://www.com/shayqalta. A kerege ko'z patterned shayqalta with stepped diamonds embroidered in cross-stitch.karakalpak.
Karakalpak master carvers often used lattice patterns on the front of sabayaq wooden chests. 2. Similar embroidery patterns can be found in aq jegdes and on the front of ko'k ko'yleks. The Richardson Collection.karakalpak.The Shayqalta A kerege ko'z patterned shayqalta with crosses embroidered in cross-stitch.com/shayqalta. using two alternating motifs without a central composition. consisting of parallel rows of coloured horizontal zigzags on a red background.html (12 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . They are usually embroidered on shat•rash bo'z using a http://www. Ιrg'aq Pattern in Satin-Stitch Embroidery The second group of shayqaltas all have a pattern known as •rg'aq (zigzag). Diamond lattice patterns are common in Karakalpak folk art. In addition to qum•r•sqa bel. often arranged in alternating coloured rows. the qara ush•ga is decorated with solaq and qos mu'yiz motifs. so the lattice cells are in the form of stepped diamonds. In some examples the cells remain empty. The elements of the design are small coloured rectangles of cross-stitch. in others they contain either stepped diamonds or crosses.
The zigzag pattern is achieved by counting the weft threads.The Shayqalta reverse satin-stitch known as teris qay•w. http://www. The Richardson Collection. Almost 23% of the shayqaltas in the Savitsky Museum collection are of this type. This literally means reverse side and was sewn working from the back side of the fabric.html (13 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . parallel to the warp of the backing cloth. Small stitches are made very tightly together.com/shayqalta. covering it with the silken threads. A •rg'aq patterned shayqalta embroidered in satin-stitch.karakalpak.
1962. According to Klavdiya Antipina the same stitch was widespread among both the northern and the southern Kyrgyz. It was particularily associated with the Karakalpaks in Central Asia and was also found among some of the peoples of the Volga region.karakalpak. The Kyrgyz called the stitch terskaiuk. The Richardson Collection. However on closer examination these are virtually all made from fragments of embroidery recovered from older female garments. but occasionally in cross-stitch. generally decorated in chain-stitch or ilme. Decorative Patterns in Chain or Cross-Stitch Embroidery The third type of shayqalta has a central field of ush•ga.com/shayqalta.html (14 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . 3. From Klavdiya Antipina. although the number of items that they embroidered with it was very limited. the most frequently occurring item being a chain-stitch fragment from a q•z•l kiymeshek ald•: http://www.The Shayqalta Illustration of the teris qay•w stitch from the front and the back.
The Richardson Collection. Other sources include aq jegde jag'a.html (15 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 .com/shayqalta. and jen'se made from blue bo’z.The Shayqalta A chain-stitch shayqalta based on a fragment of orta qara from a kiymeshek.karakalpak. aq kiymeshek ald•s. The central field is qoral• gu'l or fenced flower. http://www.
The Shayqalta A cross-stitch shayqalta based on a fragment of an aq jegde. are of this type.karakalpak. Of the 21 examples. If she had lived to a great age or had had many children it was considered especially lucky to have such a token. It seems that a different social tradition may have come into play with these examples. Perhaps tea bags were made from some of these pieces as a memento or perhaps they are another illustration of Karakalpak thrift. 19 are made from q•z•l kiymeshek fragments. One example in our own collection has been specifically made from scratch with a central field of ush•ga embroidered in chain-stitch. We know that when a woman died her clothing was sometimes cut up and pieces were given to relatives as a keepsake. one is from a jen'se and another is from a jen'ush. ensuring that every scrap of old embroidery was recycled in an acceptable form. However not every bag of this type was made from recycled embroidery. or 32%.com/shayqalta. It is unlikely that a young bride-to-be would give her fiancé a tea bag made from a piece of an old woman’s garment such as an aq jegde. The field appears to be like a "sampler" for an http://www. Some 21 of the 66 shayqaltas in the Savitsky Museum.html (16 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . The Richardson Collection. We are aware of a couple of exceptions.
The Savitsky Museum has another made from Bukharan padshai (half silk. A small number occur with a plain central field. It is clear from the execution of the corner pattern that this has been conceived as a piece in its own right. half cotton) ikat. The Richardson Collection. A rare chain-stitch shayqalta that does not include any recycled embroidery. One beautiful example made from a rectangle of green velvet is on display at the Moscow State Museum of Oriental Art. devoid of embroidery.com/shayqalta.html (17 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 .karakalpak. http://www. Unfortunately in recent years unscrupulous local Karakalpak dealers have begun making up new shayqaltas from embroidery fragments to sell as souvenirs to unsuspecting tourists. The shat•rash bo'z lining is again clearly visible and the top third of the bag has been lined with a nice strip of silk ikat in harmonious colours. Other Types A few shayqaltas do not conform to any of the above three categories.The Shayqalta orta qara.
html (18 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 .The Shayqalta A simple shayqalta with a central ikat field. One very rare type is a rounded bag with a central field of qara or q•z•l ush•ga embroidered with mu'yiz (horn) motifs in chain-stitch. No'kis.karakalpak.com/shayqalta. Savitsky museum. In one example the black field is surrounded by a red border: http://www.
The Richardson Collection.The Shayqalta A rare round-shaped shayqalta with mu'yiz and shiylaw•sh motifs.html (19 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . A second example from the Savitsky Museum has a red field with a narrow border of black.com/shayqalta. http://www.karakalpak.
According to the curators at the Regional Studies http://www.html (20 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 .com/shayqalta. which were consumed as an accompaniment to tea. Anna Morozova noted that there were two types of festive bags – a pul qalta for money and a shayqalta for tea.The Shayqalta A rare round-shaped shayqalta with similar motifs and a fine edging of patterned jiyek. Other Small Bags Pul qalta The Karakalpak pul qalta or money bag is a mystery. No'kis. Image courtesy of the Savitsky State Museum of Art. Both were an obligatory part of male costume in the rural areas and both were usually embroidered by girls to present to their husband after the first night of marriage. However we have never seen such an item and no examples exist in the Savitsky Museum Tar• qalta Another rare item was a small millet bag or tar• qalta for holding snacks of millet or ground millet mixed with butter and sugar.karakalpak.
One example is displayed at the Regional Studies Museum in No'kis where it is referred to as a shanash. Tar• qalta with green and purple qos tigis or double-stitch embroidery. They were decorated with a band of embroidery around the neck and with clusters of tassels suspended from the ends of the short legs. The Richardson Collection.The Shayqalta Museum in No'kis these small bags were made from the skin of a small mammal.html (21 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . Some had a cord and tassels attached to the top. just like a shayqalta. such as a hare.karakalpak. A 2004 museum brochure refers to the same item as "a bag for crumbly things": http://www.com/shayqalta. which simply means a small bag. However the original inventory card of an example kept in Tashkent (see below) records that it was made from the skin of an unborn goat.
karakalpak. Image courtesy of the Regional Studies Museum. http://www. The embroidery on these examples appears to be Turkmen. No'kis. Two others are held by the Samarkand State Museum.com/shayqalta.html (22 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . which attributes them as early 20th century choi-kaltas from Khiva. A second example has been on display at the Islam Khoja Medressa in the Ichan qala in Khiva.The Shayqalta Tar• qalta.
The inventory number and date suggest it was collected in Karakalpakstan by G. collected in 1946 from No'kis and Sh•mbay. http://www.karakalpak. Mirgiyazova. Its record card describes it as a shayqalta.The Shayqalta Tar• qalta-like bags from Samarkand Museum. and made from the skin of an unborn goat.com/shayqalta. listed as a "calf skin bag with embroidered top" appears in the State Museum of History in Tashkent. inventory number 1304 1-128.html (23 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . Another simpler example.
but the embroidery style is not typically Karakalpak and it is possible that they were made by neighbouring tribes like the Turkmen or Khivans. Some of these bags were owned by Karakalpak people. The original owner claimed at the time that it had been made five generations ago. Sh•n•qap A sh•n•qap is a leather case for transporting and protecting one or more ceramic tea cups. while others were embroidered. Such cases were often decorated with copper wire and tassels made from thin strips of leather. http://www. Tashkent. Xojamet Esbergenov claimed that they were one of the items found on a man’s waist-belt. Image courtesy of the Uzbek State Museum of History. Xojamet Esbergenov noted that the Khorezm Expedition acquired one example in 1973. However since this is an item for women rather than men it is covered under Female rather than Male Costume. Mirror Bags The final small bag found among the Karakalpaks is the mirror bag.The Shayqalta Tar• qalta collected from No'kis/Sh•mbay in 1946 with a solaq motif. which was made of calf skin.karakalpak. It has a semi-spherical lid which is fastened to the body of the case with narrow straps. Temeki qalta We have not yet seen a Karakalpak tobacco bag.html (24 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . However they are quite heavy and bulky items and were more likely to be attached to a horse’s saddle than to a waist belt.com/shayqalta.
karakalpak. A very refined small leather pouch with a flap was discovered among some torn clothing. Some had silver or bronze plates. Golden vessels dating from the 4th century BC recovered from kurgans north of the Black Sea show that the Scythians wore similar belts from which they suspended a gorytus. For example. http://www. one pouch being found inside a small leather saddle bag.The Shayqalta Historical Background Early nomads wore an open tunic fastened around the waist with a belt. dagger. a new fashion appeared in which belts were decorated with rows of round and/or semicircular plaques. Actual belts ranging in width from 2. The belts also had short pendant straps for fastening different accessories.com/shayqalta.5cm were excavated from the Pazyryk tombs in the Altai. As the Turks increasingly settled across Central Asia they integrated with its indigenous populations and influenced their cultures. Anything they wished to carry had to be suspended from their belt or carried on their horse. Belt buckles have been recovered in extensive numbers from kurgans across western Central Asia. However after the establishment of Turkic political domination in the middle of the 6th century.html (25 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . They were decorated with sinew and had pendant straps for holding a quiver. Sogdian murals show that by the end of the 5th century AD aristocratic men were wearing belts of two types: sashes of cloth knotted at the front and leather belts decorated with metal plates fastened at the side. The belt was an important indicator of status among many of the cattle-breeding nomads of Eurasia. Excavations of contemporary Hsiung-nu kurgans in northern Mongolia show that the early Huns also wore belts decorated with buckles and plates. or bow case and quiver. indicating that many pastoral nomads wore belts with buckles at the start of the Kushan era. Leather purses and pouches were also found in some of the kurgans.7 to 4. recently dated by dendrochronology to the 3rd and 4th centuries BC. Such Turkic types of belt were not often depicted in Sogdian art but from the frequent archaeological finds of such belt plates we can assume that the distribution of such belts was common. depictions of Massagetae warriors on the Apadana at Persepolis (dating from the 5th century BC) show them wearing narrow belts with holders for their short akinakes swords suspended from a pendant. The flap was decorated with leopard’s fur and trimmed with a border of red felt. or short sword.
Known by the Mongolians as altan büse. Meanwhile Friar Odoricus of Pordenone who travelled to the Yuan court in Beijing in the 1320s noted that the Khan's courtiers "are girt with golden girdles of halfe a foote broad".The Shayqalta Alabaster ossuary from Toq qala in the Aral delta. Many fine gold and silver buckles and belt plates have been recovered from excavations across the former territories of the Golden Horde. these golden belts were routinely given to members of the Mongol court.html (26 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . No'kis. Illustrations of Mongols in Persian miniatures and from ancient manuscripts of Rashid ad-Din show belts decorated with metal plates and with pendants supporting swords or quivers. Belts remained an important status symbol under the Mongols. The Italian Franciscan Giovanni del Pian di Carpini attended the coronation of Güyüg in 1246 and observed that among the many gifts bestowed by the foreign envoys there were "girdles of silk threaded with gold". Courtesy of the Savitsky Museum of Art. showing Turkic tunics with lapels and belts. the Il-Khan Ghazan bestowed "fifty bejewelled belts and three hundred gold belts" on his retainers. A few show http://www. late 7th or early 8th century AD.karakalpak.com/shayqalta. According to Rashid ad-Din.
From the Shahnama or Book of Kings. Harvard University Art Museum.html (27 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . http://www. A belted Bahram Gur with purse. 1330s. Mass. Of course none of these references relate to ordinary nomads or their local tribal leaders. Cambridge. pouches. possibly leather. fighting a wolf.The Shayqalta belts supporting small. Mongol Iran (possibly Tabriz).com/shayqalta.karakalpak.
karakalpak.com/shayqalta. and to the plates were fastened leather bags for storing bullets and gunpowder. the Aral Uzbeks.The Shayqalta Mongol mounted archer with belt and purse by Mohammed ibn Mahmudshah al-Khayyam. Regarding the Qazaqs he recorded: "they gird themselves with belts cut from red leather. the surveyor of Lieutenant Gladyshev's expedition to Khiva and the Aral region. the Qazaqs of the Lesser Horde. and on those belts are fixed metal plates. Staatsbibliothek.html (28 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . and the Khivan Uzbeks was all very similar. or whatever is available. 15th century. The first reference to Karakalpak costume was recorded in 1740 by Ivan Muravin. Berlin. From the Diez Albums. Muravin noted that in general the costume of the Lower Karakalpaks. and on other plates only a small strap and a big bag in which they keep flint with a steel and other necessities: they http://www. the width is two vershok [equivalent to 9cm] or smaller. Iran.
the grandson of the Khan of the Lesser Horde Abul Khayr. published seven years later. a tobacco purse.html (29 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . http://www. In September 1770 Johann Peter Falk. he noted that several of them wore a belt to which was always attached a sabre.com/shayqalta.karakalpak. Regarding the Karakalpaks. a lighter. In his descriptions of the Qazaqs. a pipe. and when they are not on ceremony they wear a simpler one [belt]." The term uzbelik is not precisely defined but seems to refer to the whole belt assembly. and a knife. Johann Georgi. although they did not have belts made of red leather other than for their tribal nobles. Muravin simply noted that they wore the same dress as the Qazaqs. Such belts with pouches must have been widespread across Central Asia. and Christoph Bardanes visited the temporary camp of Sultan Nur Ali.The Shayqalta call this an uzbelik.
money. the indispensable http://www. gold embroidered bags for tea. or flint and steel. From the girdle hang the accessory knives and several small bags and pouches. leather pouch. Henry Lansdell writing in 1882 described a similar belt worn by the Qazaqs: "[He] is proudest of his girdle. travelling in Turkestan in 1876 observed that: "The usual girdle is a large handkerchief or a small shawl. pepper ans salt. and from which hang bags. such as good knives with silver or other ornamented handles.karakalpak.. and container. &c… …tobacco. and tinder box. the whole apparatus being called kalta". if the user can afford it.The Shayqalta Qazaq man with leather belt and pendants holding a knife sheath.html (30 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 .. such as purses for tobacco. but more usually in a very small gourd fitted with a stopper". powder. bullets. money. 1862. is carried in a small bottle of Chinese jade or nephrite. describing the dress of the Central Asian male in his "Sketches of Central Asia" published in 1868 wrote that: "Among the men.com/shayqalta.. at times a long scarf wound several times tightly round the waist . . often richly covered with silver. various objects of ornament are seen. those which hang from the Koshbag. From Gustav-Fedor Pauli's "Description ethnographique des peuples de la Russie. Saint Petersburg. Meanwhile Khivan traders were importing silk waistbands from Bukhara. knife. often prettily embroidered. Similarly the Danish explorer Ole Olufen wrote: "The Bokharan man often carries a real arsenal of different objects suspended by a leather strap round his waist under his lungi.. Arminius Vambery. " The American Eugene Schuyler. for combs. and wallets for money. tom 1". In 1819 Captain Nikolay Muravyov recorded that the Khivans were very expert at making up silk waist girdles.
" Our best understanding of Karakalpak waist belts towards the end of the 19th century comes from surveys of elderly people conducted by Russian and Karakalpak ethnographers in the 1940s. or wool (pota belbew)." The Europeans and Russians who visited the Aral delta shortly after the Russian conquest of Khiva in 1873 left us only glimpses of Karakalpak dress at that time. They were worn by working men. whetstone etc. and the nomads especially are always furnished with tinder-box. http://www. Alternatively they could be everyday items such as a q•nap or sheath for a knife. The accessories could be in the form of specialist hunting equipment such as an oq-shontay or pistol and bullet case. called a belbew. the rest of them were in the long shirts of rough white cotton fabric. The most frequent accessory for a Karakalpak man was undoubtedly his shayqalta.com/shayqalta. a cap for a sparrow hawk. or a flint with a fire-steel. which they then presented to their hosts when visiting their houses. these shirts were not belted and they delineated the thin. or a narrow leather belt called a qay•s. There were eight men.. not for status or for festivities. They were all in the inevitable huge black caps. reporting that men wore either a knotted sash.html (31 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . a temeki qalta or tobacco bag.. Xojamet Esbergenov has summarized the results. and a shayqalta or tea bag. shotbags. A wealthy man or a bridegroom might wear a belbew made from a tu'rme or ma'deli woven in a Khivan silk-weaving workshop. only two of them were in khalats. powder. The Karakalpak scholar Ag’•nbay Allamuratov researched Karakalpak embroidery among local people in the 1970s and concluded that the shayqalta had once been a very common item on men’s waist-belts. bony body . The general impression is that such leather belts were more common among the nomadic Qazaqs than the more settled Karakalpaks. a shaqsha or horn tobacco box. Karakalpak men carried tea and sugar with them. awls. Highstatus belts could be woven from cotton. In the first decades of the 20th century they were embroidered by girls before their marriage as a love token for their prospective husbands. These were generally embellished with ornamented metal plates and lined with bo'z.The Shayqalta razor for shaving his head. "But here the inhabitants of the village dared to approach us.karakalpak. One type of qay•s was made with leather pendants for suspending attachments. made from a cloth or kerchief. silk. For example Nikolai Karazin visited a small aw•l in the northern delta along the road from Qusxanataw elevation to Sh•mbay. made from hard leather (ka'ma'r belbew) or from soft leather (degment belbew). hammer.
photographed in 1928.com/shayqalta. Although Melkov did not photograph the shayqalta in use he did capture the image of one cross-stitch shayqalta in the kerege ko'z pattern on the background of a shiy mat: http://www.karakalpak. In these photos the majority of men with belts were using a knotted kerchief or cloth and the others were using narrow leather belts and buckles. None of the pictures show any items suspended from these belts. Photographs taken by Aleksandr Melkov in 1928-29 and by Ella Maillart in 1933 support some of these conclusions. No'kis.html (32 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . Courtesy of the Karakalpak branch of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences. From Aleksandr Melkov's "Album".The Shayqalta Karakalpak man wearing a ma'deli belbew.
Courtesy of the Karakalpak branch of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences. http://www. photographed in 1928. From our own records we know that shayqaltas were still being made during the 1920s. but it seems that by then they were no longer a practical item. They were not only made by a young prospective bride for her groom but were also frequently made as general gifts for men. Anna Morozova believed that the wearing of ka'ma'r leather belts with metal buckles had died out by the 1920s. No'kis.html (33 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 .karakalpak.com/shayqalta. From Aleksandr Melkov's "Album".The Shayqalta Black and white photograph of a kerege ko'z shayqalta in cross-stitch.
html (34 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . When Tatyana Zhdanko and her team of ethnographers arrived to study Karakalpak life at the end of the Great Patriotic War they found that shayqaltas were no longer made.com/shayqalta. Please note that the dotless letter 'i' (•) is pronounced 'uh'. http://www. Pronunciation of Karakalpak Terms To listen to a Karakalpak pronounce any of the following words just click on the one you wish to hear. abandoning their traditional customs and culture. Collected by ethnographers from the Khorezm Expedition from Qarao'zek region in 1948.karakalpak. By the 1930s the Karakalpaks were increasingly coming under Russian influence.The Shayqalta Illustration of a shayqalta made from a chain-stitch q•z•l kiymeshek. although many families still kept them as mementoes of the past.
K. Journey from Orsk to Khiva and back. V. S. 1776 to 1777. and Muravin. V.. Materials and Research on Karakalpak Ethnography. I. I. P. A Description of All the Nationalities that Inhabit the Russian State [in Russian]. A.. 1962. Cambridge.karakalpak.. Gladyshev.. London. Antipina. Allsen. Commodity and exchange in the Mongol empire. 1955.com/shayqalta. page 411 onwards. Collingwood. C. Volume 3.. Karakalpak People's Embroidery [in Russian]. Forms of Karakalpak National Ornament [in Russian].. Oregon. Georgi. Cambridge University Press. No'kis. T. Frunze.html (35 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . and Melkov. 2002. 1997.. Volume 2. Dawson. Saint Petersburg. J. B. 1977. A. G. The Techniques of Tablet Weaving. Sheed and Ward. Archaeological and Ethnographical Works of the Khorezm Expedition. 1958. completed in 1740-1741 by Lieutenant Gladyshev and Geodesist Muravin http://www.. D. Robin & Russ Handweaving. The Mongol Mission. Inc. Academy of Sciences of the USSR.The Shayqalta ayd•ll• bo'z ilme •rg'aq jiyek kerege ko'z nag'•s mu'yiz orta qara pul qalta qara ush•ga qa'w•p tigis q•z•l ush•ga qoral• gu'l qos mu'yiz qos tigis qum•r•sqa bel shanash shat•rash shayan quyr•q shayqalta sh•n•qap sh•r•s tigis shiylaw•sh solaq tar• qalta temeki qalta teris qay•w References Allamuratov.. Published by the Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz SSR. Special Material Culture and Applied Arts of the Southern Kyrgyz [in Russian].. T. Andrianov. Moscow..
Tashkent. Studies presented to Boris Ilich Marshak on the occasion of his 70th Birthday. Zhdanko. Notes of a Journey in Russian Turkestan. Materials on the Historical-Ethnographic Atlas of Central Asia and Kazakhstan.. The Emir of Bukhara and His Country. Webfestschrift Marshak •r•n ud An•r•n. Venice. 1961.. Olufsen. 1851. Carving on Wood. 2006. S A. Saint Petersburg.. L. 1970. Yatsenko. 1954.. S. London. Vambery. The Late Sogdian Costume (the 5th to the 8th century AD). London. Department of History. pages 36 to 85. P. Museum Funds as a Source for the Atlas of Central Asia [in Russian]. 1868. Elysée Photo Museum. and Esbergenov.html (36 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . Rudenko. O. Published by Khanykov. A. Savitsky. 1965. 1976. State Museum of Art of the Karakalpak ASSR. No'kis. X.. 1911.com/shayqalta.. Rusyaykina. Mirsadiyeva. A. A. edited by Compareti. M. Allen & Co. Wm.. V. Switzerland. The Domestic Cultural Life of the Karakalpaks at the beginning of the twentieth century [in Russian]. Published by "Science".The Shayqalta [in Russian].. 1980. and Scarcia. Moscow. Published by the ICOC. Russian Central Asia. Searle & Rivington.. Morozova. V.. Sketches of Central Asia. S.. Collection of Photographic Negatives. in A World of Oriental Carpets and Textiles. I. I. Bukhara and Kuldja. Khokand. Maillart. 1876. J. Savitsky. S. London. Lausanne. Houghton.. E. Mifflin and Co. 2003. Ethnography of the Karakalpaks [in Russian]. Schuyler. William Heinemann. 1885.. H. T.. Frozen Tombs of Siberia. Moscow-Leningrad. Doctoral Thesis. E. edited by Zhdanko. Marston. Washington. Applied Arts of the Karakalpak People [in Russian].karakalpak. http://www. Maverannahr Suzanis. Dent & Sons Ltd.. Tashkent. Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR. Raffetta. I. Turkestan. Lansdell.. Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina. album [in Russian]. London. Fan Publishing. Sampson Low. H. Boston..
rather than the Russian transliteration.karakalpak.2014. Karakalpak.qaraqalpaq. It was last updated on 26 February 2012. http://www. Return to top of page Home Page This site was first published on 14 October 2006.com/shayqalta. all of the material on this website is the copyright of David and Sue Richardson. © David and Sue Richardson 2005 .html (37 of 37)01/03/2014 13:06:02 . Unless stated otherwise.The Shayqalta Visit our sister site www. which uses the correct transliteration. Qaraqalpaq.com.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.