INTRODUCTION-SOLAR TRACKER

Our project deals with a photo sensor circuit, which is used, in conjunction with stepper motor to control the movement of a solar panel. For this purpose a Phototransistor is mounted on the solar panel. The stepper motor has been programmed using an AT89C51 Microcontroller. Due to the rotation of the stepper motor, the solar panel mounted on it moves in a direction so as to search the maximum light intensity. When the LDR receives maximum light, the stepper motor circuit is switched off. Hence, with varying light intensity, the position of the solar panel also changes.

A Solar Tracker is a device onto which solar panels are fitted which tracks the motion of the sun across the sky ensuring that the maximum amount of sunlight strikes the panels throughout the day.

In terms of Cost per Watt of the completed solar system, it is usually cheaper (for all but the smallest solar installations) to use a Solar Tracker and less solar panels where space and planning laws permit.

A good Solar Tracker can typically lead to an increase in electricity generation capacity of 3050%.

FIG. 1.1 : SOLAR TRACKER

especially in solar cell applications. Compared to photovoltaics. trackers can be relatively inexpensive. A fixed system oriented to optimize this limited time performance will have a relatively low annual production. This makes them especially effective for photovoltaic systems using high-efficiency panels. as production at this time will match the peak demand time for summer season air-conditioning. Concentrators. Some solar trackers may operate most effectively with seasonal position adjustment and most will need inspection and lubrication on an annual basis. Strong afternoon performance is particularly desirable for grid-tied photovoltaic systems.A Solar Tracker is a device for orienting a solar photovoltaic panel or concentrating solar reflector or lens toward the sun. which is at (or near) the focal point of the reflector or lens. . require a high degree of accuracy to ensure that the concentrated sunlight is directed precisely to the powered device.

2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FIGURE 1.3 : SOLAR TRACKER .1.

4 1.4 : BLOCK DIAGRAM 5 1 .3 BLOCK DIAGRAM P O W E R 7 4 L S U P P L Y S 0 A T 8 9 C µC U L N 2 8 0 3 STEPPER MOTOR FIG.1.

many solar cells spread over a large area can provide enough power to be useful.2 EVOLUTION OF SOLAR TRACKER .TECHNOLOGY OF SOLAR TRACKERS Technology of Solar Panel Solar panels are devices that convert light into electricity. Solar cells or PV cells rely on the photovoltaic effect to absorb the energy of the sun and cause current to flow between two oppositely charge layers. After that he saw a voltage developed when light fell upon the electrode. (1) A solar panel is a collection of solar cells. They are called solar after the sun or "Sol" because the sun is the most powerful source of the light available for use. Although each solar cell provides a relatively small amount of power. He used junctions formed by coating selenium (a semiconductor) with an extremely thin layer of gold. The development of solar cell technology begins with 1839 research of French physicist Antoine-Cesar Becquerel. Gallium arsenide crystals are grown especially for photovoltaic use. They are sometimes called photovoltaic which means "light-electricity". To get the most power. which are produced mainly for consumption in the microelectronics industry. the world as a whole produced products that could generate just 2 GW in total. solar panels have to be pointed directly at the Sun.5 gigawatts (GW) of energy every year. This plant will be able to produce products that can generate up to 1.the largest in the world. That is enough to power several million households at any one time. Norway’s Renewable Energy Corporation (REC) has confirmed that it will build a solar manufacturing plant in Singapore by 2010 . but silicon crystals are available in less-expensive standard ingots. Crystalline silicon and gallium arsenide are typical choices of materials for solar panels. Last year. He observed the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with a solid electrode in an electrolyte solution. 2. According to Encyclopedia Britannica the first genuine for solar panel was built around 1883 by Charles Fritts.

in order to receive the best angle of exposure to sunlight for collection energy. Most photovoltaic (PV) solar panels are fitted in a fixed location. the cost of a solar tracker is relatively low. Since the sun moves across the sky though the day. A solar tracker is a device onto which solar panels are fitted which tracks the motion of the sun across the sky ensuring that the maximum amount of sunlight strikes the panels throughout the day. . this is far from an ideal solution. Figure shows the schematic above of the Sun's apparent motion as seen from the Northern Hemisphere.Since the sun moves across the sky throughout the day. Therefore morning and evening sunlight hits the panels at an acute angle reducing the total amount of electricity which can be generated each day.: 2. Solar panels are usually set up to be in full direct sunshine at the middle of the day facing South in the Northern Hemisphere. When compare to the price of the PV solar panels.1 : SUN APPARENT MOTION During the day the sun appears to move across the sky from left to right and up and down above the horizon from sunrise to noon to sunset. A tracking mechanism is often incorporated into the solar arrays to keep the array pointed towards the sun.for example on the sloping roof of a house. FIG. or on framework fixed to the ground. or North in the Southern Hemisphere.

There are two main ways to make the solar cells more efficient.2. and they keep the same output The return of the investment timeline is reduced The tracking system amortizes itself within 4 years (on average) In terms of cost per Watt of the completed solar system.2 : 2KW SOLAR SYSTEM 2. one is to develop the solar cell material and make the panels even more efficient and another way is to optimize the output by installing the solar panels on a tracking base that follows the sun.3 SOLAR TRACKER . FIG. it is usually cheaper (for all but the smallest solar installations) to use a solar tracker and less solar panels where space and planning permit. The end-user will prefer the tracking solution rather than a fixed ground system to increase their earnings because:     The efficiency increases by 30-40% The space requirement for a solar park is reduced.To keep up with other green energies. the solar cell market has to be as efficient as possible in order not to lose market shares on the global energy marketplace. Figure shows 2kw Solar Trackers System. A good solar tracker can typically lead to an increase in electricity generation capacity of 30-50%.

The design and construction of it could be divided into six main parts. Data Acquisition/Interface Card The six main parts would need to work together harmoniously to achieve a smooth run for the Solar Tracker. Motor and Motor Controller 5. After finding the sunlight. I shall explore their functions individually in the next section. They are: 1. Sensor and Sensor Controller 4. Methods of Drives 3. . The design of the Solar Tracker requires many components.A Solar Tracker is basically a device onto which solar panels are fitted which tracks the motion of the sun across the sky ensuring that the maximum amount of sunlight strikes the panels throughout the day. Tracker Solving Algorithm 6. each with their main function. Methods of Tracker Mount 2. the tracker will try to navigate through the path ensuring the best sunlight is detected.

The project is a compact. The microcontroller based solar tracking system has various advantages compared to photovoltaic. user friendly. So we have searched for a project that is industry oriented and compatible with the modern trend. The aim of our major project is to save the energy.CONCLUSION We all know that the final year project is the one on which our future after engineering depends. well organized which has a special purpose computer that is a microcontroller. Solar trackers can be relatively inexpensive. It has enhanced our knowledge and confidence to understand and work on electronic devices. . This makes them especially effective for photovoltaic systems using high-efficiency panels.

REFERENCES         www.com www.action-electronics.com .howstuffworks.com www.allaboutcircuits.microcontroller.electronics4u.com www.com www.com www.com www.datasheets4u.com www.atmel.wikipedia.

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