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425

World Conference on Timber Engineering


Auckland New Zealand
15 - 19 July 2012

AIDIMA R&D FORUM BUILDING IN PATERNA-VALENCIA,
SPAIN. NEW TIMBER DESIGNS.


1ose-Mara Velasco
1
, Manuel Garca
2
, Kiyan Hedjri
3
, Miguel-Angel Abian
4
,
Toni Gomila
5






ABSTRACT: AIDIMA, an Institute Ior Wood Research located in Paterna (Valencia, Spain), perIorms research on
types oI construction, computational techniques and design oI construction processes. It has now commissioned the
construction oI a new building dedicated to R&D, in which the most recent techniques developed by the Institute will
be used. The building, constructed entirely in timber, has the Iollowing characteristics: its geometry is that oI an
inclined 12 m x 12 m x 12 m cube. Its structure is made oI a double skin oI timber Irames and a double layer oI inner
and outer glass that covers and protects the wooden structure and isolates the inside environment Irom the outside.
As a part oI the research developed, we present the analysis oI a new type oI timber joint. BeIore the construction oI the
building, an independent structure will be built, the Telon, a spatial Iree-Iorm structure in order to test the process.

KEYWORDS: timber foints; sttimpcrewsInstructions to authors, Proceedings, WCTE 2012


1 INTRODUCTION
123

AIDIMA (Wood, Furniture and Packaging Technology
Institute) is a non-proIit making organization, which is
active throughout Spain.


1
Jose-Maria Velasco, AMATRIA Ingenieria sl, Diputacio 238-
244, E08007 Barcelona, Spain. Email: velascoamatria.com
2
Manuel Garcia, Barbero&asociados, Email:
archibab2005yahoo.es
3
Kiyan Hedjri, Hedjri&asociados. Email: hedjricoac.net
4
Miguel-Angel Abian, AIDIMA, Benjamin Franklin 13,
E46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain. Email: mabianaidima.es
5
Toni Gomila, AMATRIA Ingenieria sl, Diputacio 238-244,
E08007 Barcelona, Spain. Email: gomilaamatria.com

Figure 1: Building general design
AIDIMA has its headquarters in the Technology Park oI
Valencia with an area oI approximately 8.000 m.
Currently, AIDIMA needs to create new research
inIrastructures ("R&D Forum on Wood and Wood-
related Products"; or more brieIly 'R&D Forum) in
order to expand its R&D activities and oIIer new
services to companies. In the last Iew years, this Institute
has been working in research projects related to timber
structures and parametric architecture. These projects
have been Iunded by IMPIVA (Valencian Institute oI
Small and Medium-Sized Industry) and co-Iunded by
FEDER Iunds. AIDIMA has decided to build its new
research inIrastructures with the knowledge and
experience acquired in the above mentioned projects Ior
Iree-Iorm structures.
2 DESCRIPTION AND PURPOSE OF
AIDIMA FORUM
The R&D Forum on Wood and Wood-related Products
will be an R&D platIorm Ior the Spanish Iorestry, wood
and Iurniture sector. This will open a new stage to
develop more and better R&D projects in key
technology.
The building, constructed entirely in timber, has the
Iollowing characteristics: its geometry is that oI an
inclined 12mx12mx12m cube. Its structure is made oI a
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World Conference on Timber Engineering
Auckland New Zealand
15 - 19 July 2012
double skin oI timber Irames and a double layer oI inner
and outer glass that covers and protects the wooden
structure and isolates the inside. The building has three
Iloors 3 m high without columns dedicated to wooden
laboratories. The main Iaade, inclined, is south oriented
to allow summer sunlight control (Figure.1).
From outside to inside the skin consists oI the Iollowing
elements: double layer oI laminated glass, the Iirst
triangulation oI timber Irames, stiIIeners, second
triangulation oI timber Irames, and the inner layer oI
laminated glass.
Given the inclination oI the structure it is required that
the building`s timber adopts new structural behaviours.
The processes oI calculation, design and construction
must be deepened Iorcing the development oI new
techniques and possibilities. A new structural type oI
joint has been developed Ior the project. The joints are
based in modern techniques oI screw nailed connections
that are being designed and tested Ior the building. See
Figure 2.
Figure 2: Experimental timber joint
3 DURABILITY
Wood is a natural material and, thereIore, has the risk oI
being attacked and degradated by xylophage agents. It is
more and more present in buildings in the Mediterranean
Regions oI Europe, in both urban and rural areas. It
becomes more and more necessary to monitor its
condition in order to permit the early detection oI its
biodegradation in such a way that costly chemical
treatments can be prevented. From the beginning, the
R&D Forum`s design considers the inclusion oI a
wireless network oI biodegradation sensors Ior the
automatic monitoring oI the state oI wood, Iorming an
integral alarm system Ior degradation activity (especially
against termites) called CADIX. Due to the early decay
detection, the alarm system prevents Iuture costs oI
repairing or replacing damaged wooden elements, as
well as the application oI large amounts oI insecticides.
4 DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH
4.1 STUDIES CARRIED OUT
In this research we study a type oI joint between timber
Irames. The mechanical properties oI the joint under
study are two:
- Strength, as the ability oI the joint Ior carrying
loads in tension, compression or bending, depends on the
strength oI wood, the number and diameter oI the screws
and the geometric conIiguration oI the joint.
- StiIIness, or the degree oI mobility generated
in the transmission oI Iorces between Irames through the
joint. This is an important point because it changes the
distribution and magnitude oI Iorces in each elemental
Irame oI a structure.
And another objective is to know how Iorces are
transIerred between pieces.
4.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE 1OINTS DESIGNED
A complex joint has been studied. Six timber Irames
meet together in a joint. TransIerence Iorces are made
trough screws and plates. A bolt with nut braces the steel
plates to timber elements.
The analysis has studied:
- Joint TYPE 1: One crown oI screws tilted at 60
degree, to study the inIluence oI the diameter oI the
screws. See Figure 3.
- Joint TYPE 2: Two crowns oI screws. Two cases
are evaluated by varying the inclination oI the second
crown (outside) oI screws, and studying the inIluence oI
screw diameter:
A. Joint TYPE 2.1: 1st crown with screws
at 60 degrees and 2nd crown with
screws at 90 degree. See Figure 4.
B. Joint TYPE 2.2:1st crown with screws
at 60 degrees and 2nd crown with
screws at 45 degree. See Figure 5.

Figure 3: Geometry of the Joint Type 1
SESSI ON 11, DESI GN 4
427
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Auckland New Zealand
15 - 19 July 2012

Figure 4: Geometry of the Joint Type 2.1

Figure 5: Geometry of the Joint Type 2.2
5 1OINT NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
5.1 OVERVIEW
The union will match the proposed design, which aims to
minimize the visibility oI the union between the diIIerent
Irames to unite and create a new universal joint. The
proposed design is based on a union with two steel bolts
that compress the wood and are anchored by screws on
both the top and bottom. These screws are inserted into
the wood at various angles. See Figure 6.
The wood used in the proposed Telon structure is GL24h
quality glued laminated timber, with an octagonal
section 200 mm Irame side.
In order to evaluate the best design Ior the junction, three
studies have been perIormed related with the three
diIIerent setting oI screws.
To look Ior the inIluence oI the screw diameter 4 mm , 6
mm, 8 mm and 10 mm diameters have been studied
|1|,|2|.

Figure 6 :Render and model
5.2 METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATION
PROCESS
Solid and three-dimensional Iinite elements Ior the
timber, bolts and steel plates. For the screws a one-
dimensional element Irame. Wood has been considered
as anisotropic with the mechanical properties that
Eurocode 5 give Ior GL24h |4|, and steel is
characterized as S275 |5|.
In order to achieve as realistic results as possible a
nonlinear staged construction analysis has been
perIormed. See Figure 7. That is, the stress state changes
as the pieces oI the joint are put together.
The assembly steps considered in the analysis oI the
joint are:
1.- Set the lower plate.
2.- Set timber Irames.
3.- Upper plate setting.
4.- Bolt and nut insertion.
5.- Tightening oI the bolt with a 20 kN Iorce, then
loading the timber pieces.
6.- Screws
7 - Set oI the loads studied: axial or Ilexion loads.
Cases studied were:
Tensions loads: 10 kN, 20 kN, 40 kN, 60 kN, 80 kN, 100
kN, 120 kN, and 140 kN.
Compression loads: 80 kN, 150 kN, 180 kN.
Flexion loads: 4 kN, 6,5 kN and 8 kN were placed at the
end oI the 1 m length Irame as shear load.
In the next paragraphs and because oI the limited space,
a summary oI the research is presented.

Figure 7: Geometry of the joint steps
5.3 ANALYSIS OF THE 1OINTS STIFFNESS IN
FLEXION
One way to calculate the ratio oI stiIIness is computing
the sag oI a theoretical Iixed beam charged vertically at 1
m oI distance and comparing it with the sag calculated
by the model oI the joint.
Then the theoretical sag is:
Considering theoretical deIormed rigid connection (1):

I E
L F

=
3
3
1

(1)
And iI o
2
is the vertical deIormation obtained in the
model Irom the application oI the load F at a distance L,
then we can deIine the union stiIIness, R, as

1
2

= R (2)
SESSI ON 11, DESI GN 4
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World Conference on Timber Engineering
Auckland New Zealand
15 - 19 July 2012
Bending stiffness ratio of the joint
0,000
0,010
0,020
0,030
0,040
0,050
0,060
0,070
0,080
0,090
0,100
0,110
0,120
0,130
0,140
0,150
2 4 6 8 10 12
Diameter Iag screws [mm]
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s

r
a
t
i
o
Type 1
Type 2.1
Type 2.2

Figure 8: Comparative graph rigidity ratio between
different types of joints
The results can be seen in Figure 8. First oI all we can
see that the stiIIness value is small, maximum oI 15 oI
a completely Iixed union.
AIter, we see that joints type 1 and type 2.1 have a
similar rigidity and type 2.2 a higher one. That is, two
crowns oI screws make sense the Iirst crown is inclined
at 30 and the second at 45.
Also, the joint stiIIness is highly reduced iI the diameter
oI the screw is reduced to 4 mm in all kinds oI joints.
That means 6 mm diameter or more screws have to be
chosen.

Figure 9: Tensions in the horizontal direction [N/mm]
5.4 Analysis of the union against tensile load
We proceed to evaluate the axial load Ior this type oI
union, in this case a tension Iorce oI 120kN acting at the
end oI the element. Figures 9 and 10 show how the
screw crowns take the stresses and carry the Iorces
through the plate. Forces go Irom one part to the other
through screws and plates. In Figure 11 we can see how
screws take the Iorces.

Figure 10: Tensions in the vertical direction [N/mm]

Figure 11: Axial tension force on the screw [Mx=
8.37kN]
5.5 Studio deformation due to axial load
The study was perIormed to measure the axial
deIormation due to a series oI tension loads considering
various screw diameters (4, 6, 8 and 10 mm). See Figure
12 Ior the general model.

Figure 12: Axial tension force on the screws (3D)
Tension - Deformation
0,0000
0,2500
0,5000
0,7500
1,0000
1,2500
1,5000
1,7500
2,0000
2,2500
2,5000
2,7500
3,0000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Tension [kN]
A
x
ia
I d
e
f
o
r
m
a
t
io
n
[
m
m
]
Type 1. Screws 4mm Type 1. Screws 6mm Type 1. Screws 8mm Type 1. Screws 10mm
Type 2.1. Screws 4mm Type 2.1. Screws 6mm Type 2.1. Screws 8mm Type 2.1. Screws 10mm
Type 2.2. Screws 4mm Type 2.2. Screws 6mm Type 2.2. Screws 8mm Type 2.2. Screws 10mm

Figure 13: Diagram of axial strain versus tension
The Iirst conclusion, as can be seen in Iigure 13, is that
type 2, two crowns, have less deIormation and the
minimum is when the second crown is tilted 45.
The second one is that the bigger the screw diameter, the
less the deIormation.
Finally, that below 6 mm diameter screw there is a drop
oI the rigidity because oI the Ilexibility oI lower
diameters. The general behaviour is linear, like the
calculation.
This data must be checked experimentally in the next
steps oI research.
6 ~TELON
'Telon structure is the covering oI Iront between two
buildings oI the headquarters oI the Wood Furniture and
Packaging Technology Institute (AIDIMA). The
proposed structure is a space-like structure, consisting oI
tridimensional Irames and the enclosure with glass. That
will serve as a test Ior the construction oI the R&D
building.
This structure is a 54 m long and 8 m, oI which 30 m.
The extremes are supported on buildings and the central
part is only supported on the ground, see Iigure 14.
The structure consists oI GL24h glued laminated timber
and laminated glass; the structure is made oI wooden
Irames oI octagonal cross section oI side 80 mm and
with 12 mm laminated glass.
The Telon study was perIormed using linear and two-
dimensional Iinite elements; the behaviour oI the Telon
SESSI ON 11, DESI GN 4
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World Conference on Timber Engineering
Auckland New Zealand
15 - 19 July 2012
has been analyzed by entering parameters Ior materials,
loads, combinations and the geometry oI the curtain
structure.
Numerical and experimental studies will allow their
construction. The experience will be used in the design
and construction oI the new AIDIMA`s R&D building.

Figure 14: Telon model
BeIore the real Telon a 1:5 escale model was made. This
is Iormed Ior 80 mm square pieces, see Iigure 15.

Figure 15: Telon prototype of the structure. Scale 1:5
7 CONCLUSIONS
The new joint timber will be used in the construction oI
the Telon structure, and will be a test Ior the construction
oI the Iuture AIDIMA R&D FORUM building.
Joints as described beIore can be used until 120 kN
tension Iorce. The best result is achieved with two screw
crowns, the inner one inclined at an angle oI 60 with the
horizontal, and the outer crown tilted at 45.
Screw diameter inIluences stiIIness oI the union. Screws
less than 6 mm minimum diameter are too much Ilexible
and have not useIul use.
Two crown oI screws has the best stiIIness and strength
behaviour
The 30 or 45 inclined screws present best
perIormance. That means longer length screws inside
timber increases stiIIness and strength
Screws behavior is like a screen wall. They collect
stresses Irom the timber Irames and lead between them
through the external steel plate. That way timber areas
near the Irame ends have stresses considerably reduced.
Screws take Iorces and stresses using its axial and
bending qualitiesThe new joint timber will be used in the
construction oI the Telon structure, and will be a test Ior
the construction oI the Iuture AIDIMA R&D FORUM
building.
8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research has been perIormed in the Iramework oI
the Project "Development oI Mixed Construction
Systems with Glued Laminated Timber and Glass Ior
Light RooI Structures" ("Desarrollo de sistemas
constructivos mixtos de madera laminada encolada y
vidrio para estructuras ligeras de cubierta"), Iunded by
IMPIVA (Valencian Institute oI Small and Medium-
Sized Industry) and co-Iunded by FEDER Iunds Irom the
European Union.
9 REFERENCES
|1| Arguelles-Alvarez, R.; et alii: Estructuras de
Madera. Diseo y calculo. AITIM, Spain R.
Mahnken. A Newton-multigrid algorithm Ior elasto-
plastic/viscoplastic problems. Comp. Mechs.,
15:408-425, 1995.
|2| Angeli A: Cubiertas y estructuras de Madera.
ROTHOBLAAS. April 2009
|3| Eurocode 5: Design oI timber structures. European
Committee Ior Standardization (CEN), 2005.
|4| Eurocode 3: Design oI steel structures. Part 1-5:
Plated structural elements, European Committee
Ior Standardization (CEN), 2006.
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