SYNTHESIS PAPER

Chicory in Coffee Honey-Bee in Coffee Plantation

Production and Operations Management-I (POM-I): The Field Operations

Submitted to Dr. V.G.DHANAKUMAR Director and Professor, IIPM Submitted by
Prit Ranjan Jha I.D. - C07DPM029
PGD-ABPM 2007-2008

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANTATION MANAGEMENT BANGLORE-560056
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am very grateful to my course faculties, Dr. V. G. Dhanakumar and Mr. Narendran who continuously endeavored to enhance our learning. They continuously gave valuable guidance and support for completion of this synthesis paper. By giving this opportunity of INDIVIDUAL WORK for the Course Requirements, they have motivated us to learn beyond the classroom sessions and develop our individual analytical and understanding power. The assignment has also enhanced our Presentation Skill. I am also thankful to staffs of computer section and library. Finally I thank my class mates who cooperated to make every student an important active member of our one ‘Quality Circle’.

Prit Ranjan Jha C07DPM029 PGD-ABPM

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CONTENTS
Ch. No. 1 Introduction: Title Page No. 1

2

Chicory in our coffee What is chicory? Bitter tonic Plant Distribution& Ecology Cultivation Biotic Factors Harvesting Yields and Economics Food Uses Extract from the 72nd report… Rajya Sabha….

1 1 4 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 10 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 16

3

Honey Bee in Coffee Plantation Pollination and Fertilization Assets created by apiculture

4 5 6

Conclusion References Appendices
An Indian Enterprise in Chicory Pictures

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Introduction:
If we look at the content on the sachet or packs of commonly available Coffee-brands in India, we will find that there is a mixture of Coffee and Chicory. I too at first discovery of this fact was surprised to not find the pure coffee, and developed curiosity about Chicory. In fact many of us are not aware about the chicory, which has become an important component of Coffee beverage. So in the present assignment I tried to discover different facts about Chicory. We all will appreciate the role played by Honey Bees in pollination of different crops. So, here I liked to present the facts about the beneficial role of honey bees in Coffee plantation. Chicory in our coffee It's more than just a blend for coffee. It's also healthy In India, most people associate chicory with coffee and the fact that it is used in a coffee blend. 90% of coffee consumed in India as beverage contains chicory. Pure coffee habit is almost dead except for small pockets. What is chicory? The plant belongs to the family Compositae asteraceae. Chicory is referred to as ‘Kasni’ in Sanskrit and Hindi. The Cichorium intybus genus gives us salad plants such as wild chicory, radicchio, red leaf chicory and endives. But more than anything, it gives us chicory. Cichorium intybus (chicory) is a blue-flowered herb with a long white root. Chicory is a perennial herb with a long tap root. Chicory is a native to the Mediterranean region or possibly eastern India. The perennial grows to five feet and has a hairy stem with
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oblong leaves. This tuber looks much like a carrot. Each part of the plant has its uses — extracts from the seeds and flowers are used in traditional medicine and modern drug formulation. The leaves are used as a salad vegetable and the root, when processed, roasted and ground, is extensively used for blending in coffee. It is brewed in the same manner as coffee. Interestingly, the coffee - chicory mixture (usually 60:40) is more prevalent in South India, where it is almost a ritual to go to the coffee seed shop, have fresh coffee seeds roasted and ground in your presence, the requisite amount of chicory powder added, the mixture brought home and filtered using boiling water, and drank with freshly boiled milk. Some instant coffee manufacturers add chicory in their product so as to cater to the taste of the fast-life, no-time South Indian. Food historians of India would surely know when coffee came to India, and how chicory got added to it. The fact it is more popular in the South and not in North India may perhaps be explained as due to the French influence in Pondicherry, and Peninsular India. Among the Europeans it is the French who use chicory in their coffee. (Professor H. Y. Mohan Ram, the distinguished botanist and scholar from Delhi, tells that while chicory is a Mediterranean herb, it occurs on the wild in Kashmir; he has found it growing lush on the roadside, on the way from the airport to the city of Srinagar). It can be cultivated through out India. There are two cultivated species, and four to six wild species. Common chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a bushy perennial herb with blue or lavender flowers. Originating from Europe, it was naturalized in North America, where it has become a roadside weed. The roots are baked, ground, and used as a coffee substitute and additive in the plant's Mediterranean region of origin, although its use as a coffee additive is still very popular in
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the American South, particularly in New Orleans. It is a staple in Cajun-style red-eye gravy. Common chicory is also known as blue sailors, succory, and coffeeweed. The plant is cultivated and used as endive under the common names radicchio, Belgian endive, French endive, or witloof. It is grown in complete darkness to keep new leaves tender and pale. True endive (Cichorium endivia) is a species of chicory which is specially grown and used as a salad green. It has a slightly bitter taste and has been attributed with herbal properties. Curly endive and the broad-leafed escarole are true endives. Cichorium is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Setaceous Hebrew Character and Turnip Moth. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) has been in cultivation in Europe as a coffee substitute for a long time. Root-chicory, established in Europe during, the Napoleanic blockade, is cultivated for roots used as a coffee substitute. When blended with ground coffee, they enhance the flavor and aroma of the brew. Around 1970 it was found that the root contains up to 20% inulin. Since then, new strains have been created, giving root chicory an inulin content comparable to that of sugar beet (around 600 dt/ha). Inulin is mainly present in the plant family Asteraceae as a storage carbohydrate (for example Jerusalem artichoke, dahlia, etc.). It is used as a sweetener in the food industry (with a sweetening power 30% higher than that of sucrose). Inulin can be converted to fructose and glucose through hydrolysis. Chicory, with sugar beet and rye was used as an ingredient of the East German Mischkaffee (mixed coffee), introduced during the 'coffee crisis' of 1976-9.

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Chicory’s first known reference was found in an Egyptian papyrus dating back to 400 BC, making it one of the oldest plants known to man. From Egypt chicory spread to Asia, Africa and the European continent. Chicory was cultivated as early as 5000 years ago by Egyptians as a medicinal plant. Ancient Greeks and Romans used chicory as a vegetable and in salads. Early 19th century French chefs and writers believed chicory to be a ‘contra —stimulate’, that is, the sedative effects were a perfect complement to the stimulating effects of the caffeine in coffee. Chicory's leaves are still used today in typical Roman recipes: it's common in Roman restaurants to eat dishes with boiled chicory leaves, olive oil and lemon juice (fried with garlic and red pepper). The plant is very common in the Roman countryside and is often picked up by farmers; recently greengrocers introduced a cultivated variety of the plant, which is bigger and has longer leaves. Today, the main growing countries are Belgium, France, Holland, and Germany and also in southern regions of the US. Bitter tonic The key components of chicory are hydrooxycoumarins, flavonoids, inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, vitamins and minerals. It also contains four to six per cent protein and a small quantity of fibre. Chicory leaves are good sources of vitamins A and C, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus. It contains no caffeine. Chicory has many health benefits. Studies have shown that it encourages the growth of beneficial bifido bacteria and lacto bacilli in the gut which promotes nutrient absorption, supports immune function and optimises digestion. It helps reduce kidney inflammation and increases urine output.

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In traditional medicine, the plant is used as a bitter tonic to stimulate the liver and digestive tract and cleanse the urinary tract. In Ayurveda, it is said to pacify kapha and pitha, and it is used to treat disorders of the gastrointestinal system such as vomiting, diarrhoea, liver and spleen enlargement, dysmenorhoea and amenorrhoea. Chicory comprises mainly of compound sugars, which during the roasting process, is converted into d-fructose (fruit sugar) and caramalised. It also contains between four to six percent protein and a small quantity of fibre. Chicory-root is essentially a concentrated combination of three sugars (pentose, levulose and dextrose) and taraxarcine (the bitter principle of dandelion). It is especially important as source of levulose. Roots are used in seasoning soups, sauces and gravies, and to impart a rich deep color. Dried chicory roots, as crumbs, are used as horse feed, being a good oat substitute (4.85% protein, 0.85% fat, 4.35% sugar). A powder of chicory root in milk helps counter general debility and infusion of seeds is used to treat insomnia or anxiety. A strong tea of the boiled roots, flowers and leaves is supposed to make a good wash for skin irritations, including athlete's foot. A paste of the leaves can be used as an external application in inflammation, headache, urticaria, gout and burning sensation. Chicory infusion exhibits laxative properties and is harmless. The consumption of chicory in addition to a healthy diet and regular exercise is said to be effective in checking cholesterol. Chicory has been mentioned as a special skin nourisher by ancient herbalists. A tea made from the pale blue flowers of this plant was said to give glowing skin. It is one of the richest source of Vitamin A which is very useful for the eyes. This herb is

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also used for the treatment of Anemia, Liver complaints, respiratory disorders and Obstructed Menstruation. Inulin or chicory saccharide is a good example of a functional food or nutraceutical. Chicory with all its health benefits is available to consumers in the form of coffee blends. Plant: Chicory is a stout, deep-rooted perennial, 3 to 6 feet tall. It is a practically leafless herb, branching and diffuse when in bloom. The seeds are planted in the spring, and the roots are dug in the fall, stored, and replanted toward spring for foliage harvest. The plant is most noticeable in the mornings when its azure-blue flowers are open. Chicory is self-incompatible, fertilization occurs both within and between heads as a result of insect activity like honey bees. Chicory is a good source of pollen and nectar for honey bees and that the bees produce from chicory a yellowish-green honey. Distribution& Ecology: Native to Europe, central Russia and western Asia, and cultivated widely through Europe in early times. Presently cultivated in most temperate regions, where it has escaped and become naturalized as a serious weed in many areas. Chicory grows on any type of soil, but, when cultivated grows best on mellow, deeply tilled, fertile soil or sandy loam. A cool weather crop, it tolerates only moderate summer temperatures, and requires well-distributed rainfall, with good drainage, or some irrigation in drier areas. Chicory roots grow deeply in relatively short time; soil too wet for beans and small grains is not suitable. To insure proper root-growth, lime or marl should be applied to acid soil to neutralize acidity. Chicory is reported to tolerate pH of 4.5 to
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8.3, an annual rainfall of 30 to 400 cm, and annual mean biotemperature of 6° to 27°C. Cultivation: Cultural practices for this root crop are the same as those for sugar beet. Soil should be plowed to a depth of 17 to 25 cm to permit root development. Seed should be planted, or drilled, in a firm, fine-textured seed bed, at a depth of not more than 0.6 cm in rows spaced 45-60 cm apart, at a rate of 2.25 kg/ha. Germination is slow. Since development is slow, excessive hand labor to control weeds may be avoided by planting chicory following another crop such as beans or corn. Cultivation should begin as soon as possible. When plants reach the 4-leaf stage they are thinned to stand 20-25 cm apart in the row. First cultivation may be fairly deep, but subsequent cultivation should be shallow and not close to the plants, to avoid damaging the taproot. Likewise, thinning should not be too late, as thinning may disturb roots of remaining plants. Chicory is a heavy feeder. Manure should be applied above the bed instead of beneath the roots, as bottom heat forces too rapid growth of the shoots. In some areas seeds are broadcast over the seed bed, and seedlings thinned to stand about 25 cm apart each way Biotic Factors Serious market diseases of chicory are bacterial soft rot and watery soft rot, caused by Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas cichorii. Brown heat cancer is caused by boron deficiency. Fuligo septica causes a slime mold. Fungi known to attack chicory are: Alternaria cichorii, A. tenuis, Ascochyta cichorii, Aspergillus ostianus, Botrytis cinerea, Bremia lactucae (Downy
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mildew), Centrospora acerina, Cercospora cichorii, Didymosphaeria exigua, Erysiphe cichoracearum, Fuligo septica M. (slime tassiana, mold), Phoma Leptosphaeria panattoniana, cichoracearum, ogilviensis, Mycosphaerella Macrosporium compositarum, omnivorum, commune, Pleospora Marssonian herbarum,

Phymatotrichum

Puccinis cichorii, P. hieracii, P. junci, P. littoralis, Ramularia cichorii, R. lampsanae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Septoria endiviae, S. intybi, Sphaerotheca basicola, fuligines, S. humuli, dahliae, Stagonospora Pythium vexata, Thielaviopsis Verticillium debaryanum,

Corticium vagum. Viruses which are known to attack chicory are: Argentine subflower, Cucumber mosaic, Spotted wilt, and Yellows virus. The parasitic plants, Cuscuta epithymum and C. pentagona, also attack chicory. The following nematodes have been isolated from chicory plants: Ditylenchus dipsaci, H. scliachtii, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. javanica, M. sp., Pratylenchus penetrans, P. pratensis, Paratylenchus macrodorus, and Tylenchus sp. Harvesting Harvesting should take place as late in the season as possible as there is usually a marked increase in size and weight of roots during cool weather. Care should be taken to remove all remaining pieces of roots as they become established as weeds. Tops are cut off with a heavy knife, and left on the ground to decay as green manure, or fed to livestock. The roots may be piled in the field for a while, or taken directly to a factory to be processed for rootchicory. At the factory, roots are washed, sliced into cubes about 2.5 cm square, and dried over fire. Dried chicory may be stored indefinitely. Final process consists of roasting the dried chicory, grinding it to a fineness
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suitable for blending with ground coffee. Ground chicory is usually packed in bulk in waterproof barrels or sacks, or in smaller packages for household use. For greens, chicory is harvested when the root is small and early young leaves are tender. For forced chicory, the roots are loosened with a beet lifter and pulled by hand about the end of October. For immediate use they are stored in pits and covered with leaves. Others are trimmed to a length of 2022 cm and placed upright in prepared trenches, hot beds or similar area, where a constant temperature of 15-21°C may be maintained. Plants are arranged so crowns are about the same height, and then covered with 17-20 cm of dry loose soil. In 12 to 20 days marketable heads or chicons are produced, the most desirable heads being 10-15 cm in diameter, weighing, 0.06-0.09 kg (Reed, 1976). Yields and Economics: An average yield of chicory-root is about 11.25 MT/ha, although yields up to 27 MT/ha have been recorded. In 1943 United States production of chicory roots was 200,000 tons, at a price of about $16/T: price for the local crops was $.12/kg. Net returns are comparable/hg to sugar beets. In 1963 chicory prices varied for a 1-1/9 bu. crate from $1.20 to $3.34, wholesale. Food Uses: Very young chicory leaves are added raw to salads, or included in cooked recipes. They cook in 10-15 minutes. Wild chicory leaves taste like commercial chicory, but they can become bitter soon after emerging. The older leaves should be boiled in one or more changes of water, to reduce the bitterness. We can make a caffeine-free coffee-like beverage from chicory roots, by first scrubbing the roots, then roasting it in a 300 degree F oven
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until dark brown, brittle, and fragrant. Then it is grinded, and used like a regular coffee, 1-1/2 tsp. per cup of water. Chicory has many uses in cooking—especially in deepening the flavour of dishes like stews, sauces, breads and desserts. Chicory is a natural flavour enhancer and its slight sweetness and caramel— like undertone makes it the perfect companion to coffee, producing a brew of deeper colour, extra smoothness and added body. Its natural sweetness counteracts the bitterness of coffee, making it much smoother. Extract from the seventy-second report on problems of coffee growers, presented to the Rajya Sabha on the 3 rd August, 2005 by department related Parliamentary Standing committee on Commerce. :

“67.

Regarding mixing of chicory with Coffee, during 1980s, it was

estimated that chicory powder consumption was between 20,000-25,000 tonnes and at present, it is approximately 35,000-40,000 tonnes. The major chicory consuming States were Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, and Kerala, which are also the major Coffee consuming States. 68. Chicory is a tuber crop grown mostly in the western parts of India. It is permitted to be mixed as an additive to the Coffee powder as per the PFA Act, 1954, with maximum limit prescribed as 49%. Apart from the use as Coffee-Chicory powder mixture, chicory is also permitted to be added in the soluble Coffee-Chicory powder, under the PFA Act. The addition of Chicory increases the thickness and the mouth feel of Coffee, because it is having higher amounts of soluble solids. It is also having lots of acidic compounds responsible for sourish taste in the Coffee blend and adds strength and acidic property to the final product. The traders use chicory in their blends mainly because it is cheaper than Coffee and by blending it with
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Coffee, the product becomes cost effective. Also, some segments of consumers, because of their long association with consumption of Chicory blended coffees, have developed a distinct taste preference for such product. 69. As on date, there is no direct method of estimating the percentage of in the Coffee-Chicory mixture. However, in order to

chicory

regulate/monitor the Chicory content in the Coffee-Chicory mixture, the PFA standards have prescribed certain indirect parameters like the minimum caffeine content (not less than 0.6%) and maximum water soluble extract (not exceeding 50%). The Committee recommend that whenever chicory is mixed in the coffee powder, the product should be labeled, clearly indicating the percentage of Coffee and chicory in the mixture. ”

Honey Bee in Coffee Plantation:
In India, area under coffee is 2,43,117 hectares of which Arabica (Coffea arabica) accounts for 49.41 percent and Robusta (Coffea canephora) 50.59 percent. Arabica is self pollinated and self–fertile, whereas Robusta is Cross pollinated and Self-sterile. Coffee is short day plant and in South India, flower initiation takes place between September to March. Shade grown Indian Plantations have a 50: 50 balance of Arabica and Robusta.

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Pollination and Fertilization Honey bees and butterflies are the primary pollinators. Wind and moisture also helps to a certain extent. Pollination takes place within five to seven hours after flower opening. Fertilization is completed within 48 hours after pollination. C. arabica is self-fertile, yet at times some insect pollination occurs but it is not necessary. Pollen tubes from foreign pollen grow faster than self pollen, thus insuring crossing. It is recommended that honey bee colonies be placed every 100 m in the coffee grove just before flowering starts. The coffee specialist might be agreeably surprised to discover the increase derived from a large-scale community-type honey bee pollination program. The other two important species, C. canephora and C. Iiberica, are selfsterile, and they would appear to be greatly benefited by bee pollination. Considering the recent increased importance of the self-sterile African C. canephora in the production of instant coffee, the use of bees in its pollination would appear to be highly profitable. Many planters accepted that pollination of coffee by bees raised their coffee yields by 25-30% and they can sell honey. “Coffee honey”, which the bees make from pollen from coffee flowers, is perceived to be very sweet. Assets created by apiculture While products from bees such as honey and beeswax are well known, the main service provided by bees, pollination, remains poorly appreciated and underestimated in most countries. In the United States, scientists have attempted to measure the value of the increased yield and quality of crops
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achieved by honey bee pollination: during 2000, in the United States, this was estimated at US$14.6 billion. In June 2002, data were published about the beneficial effect of honey bees for coffee pollination: in Panama, coffee bean production increased by 50 percent. Other assets created by apiculture such as honey and beeswax are far more tangible, but their value must be far less than the wealth created by the optimal pollination of plants. But today with chemical inputs, the honey bee population has drastically come down and has affected the pollination prospects of not only coffee but of various flowering species.

Conclusion
About, ‘Chicory in coffee’ we can conclude that the Indian palate is for a chicory mixture. They like its strong body. In the earlier years use of chicory in judicious quantities helped increase overall coffee consumption as it enlarged the consumption base. It is not merely price reducers. However use of chicory in coffee has become indiscriminate. The only silver lining on the horizon is the emergence of the coffee parlours - Coffee day, Barista etc. who are reintroducing pure coffee to the Indian consumer. Having Apiary in coffee plantation will increase the yield of coffee and will also provide Honey to the Planter. Natural or wild honey colony should also be preserved. This will maintain ecological balance, both in the plantation and the adjoining forest ecology.

References:
o http://rajyasabha.nic.in/book2/reports/commerce/72ndreport.htm
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o http://www.hinduonnet.com/ o http://en.wikipedia.org/ o http://www.motherherbs.com o http://indiacoffee.org/ o http://www.tatatea.com/tata_coffee.htm o http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ o http://www.wildmanstevebrill.com/Plants.Folder/ o http://www.missouriplants.com/Bluealt/Blue_flowers_alternate_page1

.html
o http://www.newfarm.org/international/guatemala o http://www.ineedcoffee.com/04/flowering o http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4640e/y4640e00.HTM

o http://www.sweetmarias.com o Spices, Plantation crops, Medicinal and aromatic Plants- Drs. N.Kumar, JBM.Md.Abdul Khader, P.Rangaswami and I Irulappan.

Appendices:
An Indian Enterprise in Chicory:
PIONEER CHICORY (INDIA) PRIVATE LIMITED ROASTED CHICORY PRODUCTS/ GRANULES

Business Type : Manufacturer Year Established : 1998 Products Manufacturing : ROASTED CHICORY PRODUCTS/GRANULES CONTACT DETAILS:
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ANAND-LAMBHVEL MAIN ROAD, LAMBHVEL, ANAND - 387310, GUJARAT, INDIA Phone:91-2692-258138 Fax:91-2692-258897

Key Personnel
MR. PNR PAGLAKUMAR (DIRECTOR) Mobile:+919824001104

Pictures

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1. Map of Lettuce and chicory production.2. Chicory.3.Chicory root.4. Roasted chicory root.5. Honey bee pollinating coffee flower.

Looking at the Contents of the sachet /Pack of common Indian Coffee Brands:

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