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Shear wall

Shear wall
Prof Schierle

Narrow walls may overturn

Shear walls
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Resist lateral load in shear Resist load only parallel to wall Wood studs with plywood Metal studs with plywood Reinforced Concrete wall Reinforced CMU wall Un-reinforced brick wall (not allowed in seismic areas) Reinforced 2-wythe brick wall Party walls - double studs for 65 STC (STC = Sound Transmission Coefficient)

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Shear wall vs. lateral resistance

Note: shear walls resist lateral load only parallel to wall

1 2 3 4 Note:

Shear walls resist only lateral load parallel to wall One-way shear walls collapse @ perpendicular load Eccentric shear walls cause torsion Concentric shear walls resist torsion Walls in 4 are offset but provide concentric support
Prof Schierle

Note: eccentric shear walls cause torsion and should be avoided

Concentric & eccentric shear walls

1 2 3 4 5 6 Note:

X-direction concentric, Y-direction eccentric X-direction eccentric, Y-direction eccentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric X-direction concentric, Y-direction concentric 5 is better than 6 to resist torsion
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Shear wall

Plywood Shear Wall


Plywood must be nailed to wood framing to resist lateral shear of wind and seismic forces. 1 2 3 4 A B C D E F Plywood shear wall Plywood shear wall with joint Max. shear wall aspect ratio 1:3.5 (Los Angeles 1:2) Plywood nail spacing Blocking to transfer shear Nail Plywood sheathing Hold-down (essential for short walls) Nail spacing at panel edges (max. 5) Nail spacing at other studs (max. 12)

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

Four Town Homes, Beverly Hills

Four two-story units over concrete garage 12 concrete slab on columns at 30x30 provides 3-hour fire separation between garage and residential units above Concrete slab designed for of 300 psf allows wood framing anywhere regardless of column locations Double stud party walls for 65 STC sound rating (STC = Sound Transmission Coefficient = sound rating)

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

Shear wall

Rear

Front

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Black bars imply revisions

Critical code issues Check BEFORE design Occupancy Type of Construction Means of Egress Fire Resistance Area Limitations Height Limitations

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

Limitations of: Height H Floor Area A

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

Parking 30 parking module 15 wall module 17 wall module if required by local ordinance 12 two-way structural slab designed for 300 psf allows wood walls at any location 12 slab also provides 3 hour fire rating required by code Concrete slab requires drop panels or beams to resist shear stress 12 column for one-story parking and up to 3-story wood framing

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

Terrace Housing Hermosa Beach

The project size required separation by 2-hr fire walls to comply with area limits
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Shear wall

Terrace Homes Hermosa Beach


Design concept: to minimized grading and retaining walls: adapt building to site instead of adapting site to building A 14 x 22 ft module allows shear walls aligned vertically Each two-story unit has two terraces for outdoor living Terraces provide open space that allowed 33 units at a lot zoned for only 25 units by conventional planning Raised rear provides energy-saving cross ventilation

Shear wall

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Shear wall

Raised rear provides Community space cross ventilation


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Terracing provides Residential scale Height limit 3-story from grade Length shear walls Width shear walls

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Slanted party walls screen ocean clare Sun shades, planters, and party walls provide privacy

Terrace Housing Taipei, China


Architect: G G Schierle Engineer: China Sincere

200 housing units Combined shear wall & concrete frame: Shear walls provide stiffness Concrete frames provide ductility for seismic safety

Shear wall

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Shear wall

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Shear wall

Reinforced brick masonry

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CMU walls (Concrete Masonry Units)

Reinforced concrete wall

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Reinforced CMU wall

Masonry shear reinforcing


1 2 Wall reinforcing for seismic areas Max. bar spacing for required cross-section areas (0.1% of wall cross-section area)

A Vertical bars (max. 4 ft or 6 x wall thickness B Horizontal bars (max. 4 ft in seismic areas) C Bars around wall openings, extending min. 24 or 40 bar diameters beyond opening D Horizontal bars @ wall base and top E Bars at structural floors and roof F Spacing of bar sizes # 3 to # 7 G Wall thickness Rebar Bar # #3 #4 #5 #6 #7
Shear wall Prof Schierle

diameter (in) 3/8 4/8 5/8 6/8 7/8

Cross-section (in2) 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60


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Horizontal Diaphragms transfer lateral load to shear walls and other elements two ways 1 Flexible diaphragm (wood) transfers in proportion to tributary area. Wall reactions are: R = w (tributary area supported by wall) w = uniform load 2 Rigid diaphragm (concrete & steel) transfers in proportion to wall stiffness. Reactions for walls of equal material: R1 = WL13 / L3 (L3 = L13+L23+L33) R2 = WL23 / L3 R3 = WL33 / L3 where L = Lengths of walls W = Total load supported by all walls
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Flexible diaphragm / plywood walls


Assume: DL= 24 psf, Seismic factor CS = 0.15 Flexible floor and roof diaphragms transfer loads proportional to the tributary area supported by walls. This may be computed as follows: Unit shear = shear per level / floor area per level Shear per wall = unit shear x tributary area supported by wall Shear per foot = shear per wall / wall length Dead load DL per level: W = 24 psf x 68 x 150/ 1000 DL at 3 Levels: 3 x 235 k Base shear V= CS W = 0.15 x705 Vertical force distribution Fx= V wx hx / (wi hi) hx = wx hx/ (wi hi) V = Fx Level wx Level 2: 235 k x 27 = 6345 k 0.50 x 106 = 53 k Level 1: 235 k x 18 = 4230 k 0.33 x 106 = 35 k Level 0: 235 k x 9 = 2115 k 0.17 x 106 = 18 k wihI = 12690 k Area per level A= 68 x 150 Shear per square foot per level v0 = V0/A = 106 k x 1000 / 10200 v1 = V1/A = 88 k x 1000 / 10200 v2 = V2/A = 53 k x 1000 / 10200
Shear wall Prof Schierle

W = 235 k W = 705 k V = 106 k

0.50 = 6345 / 12690 0.33 = 4230 / 12690 0.17 = 2115 / 12690 Vx = Fx V2 = 53 k V1 = 88 k V0 = 106 k V = 106 k A = 10,200 ft2 v0 = 10.4 psf v1 = 8.6 psf v2 = 5.2 psf
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+ 53 + 88

Wall design (Use Structural I plywood)


v0 = 10.4 psf v1 = 8.6 psf v2 = 5.2 psf

Wall C = 10.4 psf (34) 15/30= 177 plf use 5/16, 6d @ 6 = 200 plf Wall D = 10.4 psf (34) 30/30= 354 plf use 3/8, 8d @ 4 = 360 plf Level 1 (v1 = 8.6 psf) Wall A = 8.6 psf (15) 30/12= 323 plf Wall B = 8.6 psf (19) 30/24= 204 plf Wall C = 8.6 psf (34) 15/30= 146 plf Wall D = 8.6 psf (34) 30/30= 292 plf Level 2 (v2 = 5.2 psf) Wall A = 5.2 psf (15) 30/12 =195 plf Wall B = 5.2 psf (19) 30/24 =124 plf Wall C = 5.2 psf (34) 15/30 = 89 plf Wall D = 5.2 psf (34) 30/30 =177 plf
Shear wall Prof Schierle

use 15/32, 10d@6= 340 plf use 3/8, 8d @ 6 = 230 plf use 5/16, 6d @ 6 = 200 plf use 5/16, 6d @ 4 = 300 plf use 5/16, 6d @ 6 = 200 plf use 5/16, 6d @ 6 = 200 plf use 5/16, 6d @ 6 = 200 plf use 5/16, 6d @ 6 = 200 plf

Note: to simplify, select only two wall types


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Level 0 (v0 = 10.4 psf) Wall A = 10.4 psf (15) 30/12= 390 plf use 5/16, 6d @ 3 = 390 plf Wall B = 10.4 psf (19) 30/24= 247 plf use 7/16, 8d @ 6 = 255 plf

Assume: Seismic factor CS =0.17 Allowable masonry shear stress Structural walls DL Length of walls 12 (30)+14 (12)+8 (24) DL = (720) 8(7.625/12) 120 pcf/[(68) 150] Floor/roof (12 slab) Miscellaneous DL Dead load DL / level: W = 200 psf x 68 x 150/ 1000 DL at 3 Levels: W = 3 x 2040 k

Rigid diaphragm / masonry shear walls


Fv = 85 psi L = 720 DL = 43 psf 150 psf 7 psf DL = 200 psf W = 2040 k W = 6120 k

Base shear (CS times 1.5 for ASD masonry shear per IBC 2106.5.1) V=1.5 CS W V = 1.5 x 0.17 W = 0.26 x 6120 0.50 = 55080 / 110160 0.33 = 36720 / 110160 0.17 = 18360 / 110160

V = 1591 k

Vertical force distribution Fx= (V - Ft ) wx hx / (wi hi) = Fx Vx = Fx hx = wx hx / (wi hi) V Level wx 796 k Level 2: 2040 k x 27 = 55080 k 0.50 x 1591 = 796 k Level 1: 2040 k x 18 = 36720 k 0.33 x 1591 = 525 k + 796 = 1321 k Level 0: 2040 k x 9 = 18360 k 0.17 x 1591 = 270 k + 1321 = 1591 k V = 1591 k wihI = 110160 k
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Rigid diaphragm / masonry shear walls


Assume allowable masonry shear stress
Rigid diaphragms resist lateral load in proportion to wall stiffness. For walls of constant height and material, relative stiffness is constant. In width direction all walls are equal and, thus, have constant stiffness. In length direction relative wall stiffness is:

Fv = 85 psi

R = L x3 / L i3
B walls R = (12)3 / [(12)3 +(24)3] C walls R = (24)3 / [(12)3 +(24)3] Wall cross section areas: A walls = 12(30)12(7.625) B walls = 14(12)12(7.625) C walls = 8(24)12(7.625) Level 0 (V0 = 1591 k) Wall A = (1591) 1000 / 32940 Wall B = (1591) 1000 (0.11) / 15372 Wall C = (1591) 1000 (0.89) / 17568 Level 1 (V1 = 1321 k) Wall A = (1321) 1000 / 32940 Wall B = (1321) 1000 (0.11) / 15372 Wall C = (1321) 1000 (0.89) / 17568 Level 2 (V2 = 796 k) Wall A = (796) 1000 / 32940 Wall B = (796) 1000 (0.11) / 15372 Wall C = (796) 1000 (0.89) / 17568
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R= 0.11 R= 0.89 A = 32940 in2 B = 15372 in2 C = 17568 in2 48 psi < 85 19 psi < 85 81 psi < 85 40 psi < 85 10 psi < 85 67 psi < 85 24 psi < 85 6 psi < 85 40 psi < 85
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From last slide: Level 2 V2 = 796 k Level 1 V1 = 1321 k Level 0 V0 = 1591 k Base shear V = 1591 k

Shear wall

My projects at Google earth

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

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Senior Housing, San Francisco - concrete shear walls

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

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Roxbury Condos, Beverley Hills

wood shear walls

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

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Terrace Homes Hermosa Beach - wood shear walls

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

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Terrace Homes Hermosa Beach - wood shear walls

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

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Park City Village 1981 (Olympic Village 2002) wood shear walls

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

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Park City Village 1981 (Olympic Village 2002) wood shear walls

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

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Park City Village aka Olympic Village 2002

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Level ski access

Shear wall

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Shear wall

Prof Schierle

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Park City Village

Shear wall

Prof Schierle

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Shear wall

Shear wall
Prof Schierle

Stabilize Narrow walls

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