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College Physics

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4?@JC MD #MLRCLRQ
)H;<79; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 "DJHE:K9J?ED: ->; '7JKH; E< ,9?;D9; 7D: )>OI?9I . . . . . . . . . . . 0FWQGAQ: !L )LRPMBSARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0FWQGA?J 1S?LRGRGCQ ?LB 5LGRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !AASP?AW, 0PCAGQGML, ?LB 3GELGDGA?LR &GESPCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !NNPMVGK?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 $?D;C7J?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $GQNJ?ACKCLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6CARMPQ, 3A?J?PQ, ?LB #MMPBGL?RC 3WQRCKQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4GKC, 6CJMAGRW, ?LB 3NCCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !AACJCP?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -MRGML %OS?RGMLQ DMP #MLQR?LR !AACJCP?RGML GL /LC $GKCLQGML . . . . . 0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE "?QGAQ DMP /LC-$GKCLQGML?J +GLCK?RGAQ . . . . . . . . &?JJGLE /@HCARQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'P?NFGA?J !L?JWQGQ MD /LC-$GKCLQGML?J -MRGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 -ME-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +GLCK?RGAQ GL 4UM $GKCLQGMLQ: !L )LRPMBSARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6CARMP !BBGRGML ?LB 3S@RP?ARGML: 'P?NFGA?J -CRFMBQ . . . . . . . . . . 6CARMP !BBGRGML ?LB 3S@RP?ARGML: !L?JWRGA?J -CRFMBQ . . . . . . . . . . 0PMHCARGJC -MRGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !BBGRGML MD 6CJMAGRGCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DOD7C?9I: FEH9; 7D: ';MJED'I %7MI E< &EJ?ED . . . . . . . . . . . . $CTCJMNKCLR MD &MPAC #MLACNR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CURMLtQ &GPQR ,?U MD -MRGML: )LCPRG? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CURMLtQ 3CAMLB ,?U MD -MRGML: #MLACNR MD ? 3WQRCK . . . . . . . . . .CURMLtQ 4FGPB ,?U MD -MRGML: 3WKKCRPW GL &MPACQ . . . . . . . . . . . .MPK?J, 4CLQGML, ?LB /RFCP %V?KNJCQ MD &MPACQ . . . . . . . . . . . . 0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RP?RCEGCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &SPRFCP !NNJGA?RGMLQ MD .CURMLtQ ,?UQ MD -MRGML . . . . . . . . . . . . %VRCLBCB 4MNGA: 4FC &MSP "?QGA &MPACQr!L )LRPMBSARGML . . . . . . . . 5 FKHJ>;H AFFB?97J?EDI E< ';MJED'I %7MI: FH?9J?ED, DH7=, 7D: EB7IJ?9?JO &PGARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $P?E &MPACQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %J?QRGAGRW: 3RPCQQ ?LB 3RP?GL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 .D?<EHC C?H9KB7H &EJ?ED 7D: H7L?J7J?ED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2MR?RGML !LEJC ?LB !LESJ?P 6CJMAGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #CLRPGNCR?J !AACJCP?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #CLRPGNCR?J &MPAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &GARGRGMSQ &MPACQ ?LB .ML-GLCPRG?J &P?KCQ: 4FC #MPGMJGQ &MPAC . . . . . . .CURMLtQ 5LGTCPQ?J ,?U MD 'P?TGR?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3?RCJJGRCQ ?LB +CNJCPtQ ,?UQ: !L !PESKCLR DMP 3GKNJGAGRW . . . . . . . . 7 0EHA, ED;H=O, 7D: ED;H=O +;IEKH9;I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7MPI: 4FC 3AGCLRGDGA $CDGLGRGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +GLCRGA %LCPEW ?LB RFC 7MPI-%LCPEW 4FCMPCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'P?TGR?RGML?J 0MRCLRG?J %LCPEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MLQCPT?RGTC &MPACQ ?LB 0MRCLRG?J %LCPEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MLAMLQCPT?RGTC &MPACQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MLQCPT?RGML MD %LCPEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0MUCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7MPI, %LCPEW, ?LB 0MUCP GL (SK?LQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7MPJB %LCPEW 5QC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 %?D;7H &EC;DJKC 7D: CEBB?I?EDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,GLC?P -MKCLRSK ?LB &MPAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )KNSJQC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MLQCPT?RGML MD -MKCLRSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %J?QRGA #MJJGQGMLQ GL /LC $GKCLQGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )LCJ?QRGA #MJJGQGMLQ GL /LC $GKCLQGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MJJGQGMLQ MD 0MGLR -?QQCQ GL 4UM $GKCLQGMLQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )LRPMBSARGML RM 2MAICR 0PMNSJQGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ,J7J?9I 7D: -EHGK; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC &GPQR #MLBGRGML DMP %OSGJG@PGSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 3CAMLB #MLBGRGML DMP %OSGJG@PGSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3R?@GJGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !NNJGA?RGMLQ MD 3R?RGAQ, )LAJSBGLE 0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RP?RCEGCQ . . . . . . 3GKNJC -?AFGLCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &MPACQ ?LB 4MPOSCQ GL -SQAJCQ ?LB *MGLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 +EJ7J?ED7B &EJ?ED 7D: AD=KB7H &EC;DJKC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !LESJ?P !AACJCP?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +GLCK?RGAQ MD 2MR?RGML?J -MRGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $WL?KGAQ MD 2MR?RGML?J -MRGML: 2MR?RGML?J )LCPRG? . . . . . . . . . . . . 2MR?RGML?J +GLCRGA %LCPEW: 7MPI ?LB %LCPEW 2CTGQGRCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 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249 251 263 263 265 267 270 272 276 279 291 292 293 297 300 303 306 319 320 324 328 331

!LESJ?P -MKCLRSK ?LB )RQ #MLQCPT?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MJJGQGMLQ MD %VRCLBCB "MBGCQ GL 4UM $GKCLQGMLQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'WPMQAMNGA %DDCARQ: 6CARMP !QNCARQ MD !LESJ?P -MKCLRSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 FBK?: ,J7J?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7F?R )Q ? &JSGB? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $CLQGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0PCQQSPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6?PG?RGML MD 0PCQQSPC UGRF $CNRF GL ? &JSGB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0?QA?JtQ 0PGLAGNJC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '?SEC 0PCQQSPC, !@QMJSRC 0PCQQSPC, ?LB 0PCQQSPC -C?QSPCKCLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !PAFGKCBCQt 0PGLAGNJC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MFCQGML ?LB !BFCQGML GL ,GOSGBQ: 3SPD?AC 4CLQGML ?LB #?NGJJ?PW !ARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0PCQQSPCQ GL RFC "MBW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 FBK?: DOD7C?9I 7D: "JI B?EBE=?97B 7D: &;:?97B AFFB?97J?EDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &JMU 2?RC ?LB )RQ 2CJ?RGML RM 6CJMAGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "CPLMSJJGtQ %OS?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC -MQR 'CLCP?J !NNJGA?RGMLQ MD "CPLMSJJGtQ %OS?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6GQAMQGRW ?LB ,?KGL?P &JMU; 0MGQCSGJJCtQ ,?U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC /LQCR MD 4SP@SJCLAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -MRGML MD ?L /@HCAR GL ? 6GQAMSQ &JSGB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -MJCASJ?P 4P?LQNMPR 0FCLMKCL?: $GDDSQGML, /QKMQGQ, ?LB 2CJ?RCB 0PMACQQCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 -;CF;H7JKH;, $?D;J?9 ->;EHO, 7D: J>; 7I %7MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4CKNCP?RSPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FCPK?J %VN?LQGML MD 3MJGBQ ?LB ,GOSGBQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC )BC?J '?Q ,?U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +GLCRGA 4FCMPW: !RMKGA ?LB -MJCASJ?P %VNJ?L?RGML MD 0PCQQSPC ?LB 4CKNCP?RSPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0F?QC #F?LECQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKGBGRW, %T?NMP?RGML, ?LB "MGJGLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 !;7J 7D: !;7J -H7DI<;H &;J>E:I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (C?R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4CKNCP?RSPC #F?LEC ?LB (C?R #?N?AGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0F?QC #F?LEC ?LB ,?RCLR (C?R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (C?R 4P?LQDCP -CRFMBQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MLBSARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MLTCARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2?BG?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ->;HCE:OD7C?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC &GPQR ,?U MD 4FCPKMBWL?KGAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC &GPQR ,?U MD 4FCPKMBWL?KGAQ ?LB 3MKC 3GKNJC 0PMACQQCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )LRPMBSARGML RM RFC 3CAMLB ,?U MD 4FCPKMBWL?KGAQ: (C?R %LEGLCQ ?LB 4FCGP %DDGAGCLAW . . . . . . . . . . #?PLMRtQ 0CPDCAR (C?R %LEGLC: 4FC 3CAMLB ,?U MD 4FCPKMBWL?KGAQ 2CQR?RCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !NNJGA?RGMLQ MD 4FCPKMBWL?KGAQ: (C?R 0SKNQ ?LB 2CDPGECP?RMPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %LRPMNW ?LB RFC 3CAMLB ,?U MD 4FCPKMBWL?KGAQ: $GQMPBCP ?LB RFC 5L?T?GJ?@GJGRW MD %LCPEW . . . . . . . 3R?RGQRGA?J )LRCPNPCR?RGML MD %LRPMNW ?LB RFC 3CAMLB ,?U MD 4FCPKMBWL?KGAQ: 4FC 5LBCPJWGLE %VNJ?L?RGML 16 (I9?BB7JEHO &EJ?ED 7D: 07L;I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (MMICtQ ,?U: 3RPCQQ ?LB 3RP?GL 2CTGQGRCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0CPGMB ?LB &PCOSCLAW GL /QAGJJ?RGMLQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3GKNJC (?PKMLGA -MRGML: ! 3NCAG?J 0CPGMBGA -MRGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 3GKNJC 0CLBSJSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %LCPEW ?LB RFC 3GKNJC (?PKMLGA /QAGJJ?RMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5LGDMPK #GPASJ?P -MRGML ?LB 3GKNJC (?PKMLGA -MRGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $?KNCB (?PKMLGA -MRGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &MPACB /QAGJJ?RGMLQ ?LB 2CQML?LAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7?TCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3SNCPNMQGRGML ?LB )LRCPDCPCLAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %LCPEW GL 7?TCQ: )LRCLQGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 )>OI?9I E< !;7H?D= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3MSLB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3NCCB MD 3MSLB, &PCOSCLAW, ?LB 7?TCJCLERF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3MSLB )LRCLQGRW ?LB 3MSLB ,CTCJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $MNNJCP %DDCAR ?LB 3MLGA "MMKQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3MSLB )LRCPDCPCLAC ?LB 2CQML?LAC: 3R?LBGLE 7?TCQ GL !GP #MJSKLQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (C?PGLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5JRP?QMSLB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 EB;9JH?9 C>7H=; 7D: EB;9JH?9 F?;B: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3R?RGA %JCARPGAGRW ?LB #F?PEC: #MLQCPT?RGML MD #F?PEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MLBSARMPQ ?LB )LQSJ?RMPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MSJMK@tQ ,?U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA &GCJB: #MLACNR MD ? &GCJB 2CTGQGRCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA &GCJB ,GLCQ: -SJRGNJC #F?PECQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA &MPACQ GL "GMJMEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MLBSARMPQ ?LB %JCARPGA &GCJBQ GL 3R?RGA %OSGJG@PGSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !NNJGA?RGMLQ MD %JCARPMQR?RGAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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338 343 346 359 359 360 362 364 367 370 373 379 386 399 399 402 406 409 415 416 418 431 431 438 444 449 455 460 471 471 473 477 482 483 487 491 505 506 510 517 522 526 530 536 549 550 554 555 559 561 563 566 569 571 573 577 589 590 591 594 598 602 608 613 627 628 632 636 637 639 642 643 647

19 EB;9JH?9 )EJ;DJ?7B 7D: EB;9JH?9 F?;B: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA 0MRCLRG?J %LCPEW: 0MRCLRG?J $GDDCPCLAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA 0MRCLRG?J GL ? 5LGDMPK %JCARPGA &GCJB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA?J 0MRCLRG?J $SC RM ? 0MGLR #F?PEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %OSGNMRCLRG?J ,GLCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #?N?AGRMPQ ?LB $GCJCARPGAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #?N?AGRMPQ GL 3CPGCQ ?LB 0?P?JJCJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %LCPEW 3RMPCB GL #?N?AGRMPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 EB;9JH?9 CKHH;DJ, +;I?IJ7D9;, 7D: (>C'I %7M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #SPPCLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . /FKtQ ,?U: 2CQGQR?LAC ?LB 3GKNJC #GPASGRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2CQGQR?LAC ?LB 2CQGQRGTGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA 0MUCP ?LB %LCPEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !JRCPL?RGLE #SPPCLR TCPQSQ $GPCAR #SPPCLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA (?X?PBQ ?LB RFC (SK?L "MBW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CPTC #MLBSARGMLq%JCARPMA?PBGMEP?KQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 C?H9K?JI, B?E;B;9JH?9?JO, 7D: DC "DIJHKC;DJI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2CQGQRMPQ GL 3CPGCQ ?LB 0?P?JJCJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPMKMRGTC &MPAC: 4CPKGL?J 6MJR?EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +GPAFFMDDtQ 2SJCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $# 6MJRKCRCPQ ?LB !KKCRCPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SJJ -C?QSPCKCLRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $# #GPASGRQ #MLR?GLGLE 2CQGQRMPQ ?LB #?N?AGRMPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 &7=D;J?IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -?ELCRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &CPPMK?ELCRQ ?LB %JCARPMK?ELCRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -?ELCRGA &GCJBQ ?LB -?ELCRGA &GCJB ,GLCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -?ELCRGA &GCJB 3RPCLERF: &MPAC ML ? -MTGLE #F?PEC GL ? -?ELCRGA &GCJB . . &MPAC ML ? -MTGLE #F?PEC GL ? -?ELCRGA &GCJB: %V?KNJCQ ?LB !NNJGA?RGMLQ 4FC (?JJ %DDCAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -?ELCRGA &MPAC ML ? #SPPCLR-#?PPWGLE #MLBSARMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4MPOSC ML ? #SPPCLR ,MMN: -MRMPQ ?LB -CRCPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -?ELCRGA &GCJBQ 0PMBSACB @W #SPPCLRQ: !KNCPCtQ ,?U . . . . . . . . . . . -?ELCRGA &MPAC @CRUCCL 4UM 0?P?JJCJ #MLBSARMPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -MPC !NNJGA?RGMLQ MD -?ELCRGQK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 EB;9JHEC7=D;J?9 "D:K9J?ED, AC C?H9K?JI, 7D: EB;9JH?97B -;9>DEBE=?;I . . )LBSACB %KD ?LB -?ELCRGA &JSV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &?P?B?WtQ ,?U MD )LBSARGML: ,CLXtQ ,?U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -MRGML?J %KD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %BBW #SPPCLRQ ?LB -?ELCRGA $?KNGLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA 'CLCP?RMPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "?AI %KD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4P?LQDMPKCPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %JCARPGA?J 3?DCRW: 3WQRCKQ ?LB $CTGACQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )LBSAR?LAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, #GPASGRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2C?AR?LAC, )LBSARGTC ?LB #?N?AGRGTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,# 3CPGCQ !# #GPASGRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 EB;9JHEC7=D;J?9 07L;I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -?VUCJJtQ %OS?RGMLQ: %JCARPMK?ELCRGA 7?TCQ 0PCBGARCB ?LB /@QCPTCB . . . 0PMBSARGML MD %JCARPMK?ELCRGA 7?TCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC %JCARPMK?ELCRGA 3NCARPSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %LCPEW GL %JCARPMK?ELCRGA 7?TCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 ;EC;JH?9 (FJ?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 2?W !QNCAR MD ,GEFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC ,?U MD 2CDJCARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC ,?U MD 2CDP?ARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4MR?J )LRCPL?J 2CDJCARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $GQNCPQGML: 4FC 2?GL@MU ?LB 0PGQKQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )K?EC &MPK?RGML @W ,CLQCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )K?EC &MPK?RGML @W -GPPMPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 /?I?ED 7D: (FJ?97B "DIJHKC;DJI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0FWQGAQ MD RFC %WC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6GQGML #MPPCARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MJMP ?LB #MJMP 6GQGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -GAPMQAMNCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4CJCQAMNCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !@CPP?RGMLQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 07L; (FJ?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 7?TC !QNCAR MD ,GEFR: )LRCPDCPCLAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SWECLQ'Q 0PGLAGNJC: $GDDP?ARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9MSLEtQ $MS@JC 3JGR %VNCPGKCLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -SJRGNJC 3JGR $GDDP?ARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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663 663 668 671 673 675 681 684 695 696 701 702 707 710 714 717 733 733 741 748 752 756 759 773 774 775 779 780 781 785 788 790 792 796 797 811 812 814 816 819 822 825 825 829 833 836 838 841 859 860 862 864 875 885 886 887 889 893 898 902 913 927 928 931 934 937 942 945 953 954 955 957 961

3GLEJC 3JGR $GDDP?ARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,GKGRQ MD 2CQMJSRGML: 4FC 2?WJCGEF #PGRCPGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FGL &GJK )LRCPDCPCLAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0MJ?PGX?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *%VRCLBCB 4MNGA* -GAPMQAMNW %LF?LACB @W RFC 7?TC #F?P?ARCPGQRGAQ MD ,GEFR 28 ,F;9?7B +;B7J?L?JO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %GLQRCGLtQ 0MQRSJ?RCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3GKSJR?LCGRW !LB 4GKC $GJ?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,CLERF #MLRP?ARGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2CJ?RGTGQRGA !BBGRGML MD 6CJMAGRGCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2CJ?RGTGQRGA -MKCLRSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2CJ?RGTGQRGA %LCPEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 "DJHE:K9J?ED JE *K7DJKC )>OI?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1S?LRGX?RGML MD %LCPEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 0FMRMCJCARPGA %DDCAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0FMRML %LCPEGCQ ?LB RFC %JCARPMK?ELCRGA 3NCARPSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0FMRML -MKCLRSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 0?PRGAJC-7?TC $S?JGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 7?TC .?RSPC MD -?RRCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0PM@?@GJGRW: 4FC (CGQCL@CPE 5LACPR?GLRW 0PGLAGNJC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 0?PRGAJC-7?TC $S?JGRW 2CTGCUCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 AJEC?9 )>OI?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $GQAMTCPW MD RFC !RMK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $GQAMTCPW MD RFC 0?PRQ MD RFC !RMK: %JCARPMLQ ?LB .SAJCG . . . . . . . . . . . "MFPtQ 4FCMPW MD RFC (WBPMECL !RMK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2?WQ: !RMKGA /PGEGLQ ?LB !NNJGA?RGMLQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !NNJGA?RGMLQ MD !RMKGA %VAGR?RGMLQ ?LB $C-%VAGR?RGMLQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 7?TC .?RSPC MD -?RRCP #?SQCQ 1S?LRGX?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0?RRCPLQ GL 3NCARP? 2CTC?J -MPC 1S?LRGX?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1S?LRSK .SK@CPQ ?LB 2SJCQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 0?SJG %VAJSQGML 0PGLAGNJC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 +7:?E79J?L?JO 7D: 'K9B;7H )>OI?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SAJC?P 2?BGM?ARGTGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2?BG?RGML $CRCARGML ?LB $CRCARMPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3S@QRPSARSPC MD RFC .SAJCSQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SAJC?P $CA?W ?LB #MLQCPT?RGML ,?UQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (?JD-,GDC ?LB !ARGTGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "GLBGLE %LCPEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4SLLCJGLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 &;:?97B AFFB?97J?EDI E< 'K9B;7H )>OI?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -CBGA?J )K?EGLE ?LB $G?ELMQRGAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "GMJMEGA?J %DDCARQ MD )MLGXGLE 2?BG?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FCP?NCSRGA 5QCQ MD )MLGXGLE 2?BG?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &MMB )PP?BG?RGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &SQGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . &GQQGML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SAJC?P 7C?NMLQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 )7HJ?9B; )>OI?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4FC 9SI?U? 0?PRGAJC ?LB RFC (CGQCL@CPE 5LACPR?GLRW 0PGLAGNJC 2CTGQGRCB . . . 4FC &MSP "?QGA &MPACQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !AACJCP?RMPQ #PC?RC -?RRCP DPMK %LCPEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0?PRGAJCQ, 0?RRCPLQ, ?LB #MLQCPT?RGML ,?UQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1S?PIQ: )Q 4F?R !JJ 4FCPC )Q? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '54Q: 4FC 5LGDGA?RGML MD &MPACQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 FHEDJ?;HI E< )>OI?9I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MQKMJMEW ?LB 0?PRGAJC 0FWQGAQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'CLCP?J 2CJ?RGTGRW ?LB 1S?LRSK 'P?TGRW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3SNCPQRPGLEQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $?PI -?RRCP ?LB #JMQSPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #MKNJCVGRW ?LB #F?MQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (GEF-RCKNCP?RSPC 3SNCPAMLBSARMPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3MKC 1SCQRGMLQ 7C +LMU RM !QI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A AJEC?9 &7II;I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B ,;B;9J;: +7:?E79J?L; "IEJEF;I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C .I;<KB "D<EHC7J?ED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D BEII7HO E< $;O ,OC8EBI 7D: 'EJ7J?ED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "D:;N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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964 967 971 975 982 993 994 996 1001 1005 1009 1011 1025 1026 1028 1031 1036 1040 1041 1044 1048 1057 1057 1059 1064 1070 1075 1082 1084 1086 1090 1107 1107 1111 1113 1117 1123 1128 1132 1143 1144 1147 1152 1154 1155 1160 1164 1177 1178 1179 1181 1184 1188 1195 1205 1205 1212 1217 1217 1220 1221 1223 1231 1237 1241 1247 1258

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

02%&!#%

02%&!#%
!@MSR /NCL3R?V #MJJCEC
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

!@MSR 4FGQ "MMI


7CJAMKC RM CB??8:8 ';LF<6F, ?L /NCL3R?V #MJJCEC PCQMSPAC APC?RCB UGRF QCTCP?J EM?JQ GL KGLB: ?AACQQG@GJGRW, ?DDMPB?@GJGRW, ASQRMKGX?RGML, ?LB QRSBCLR CLE?ECKCLRr?JJ UFGJC CLAMSP?EGLE JC?PLCPQ RMU?PB FGEF JCTCJQ MD JC?PLGLE. )LQRPSARMPQ ?LB QRSBCLRQ ?JGIC UGJJ DGLB RF?R RFGQ RCVR@MMI MDDCPQ ? QRPMLE DMSLB?RGML GL GLRPMBSARMPW NFWQGAQ, UGRF ?JEC@P? ?Q ? NPCPCOSGQGRC. )R GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC MLJGLC ?LB GL JMU-AMQR NPGLR ?LB C-@MMI CBGRGMLQ. 4M @PM?BCL ?AACQQ ?LB CLAMSP?EC AMKKSLGRW ASP?RGML, #MJJCEC 0FWQGAQ GQ uMNCL QMSPACv JGACLQCB SLBCP ? #PC?RGTC #MKKMLQ !RRPG@SRGML (##-"9) JGACLQC. %TCPWMLC GQ GLTGRCB RM QS@KGR CV?KNJCQ, CKCPEGLE PCQC?PAF, ?LB MRFCP DCCB@?AI RM CLF?LAC ?LB QRPCLERFCL RFC K?RCPG?J ?LB ICCN GR ASPPCLR ?LB PCJCT?LR DMP RMB?WtQ QRSBCLRQ. 9MS A?L K?IC QSEECQRGMLQ @W AMLR?ARGLE SQ ?R GLDM MNCLQR?VAMJJCEC.MPE. 9MS A?L DGLB RFC QR?RSQ MD RFC NPMHCAR, ?Q UCJJ ?Q ?JRCPL?RC TCPQGMLQ, AMPPCARGMLQ, CRA., ML RFC 3R?V$?QF ?R >JJF://EF;DIJ7N9EBB;=;.EH= (>JJF://EF;DIJ7N9EBB;=;.EH=) .

4M RFC 3RSBCLR
4FGQ @MMI GQ UPGRRCL DMP WMS. )R GQ @?QCB ML RFC RC?AFGLE ?LB PCQC?PAF CVNCPGCLAC MD LSKCPMSQ NFWQGAGQRQ ?LB GLDJSCLACB @W ? QRPMLE PCAMJJCARGML MD RFCGP MUL QRPSEEJCQ ?Q QRSBCLRQ. !DRCP PC?BGLE RFGQ @MMI, UC FMNC WMS QCC RF?R NFWQGAQ GQ TGQG@JC CTCPWUFCPC. !NNJGA?RGMLQ P?LEC DPMK BPGTGLE ? A?P RM J?SLAFGLE ? PMAICR, DPMK ? QI?RCP UFGPJGLE ML GAC RM ? LCSRPML QR?P QNGLLGLE GL QN?AC, ?LB DPMK R?IGLE WMSP RCKNCP?RSPC RM R?IGLE ? AFCQR 8-P?W.

4M RFC )LQRPSARMP
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

'CLCP?J !NNPM?AF
#MJJCEC 0FWQGAQ GQ MPE?LGXCB QSAF RF?R RMNGAQ ?PC GLRPMBSACB AMLACNRS?JJW UGRF ? QRC?BW NPMEPCQQGML RM NPCAGQC BCDGLGRGMLQ ?LB ?L?JWRGA?J ?NNJGA?RGMLQ. 4FC ?L?JWRGA?J ?QNCAR (NPM@JCK QMJTGLE) GQ RGCB @?AI RM RFC AMLACNRS?J @CDMPC KMTGLE ML RM ?LMRFCP RMNGA. %?AF GLRPMBSARMPW AF?NRCP, DMP CV?KNJC, MNCLQ UGRF ?L CLE?EGLE NFMRMEP?NF PCJCT?LR RM RFC QS@HCAR MD RFC AF?NRCP ?LB GLRCPCQRGLE ?NNJGA?RGMLQ RF?R ?PC C?QW DMP KMQR QRSBCLRQ RM TGQS?JGXC.

/PE?LGX?RGML, ,CTCJ, ?LB #MLRCLR


4FCPC GQ AMLQGBCP?@JC J?RGRSBC ML RFC N?PR MD RFC GLQRPSARMP PCE?PBGLE RFC SQC, MPE?LGX?RGML, JCTCJ, ?LB AMLRCLR MD RFGQ @MMI. "W AFMMQGLE RFC RWNCQ MD NPM@JCKQ ?QQGELCB, RFC GLQRPSARMP A?L BCRCPKGLC RFC JCTCJ MD QMNFGQRGA?RGML PCOSGPCB MD RFC QRSBCLR.

#MLACNRQ ?LB #?JASJ?RGMLQ


4FC ?@GJGRW RM A?JASJ?RC BMCQ LMR ES?P?LRCC AMLACNRS?J SLBCPQR?LBGLE. )L MPBCP RM SLGDW AMLACNRS?J, ?L?JWRGA?J, ?LB A?JASJ?RGML QIGJJQ UGRFGL RFC JC?PLGLE NPMACQQ, UC F?TC GLRCEP?RCB 3RP?RCEGCQ ?LB $GQASQQGMLQ RFPMSEFMSR RFC RCVR.

-MBCPL 0CPQNCARGTC
4FC AF?NRCPQ ML KMBCPL NFWQGAQ ?PC KMPC AMKNJCRC RF?L K?LW MRFCP RCVRQ ML RFC K?PICR, UGRF ?L CLRGPC AF?NRCP BCTMRCB RM KCBGA?J ?NNJGA?RGMLQ MD LSAJC?P NFWQGAQ ?LB ?LMRFCP RM N?PRGAJC NFWQGAQ. 4FC DGL?J AF?NRCP MD RFC RCVR, u&PMLRGCPQ MD 0FWQGAQ,v GQ BCTMRCB RM RFC KMQR CVAGRGLE CLBC?TMPQ GL NFWQGAQ. )R CLBQ UGRF ? KMBSJC RGRJCB u3MKC 1SCQRGMLQ 7C +LMU RM !QI.v

3SNNJCKCLRQ
!AAMKN?LWGLE RFC K?GL RCVR ?PC ? ,JK:;DJ ,EBKJ?EDI &7DK7B 7D: 7D "DIJHK9JEH ,EBKJ?EDI &7DK7B (>JJF://EF;DIJ7N9EBB;=;.EH=/J;NJ8EEAI/ 9EBB;=;-F>OI?9I) . 4FC 3RSBCLR 3MJSRGMLQ -?LS?J NPMTGBCQ UMPICB-MSR QMJSRGMLQ RM QCJCAR CLB-MD-KMBSJC 0PM@JCKQ ?LB %VCPAGQCQ. 4FC )LQRPSARMP 3MJSRGMLQ -?LS?J NPMTGBCQ UMPICB-MSR QMJSRGMLQ RM ?JJ %VCPAGQCQ.

&C?RSPCQ MD /NCL3R?V CB??8:8 ';LF<6F


4FC DMJJMUGLE @PGCDJW BCQAPG@CQ RFC QNCAG?J DC?RSPCQ MD RFGQ RCVR.

02%&!#%

&E:KB7H?JO
4FGQ RCVR@MMI GQ MPE?LGXCB ML #MLLCVGMLQ (FRRN://ALV.MPE) ?Q ? AMJJCARGML MD KMBSJCQ RF?R A?L @C PC?PP?LECB ?LB KMBGDGCB RM QSGR RFC LCCBQ MD ? N?PRGASJ?P NPMDCQQMP MP AJ?QQ. 4F?R @CGLE Q?GB, KMBSJCQ MDRCL AMLR?GL PCDCPCLACQ RM AMLRCLR GL MRFCP KMBSJCQ, ?Q KMQR RMNGAQ GL NFWQGAQ A?LLMR @C BGQASQQCB GL GQMJ?RGML.

%;7HD?D= (8@;9J?L;I
%TCPW KMBSJC @CEGLQ UGRF ? QCR MD JC?PLGLE M@HCARGTCQ. 4FCQC M@HCARGTCQ ?PC BCQGELCB RM ESGBC RFC GLQRPSARMP GL BCAGBGLE UF?R AMLRCLR RM GLAJSBC MP ?QQGEL, ?LB RM ESGBC RFC QRSBCLR UGRF PCQNCAR RM UF?R FC MP QFC A?L CVNCAR RM JC?PL. !DRCP AMKNJCRGLE RFC KMBSJC ?LB CLB-MD-KMBSJC CVCPAGQCQ, QRSBCLRQ QFMSJB @C ?@JC RM BCKMLQRP?RC K?QRCPW MD RFC JC?PLGLE M@HCARGTCQ.

C7BB-(KJI
+CW BCDGLGRGMLQ, AMLACNRQ, ?LB COS?RGMLQ ?PC A?JJCB MSR UGRF ? QNCAG?J BCQGEL RPC?RKCLR. #?JJ-MSRQ ?PC BCQGELCB RM A?RAF PC?BCPQt ?RRCLRGML, RM K?IC GR AJC?P RF?R ? QNCAGDGA RCPK, AMLACNR, MP COS?RGML GQ N?PRGASJ?PJW GKNMPR?LR, ?LB RM NPMTGBC C?QW PCDCPCLAC DMP ? QRSBCLR PCTGCUGLE AMLRCLR.

$;O -;HCI
+CW RCPKQ ?PC GL @MJB ?LB ?PC DMJJMUCB @W ? BCDGLGRGML GL AMLRCVR. $CDGLGRGMLQ MD ICW RCPKQ ?PC ?JQM JGQRCB GL RFC 'JMQQ?PW, UFGAF ?NNC?PQ ?R RFC CLB MD RFC KMBSJC.

0EHA;: EN7CFB;I
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

)HE8B;C-,EBL?D= ,JH7J;=?;I
0PM@JCK-QMJTGLE QRP?RCEGCQ ?PC DGPQR NPCQCLRCB GL ? QNCAG?J QCARGML ?LB QS@QCOSCLRJW ?NNC?P ?R APSAG?J NMGLRQ GL RFC RCVR UFCPC QRSBCLRQ A?L @CLCDGR KMQR DPMK RFCK. 0PM@JCK-QMJTGLE QRP?RCEGCQ F?TC ? JMEGA?J QRPSARSPC RF?R GQ PCGLDMPACB GL RFC UMPICB CV?KNJCQ ?LB QSNNMPRCB GL ACPR?GL NJ?ACQ @W JGLC BP?UGLEQ RF?R GJJSQRP?RC T?PGMSQ QRCNQ.

&?I9ED9;FJ?ED AB;HJI
3RSBCLRQ AMKC RM NFWQGAQ UGRF NPCAMLACNRGMLQ DPMK CTCPWB?W CVNCPGCLACQ ?LB DPMK NPCTGMSQ AMSPQCQ. 3MKC MD RFCQC NPCAMLACNRGMLQ ?PC KGQAMLACNRGMLQ, ?LB K?LW ?PC TCPW AMKKML ?KMLE QRSBCLRQ ?LB RFC ECLCP?J NS@JGA. 3MKC ?PC GL?BTCPRCLRJW NGAICB SN RFPMSEF KGQSLBCPQR?LBGLEQ MD JCARSPCQ ?LB RCVRQ. 4FC -GQAMLACNRGML !JCPRQ DC?RSPC GQ BCQGELCB RM NMGLR RFCQC MSR ?LB AMPPCAR RFCK CVNJGAGRJW.

-7A;-!EC; "DL;IJ?=7J?EDI
4?IC (MKC )LTCQRGE?RGMLQ NPMTGBC RFC MNNMPRSLGRW DMP QRSBCLRQ RM ?NNJW MP CVNJMPC UF?R RFCW F?TC JC?PLCB UGRF ? F?LBQ-ML ?ARGTGRW.

->?D=I

H;7J 7D: ,C7BB

)L RFCQC QNCAG?J RMNGA CQQ?WQ, K?APMQAMNGA NFCLMKCL? (QSAF ?Q ?GP NPCQQSPC) ?PC CVNJ?GLCB UGRF QS@KGAPMQAMNGA NFCLMKCL? (QSAF ?Q ?RMKQ @MSLAGLE MDD U?JJQ). 4FCQC CQQ?WQ QSNNMPR RFC KMBCPL NCPQNCARGTC @W BCQAPG@GLE ?QNCARQ MD KMBCPL NFWQGAQ @CDMPC RFCW ?PC DMPK?JJW RPC?RCB GL J?RCP AF?NRCPQ. #MLLCARGMLQ ?PC ?JQM K?BC @CRUCCL ?NN?PCLRJW BGQN?P?RC NFCLMKCL?.

,?CKB7J?EDI
7FCPC ?NNJGA?@JC, QRSBCLRQ ?PC BGPCARCB RM RFC GLRCP?ARGTC 0(C4 NFWQGAQ QGKSJ?RGMLQ BCTCJMNCB @W RFC 5LGTCPQGRW MD #MJMP?BM (>JJF://F>;J.9EBEH7:E.;:K (>JJF://F>;J.9EBEH7:E.;:K) ). 4FCPC RFCW A?L DSPRFCP CVNJMPC RFC NFWQGAQ AMLACNRQ RFCW F?TC JC?PLCB ?@MSR GL RFC KMBSJC.

,KCC7HO
-MBSJC QSKK?PGCQ ?PC RFMPMSEF ?LB DSLARGML?J ?LB NPCQCLR ?JJ GKNMPR?LR BCDGLGRGMLQ ?LB COS?RGMLQ. 3RSBCLRQ ?PC ?@JC RM DGLB RFC BCDGLGRGMLQ MD ?JJ RCPKQ ?LB QWK@MJQ ?Q UCJJ ?Q RFCGP NFWQGA?J PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ. 4FC QRPSARSPC MD RFC QSKK?PW K?ICQ NJ?GL RFC DSLB?KCLR?J NPGLAGNJCQ MD RFC KMBSJC MP AMJJCARGML ?LB QCPTCQ ?Q ? SQCDSJ QRSBW ESGBC.

BEII7HO
!R RFC CLB MD CTCPW KMBSJC MP AF?NRCP GQ ? EJMQQ?PW AMLR?GLGLE BCDGLGRGMLQ MD ?JJ MD RFC ICW RCPKQ GL RFC KMBSJC MP AF?NRCP.

ED:-E<-&E:KB; )HE8B;CI
!R RFC CLB MD CTCPW AF?NRCP GQ ? QCR MD #MLACNRS?J 1SCQRGMLQ ?LB/MP QIGJJQ-@?QCB 0PM@JCKQ & %VCPAGQCQ. #MLACNRS?J 1SCQRGMLQ AF?JJCLEC QRSBCLRQt ?@GJGRW RM CVNJ?GL UF?R RFCW F?TC JC?PLCB AMLACNRS?JJW, GLBCNCLBCLR MD RFC K?RFCK?RGA?J BCR?GJQ. 0PM@JCKQ & %VCPAGQCQ AF?JJCLEC QRSBCLRQ RM ?NNJW @MRF AMLACNRQ ?LB QIGJJQ RM QMJTC K?RFCK?RGA?J NFWQGAQ NPM@JCKQ. /LJGLC, CTCPW MRFCP NPM@JCK GLAJSBCQ ?L ?LQUCP RF?R QRSBCLRQ A?L PCTC?J GKKCBG?RCJW @W AJGAIGLE ML ? u3FMU 3MJSRGMLv @SRRML. &SJJW UMPICB QMJSRGMLQ RM QCJCAR NPM@JCKQ ?PC ?T?GJ?@JC GL RFC 3RSBCLR 3MJSRGMLQ -?LS?J ?LB RFC 4C?AFCP 3MJSRGMLQ -?LS?J. )L ?BBGRGML RM RP?BGRGML?J QIGJJQ-@?QCB NPM@JCKQ, RFCPC ?PC RFPCC QNCAG?J RWNCQ MD CLB-MD-KMBSJC NPM@JCKQ: )LRCEP?RCB #MLACNR 0PM@JCKQ, 5LPC?QML?@JC 2CQSJRQ 0PM@JCKQ, ?LB #MLQRPSAR 9MSP /UL 0PM@JCKQ. !JJ MD RFCQC NPM@JCKQ ?PC GLBGA?RCB UGRF ? QS@RGRJC NPCACBGLE RFC NPM@JCK.
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

02%&!#%

"DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJ )HE8B;CI


)L 5LPC?QML?@JC 2CQSJRQ 0PM@JCKQ, QRSBCLRQ ?PC AF?JJCLECB LMR MLJW RM ?NNJW AMLACNRQ ?LB QIGJJQ RM QMJTC ? NPM@JCK, @SR ?JQM RM ?L?JWXC RFC ?LQUCP UGRF PCQNCAR RM FMU JGICJW MP PC?JGQRGA GR PC?JJW GQ. 4FCQC NPM@JCKQ AMLR?GL ? NPCKGQC RF?R NPMBSACQ ?L SLPC?QML?@JC ?LQUCP ?LB ?PC BCQGELCB RM DSPRFCP CKNF?QGXC RF?R NPMNCPJW ?NNJGCB NFWQGAQ KSQR BCQAPG@C L?RSPC ?AASP?RCJW ?LB GQ LMR QGKNJW RFC NPMACQQ MD QMJTGLE COS?RGMLQ.

.DH;7IED78B; +;IKBJI
)L 5LPC?QML?@JC 2CQSJRQ 0PM@JCKQ, QRSBCLRQ ?PC AF?JJCLECB RM LMR MLJW ?NNJW AMLACNRQ ?LB QIGJJQ RM QMJTC ? NPM@JCK, @SR ?JQM RM ?L?JWXC RFC ?LQUCP UGRF PCQNCAR RM FMU JGICJW MP PC?JGQRGA GR PC?JJW GQ. 4FCQC NPM@JCKQ AMLR?GL ? NPCKGQC RF?R NPMBSACQ ?L SLPC?QML?@JC ?LQUCP ?LB ?PC BCQGELCB RM DSPRFCP CKNF?QGXC RF?R NPMNCPJW ?NNJGCB NFWQGAQ KSQR BCQAPG@C L?RSPC ?AASP?RCJW ?LB GQ LMR QGKNJW RFC NPMACQQ MD QMJTGLE COS?RGMLQ.

CEDIJHK9J 2EKH (MD )HE8B;C


4FCQC NPM@JCKQ PCOSGPC QRSBCLRQ RM AMLQRPSAR RFC BCR?GJQ MD ? NPM@JCK, HSQRGDW RFCGP QR?PRGLE ?QQSKNRGMLQ, QFMU QNCAGDGA QRCNQ GL RFC NPM@JCKt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

AFF;D:?9;I
!NNCLBGV !: !RMKGA -?QQCQ !NNCLBGV ": 3CJCARCB 2?BGM?ARGTC )QMRMNCQ !NNCLBGV #: 5QCDSJ )LDMPK?RGML !NNCLBGV $: 'JMQQ?PW MD +CW 3WK@MJQ ?LB .MR?RGML

!AILMUJCBECKCLRQ
4FGQ RCVR GQ @?QCB ML RFC UMPI AMKNJCRCB @W $P. 0?SJ 0CRCP 5PMLC GL AMJJ?@MP?RGML UGRF 2MECP (GLPGAFQ, +GK $GPIQ, ?LB -?LHSJ? 3F?PK?. 7C UMSJB JGIC RM RF?LI RFC ?SRFMPQ ?Q UCJJ ?Q RFC LSKCPMSQ NPMDCQQMPQ (? N?PRG?J JGQR DMJJMUQ) UFM F?TC AMLRPG@SRCB RFCGP RGKC ?LB CLCPEW RM PCTGCU ?LB NPMTGBC DCCB@?AI ML RFC K?LSQAPGNR. 4FCGP GLNSR F?Q @CCL APGRGA?J GL K?GLR?GLGLE RFC NCB?EMEGA?J GLRCEPGRW ?LB ?AASP?AW MD RFC RCVR.

3CLGMP #MLRPG@SRGLE !SRFMPQ


$P. 0?SJ 0CRCP 5PMLC $P. 2MECP (GLPGAFQ, 3R?RC 5LGTCPQGRW MD .CU 9MPI, #MJJCEC ?R /QUCEM

#MLRPG@SRGLE !SRFMPQ
$P. +GK $GPIQ, 5LGTCPQGRW MD !SAIJ?LB, .CU :C?J?LB $P. -?LHSJ? 3F?PK?, 5LGTCPQGRW MD 3WBLCW, !SQRP?JG?

%VNCPR 2CTGCUCPQ
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10

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4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

11

1 ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

F?=KH; 1.1 '?J?VGCQ ?PC ?Q GKKCLQC ?Q ?RMKQ ?PC QK?JJ. 9CR RFC Q?KC J?UQ MD NFWQGAQ BCQAPG@C @MRF, ?LB ?JJ RFC PCQR MD L?RSPCr?L GLBGA?RGML MD RFC SLBCPJWGLE SLGRW GL RFC SLGTCPQC. 4FC J?UQ MD NFWQGAQ ?PC QSPNPGQGLEJW DCU GL LSK@CP, GKNJWGLE ?L SLBCPJWGLE QGKNJGAGRW RM L?RSPCtQ ?NN?PCLR AMKNJCVGRW. (APCBGR: .!3!, *0,-#?JRCAF, 0. "?PK@W, (?PT?PB-3KGRFQMLG?L #CLRCP DMP !QRPMNFWQGAQ)

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7F?R GQ WMSP DGPQR PC?ARGML UFCL WMS FC?P RFC UMPB uNFWQGAQv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tQ PCESJ?P, CTCPWB?W JGTCQ. "SR !LBPMKCB? GQ ? EPC?R QR?PRGLE NMGLR RM RFGLI ?@MSR RFC DMPACQ RF?R FMJB RMECRFCP RFC SLGTCPQC. 4FC DMPACQ RF?R A?SQC !LBPMKCB? RM ?AR ?Q GR BMCQ ?PC RFC Q?KC DMPACQ UC AMLRCLB UGRF FCPC ML %?PRF, UFCRFCP UC ?PC NJ?LLGLE RM QCLB ? PMAICR GLRM QN?AC MP QGKNJW P?GQC RFC U?JJQ DMP ? LCU FMKC. 4FC Q?KC EP?TGRW RF?R A?SQCQ RFC QR?PQ MD !LBPMKCB? RM PMR?RC ?LB PCTMJTC ?JQM A?SQCQ U?RCP RM DJMU MTCP FWBPMCJCARPGA B?KQ FCPC ML %?PRF. 4MLGEFR, R?IC ? KMKCLR RM JMMI SN ?R RFC QR?PQ. 4FC DMPACQ MSR RFCPC ?PC RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC MLCQ FCPC ML %?PRF. 4FPMSEF ? QRSBW MD NFWQGAQ, WMS K?W E?GL ? EPC?RCP SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD RFC GLRCPAMLLCARCBLCQQ MD CTCPWRFGLE UC A?L QCC ?LB ILMU GL RFGQ SLGTCPQC. 4FGLI LMU ?@MSR ?JJ MD RFC RCAFLMJMEGA?J BCTGACQ RF?R WMS SQC ML ? PCESJ?P @?QGQ. #MKNSRCPQ, QK?PR NFMLCQ, '03 QWQRCKQ, -03 NJ?WCPQ, ?LB Q?RCJJGRC P?BGM KGEFR AMKC RM KGLB. .CVR, RFGLI ?@MSR RFC KMQR CVAGRGLE KMBCPL RCAFLMJMEGCQ RF?R WMS F?TC FC?PB ?@MSR GL RFC LCUQ, QSAF ?Q RP?GLQ RF?R JCTGR?RC ?@MTC RP?AIQ, uGLTGQG@GJGRW AJM?IQv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

1.1 )>OI?9I: AD "DJHE:K9J?ED

12

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

F?=KH; 1.2 4FC DJGEFR DMPK?RGMLQ MD KGEP?RMPW @GPBQ QSAF ?Q #?L?B? ECCQC ?PC EMTCPLCB @W RFC J?UQ MD NFWQGAQ. (APCBGR: $?TGB -CPPCRR)

4FC NFWQGA?J SLGTCPQC GQ CLMPKMSQJW AMKNJCV GL GRQ BCR?GJ. %TCPW B?W, C?AF MD SQ M@QCPTCQ ? EPC?R T?PGCRW MD M@HCARQ ?LB NFCLMKCL?. /TCP RFC ACLRSPGCQ, RFC ASPGMQGRW MD RFC FSK?L P?AC F?Q JCB SQ AMJJCARGTCJW RM CVNJMPC ?LB A?R?JME ? RPCKCLBMSQ UC?JRF MD GLDMPK?RGML. &PMK RFC DJGEFR MD @GPBQ RM RFC AMJMPQ MD DJMUCPQ, DPMK JGEFRLGLE RM EP?TGRW, DPMK OS?PIQ RM AJSQRCPQ MD E?J?VGCQ, DPMK RFC DJMU MD RGKC RM RFC KWQRCPW MD RFC APC?RGML MD RFC SLGTCPQC, UC F?TC ?QICB OSCQRGMLQ ?LB ?QQCK@JCB FSEC ?PP?WQ MD D?ARQ. )L RFC D?AC MD ?JJ RFCQC BCR?GJQ, UC F?TC BGQAMTCPCB RF?R ? QSPNPGQGLEJW QK?JJ ?LB SLGDGCB QCR MD NFWQGA?J J?UQ A?L CVNJ?GL UF?R UC M@QCPTC. !Q FSK?LQ, UC K?IC ECLCP?JGX?RGMLQ ?LB QCCI MPBCP. 7C F?TC DMSLB RF?R L?RSPC GQ PCK?PI?@JW AMMNCP?RGTCr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

3AGCLAC ?LB RFC 2C?JK MD 0FWQGAQ


3AGCLAC AMLQGQRQ MD RFC RFCMPGCQ ?LB J?UQ RF?R ?PC RFC ECLCP?J RPSRFQ MD L?RSPC ?Q UCJJ ?Q RFC @MBW MD ILMUJCBEC RFCW CLAMKN?QQ. 3AGCLRGQRQ ?PC AMLRGLS?JJW RPWGLE RM CVN?LB RFGQ @MBW MD ILMUJCBEC ?LB RM NCPDCAR RFC CVNPCQQGML MD RFC J?UQ RF?R BCQAPG@C GR. )>OI?9I GQ AMLACPLCB UGRF BCQAPG@GLE RFC GLRCP?ARGMLQ MD CLCPEW, K?RRCP, QN?AC, ?LB RGKC, ?LB GR GQ CQNCAG?JJW GLRCPCQRCB GL UF?R DSLB?KCLR?J KCAF?LGQKQ SLBCPJGC CTCPW NFCLMKCLML. 4FC AMLACPL DMP BCQAPG@GLE RFC @?QGA NFCLMKCL? GL L?RSPC CQQCLRG?JJW BCDGLCQ RFC E84?@ B9 C;LF<6F. 0FWQGAQ ?GKQ RM BCQAPG@C RFC DSLARGML MD CTCPWRFGLE ?PMSLB SQ, DPMK RFC KMTCKCLR MD RGLW AF?PECB N?PRGAJCQ RM RFC KMRGML MD NCMNJC, A?PQ, ?LB QN?ACQFGNQ. )L D?AR, ?JKMQR CTCPWRFGLE ?PMSLB WMS A?L @C BCQAPG@CB OSGRC ?AASP?RCJW @W RFC J?UQ MD NFWQGAQ. #MLQGBCP ? QK?PR NFMLC ( F?=KH; 1.3). 0FWQGAQ BCQAPG@CQ FMU CJCARPGAGRW GLRCP?ARQ UGRF RFC T?PGMSQ AGPASGRQ GLQGBC RFC BCTGAC. 4FGQ ILMUJCBEC FCJNQ CLEGLCCPQ QCJCAR RFC ?NNPMNPG?RC K?RCPG?JQ ?LB AGPASGR J?WMSR UFCL @SGJBGLE RFC QK?PR NFMLC. .CVR, AMLQGBCP ? '03 QWQRCK. 0FWQGAQ BCQAPG@CQ RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL RFC QNCCB MD ?L M@HCAR, RFC BGQR?LAC MTCP UFGAF GR RP?TCJQ, ?LB RFC RGKC GR R?ICQ RM RP?TCJ RF?R BGQR?LAC. 7FCL WMS SQC ? '03 BCTGAC GL ? TCFGAJC, GR SRGJGXCQ RFCQC NFWQGAQ COS?RGMLQ RM BCRCPKGLC RFC RP?TCJ RGKC DPMK MLC JMA?RGML RM ?LMRFCP.

F?=KH; 1.3 4FC !NNJC uG0FMLCv GQ ? AMKKML QK?PR NFMLC UGRF ? '03 DSLARGML. 0FWQGAQ BCQAPG@CQ RFC U?W RF?R CJCARPGAGRW DJMUQ RFPMSEF RFC AGPASGRQ MD RFGQ BCTGAC. %LEGLCCPQ SQC RFCGP ILMUJCBEC MD NFWQGAQ RM AMLQRPSAR ?L G0FMLC UGRF DC?RSPCQ RF?R AMLQSKCPQ UGJJ CLHMW. /LC QNCAGDGA DC?RSPC MD ?L G0FMLC GQ RFC '03 DSLARGML. '03 SQCQ NFWQGAQ COS?RGMLQ RM BCRCPKGLC RFC BPGTGLE RGKC @CRUCCL RUM JMA?RGMLQ ML ? K?N. (APCBGR: EJCRF?K ')3, 3MAG?J, -M@GJC 4CAF )K?ECQ)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

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!NNJGA?RGMLQ MD 0FWQGAQ
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tQ GELGRGML QWQRCK ?Q UCJJ ?Q RFC RP?LQKGQQGML MD CJCARPGA?J QGEL?JQ RFPMSEF MSP @MBWtQ LCPTMSQ QWQRCK ?PC KSAF C?QGCP RM SLBCPQR?LB UFCL WMS RFGLI ?@MSR RFCK GL RCPKQ MD @?QGA NFWQGAQ. 0FWQGAQ GQ RFC DMSLB?RGML MD K?LW GKNMPR?LR BGQAGNJGLCQ ?LB AMLRPG@SRCQ BGPCARJW RM MRFCPQ. #FCKGQRPW, DMP CV?KNJCrQGLAC GR BC?JQ UGRF RFC GLRCP?ARGMLQ MD ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQr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

F?=KH; 1.4 4FC J?UQ MD NFWQGAQ FCJN SQ SLBCPQR?LB FMU AMKKML ?NNJG?LACQ UMPI. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC J?UQ MD NFWQGAQ A?L FCJN CVNJ?GL FMU KGAPMU?TC MTCLQ FC?R SN DMMB, ?LB RFCW ?JQM FCJN SQ SLBCPQR?LB UFW GR GQ B?LECPMSQ RM NJ?AC KCR?J M@HCARQ GL ? KGAPMU?TC MTCL. (APCBGR: -MLCW"JME.CUX)

F?=KH; 1.5 4FCQC RUM ?NNJGA?RGMLQ MD NFWQGAQ F?TC KMPC GL AMKKML RF?L KCCRQ RFC CWC. -GAPMU?TC MTCLQ SQC CJCARPMK?ELCRGA U?TCQ RM FC?R DMMB. -?ELCRGA PCQML?LAC GK?EGLE (-2)) ?JQM SQCQ CJCARPMK?ELCRGA U?TCQ RM WGCJB ?L GK?EC MD RFC @P?GL, DPMK UFGAF RFC CV?AR JMA?RGML MD RSKMPQ A?L @C BCRCPKGLCB. (APCBGR: 2?QFKG #F?UJ?, $?LGCJ 3KGRF, ?LB 0?SJ %. -?PGI)

F?=KH; 1.6 0FWQGAQ, AFCKGQRPW, ?LB @GMJMEW FCJN BCQAPG@C RFC NPMNCPRGCQ MD ACJJ U?JJQ GL NJ?LR ACJJQ, QSAF ?Q RFC MLGML ACJJQ QCCL FCPC. (APCBGR: 5K@CPRM 3?JT?ELGL)

14

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

F?=KH; 1.7 !L ?PRGQRtQ PCLBGRGML MD RFC RFC QRPSARSPC MD ? ACJJ KCK@P?LC. -CK@P?LCQ DMPK RFC @MSLB?PGCQ MD ?LGK?J ACJJQ ?LB ?PC AMKNJCV GL QRPSARSPC ?LB DSLARGML. -?LW MD RFC KMQR DSLB?KCLR?J NPMNCPRGCQ MD JGDC, QSAF ?Q RFC DGPGLE MD LCPTC ACJJQ, ?PC PCJ?RCB RM KCK@P?LCQ. 4FC BGQAGNJGLCQ MD @GMJMEW, AFCKGQRPW, ?LB NFWQGAQ ?JJ FCJN SQ SLBCPQR?LB RFC KCK@P?LCQ MD ?LGK?J ACJJQ. (APCBGR: -?PG?L? 2SGX)

-MBCJQ, 4FCMPGCQ, ?LB ,?UQ; 4FC 2MJC MD %VNCPGKCLR?RGML


4FC J?UQ MD L?RSPC ?PC AMLAGQC BCQAPGNRGMLQ MD RFC SLGTCPQC ?PMSLB SQ; RFCW ?PC FSK?L QR?RCKCLRQ MD RFC SLBCPJWGLE J?UQ MP PSJCQ RF?R ?JJ L?RSP?J NPMACQQCQ DMJJMU. 3SAF J?UQ ?PC GLRPGLQGA RM RFC SLGTCPQC; FSK?LQ BGB LMR APC?RC RFCK ?LB QM A?LLMR AF?LEC RFCK. 7C A?L MLJW BGQAMTCP ?LB SLBCPQR?LB RFCK. 4FCGP BGQAMTCPW GQ ? TCPW FSK?L CLBC?TMP, UGRF ?JJ RFC CJCKCLRQ MD KWQRCPW, GK?EGL?RGML, QRPSEEJC, RPGSKNF, ?LB BGQ?NNMGLRKCLR GLFCPCLR GL ?LW APC?RGTC CDDMPR. (3CC F?=KH; 1.8 ?LB F?=KH; 1.9.) 4FC AMPLCPQRMLC MD BGQAMTCPGLE L?RSP?J J?UQ GQ M@QCPT?RGML; QAGCLAC KSQR BCQAPG@C RFC SLGTCPQC ?Q GR GQ, LMR ?Q UC K?W GK?EGLC GR RM @C.

F?=KH; 1.8 "I779 ';MJED (1642q1727) U?Q TCPW PCJSAR?LR RM NS@JGQF FGQ PCTMJSRGML?PW UMPI ?LB F?B RM @C AMLTGLACB RM BM QM. )L FGQ J?RCP WC?PQ, FC QRCNNCB BMUL DPMK FGQ ?A?BCKGA NMQR ?LB @CA?KC CVAFCOSCP MD RFC 2MW?J -GLR. (C RMMI RFGQ NMQR QCPGMSQJW, GLTCLRGLE PCCBGLE (MP APC?RGLE PGBECQ) ML RFC CBEC MD AMGLQ RM NPCTCLR SLQAPSNSJMSQ NCMNJC DPMK RPGKKGLE RFC QGJTCP MDD MD RFCK @CDMPC SQGLE RFCK ?Q ASPPCLAW. (APCBGR: !PRFSP 3FSQRCP ?LB !PRFSP %. 3FGNJCW: BE<G4<AVF H8E<G4:8 B9 *6<8A68. ,MLBML, 1917.)

F?=KH; 1.9 &7H?; CKH?; (1867q1934) Q?APGDGACB KMLCR?PW ?QQCRQ RM FCJN DGL?LAC FCP C?PJW PCQC?PAF ?LB B?K?ECB FCP NFWQGA?J UCJJ-@CGLE UGRF P?BG?RGML CVNMQSPC. 3FC GQ RFC MLJW NCPQML RM UGL .M@CJ NPGXCQ GL @MRF NFWQGAQ ?LB AFCKGQRPW. /LC MD FCP B?SEFRCPQ ?JQM UML ? .M@CJ 0PGXC. (APCBGR: 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

15

7C ?JJ ?PC ASPGMSQ RM QMKC CVRCLR. 7C JMMI ?PMSLB, K?IC ECLCP?JGX?RGMLQ, ?LB RPW RM SLBCPQR?LB UF?R UC QCCr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tQ RFCMPW MD EP?TGRW, DMP CV?KNJC, BMCQ LMR PCOSGPC ? KMBCJ MP KCLR?J GK?EC, @CA?SQC UC A?L M@QCPTC RFC M@HCARQ BGPCARJW UGRF MSP MUL QCLQCQ. 4FC IGLCRGA RFCMPW MD E?QCQ, ML RFC MRFCP F?LB, GQ ? KMBCJ GL UFGAF ? E?Q GQ TGCUCB ?Q @CGLE AMKNMQCB MD ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ. !RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ ?PC RMM QK?JJ RM @C M@QCPTCB BGPCARJW UGRF MSP QCLQCQrRFSQ, UC NGARSPC RFCK KCLR?JJW RM SLBCPQR?LB UF?R MSP GLQRPSKCLRQ RCJJ SQ ?@MSR RFC @CF?TGMP MD E?QCQ. ! B7M SQCQ AMLAGQC J?LES?EC RM BCQAPG@C ? ECLCP?JGXCB N?RRCPL GL L?RSPC RF?R GQ QSNNMPRCB @W QAGCLRGDGA CTGBCLAC ?LB PCNC?RCB CVNCPGKCLRQ. /DRCL, ? J?U A?L @C CVNPCQQCB GL RFC DMPK MD ? QGLEJC K?RFCK?RGA?J COS?RGML. ,?UQ ?LB RFCMPGCQ ?PC QGKGJ?P GL RF?R RFCW ?PC @MRF QAGCLRGDGA QR?RCKCLRQ RF?R PCQSJR DPMK ? RCQRCB FWNMRFCQGQ ?LB ?PC QSNNMPRCB @W QAGCLRGDGA CTGBCLAC. (MUCTCP, RFC BCQGEL?RGML ?4J GQ PCQCPTCB DMP ? AMLAGQC ?LB TCPW ECLCP?J QR?RCKCLR RF?R BCQAPG@CQ NFCLMKCL? GL L?RSPC, QSAF ?Q RFC J?U RF?R CLCPEW GQ AMLQCPTCB BSPGLE ?LW NPMACQQ, MP .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML, UFGAF PCJ?RCQ DMPAC, K?QQ, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML @W RFC QGKNJC COS?RGML F = ma . ! RFCMPW, GL AMLRP?QR, GQ ? JCQQ AMLAGQC QR?RCKCLR MD M@QCPTCB NFCLMKCL?. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC 4FCMPW MD %TMJSRGML ?LB RFC 4FCMPW MD 2CJ?RGTGRW A?LLMR @C CVNPCQQCB AMLAGQCJW CLMSEF RM @C AMLQGBCPCB ? J?U. 4FC @GEECQR BGDDCPCLAC @CRUCCL ? J?U ?LB ? RFCMPW GQ RF?R ? RFCMPW GQ KSAF KMPC AMKNJCV ?LB BWL?KGA. ! J?U BCQAPG@CQ ? QGLEJC ?ARGML, UFCPC?Q ? RFCMPW CVNJ?GLQ ?L CLRGPC EPMSN MD PCJ?RCB NFCLMKCL?. !LB, UFCPC?Q ? J?U GQ ? NMQRSJ?RC RF?R DMPKQ RFC DMSLB?RGML MD RFC QAGCLRGDGA KCRFMB, ? RFCMPW GQ RFC CLB PCQSJR MD RF?R NPMACQQ. ,CQQ @PM?BJW ?NNJGA?@JC QR?RCKCLRQ ?PC SQS?JJW A?JJCB NPGLAGNJCQ (QSAF ?Q 0?QA?JtQ NPGLAGNJC, UFGAF GQ ?NNJGA?@JC MLJW GL DJSGBQ), @SR RFC BGQRGLARGML @CRUCCL J?UQ ?LB NPGLAGNJCQ MDRCL GQ LMR A?PCDSJJW K?BC.

F?=KH; 1.10 7F?R GQ ? KMBCJ? 4FGQ NJ?LCR?PW KMBCJ MD RFC ?RMK QFMUQ CJCARPMLQ MP@GRGLE RFC LSAJCSQ. )R GQ ? BP?UGLE RF?R UC SQC RM DMPK ? KCLR?J GK?EC MD RFC ?RMK RF?R UC A?LLMR QCC BGPCARJW UGRF MSP CWCQ @CA?SQC GR GQ RMM QK?JJ.

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

16

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

4FC %TMJSRGML MD .?RSP?J 0FGJMQMNFW GLRM -MBCPL 0FWQGAQ


0FWQGAQ U?Q LMR ?JU?WQ ? QCN?P?RC ?LB BGQRGLAR BGQAGNJGLC. )R PCK?GLQ AMLLCARCB RM MRFCP QAGCLACQ RM RFGQ B?W. 4FC UMPB C;LF<6F AMKCQ DPMK 'PCCI, KC?LGLE L?RSPC. 4FC QRSBW MD L?RSPC A?KC RM @C A?JJCB uL?RSP?J NFGJMQMNFW.v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

F?=KH; 1.11 /TCP RFC ACLRSPGCQ, L?RSP?J NFGJMQMNFW F?Q CTMJTCB GLRM KMPC QNCAG?JGXCB BGQAGNJGLCQ, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB @W RFC AMLRPG@SRGMLQ MD QMKC MD RFC EPC?RCQR KGLBQ GL FGQRMPW. 4FC 'PCCI NFGJMQMNFCP AH?IJEJB; (384q322 ".#.) UPMRC ML ? @PM?B P?LEC MD RMNGAQ GLAJSBGLE NFWQGAQ, ?LGK?JQ, RFC QMSJ, NMJGRGAQ, ?LB NMCRPW. (APCBGR: *?QRPMU (2006)/,SBMTGQG #MJJCARGML)

F?=KH; 1.12 4GLRMPCRRM)

7B?B;E

7B?B;? (1564q1642) J?GB RFC DMSLB?RGML MD KMBCPL CVNCPGKCLR?RGML ?LB K?BC AMLRPG@SRGMLQ GL K?RFCK?RGAQ, NFWQGAQ, ?LB ?QRPMLMKW. (APCBGR: $MKCLGAM

F?=KH; 1.13 '?;BI BE>H (1885q1962) K?BC DSLB?KCLR?J AMLRPG@SRGMLQ RM RFC BCTCJMNKCLR MD OS?LRSK KCAF?LGAQ, MLC N?PR MD KMBCPL NFWQGAQ. (APCBGR: 5LGRCB 3R?RCQ ,G@P?PW MD #MLEPCQQ 0PGLRQ ?LB 0FMRMEP?NFQ $GTGQGML)

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rRFCW JCR SQ AMLACNRS?JGXC NFCLMKCL? UC BM LMR MPBGL?PGJW CVNCPGCLAC. 7C A?L PCJ?RC RM KMBCJQ GL FSK?L RCPKQ ?LB TGQS?JGXC UF?R F?NNCLQ UFCL M@HCARQ KMTC

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

17

?R FGEF QNCCBQ MP GK?EGLC UF?R M@HCARQ RMM QK?JJ RM M@QCPTC UGRF MSP QCLQCQ KGEFR @C JGIC. &MP CV?KNJC, UC A?L SLBCPQR?LB ?L ?RMKtQ NPMNCPRGCQ @CA?SQC UC A?L NGARSPC GR GL MSP KGLBQ, ?JRFMSEF UC F?TC LCTCP QCCL ?L ?RMK UGRF MSP CWCQ. .CU RMMJQ, MD AMSPQC, ?JJMU SQ RM @CRRCP NGARSPC NFCLMKCL? UC A?LLMR QCC. )L D?AR, LCU GLQRPSKCLR?RGML F?Q ?JJMUCB SQ GL PCACLR WC?PQ RM ?ARS?JJW uNGARSPCv RFC ?RMK. ,GKGRQ ML RFC ,?UQ MD #J?QQGA?J 0FWQGAQ &MP RFC J?UQ MD AJ?QQGA?J NFWQGAQ RM ?NNJW, RFC DMJJMUGLE APGRCPG? KSQR @C KCR: -?RRCP KSQR @C KMTGLE ?R QNCCBQ JCQQ RF?L ?@MSR 1% MD RFC QNCCB MD JGEFR, RFC M@HCARQ BC?JR UGRF KSQR @C J?PEC CLMSEF RM @C QCCL UGRF ? KGAPMQAMNC, ?LB MLJW UC?I EP?TGR?RGML?J DGCJBQ (QSAF ?Q RFC DGCJB ECLCP?RCB @W RFC %?PRF) A?L @C GLTMJTCB.

F?=KH; 1.14 5QGLE ? QA?LLGLE RSLLCJGLE KGAPMQAMNC (34-), QAGCLRGQRQ A?L QCC RFC GLBGTGBS?J ?RMKQ RF?R AMKNMQC RFGQ QFCCR MD EMJB. (APCBGR: %PUGLPMQQCL)

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

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


! DPGCLB RCJJQ WMS FC F?Q JC?PLCB ?@MSR ? LCU J?U MD L?RSPC. 7F?R A?L WMS ILMU ?@MSR RFC GLDMPK?RGML CTCL @CDMPC WMSP DPGCLB BCQAPG@CQ RFC J?U? (MU UMSJB RFC GLDMPK?RGML @C BGDDCPCLR GD WMSP DPGCLB RMJB WMS FC F?B JC?PLCB ?@MSR ? QAGCLRGDGA RFCMPW P?RFCP RF?L ? J?U? ,EBKJ?ED 7GRFMSR ILMUGLE RFC BCR?GJQ MD RFC J?U, WMS A?L QRGJJ GLDCP RF?R RFC GLDMPK?RGML WMSP DPGCLB F?Q JC?PLCB AMLDMPKQ RM RFC PCOSGPCKCLRQ MD ?JJ J?UQ MD L?RSPC: GR UGJJ @C ? AMLAGQC BCQAPGNRGML MD RFC SLGTCPQC ?PMSLB SQ; ? QR?RCKCLR MD RFC SLBCPJWGLE PSJCQ RF?R ?JJ L?RSP?J NPMACQQCQ DMJJMU. )D RFC GLDMPK?RGML F?B @CCL ? RFCMPW, WMS UMSJB @C ?@JC RM GLDCP RF?R RFC GLDMPK?RGML UGJJ @C ? J?PEC-QA?JC, @PM?BJW ?NNJGA?@JC ECLCP?JGX?RGML. 0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: %OS?RGML 'P?NFCP ,C?PL ?@MSR EP?NFGLE NMJWLMKG?JQ. 4FC QF?NC MD RFC ASPTC AF?LECQ ?Q RFC AMLQR?LRQ ?PC ?BHSQRCB. 6GCU RFC ASPTCQ DMP RFC GLBGTGBS?J RCPKQ (C.E. y = bx ) RM QCC FMU RFCW ?BB RM ECLCP?RC RFC NMJWLMKG?J ASPTC.

F?=KH; 1.15 EGK7J?ED

H7F>;H (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42092/1.4/;GK7J?ED-=H7F>;H6;D.@7H)

18

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

1.2 )>OI?97B *K7DJ?J?;I 7D: .D?JI

F?=KH; 1.16 4FC BGQR?LAC DPMK %?PRF RM RFC -MML K?W QCCK GKKCLQC, @SR GR GQ HSQR ? RGLW DP?ARGML MD RFC BGQR?LACQ DPMK %?PRF RM MRFCP ACJCQRG?J @MBGCQ. (APCBGR: .!3!)

4FC P?LEC MD M@HCARQ ?LB NFCLMKCL? QRSBGCB GL NFWQGAQ GQ GKKCLQC. &PMK RFC GLAPCBG@JW QFMPR JGDCRGKC MD ? LSAJCSQ RM RFC ?EC MD RFC %?PRF, DPMK RFC RGLW QGXCQ MD QS@-LSAJC?P N?PRGAJCQ RM RFC T?QR BGQR?LAC RM RFC CBECQ MD RFC ILMUL SLGTCPQC, DPMK RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W ? HSKNGLE DJC? RM RFC DMPAC @CRUCCL %?PRF ?LB RFC 3SL, RFCPC ?PC CLMSEF D?ARMPQ MD 10 RM AF?JJCLEC RFC GK?EGL?RGML MD CTCL RFC KMQR CVNCPGCLACB QAGCLRGQR. 'GTGLE LSKCPGA?J T?JSCQ DMP NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ ?LB COS?RGMLQ DMP NFWQGA?J NPGLAGNJCQ ?JJMUQ SQ RM SLBCPQR?LB L?RSPC KSAF KMPC BCCNJW RF?L BMCQ OS?JGR?RGTC BCQAPGNRGML ?JMLC. 4M AMKNPCFCLB RFCQC T?QR P?LECQ, UC KSQR ?JQM F?TC ?AACNRCB SLGRQ GL UFGAF RM CVNPCQQ RFCK. !LB UC QF?JJ DGLB RF?R (CTCL GL RFC NMRCLRG?JJW KSLB?LC BGQASQQGML MD KCRCPQ, IGJMEP?KQ, ?LB QCAMLBQ) ? NPMDMSLB QGKNJGAGRW MD L?RSPC ?NNC?PQr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

F?=KH; 1.17 $GQR?LACQ EGTCL GL SLILMUL SLGRQ ?PC K?BBCLGLEJW SQCJCQQ.

4FCPC ?PC RUM K?HMP QWQRCKQ MD SLGRQ SQCB GL RFC UMPJB: ," KD?JI (?JQM ILMUL ?Q RFC KCRPGA QWQRCK) ?LB ED=B?I> KD?JI (?JQM ILMUL ?Q RFC ASQRMK?PW MP GKNCPG?J QWQRCK). ED=B?I> KD?JI UCPC FGQRMPGA?JJW SQCB GL L?RGMLQ MLAC PSJCB @W RFC "PGRGQF %KNGPC ?LB ?PC QRGJJ UGBCJW SQCB GL RFC 5LGRCB 3R?RCQ. 6GPRS?JJW CTCPW MRFCP AMSLRPW GL RFC UMPJB LMU SQCQ 3) SLGRQ ?Q RFC QR?LB?PB; RFC KCRPGA QWQRCK GQ ?JQM RFC QR?LB?PB QWQRCK ?EPCCB SNML @W QAGCLRGQRQ ?LB K?RFCK?RGAG?LQ. 4FC ?APMLWK u3)v GQ BCPGTCB DPMK RFC &PCLAF *LFGN@8 AG8EA4G<BA4?.

3) 5LGRQ: &SLB?KCLR?J ?LB $CPGTCB 5LGRQ


-78B; 1.1 EGTCQ RFC DSLB?KCLR?J 3) SLGRQ RF?R ?PC SQCB RFPMSEFMSR RFGQ RCVR@MMI. 4FGQ RCVR SQCQ LML-3) SLGRQ GL ? DCU ?NNJGA?RGMLQ UFCPC RFCW ?PC GL TCPW AMKKML SQC, QSAF ?Q RFC KC?QSPCKCLR MD @JMMB NPCQQSPC GL KGJJGKCRCPQ MD KCPASPW (KK (E). 7FCLCTCP LML-3) SLGRQ ?PC BGQASQQCB, RFCW UGJJ @C RGCB RM 3) SLGRQ RFPMSEF AMLTCPQGMLQ. 4?@JC 1.1 &SLB?KCLR?J 3) 5LGRQ %;D=J> KCRCP (K) &7II -?C; EB;9JH?9 CKHH;DJ IGJMEP?K (IE) QCAMLB (Q) ?KNCPC (!)

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

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

19

5LGRQ MD 4GKC, ,CLERF, ?LB -?QQ: 4FC 3CAMLB, -CRCP, ?LB +GJMEP?K
->; ,;9ED: 4FC 3) SLGR DMP RGKC, RFC I;9ED:(?@@PCTG?RCB Q), F?Q ? JMLE FGQRMPW. &MP K?LW WC?PQ GR U?Q BCDGLCB ?Q 1/86,400 MD ? KC?L QMJ?P B?W. -MPC PCACLRJW, ? LCU QR?LB?PB U?Q ?BMNRCB RM E?GL EPC?RCP ?AASP?AW ?LB RM BCDGLC RFC QCAMLB GL RCPKQ MD ? LML-T?PWGLE, MP AMLQR?LR, NFWQGA?J NFCLMKCLML (@CA?SQC RFC QMJ?P B?W GQ ECRRGLE JMLECP BSC RM TCPW EP?BS?J QJMUGLE MD RFC %?PRFtQ PMR?RGML). #CQGSK ?RMKQ A?L @C K?BC RM TG@P?RC GL ? TCPW QRC?BW U?W, ?LB RFCQC TG@P?RGMLQ A?L @C PC?BGJW M@QCPTCB ?LB AMSLRCB. )L 1967 RFC QCAMLB U?Q PCBCDGLCB ?Q RFC RGKC PCOSGPCB DMP 9,192,631,770 MD RFCQC TG@P?RGMLQ. (3CC F?=KH; 1.18.) !AASP?AW GL RFC DSLB?KCLR?J SLGRQ GQ CQQCLRG?J, @CA?SQC ?JJ KC?QSPCKCLRQ ?PC SJRGK?RCJW CVNPCQQCB GL RCPKQ MD DSLB?KCLR?J SLGRQ ?LB A?L @C LM KMPC ?AASP?RC RF?L ?PC RFC DSLB?KCLR?J SLGRQ RFCKQCJTCQ.

F?=KH; 1.18 !L ?RMKGA AJMAI QSAF ?Q RFGQ MLC SQCQ RFC TG@P?RGMLQ MD ACQGSK ?RMKQ RM ICCN RGKC RM ? NPCAGQGML MD @CRRCP RF?L ? KGAPMQCAMLB NCP WC?P. 4FC DSLB?KCLR?J SLGR MD RGKC, RFC QCAMLB, GQ @?QCB ML QSAF AJMAIQ. 4FGQ GK?EC GQ JMMIGLE BMUL DPMK RFC RMN MD ?L ?RMKGA DMSLR?GL LC?PJW 30 DCCR R?JJ! (APCBGR: 3RCTC *SPTCRQML/&JGAIP)

->; &;J;H 4FC 3) SLGR DMP JCLERF GQ RFC C;J;H (?@@PCTG?RCB K); GRQ BCDGLGRGML F?Q ?JQM AF?LECB MTCP RGKC RM @CAMKC KMPC ?AASP?RC ?LB NPCAGQC. 4FC KCRCP U?Q DGPQR BCDGLCB GL 1791 ?Q 1/10,000,000 MD RFC BGQR?LAC DPMK RFC COS?RMP RM RFC .MPRF 0MJC. 4FGQ KC?QSPCKCLR U?Q GKNPMTCB GL 1889 @W PCBCDGLGLE RFC KCRCP RM @C RFC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RUM CLEP?TCB JGLCQ ML ? NJ?RGLSK-GPGBGSK @?P LMU ICNR LC?P 0?PGQ. "W 1960, GR F?B @CAMKC NMQQG@JC RM BCDGLC RFC KCRCP CTCL KMPC ?AASP?RCJW GL RCPKQ MD RFC U?TCJCLERF MD JGEFR, QM GR U?Q ?E?GL PCBCDGLCB ?Q 1,650,763.73 U?TCJCLERFQ MD MP?LEC JGEFR CKGRRCB @W IPWNRML ?RMKQ. )L 1983, RFC KCRCP U?Q EGTCL GRQ NPCQCLR BCDGLGRGML (N?PRJW DMP EPC?RCP ?AASP?AW) ?Q RFC BGQR?LAC JGEFR RP?TCJQ GL ? T?ASSK GL 1/ 299,792,458 MD ? QCAMLB. (3CC F?=KH; 1.19.) 4FGQ AF?LEC BCDGLCQ RFC QNCCB MD JGEFR RM @C CV?ARJW 299,792,458 KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB. 4FC JCLERF MD RFC KCRCP UGJJ AF?LEC GD RFC QNCCB MD JGEFR GQ QMKCB?W KC?QSPCB UGRF EPC?RCP ?AASP?AW. ->; $?BE=H7C 4FC 3) SLGR DMP K?QQ GQ RFC A?BE=H7C (?@@PCTG?RCB IE); GR GQ BCDGLCB RM @C RFC K?QQ MD ? NJ?RGLSK-GPGBGSK AWJGLBCP ICNR UGRF RFC MJB KCRCP QR?LB?PB ?R RFC )LRCPL?RGML?J "SPC?S MD 7CGEFRQ ?LB -C?QSPCQ LC?P 0?PGQ. %V?AR PCNJGA?Q MD RFC QR?LB?PB IGJMEP?K ?PC ?JQM ICNR ?R RFC 5LGRCB 3R?RCQt .?RGML?J )LQRGRSRC MD 3R?LB?PBQ ?LB 4CAFLMJMEW, MP .)34, JMA?RCB GL '?GRFCPQ@SPE, -?PWJ?LB MSRQGBC MD 7?QFGLERML $.#., ?LB ?R MRFCP JMA?RGMLQ ?PMSLB RFC UMPJB. 4FC BCRCPKGL?RGML MD ?JJ MRFCP K?QQCQ A?L @C SJRGK?RCJW RP?ACB RM ? AMKN?PGQML UGRF RFC QR?LB?PB K?QQ.

F?=KH; 1.19 4FC KCRCP GQ BCDGLCB RM @C RFC BGQR?LAC JGEFR RP?TCJQ GL 1/299,792,458 MD ? QCAMLB GL ? T?ASSK. $GQR?LAC RP?TCJCB GQ QNCCB KSJRGNJGCB @W RGKC.

%JCARPGA ASPPCLR ?LB GRQ ?AAMKN?LWGLE SLGR, RFC ?KNCPC, UGJJ @C GLRPMBSACB GL "DJHE:K9J?ED JE EB;9JH?9 CKHH;DJ, +;I?IJ7D9;, 7D: (>C'I %7M UFCL CJCARPGAGRW ?LB K?ELCRGQK ?PC AMTCPCB. 4FC GLGRG?J KMBSJCQ GL RFGQ RCVR@MMI ?PC AMLACPLCB UGRF KCAF?LGAQ, DJSGBQ, FC?R, ?LB U?TCQ. )L RFCQC QS@HCARQ ?JJ NCPRGLCLR NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ A?L @C CVNPCQQCB GL RCPKQ MD RFC DSLB?KCLR?J SLGRQ MD JCLERF, K?QQ, ?LB RGKC.

-CRPGA 0PCDGVCQ
3) SLGRQ ?PC N?PR MD RFC C;JH?9 IOIJ;C. 4FC KCRPGA QWQRCK GQ AMLTCLGCLR DMP QAGCLRGDGA ?LB CLEGLCCPGLE A?JASJ?RGMLQ @CA?SQC RFC SLGRQ ?PC A?RCEMPGXCB @W D?ARMPQ MD 10. -78B; 1.2 EGTCQ KCRPGA NPCDGVCQ ?LB QWK@MJQ SQCB RM BCLMRC T?PGMSQ D?ARMPQ MD 10. -CRPGA QWQRCKQ F?TC RFC ?BT?LR?EC RF?R AMLTCPQGMLQ MD SLGRQ GLTMJTC MLJW NMUCPQ MD 10. 4FCPC ?PC 100 ACLRGKCRCPQ GL ? KCRCP, 1000 KCRCPQ GL ? IGJMKCRCP, ?LB QM ML. )L LMLKCRPGA QWQRCKQ, QSAF ?Q RFC QWQRCK MD 5.3. ASQRMK?PW SLGRQ, RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ ?PC LMR ?Q QGKNJCrRFCPC ?PC 12 GLAFCQ GL ? DMMR, 5280 DCCR GL ? KGJC, ?LB QM ML. !LMRFCP ?BT?LR?EC MD RFC KCRPGA QWQRCK GQ RF?R RFC Q?KC SLGR A?L @C SQCB MTCP CVRPCKCJW J?PEC P?LECQ MD T?JSCQ QGKNJW @W SQGLE ?L ?NNPMNPG?RC KCRPGA NPCDGV. &MP CV?KNJC, BGQR?LACQ GL KCRCPQ ?PC QSGR?@JC GL AMLQRPSARGML, UFGJC BGQR?LACQ GL IGJMKCRCPQ ?PC ?NNPMNPG?RC DMP ?GP RP?TCJ, ?LB RFC RGLW KC?QSPC MD L?LMKCRCPQ ?PC AMLTCLGCLR GL MNRGA?J BCQGEL. 7GRF RFC KCRPGA QWQRCK RFCPC GQ LM LCCB RM GLTCLR LCU SLGRQ DMP N?PRGASJ?P ?NNJGA?RGMLQ. 4FC RCPK EH:;H E< C7=D?JK:; PCDCPQ RM RFC QA?JC MD ? T?JSC CVNPCQQCB GL RFC KCRPGA QWQRCK. %?AF NMUCP MD 10 GL RFC KCRPGA QWQRCK PCNPCQCLRQ ? 3 BGDDCPCLR MPBCP MD K?ELGRSBC. &MP CV?KNJC, 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 , ?LB QM DMPRF ?PC ?JJ BGDDCPCLR MPBCPQ MD K?ELGRSBC. !JJ OS?LRGRGCQ RF?R A?L @C CVNPCQQCB ?Q ? NPMBSAR MD ? QNCAGDGA NMUCP MD

10 ?PC Q?GB RM @C MD RFC F4@8 MPBCP MD K?ELGRSBC. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC LSK@CP 800 A?L @C UPGRRCL ?Q 810 2 , ?LB

20

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

RFC LSK@CP

450 A?L @C UPGRRCL ?Q 4.510 2. 4FSQ, RFC LSK@CPQ 800 ?LB 450 ?PC MD RFC Q?KC MPBCP MD K?ELGRSBC: 10 2. /PBCP MD K?ELGRSBC 10 9 m.

A?L @C RFMSEFR MD ?Q ? @?JJN?PI CQRGK?RC DMP RFC QA?JC MD ? T?JSC. 4FC BG?KCRCP MD ?L ?RMK GQ ML RFC MPBCP MD GQ ML RFC MPBCP MD

10 9 m, UFGJC RFC BG?KCRCP MD RFC 3SL

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r BCAG ACLRG KGJJG KGAPM L?LM NGAM DCKRM ?RRM % 0 4 ' I F B? r B A K ^ L N D ? ,OC8EB /7BK;415 EN7CFB; (IEC; 7H; 7FFHEN?C7J;) CV?KCRCP %K
18

10

10 18 m 10 15 s 10 12 W 10 9 Hz 10 6 Ci 10 3 m 10 2 L 10 1 g

BGQR?LAC JGEFR RP?TCJQ GL ? ACLRSPW 30 KGJJGML WC?PQ NMUCPDSJ J?QCP MSRNSR ? KGAPMU?TC DPCOSCLAW FGEF P?BGM?ARGTGRW ?@MSR 6/10 KGJC 26 E?JJMLQ RC?QNMML MD @SRRCP

10 15 10 12 10 9 10 6 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 (=1) 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 6 10 9 10 12 10 15 10 18

NCR?QCAMLB 0Q RCP?U?RR EGE?FCPRX KCE?ASPGC IGJMKCRCP FCARMJGRCP BCI?EP?K 47 '(X -#G IK F, B?E

BCAGJGRCP ACLRGKCRCP KGJJGKCRCP

B, AK KK

10 1 L 10 2 m 10 3 m 10 6 m 10 9 g

JCQQ RF?L F?JD ? QMB? DGLECPRGN RFGAILCQQ DJC? ?R GRQ QFMSJBCPQ BCR?GJ GL KGAPMQAMNC QK?JJ QNCAI MD BSQR

KGAPMKCRCP ^K L?LMEP?K NGAMD?P?B LE N&

10 12 F QK?JJ A?N?AGRMP GL P?BGM 10 15 m QGXC MD ? NPMRML 10 18 s


RGKC JGEFR APMQQCQ ?L ?RMK

DCKRMKCRCP DK ?RRMQCAMLB ?Q

+LMUL 2?LECQ MD ,CLERF, -?QQ, ?LB 4GKC


4FC T?QRLCQQ MD RFC SLGTCPQC ?LB RFC @PC?BRF MTCP UFGAF NFWQGAQ ?NNJGCQ ?PC GJJSQRP?RCB @W RFC UGBC P?LEC MD CV?KNJCQ MD ILMUL JCLERFQ, K?QQCQ, ?LB RGKCQ GL -78B; 1.3. %V?KGL?RGML MD RFGQ R?@JC UGJJ EGTC WMS QMKC DCCJGLE DMP RFC P?LEC MD NMQQG@JC RMNGAQ ?LB LSKCPGA?J T?JSCQ. (3CC F?=KH; 1.20 ?LB F?=KH; 1.21.)

1. ,;; !NNCLBGV ! <EH 7 :?I9KII?ED E< FEM;HI E< 10.


4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

21

F?=KH; 1.20 4GLW NFWRMNJ?LIRML QUGKQ ?KMLE APWQR?JQ MD GAC GL RFC !LR?PARGA 3C?. 4FCW P?LEC DPMK ? DCU KGAPMKCRCPQ RM ?Q KSAF ?Q 2 KGJJGKCRCPQ GL JCLERF. (APCBGR: 0PMD. 'MPBML 4. 4?WJMP, 3RMLW "PMMI 5LGTCPQGRW; ./!! #MPNQ #MJJCARGMLQ)

F?=KH; 1.21 '?J?VGCQ AMJJGBC 2.4 @GJJGML JGEFR WC?PQ ?U?W DPMK %?PRF. 4FC RPCKCLBMSQ P?LEC MD M@QCPT?@JC NFCLMKCL? GL L?RSPC AF?JJCLECQ RFC GK?EGL?RGML. (APCBGR: .!3!/ #8#/56GA./!. -?FB?TG CR ?J. /NRGA?J/JCLQGLE: #&(4/56GA./(. (MCIQRP? CR ?J.)

5LGR #MLTCPQGML ?LB $GKCLQGML?J !L?JWQGQ


)R GQ MDRCL LCACQQ?PW RM AMLTCPR DPMK MLC RWNC MD SLGR RM ?LMRFCP. &MP CV?KNJC, GD WMS ?PC PC?BGLE ? %SPMNC?L AMMI@MMI, QMKC OS?LRGRGCQ K?W @C CVNPCQQCB GL SLGRQ MD JGRCPQ ?LB WMS LCCB RM AMLTCPR RFCK RM ASNQ. /P, NCPF?NQ WMS ?PC PC?BGLE U?JIGLE BGPCARGMLQ DPMK MLC JMA?RGML RM ?LMRFCP ?LB WMS ?PC GLRCPCQRCB GL FMU K?LW KGJCQ WMS UGJJ @C U?JIGLE. )L RFGQ A?QC, WMS UGJJ LCCB RM AMLTCPR SLGRQ MD DCCR RM KGJCQ. ,CR SQ AMLQGBCP ? QGKNJC CV?KNJC MD FMU RM AMLTCPR SLGRQ. ,CR SQ Q?W RF?R UC U?LR RM AMLTCPR 80 KCRCPQ (K) RM IGJMKCRCPQ (IK). 4FC DGPQR RFGLE RM BM GQ RM JGQR RFC SLGRQ RF?R WMS F?TC ?LB RFC SLGRQ RF?R WMS U?LR RM AMLTCPR RM. )L RFGQ A?QC, UC F?TC SLGRQ GL @8G8EF ?LB UC U?LR RM AMLTCPR RM ><?B@8G8EF. .CVR, UC LCCB RM BCRCPKGLC ? 9EDL;HI?ED <79JEH PCJ?RGLE KCRCPQ RM IGJMKCRCPQ. ! AMLTCPQGML D?ARMP GQ ? P?RGM CVNPCQQGLE FMU K?LW MD MLC SLGR ?PC COS?J RM ?LMRFCP SLGR. &MP CV?KNJC, RFCPC ?PC 12 GLAFCQ GL 1 DMMR, 100 ACLRGKCRCPQ GL 1 KCRCP, 60 QCAMLBQ GL 1 KGLSRC, ?LB QM ML. )L RFGQ A?QC, UC ILMU RF?R RFCPC ?PC 1,000 KCRCPQ GL 1 IGJMKCRCP. .MU UC A?L QCR SN MSP SLGR AMLTCPQGML. 7C UGJJ UPGRC RFC SLGRQ RF?R UC F?TC ?LB RFCL KSJRGNJW RFCK @W RFC AMLTCPQGML D?ARMP QM RF?R RFC SLGRQ A?LACJ MSR, ?Q QFMUL:

80m 1 km = 0.080 km. 1000m


.MRC RF?R RFC SLU?LRCB K SLGR A?LACJQ, JC?TGLE MLJW RFC BCQGPCB IK SLGR. 9MS A?L SQC RFGQ KCRFMB RM AMLTCPR @CRUCCL ?LW RWNCQ MD SLGR. #JGAI AFF;D:?N C DMP ? KMPC AMKNJCRC JGQR MD AMLTCPQGML D?ARMPQ.

(1.1)

22

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

4?@JC 1.3 !NNPMVGK?RC 6?JSCQ MD ,CLERF, -?QQ, ?LB 4GKC %;D=J>I ?D C;J;HI &7II;I ?D A?BE=H7CI (CEH; FH;9?I; L7BK;I ?D F7H;DJ>;I;I) -?C;I ?D I;9ED:I (CEH; FH;9?I; L7BK;I ?D F7H;DJ>;I;I)

10 18 M@QCPT?@JC BCR?GJ

0PCQCLR CVNCPGKCLR?J JGKGR RM QK?JJCQR

10 30 10 27

-?QQ MD ?L CJCARPML 31
9.1110

kg

10 23 4GKC DMP JGEFR RM APMQQ ? NPMRML 10 22 LSAJCSQ 10 15 JGEFR


-C?L JGDC MD ?L CVRPCKCJW SLQR?@JC 4GKC DMP MLC MQAGJJ?RGML MD TGQG@JC 4GKC DMP MLC TG@P?RGML MD ?L ?RMK 4GKC DMP MLC MQAGJJ?RGML MD ?L &P?BGM U?TC $SP?RGML MD ? LCPTC GKNSJQC 4GKC DMP MLC FC?PR@C?R /LC B?W 8.6410 4 s /LC WC?P (W) 3.1610

10 15 $G?KCRCP MD ? NPMRML 10 14 $G?KCRCP MD ? SP?LGSK LSAJCSQ 10 10 $G?KCRCP MD ? FWBPMECL ?RMK 10 8 10 6 10 3 1 10 2 10 4 10 7 10 11 10 16 10 21 10 22 10 26


4FGAILCQQ MD KCK@P?LCQ GL ACJJQ MD JGTGLE MPE?LGQKQ 7?TCJCLERF MD TGQG@JC JGEFR 3GXC MD ? EP?GL MD Q?LB (CGEFR MD ? 4-WC?P-MJB AFGJB ,CLERF MD ? DMMR@?JJ DGCJB 'PC?RCQR MAC?L BCNRF $G?KCRCP MD RFC %?PRF $GQR?LAC DPMK RFC %?PRF RM RFC 3SL $GQR?LAC RP?TCJCB @W JGEFR GL 1 WC?P (? JGEFR WC?P) $G?KCRCP MD RFC -GJIW 7?W E?J?VW $GQR?LAC DPMK RFC %?PRF RM RFC LC?PCQR J?PEC E?J?VW (!LBPMKCB?) $GQR?LAC DPMK RFC %?PRF RM RFC CBECQ MD RFC ILMUL SLGTCPQC

-?QQ MD ? FWBPMECL ?RMK 27


1.6710

kg

10 15 -?QQ MD ? @?ARCPGSK 10 5 10 2 1 10 2 10 3 10 8 10 12 10 15 10 23 10 25 10 30 10 42 10 53
-?QQ MD ? KMQOSGRM -?QQ MD ? FSKKGLE@GPB -?QQ MD ? JGRCP MD U?RCP (?@MSR ? OS?PR) -?QQ MD ? NCPQML -?QQ MD ? A?P -?QQ MD ? J?PEC QFGN -?QQ MD ? J?PEC GAC@CPE -?QQ MD RFC LSAJCSQ MD ? AMKCR -?QQ MD RFC -MML 7.3510 22 -?QQ MD RFC %?PRF 5.9710 24 -?QQ MD RFC 3SL 1.9910

10 13 GL ? QMJGB 10 8 10 3 1 10 5 10 7 10 9 10 11 kg kg kg 10 17 10 18

!@MSR F?JD RFC JGDC CVNCAR?LAW MD ? FSK?L 2CAMPBCB FGQRMPW !EC MD RFC %?PRF !EC MD RFC SLGTCPQC

30

-?QQ MD RFC -GJIW 7?W E?J?VW (ASPPCLR SNNCP JGKGR) -?QQ MD RFC ILMUL SLGTCPQC (ASPPCLR SNNCP JGKGR)

EN7CFB; 1.1 .D?J CEDL;HI?EDI: A ,>EHJ DH?L; !EC;


3SNNMQC RF?R WMS BPGTC RFC 10.0 IK DPMK WMSP SLGTCPQGRW RM FMKC GL 20.0 KGL. #?JASJ?RC WMSP ?TCP?EC QNCCB (?) GL IGJMKCRCPQ NCP FMSP (IK/F) ?LB (@) GL KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB (K/Q). (.MRC: !TCP?EC QNCCB GQ BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB BGTGBCB @W RGKC MD RP?TCJ.) ,JH7J;=O &GPQR UC A?JASJ?RC RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB SQGLE RFC EGTCL SLGRQ. 4FCL UC A?L ECR RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB GLRM RFC BCQGPCB SLGRQ @W NGAIGLE RFC AMPPCAR AMLTCPQGML D?ARMP ?LB KSJRGNJWGLE @W GR. 4FC AMPPCAR AMLTCPQGML D?ARMP GQ RFC MLC RF?R A?LACJQ RFC SLU?LRCB SLGR ?LB JC?TCQ RFC BCQGPCB SLGR GL GRQ NJ?AC. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) (1) #?JASJ?RC ?TCP?EC QNCCB. !TCP?EC QNCCB GQ BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB BGTGBCB @W RGKC MD RP?TCJ. (4?IC RFGQ BCDGLGRGML ?Q ? EGTCL DMP LMUr?TCP?EC QNCCB ?LB MRFCP KMRGML AMLACNRQ UGJJ @C AMTCPCB GL ? J?RCP KMBSJC.) )L COS?RGML DMPK,

average speed = distance . time


(2) 3S@QRGRSRC RFC EGTCL T?JSCQ DMP BGQR?LAC ?LB RGKC.

(1.2)

average speed = 10.0 km = 0.500 km . min 20.0 min


(3) #MLTCPR IK/KGL RM IK/F: KSJRGNJW @W RFC AMLTCPQGML D?ARMP RF?R UGJJ A?LACJ KGLSRCQ ?LB JC?TC FMSPQ. 4F?R AMLTCPQGML D?ARMP GQ 4FSQ,

(1.3)

60 min/hr .
(1.4)

average speed =0.500 km 60 min = 30.0 km . min 1h h

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

23

D?I9KII?ED <EH (7) 4M AFCAI WMSP ?LQUCP, AMLQGBCP RFC DMJJMUGLE: (1) "C QSPC RF?R WMS F?TC NPMNCPJW A?LACJJCB RFC SLGRQ GL RFC SLGR AMLTCPQGML. )D WMS F?TC UPGRRCL RFC SLGR AMLTCPQGML D?ARMP SNQGBC BMUL, RFC SLGRQ UGJJ LMR A?LACJ NPMNCPJW GL RFC COS?RGML. )D WMS ?AAGBCLR?JJW ECR RFC P?RGM SNQGBC BMUL, RFCL RFC SLGRQ UGJJ LMR A?LACJ; P?RFCP, RFCW UGJJ EGTC WMS RFC UPMLE SLGRQ ?Q DMJJMUQ:

km 1 hr = 1 km hr , min 60 min 60 min 2


UFGAF ?PC M@TGMSQJW LMR RFC BCQGPCB SLGRQ MD IK/F.

(1.5)

(2) #FCAI RF?R RFC SLGRQ MD RFC DGL?J ?LQUCP ?PC RFC BCQGPCB SLGRQ. 4FC NPM@JCK ?QICB SQ RM QMJTC DMP ?TCP?EC QNCCB GL SLGRQ MD IK/F ?LB UC F?TC GLBCCB M@R?GLCB RFCQC SLGRQ. (3) #FCAI RFC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ. "CA?SQC C?AF MD RFC T?JSCQ EGTCL GL RFC NPM@JCK F?Q RFPCC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ, RFC ?LQUCP QFMSJB ?JQM F?TC RFPCC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ. 4FC ?LQUCP 30.0 IK/FP BMCQ GLBCCB F?TC RFPCC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ, QM RFGQ GQ ?NNPMNPG?RC. .MRC RF?R RFC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ GL RFC AMLTCPQGML D?ARMP ?PC LMR PCJCT?LR @CA?SQC ?L FMSP GQ 789<A87 RM @C 60 KGLSRCQ, QM RFC NPCAGQGML MD RFC AMLTCPQGML D?ARMP GQ NCPDCAR. (4) .CVR, AFCAI UFCRFCP RFC ?LQUCP GQ PC?QML?@JC. ,CR SQ AMLQGBCP QMKC GLDMPK?RGML DPMK RFC NPM@JCKrGD WMS RP?TCJ 10 IK GL ? RFGPB MD ?L FMSP (20 KGL), WMS UMSJB RP?TCJ RFPCC RGKCQ RF?R D?P GL ?L FMSP. 4FC ?LQUCP BMCQ QCCK PC?QML?@JC. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) 4FCPC ?PC QCTCP?J U?WQ RM AMLTCPR RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB GLRM KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB. (1) 3R?PR UGRF RFC ?LQUCP RM (?) ?LB AMLTCPR IK/F RM K/Q. 4UM AMLTCPQGML D?ARMPQ ?PC LCCBCBrMLC RM AMLTCPR FMSPQ RM QCAMLBQ, ?LB ?LMRFCP RM AMLTCPR IGJMKCRCPQ RM KCRCPQ. (2) -SJRGNJWGLE @W RFCQC WGCJBQ

Average speed = 30.0 km 1 h 1,000 m , h 3,600 s 1 km Average speed = 8.33 m s.


D?I9KII?ED <EH (8)

(1.6) (1.7)

)D UC F?B QR?PRCB UGRF 0.500 IK/KGL, UC UMSJB F?TC LCCBCB BGDDCPCLR AMLTCPQGML D?ARMPQ, @SR RFC ?LQUCP UMSJB F?TC @CCL RFC Q?KC: 8.33 K/Q. 9MS K?W F?TC LMRCB RF?R RFC ?LQUCPQ GL RFC UMPICB CV?KNJC HSQR AMTCPCB UCPC EGTCL RM RFPCC BGEGRQ. 7FW? 7FCL BM WMS LCCB RM @C AMLACPLCB ?@MSR RFC LSK@CP MD BGEGRQ GL QMKCRFGLE WMS A?JASJ?RC? 7FW LMR UPGRC BMUL ?JJ RFC BGEGRQ WMSP A?JASJ?RMP NPMBSACQ? 4FC KMBSJC A99KH79O, )H;9?I?ED, 7D: ,?=D?<?97DJ F?=KH;I UGJJ FCJN WMS ?LQUCP RFCQC OSCQRGMLQ.

.MLQR?LB?PB 5LGRQ 7FGJC RFCPC ?PC LSKCPMSQ RWNCQ MD SLGRQ RF?R UC ?PC ?JJ D?KGJG?P UGRF, RFCPC ?PC MRFCPQ RF?R ?PC KSAF KMPC M@QASPC. &MP CV?KNJC, ? <?HA?D GQ ? SLGR MD TMJSKC RF?R U?Q MLAC SQCB RM KC?QSPC @CCP. /LC DGPIGL COS?JQ ?@MSR 34 JGRCPQ. 4M JC?PL KMPC ?@MSR LMLQR?LB?PB SLGRQ, SQC ? BGARGML?PW MP CLAWAJMNCBG? RM PCQC?PAF BGDDCPCLR uUCGEFRQ ?LB KC?QSPCQ.v 4?IC LMRC MD ?LW SLSQS?J SLGRQ, QSAF ?Q ? @?PJCWAMPL, RF?R ?PC LMR JGQRCB GL RFC RCVR. 4FGLI ?@MSR FMU RFC SLGR GQ BCDGLCB ?LB QR?RC GRQ PCJ?RGMLQFGN RM 3) SLGRQ.

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


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

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


/LC AS@GA ACLRGKCRCP GQ COS?J RM MLC KGJJGJGRCP. 7F?R BMCQ RFGQ RCJJ WMS ?@MSR RFC BGDDCPCLR SLGRQ GL RFC 3) KCRPGA QWQRCK? ,EBKJ?ED 4FC DSLB?KCLR?J SLGR MD JCLERF (KCRCP) GQ NPM@?@JW SQCB RM APC?RC RFC BCPGTCB SLGR MD TMJSKC (JGRCP). 4FC KC?QSPC MD ? KGJJGJGRCP GQ BCNCLBCLR ML RFC KC?QSPC MD ? ACLRGKCRCP.

24

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

1.3 A99KH79O, )H;9?I?ED, 7D: ,?=D?<?97DJ F?=KH;I

F?=KH; 1.22 ! BMS@JC-N?L KCAF?LGA?J @?J?LAC GQ SQCB RM AMKN?PC BGDDCPCLR K?QQCQ. 5QS?JJW ?L M@HCAR UGRF SLILMUL K?QQ GQ NJ?ACB GL MLC N?L ?LB M@HCARQ MD ILMUL K?QQ ?PC NJ?ACB GL RFC MRFCP N?L. 7FCL RFC @?P RF?R AMLLCARQ RFC RUM N?LQ GQ FMPGXMLR?J, RFCL RFC K?QQCQ GL @MRF N?LQ ?PC COS?J. 4FC uILMUL K?QQCQv ?PC RWNGA?JJW KCR?J AWJGLBCPQ MD QR?LB?PB K?QQ QSAF ?Q 1 EP?K, 10 EP?KQ, ?LB 100 EP?KQ. (APCBGR: 3CPEC -CJIG)

F?=KH; 1.23 -?LW KCAF?LGA?J @?J?LACQ, QSAF ?Q BMS@JC-N?L @?J?LACQ, F?TC @CCL PCNJ?ACB @W BGEGR?J QA?JCQ, UFGAF A?L RWNGA?JJW KC?QSPC RFC K?QQ MD ?L M@HCAR KMPC NPCAGQCJW. 7FCPC?Q ? KCAF?LGA?J @?J?LAC K?W MLJW PC?B RFC K?QQ MD ?L M@HCAR RM RFC LC?PCQR RCLRF MD ? EP?K, K?LW BGEGR?J QA?JCQ A?L KC?QSPC RFC K?QQ MD ?L M@HCAR SN RM RFC LC?PCQR RFMSQ?LBRF MD ? EP?K. (APCBGR: +?PCJ *?IS@CA)

!AASP?AW ?LB 0PCAGQGML MD ? -C?QSPCKCLR


3AGCLAC GQ @?QCB ML M@QCPT?RGML ?LB CVNCPGKCLRrRF?R GQ, ML KC?QSPCKCLRQ. A99KH79O GQ FMU AJMQC ? KC?QSPCKCLR GQ RM RFC AMPPCAR T?JSC DMP RF?R KC?QSPCKCLR. &MP CV?KNJC, JCR SQ Q?W RF?R WMS ?PC KC?QSPGLE RFC JCLERF MD QR?LB?PB AMKNSRCP N?NCP. 4FC N?AI?EGLE GL UFGAF WMS NSPAF?QCB RFC N?NCP QR?RCQ RF?R GR GQ 11.0 GLAFCQ JMLE. 9MS KC?QSPC RFC JCLERF MD RFC N?NCP RFPCC RGKCQ ?LB M@R?GL RFC DMJJMUGLE KC?QSPCKCLRQ: 11.1 GL., 11.2 GL., ?LB 10.9 GL. 4FCQC KC?QSPCKCLRQ ?PC OSGRC ?AASP?RC @CA?SQC RFCW ?PC TCPW AJMQC RM RFC AMPPCAR T?JSC MD 11.0 GLAFCQ. )L AMLRP?QR, GD WMS F?B M@R?GLCB ? KC?QSPCKCLR MD 12 GLAFCQ, WMSP KC?QSPCKCLR UMSJB LMR @C TCPW ?AASP?RC. 4FC FH;9?I?ED MD ? KC?QSPCKCLR QWQRCK GQ PCDCPQ RM FMU AJMQC RFC ?EPCCKCLR GQ @CRUCCL PCNC?RCB KC?QSPCKCLRQ (UFGAF ?PC PCNC?RCB SLBCP RFC Q?KC AMLBGRGMLQ). #MLQGBCP RFC CV?KNJC MD RFC N?NCP KC?QSPCKCLRQ. 4FC NPCAGQGML MD RFC KC?QSPCKCLRQ PCDCPQ RM RFC QNPC?B MD RFC KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ. /LC U?W RM ?L?JWXC RFC NPCAGQGML MD RFC KC?QSPCKCLRQ UMSJB @C RM BCRCPKGLC RFC P?LEC, MP BGDDCPCLAC, @CRUCCL RFC JMUCQR ?LB RFC FGEFCQR KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ. )L RF?R A?QC, RFC JMUCQR T?JSC U?Q 10.9 GL. ?LB RFC FGEFCQR T?JSC U?Q 11.2 GL. 4FSQ, RFC KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ BCTG?RCB DPMK C?AF MRFCP @W ?R KMQR 0.3 GL. 4FCQC KC?QSPCKCLRQ UCPC PCJ?RGTCJW NPCAGQC @CA?SQC RFCW BGB LMR T?PW RMM KSAF GL T?JSC. (MUCTCP, GD RFC KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ F?B @CCL 10.9, 11.1, ?LB 11.9, RFCL RFC KC?QSPCKCLRQ UMSJB LMR @C TCPW NPCAGQC @CA?SQC RFCPC UMSJB @C QGELGDGA?LR T?PG?RGML DPMK MLC KC?QSPCKCLR RM ?LMRFCP. 4FC KC?QSPCKCLRQ GL RFC N?NCP CV?KNJC ?PC @MRF ?AASP?RC ?LB NPCAGQC, @SR GL QMKC A?QCQ, KC?QSPCKCLRQ ?PC ?AASP?RC @SR LMR NPCAGQC, MP RFCW ?PC NPCAGQC @SR LMR ?AASP?RC. ,CR SQ AMLQGBCP ?L CV?KNJC MD ? '03 QWQRCK RF?R GQ ?RRCKNRGLE RM JMA?RC RFC NMQGRGML MD ? PCQR?SP?LR GL ? AGRW. 4FGLI MD RFC PCQR?SP?LR JMA?RGML ?Q CVGQRGLE ?R RFC ACLRCP MD ? @SJJtQ-CWC R?PECR, ?LB RFGLI MD C?AF '03 ?RRCKNR RM JMA?RC RFC PCQR?SP?LR ?Q ? @J?AI BMR. )L F?=KH; 1.24, WMS A?L QCC RF?R RFC '03 KC?QSPCKCLRQ ?PC QNPC?B MSR D?P ?N?PR DPMK C?AF MRFCP, @SR RFCW ?PC ?JJ PCJ?RGTCJW AJMQC RM RFC ?ARS?J JMA?RGML MD RFC PCQR?SP?LR ?R RFC ACLRCP MD RFC R?PECR. 4FGQ GLBGA?RCQ ? JMU NPCAGQGML, FGEF ?AASP?AW KC?QSPGLE QWQRCK. (MUCTCP, GL F?=KH; 1.25, RFC '03 KC?QSPCKCLRQ ?PC AMLACLRP?RCB OSGRC AJMQCJW RM MLC ?LMRFCP, @SR RFCW ?PC D?P ?U?W DPMK RFC R?PECR JMA?RGML. 4FGQ GLBGA?RCQ ? FGEF NPCAGQGML, JMU ?AASP?AW KC?QSPGLE QWQRCK.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

25

F?=KH; 1.24 ! '03 QWQRCK ?RRCKNRQ RM JMA?RC ? PCQR?SP?LR ?R RFC ACLRCP MD RFC @SJJtQ-CWC. 4FC @J?AI BMRQ PCNPCQCLR C?AF ?RRCKNR RM NGLNMGLR RFC JMA?RGML MD RFC PCQR?SP?LR. 4FC BMRQ ?PC QNPC?B MSR OSGRC D?P ?N?PR DPMK MLC ?LMRFCP, GLBGA?RGLE JMU NPCAGQGML, @SR RFCW ?PC C?AF P?RFCP AJMQC RM RFC ?ARS?J JMA?RGML MD RFC PCQR?SP?LR, GLBGA?RGLE FGEF ?AASP?AW. (APCBGR: $?PI %TGJ)

F?=KH; 1.25 )L RFGQ DGESPC, RFC BMRQ ?PC AMLACLRP?RCB P?RFCP AJMQCJW RM MLC ?LMRFCP, GLBGA?RGLE FGEF NPCAGQGML, @SR RFCW ?PC P?RFCP D?P ?U?W DPMK RFC ?ARS?J JMA?RGML MD RFC PCQR?SP?LR, GLBGA?RGLE JMU ?AASP?AW. (APCBGR: $?PI %TGJ)

!AASP?AW, 0PCAGQGML, ?LB 5LACPR?GLRW


4FC BCEPCC MD ?AASP?AW ?LB NPCAGQGML MD ? KC?QSPGLE QWQRCK ?PC PCJ?RCB RM RFC KD9;HJ7?DJO GL RFC KC?QSPCKCLRQ. 5LACPR?GLRW GQ ? OS?LRGR?RGTC KC?QSPC MD FMU KSAF WMSP KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ BCTG?RC DPMK ? QR?LB?PB MP CVNCARCB T?JSC. )D WMSP KC?QSPCKCLRQ ?PC LMR TCPW ?AASP?RC MP NPCAGQC, RFCL RFC SLACPR?GLRW MD WMSP T?JSCQ UGJJ @C TCPW FGEF. )L KMPC ECLCP?J RCPKQ, SLACPR?GLRW A?L @C RFMSEFR MD ?Q ? BGQAJ?GKCP DMP WMSP KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ. &MP CV?KNJC, GD QMKCMLC ?QICB WMS RM NPMTGBC RFC KGJC?EC ML WMSP A?P, WMS KGEFR Q?W RF?R GR GQ 45,000 KGJCQ, NJSQ MP KGLSQ 500 KGJCQ. 4FC NJSQ MP KGLSQ ?KMSLR GQ RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL WMSP T?JSC. 4F?R GQ, WMS ?PC GLBGA?RGLE RF?R RFC ?ARS?J KGJC?EC MD WMSP A?P KGEFR @C ?Q JMU ?Q 44,500 KGJCQ MP ?Q FGEF ?Q 45,500 KGJCQ, MP ?LWUFCPC GL @CRUCCL. !JJ KC?QSPCKCLRQ AMLR?GL QMKC ?KMSLR MD SLACPR?GLRW. )L MSP CV?KNJC MD KC?QSPGLE RFC JCLERF MD RFC N?NCP, UC KGEFR Q?W RF?R RFC JCLERF MD RFC N?NCP GQ 11 GL., NJSQ MP KGLSQ 0.2 GL. 4FC SLACPR?GLRW GL ? KC?QSPCKCLR, A , GQ MDRCL BCLMRCB ?Q A (uBCJR? A v), QM RFC KC?QSPCKCLR PCQSJR UMSJB @C PCAMPBCB ?Q

A A . )L MSP N?NCP CV?KNJC, RFC JCLERF MD RFC N?NCP AMSJB @C CVNPCQQCB ?Q 11 in. 0.2.

4FC D?ARMPQ AMLRPG@SRGLE RM SLACPR?GLRW GL ? KC?QSPCKCLR GLAJSBC: 1. 2. 3. 4. ,GKGR?RGMLQ MD RFC KC?QSPGLE BCTGAC, 4FC QIGJJ MD RFC NCPQML K?IGLE RFC KC?QSPCKCLR, )PPCESJ?PGRGCQ GL RFC M@HCAR @CGLE KC?QSPCB, !LW MRFCP D?ARMPQ RF?R ?DDCAR RFC MSRAMKC (FGEFJW BCNCLBCLR ML RFC QGRS?RGML).

)L MSP CV?KNJC, QSAF D?ARMPQ AMLRPG@SRGLE RM RFC SLACPR?GLRW AMSJB @C RFC DMJJMUGLE: RFC QK?JJCQR BGTGQGML ML RFC PSJCP GQ 0.1 GL., RFC NCPQML SQGLE RFC PSJCP F?Q @?B CWCQGEFR, MP MLC QGBC MD RFC N?NCP GQ QJGEFRJW JMLECP RF?L RFC MRFCP. !R ?LW P?RC, RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL ? KC?QSPCKCLR KSQR @C @?QCB ML ? A?PCDSJ AMLQGBCP?RGML MD ?JJ RFC D?ARMPQ RF?R KGEFR AMLRPG@SRC ?LB RFCGP NMQQG@JC CDDCARQ. -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 2C?J-7MPJB #MLLCARGMLQ q &CTCPQ MP #FGJJQ? 5LACPR?GLRW GQ ? APGRGA?J NGCAC MD GLDMPK?RGML, @MRF GL NFWQGAQ ?LB GL K?LW MRFCP PC?J-UMPJB ?NNJGA?RGMLQ. )K?EGLC WMS ?PC A?PGLE DMP ? QGAI AFGJB. 9MS QSQNCAR RFC AFGJB F?Q ? DCTCP, QM WMS AFCAI FGQ MP FCP RCKNCP?RSPC UGRF ? RFCPKMKCRCP. 7F?R GD RFC SLACPR?GLRW MD RFC RFCPKMKCRCP UCPC 3.0C ? )D RFC AFGJBtQ RCKNCP?RSPC PC?BGLE U?Q 37.0C (UFGAF GQ LMPK?J @MBW RCKNCP?RSPC), RFC uRPSCv RCKNCP?RSPC AMSJB @C ?LWUFCPC DPMK ? FWNMRFCPKGA

34.0C RM ? B?LECPMSQJW FGEF 40.0C . ! RFCPKMKCRCP UGRF ?L SLACPR?GLRW MD 3.0C UMSJB @C SQCJCQQ.

);H9;DJ .D9;HJ7?DJO /LC KCRFMB MD CVNPCQQGLE SLACPR?GLRW GQ ?Q ? NCPACLR MD RFC KC?QSPCB T?JSC. )D ? KC?QSPCKCLR KD9;HJ7?DJO (%SLA) GQ BCDGLCB RM @C

A GQ CVNPCQQCB UGRF SLACPR?GLRW, A , RFC F;H9;DJ


(1.8)

% unc = A 100%. A

26

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

EN7CFB; 1.2 C7B9KB7J?D= );H9;DJ .D9;HJ7?DJO: A B7= E< AFFB;I


! EPMACPW QRMPC QCJJQ 5-lb @?EQ MD ?NNJCQ. 9MS NSPAF?QC DMSP @?EQ MTCP RFC AMSPQC MD ? KMLRF ?LB UCGEF RFC ?NNJCQ C?AF RGKC. 9MS M@R?GL RFC DMJJMUGLE KC?QSPCKCLRQ:

4.8 lb w 7CCI 2 UCGEFR: 5.3 lb w 7CCI 3 UCGEFR: 4.9 lb w 7CCI 4 UCGEFR: 5.4 lb
w 7CCI 1 UCGEFR: 9MS BCRCPKGLC RF?R RFC UCGEFR MD RFC ,JH7J;=O &GPQR, M@QCPTC RF?R RFC CVNCARCB T?JSC MD RFC @?EtQ UCGEFR, A , GQ 5 J@. 4FC SLACPR?GLRW GL RFGQ T?JSC, COS?RGML RM BCRCPKGLC RFC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW MD RFC UCGEFR:

5-lb @?E F?Q ?L SLACPR?GLRW MD 0.4 lb . 7F?R GQ RFC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW MD RFC @?EtQ UCGEFR? A , GQ 0.4 J@. 7C A?L SQC RFC DMJJMUGLE
(1.9)

% unc = A 100%. A
,EBKJ?ED 0JSE RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ GLRM RFC COS?RGML:

% unc = 0.4 lb 100% = 8%. 5 lb


D?I9KII?ED 7C A?L AMLAJSBC RF?R RFC UCGEFR MD RFC ?NNJC @?E GQ

(1.10)

5 lb 8% . #MLQGBCP FMU RFGQ NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW UMSJB AF?LEC GD RFC @?E MD ?NNJCQ UCPC

F?JD ?Q FC?TW, @SR RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL RFC UCGEFR PCK?GLCB RFC Q?KC. (GLR DMP DSRSPC A?JASJ?RGMLQ: UFCL A?JASJ?RGLE NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW, ?JU?WQ PCKCK@CP RF?R WMS KSQR KSJRGNJW RFC DP?ARGML @W 100%. )D WMS BM LMR BM RFGQ, WMS UGJJ F?TC ? BCAGK?J OS?LRGRW, LMR ? NCPACLR T?JSC.

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m ?LB ? UGBRF MD 3.00 m , UGRF SLACPR?GLRGCQ MD 2% ?LB 1% , PCQNCARGTCJW, RFCL RFC ?PC? MD RFC DJMMP GQ 12.0 m 2 ?LB F?Q ?L SLACPR?GLRW MD 3% . (%VNPCQQCB ?Q ?L ?PC? RFGQ GQ

0.36 m 2 , UFGAF UC PMSLB RM 0.4 m 2 QGLAC RFC ?PC? MD RFC DJMMP GQ EGTCL RM ? RCLRF MD ? QOS?PC KCRCP.) C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=

! FGEF QAFMMJ RP?AI AM?AF F?Q HSQR NSPAF?QCB ? LCU QRMNU?RAF. 4FC QRMNU?RAF K?LS?J QR?RCQ RF?R RFC QRMNU?RAF F?Q ?L SLACPR?GLRW MD . 2SLLCPQ ML RFC RP?AI AM?AFtQ RC?K PCESJ?PJW AJMAI 100-K QNPGLRQ MD A?KC GL ?R 12.04 7FW MP UFW LMR?

11.49 s RM 15.01 s . !R RFC QAFMMJtQ J?QR RP?AI KCCR, RFC DGPQR-NJ?AC QNPGLRCP s ?LB RFC QCAMLB-NJ?AC QNPGLRCP A?KC GL ?R 12.07 s . 7GJJ RFC AM?AFtQ LCU QRMNU?RAF @C FCJNDSJ GL RGKGLE RFC QNPGLR RC?K?

0.05 s

,EBKJ?ED .M, RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL RFC QRMNU?RAF GQ RMM EPC?R RM CDDCARGTCJW BGDDCPCLRG?RC @CRUCCL RFC QNPGLR RGKCQ.

0PCAGQGML MD -C?QSPGLE 4MMJQ ?LB 3GELGDGA?LR &GESPCQ


!L GKNMPR?LR D?ARMP GL RFC ?AASP?AW ?LB NPCAGQGML MD KC?QSPCKCLRQ GLTMJTCQ RFC NPCAGQGML MD RFC KC?QSPGLE RMMJ. )L ECLCP?J, ? NPCAGQC KC?QSPGLE RMMJ GQ MLC RF?R A?L KC?QSPC T?JSCQ GL TCPW QK?JJ GLAPCKCLRQ. &MP CV?KNJC, ? QR?LB?PB PSJCP A?L KC?QSPC JCLERF RM RFC LC?PCQR KGJJGKCRCP, UFGJC ? A?JGNCP A?L KC?QSPC JCLERF RM RFC LC?PCQR 0.01 KGJJGKCRCP. 4FC A?JGNCP GQ ? KMPC NPCAGQC KC?QSPGLE RMMJ @CA?SQC GR A?L KC?QSPC CVRPCKCJW QK?JJ BGDDCPCLACQ GL JCLERF. 4FC KMPC NPCAGQC RFC KC?QSPGLE RMMJ, RFC KMPC NPCAGQC ?LB ?AASP?RC RFC KC?QSPCKCLRQ A?L @C. 7FCL UC CVNPCQQ KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ, UC A?L MLJW JGQR ?Q K?LW BGEGRQ ?Q UC GLGRG?JJW KC?QSPCB UGRF MSP KC?QSPGLE RMMJ. &MP CV?KNJC, GD WMS SQC ? QR?LB?PB PSJCP RM KC?QSPC RFC JCLERF MD ? QRGAI, WMS K?W KC?QSPC GR RM @C 36.7 cm . 9MS AMSJB LMR CVNPCQQ RFGQ T?JSC ?Q 36.71 cm @CA?SQC WMSP KC?QSPGLE RMMJ U?Q LMR NPCAGQC CLMSEF RM KC?QSPC ? FSLBPCBRF MD ? ACLRGKCRCP. )R QFMSJB @C LMRCB RF?R RFC J?QR BGEGR GL ? KC?QSPCB T?JSC F?Q @CCL CQRGK?RCB GL QMKC U?W @W RFC NCPQML NCPDMPKGLE RFC KC?QSPCKCLR. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC NCPQML KC?QSPGLE RFC JCLERF MD ? QRGAI UGRF ? PSJCP LMRGACQ RF?R RFC QRGAI JCLERF QCCKQ RM @C QMKCUFCPC GL @CRUCCL 36.6 cm ?LB 36.7 cm , ?LB FC MP QFC KSQR CQRGK?RC RFC T?JSC MD RFC J?QR BGEGR. 5QGLE RFC KCRFMB MD I?=D?<?97DJ <?=KH;I, RFC PSJC GQ RF?R G;8 ?4FG 7<:<G JE<GG8A 7BJA <A 4 @84FHE8@8AG <F G;8 9<EFG 7<:<G J<G; FB@8 HA68EG4<AGL. )L MPBCP RM BCRCPKGLC RFC LSK@CP MD QGELGDGA?LR BGEGRQ GL ? T?JSC, QR?PR UGRF RFC DGPQR KC?QSPCB T?JSC ?R RFC JCDR ?LB AMSLR RFC LSK@CP MD BGEGRQ RFPMSEF RFC J?QR BGEGR UPGRRCL ML RFC PGEFR. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC KC?QSPCB T?JSC 36.7 cm F?Q RFPCC BGEGRQ, MP QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ. 3GELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ GLBGA?RC RFC NPCAGQGML MD ? KC?QSPGLE RMMJ RF?R U?Q SQCB RM KC?QSPC ? T?JSC.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

27

3;HEI 3NCAG?J AMLQGBCP?RGML GQ EGTCL RM XCPMQ UFCL AMSLRGLE QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ. 4FC XCPMQ GL 0.053 ?PC LMR QGELGDGA?LR, @CA?SQC RFCW ?PC MLJW NJ?ACICCNCPQ RF?R JMA?RC RFC BCAGK?J NMGLR. 4FCPC ?PC RUM QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ GL 0.053. 4FC XCPMQ GL 10.053 ?PC LMR NJ?ACICCNCPQ @SR ?PC QGELGDGA?LRrRFGQ LSK@CP F?Q DGTC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ. 4FC XCPMQ GL 1300 K?W MP K?W LMR @C QGELGDGA?LR BCNCLBGLE ML RFC QRWJC MD UPGRGLE LSK@CPQ. 4FCW AMSJB KC?L RFC LSK@CP GQ ILMUL RM RFC J?QR BGEGR, MP RFCW AMSJB @C NJ?ACICCNCPQ. 3M 1300 AMSJB F?TC RUM, RFPCC, MP DMSP QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ. (4M ?TMGB RFGQ ?K@GESGRW, UPGRC 1300 GL QAGCLRGDGA LMR?RGML.) 18EBF 4E8 F<:A<9<64AG 8K68CG J;8A G;8L F8EI8 BA?L 4F C?468>88C8EF.

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


$CRCPKGLC RFC LSK@CP MD QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ GL RFC DMJJMUGLE KC?QSPCKCLRQ: ?. 0.0009 @. 15,450.0 3 A. 610 B. 87.990 C. 30.42 ,EBKJ?ED (?) 1; RFC XCPMQ GL RFGQ LSK@CP ?PC NJ?ACICCNCPQ RF?R GLBGA?RC RFC BCAGK?J NMGLR (@) 6; FCPC, RFC XCPMQ GLBGA?RC RF?R ? KC?QSPCKCLR U?Q K?BC RM RFC 0.1 BCAGK?J NMGLR, QM RFC XCPMQ ?PC QGELGDGA?LR (A) 1; RFC T?JSC

10 3 QGELGDGCQ RFC BCAGK?J NJ?AC, LMR RFC LSK@CP MD KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ

(B) 5; RFC DGL?J XCPM GLBGA?RCQ RF?R ? KC?QSPCKCLR U?Q K?BC RM RFC 0.001 BCAGK?J NMGLR, QM GR GQ QGELGDGA?LR (C) 4; ?LW XCPMQ JMA?RCB GL @CRUCCL QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ GL ? LSK@CP ?PC ?JQM QGELGDGA?LR

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r 2 . ,CR SQ QCC FMU K?LW QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ RFC ?PC? F?Q GD RFC P?BGSQ F?Q MLJW RUMrQ?W,

r = 1.2 m . 4FCL,

A = r 2 = (3.1415927...)(1.2 m) 2 = 4.5238934 m 2

(1.11)

GQ UF?R WMS UMSJB ECR SQGLE ? A?JASJ?RMP RF?R F?Q ?L CGEFR-BGEGR MSRNSR. "SR @CA?SQC RFC P?BGSQ F?Q MLJW RUM QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ, GR JGKGRQ RFC A?JASJ?RCB OS?LRGRW RM RUM QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ MP

A=4.5 m 2,
CTCL RFMSEF

(1.12)

GQ EMMB RM ?R JC?QR CGEFR BGEGRQ.

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

7.56 kg - 6.052 kg +13.7 kg = 15.2 kg. 15.208 kg

(1.13)

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c = 2r , GR BMCQ LMR ?DDCAR RFC LSK@CP MD QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ GL ? A?JASJ?RGML.

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


0CPDMPK RFC DMJJMUGLE A?JASJ?RGMLQ ?LB CVNPCQQ WMSP ?LQUCP SQGLE RFC AMPPCAR LSK@CP MD QGELGDGA?LR BGEGRQ.

28

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

(?) ! UMK?L F?Q RUM @?EQ UCGEFGLE 13.5 NMSLBQ ?LB MLC @?E UGRF ? UCGEFR MD 10.2 NMSLBQ. 7F?R GQ RFC RMR?J UCGEFR MD RFC @?EQ? (@) 4FC DMPAC
2

F ML ?L M@HCAR GQ COS?J RM GRQ K?QQ m KSJRGNJGCB @W GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML a . )D ? U?EML UGRF K?QQ 55 IE ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD

0.0255 m/s , UF?R GQ RFC DMPAC ML RFC U?EML? (4FC SLGR MD DMPAC GQ A?JJCB RFC LCURML, ?LB GR GQ CVNPCQQCB UGRF RFC QWK@MJ ..)
,EBKJ?ED (?) 37.2 NMSLBQ; "CA?SQC RFC LSK@CP MD @?EQ GQ ?L CV?AR T?JSC, GR GQ LMR AMLQGBCPCB GL RFC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ. (@) 1.4 .; "CA?SQC RFC T?JSC 55 IE F?Q MLJW RUM QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ, RFC DGL?J T?JSC KSQR ?JQM AMLR?GL RUM QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ.

0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: %QRGK?RGML %VNJMPC QGXC CQRGK?RGML GL MLC, RUM, ?LB RFPCC BGKCLQGMLQ! -SJRGNJC JCTCJQ MD BGDDGASJRW ?JJMU DMP NPMEPCQQGTC QIGJJ GKNPMTCKCLR.

F?=KH; 1.26 EIJ?C7J?ED (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42120/1.7/;IJ?C7J?ED6;D.@7H)

1.4 AFFHEN?C7J?ED
/L K?LW MAA?QGMLQ, NFWQGAGQRQ, MRFCP QAGCLRGQRQ, ?LB CLEGLCCPQ LCCB RM K?IC 7FFHEN?C7J?EDI MP uESCQQRGK?RCQv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

EN7CFB; 1.3 AFFHEN?C7J; J>; !;?=>J E< 7 BK?B:?D=


#?L WMS ?NNPMVGK?RC RFC FCGEFR MD MLC MD RFC @SGJBGLEQ ML WMSP A?KNSQ, MP GL WMSP LCGEF@MPFMMB? ,CR SQ K?IC ?L ?NNPMVGK?RGML @?QCB SNML RFC FCGEFR MD ? NCPQML. )L RFGQ CV?KNJC, UC UGJJ A?JASJ?RC RFC FCGEFR MD ? 39-QRMPW @SGJBGLE. ,JH7J;=O 4FGLI ?@MSR RFC ?TCP?EC FCGEFR MD ?L ?BSJR K?JC. 7C A?L ?NNPMVGK?RC RFC FCGEFR MD RFC @SGJBGLE @W QA?JGLE SN DPMK RFC FCGEFR MD ? NCPQML. ,EBKJ?ED "?QCB ML GLDMPK?RGML GL RFC CV?KNJC, UC ILMU RFCPC ?PC 39 QRMPGCQ GL RFC @SGJBGLE. )D UC SQC RFC D?AR RF?R RFC FCGEFR MD MLC QRMPW GQ ?NNPMVGK?RCJW COS?J RM ?@MSR RFC JCLERF MD RUM ?BSJR FSK?LQ (C?AF FSK?L GQ ?@MSR 2-K R?JJ), RFCL UC A?L CQRGK?RC RFC RMR?J FCGEFR MD RFC @SGJBGLE RM @C

2 m 2 person 39 stories = 156 m. 1 person 1 story


D?I9KII?ED

(1.14)

9MS A?L SQC ILMUL OS?LRGRGCQ RM BCRCPKGLC ?L ?NNPMVGK?RC KC?QSPCKCLR MD SLILMUL OS?LRGRGCQ. )D WMSP F?LB KC?QSPCQ 10 AK ?APMQQ, FMU K?LW F?LB JCLERFQ COS?J RFC UGBRF MD WMSP BCQI? 7F?R MRFCP KC?QSPCKCLRQ A?L WMS ?NNPMVGK?RC @CQGBCQ JCLERF?

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

29

EN7CFB; 1.4 AFFHEN?C7J?D= /7IJ 'KC8;HI: 7 -H?BB?ED DEBB7HI

F?=KH; 1.27 ! @?LI QR?AI AMLR?GLQ MLC-FSLBPCB $100 @GJJQ, ?LB GQ UMPRF $10,000. (MU K?LW @?LI QR?AIQ K?IC SN ? RPGJJGML BMJJ?PQ? (APCBGR: !LBPCU -?EGJJ)

4FC 5.3. DCBCP?J BCDGAGR GL RFC 2008 DGQA?J WC?P U?Q ? JGRRJC EPC?RCP RF?L $10 RPGJJGML. -MQR MD SQ BM LMR F?TC ?LW AMLACNR MD FMU KSAF CTCL MLC RPGJJGML ?ARS?JJW GQ. 3SNNMQC RF?R WMS UCPC EGTCL ? RPGJJGML BMJJ?PQ GL $100 @GJJQ. )D WMS K?BC 100-@GJJ QR?AIQ ?LB SQCB RFCK RM CTCLJW AMTCP ? DMMR@?JJ DGCJB (@CRUCCL RFC CLB XMLCQ), K?IC ?L ?NNPMVGK?RGML MD FMU FGEF RFC KMLCW NGJC UMSJB @CAMKC. (7C UGJJ SQC DCCR/GLAFCQ P?RFCP RF?L KCRCPQ FCPC @CA?SQC DMMR@?JJ DGCJBQ ?PC KC?QSPCB GL W?PBQ.) /LC MD WMSP DPGCLBQ Q?WQ 3 GL., UFGJC ?LMRFCP Q?WQ 10 DR. 7F?R BM WMS RFGLI? ,JH7J;=O 7FCL WMS GK?EGLC RFC QGRS?RGML, WMS NPM@?@JW CLTGQGML RFMSQ?LBQ MD QK?JJ QR?AIQ MD 100 UP?NNCB $100 @GJJQ, QSAF ?Q WMS KGEFR QCC GL KMTGCQ MP ?R ? @?LI. 3GLAC RFGQ GQ ?L C?QW-RM-?NNPMVGK?RC OS?LRGRW, JCR SQ QR?PR RFCPC. 7C A?L DGLB RFC TMJSKC MD ? QR?AI MD 100 @GJJQ, DGLB MSR FMU K?LW QR?AIQ K?IC SN MLC RPGJJGML BMJJ?PQ, ?LB RFCL QCR RFGQ TMJSKC COS?J RM RFC ?PC? MD RFC DMMR@?JJ DGCJB KSJRGNJGCB @W RFC SLILMUL FCGEFR. ,EBKJ?ED (1) #?JASJ?RC RFC TMJSKC MD ? QR?AI MD 100 @GJJQ. 4FC BGKCLQGMLQ MD ? QGLEJC @GJJ ?PC ?NNPMVGK?RCJW 3 GL. @W 6 GL. ! QR?AI MD 100 MD RFCQC GQ ?@MSR 0.5 GL. RFGAI. 3M RFC RMR?J TMJSKC MD ? QR?AI MD 100 @GJJQ GQ:

volume of stack = lengthwidthheight, volume of stack = 6 in.3 in.0.5 in., volume of stack = 9 in. 3 .
(2) #?JASJ?RC RFC LSK@CP MD QR?AIQ. .MRC RF?R ? RPGJJGML BMJJ?PQ GQ COS?J RM

(1.15)

$110 12, ?LB ? QR?AI MD MLC-FSLBPCB $100 @GJJQ GQ COS?J RM


(1.16)

$10,000, MP $110 4 . 4FC LSK@CP MD QR?AIQ WMS UGJJ F?TC GQ: $110 12(a trillion dollars)/ $110 4 per stack = 110 8 stacks.
(3) #?JASJ?RC RFC ?PC? MD ? DMMR@?JJ DGCJB GL QOS?PC GLAFCQ. 4FC ?PC? MD ? DMMR@?JJ DGCJB GQ ?PC UMPIGLE GL GLAFCQ, UC LCCB RM AMLTCPR QOS?PC W?PBQ RM QOS?PC GLAFCQ:

100 yd50 yd, UFGAF EGTCQ 5,000 yd 2. "CA?SQC UC


(1.17)

Area = 5,000 yd 2 3 ft 3 ft 12 in. 12 in. = 6,480,000 in. 2 , 1 ft 1 yd 1 yd 1 ft Area 610 6 in. 2 .


4FGQ AMLTCPQGML EGTCQ SQ

610 6 in. 2 DMP RFC ?PC? MD RFC DGCJB. (.MRC RF?R UC ?PC SQGLE MLJW MLC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPC GL RFCQC A?JASJ?RGMLQ.) $100 -@GJJ QR?AIQ GQ 9 in. 3 / stack10 8 stacks = 910 8 in. 3.
(1.18)

(4) #?JASJ?RC RFC RMR?J TMJSKC MD RFC @GJJQ. 4FC TMJSKC MD ?JJ RFC

(5) #?JASJ?RC RFC FCGEFR. 4M BCRCPKGLC RFC FCGEFR MD RFC @GJJQ, SQC RFC COS?RGML:

= area of field height of money: Height of money = volume of bills , area of field 8 3 910 in. = 1.3310 2 in., Height of money = 6 2 610 in. Height of money 110 2 in. = 100 in. volume of bills
4FC FCGEFR MD RFC KMLCW UGJJ @C ?@MSR 100 GL. FGEF. #MLTCPRGLE RFGQ T?JSC RM DCCR EGTCQ

100 in. 1 ft = 8.33 ft 8 ft. 12 in.


D?I9KII?ED

(1.19)

30

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

4FC DGL?J ?NNPMVGK?RC T?JSC GQ KSAF FGEFCP RF?L RFC C?PJW CQRGK?RC MD 3 GL., @SR RFC MRFCP C?PJW CQRGK?RC MD 10 DR (120 GL.) U?Q PMSEFJW AMPPCAR. (MU BGB RFC ?NNPMVGK?RGML KC?QSPC SN RM WMSP DGPQR ESCQQ? 7F?R A?L RFGQ CVCPAGQC RCJJ WMS GL RCPKQ MD PMSEF uESCQQRGK?RCQv TCPQSQ A?PCDSJJW A?JASJ?RCB ?NNPMVGK?RGMLQ?

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


5QGLE KCLR?J K?RF ?LB WMSP SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD DSLB?KCLR?J SLGRQ, ?NNPMVGK?RC RFC ?PC? MD ? PCESJ?RGML @?QICR@?JJ AMSPR. $CQAPG@C RFC NPMACQQ WMS SQCB RM ?PPGTC ?R WMSP DGL?J ?NNPMVGK?RGML. ,EBKJ?ED !L ?TCP?EC K?JC GQ ?@MSR RUM KCRCPQ R?JJ. )R UMSJB R?IC ?NNPMVGK?RCJW 15 KCL J?GB MSR CLB RM CLB RM AMTCP RFC JCLERF, ?LB ?@MSR 7 RM AMTCP RFC UGBRF. 4F?R EGTCQ ?L ?NNPMVGK?RC ?PC? MD 420 m 2 .

BEII7HO
799KH79O: RFC BCEPCC RM UFGAF ? KC?QSPCB T?JSC ?EPCCQ UGRF AMPPCAR T?JSC DMP RF?R KC?QSPCKCLR 7FFHEN?C7J?ED: ?L CQRGK?RCB T?JSC @?QCB ML NPGMP CVNCPGCLAC ?LB PC?QMLGLE 9B7II?97B F>OI?9I: NFWQGAQ RF?R U?Q BCTCJMNCB DPMK RFC 2CL?GQQ?LAC RM RFC CLB MD RFC 19RF ACLRSPW 9EDL;HI?ED <79JEH: ? P?RGM CVNPCQQGLE FMU K?LW MD MLC SLGR ?PC COS?J RM ?LMRFCP SLGR :;H?L;: KD?JI: SLGRQ RF?R A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB SQGLE ?JEC@P?GA AMK@GL?RGMLQ MD RFC DSLB?KCLR?J SLGRQ ED=B?I> KD?JI: QWQRCK MD KC?QSPCKCLR SQCB GL RFC 5LGRCB 3R?RCQ; GLAJSBCQ SLGRQ MD KC?QSPCKCLR QSAF ?Q DCCR, E?JJMLQ, ?LB NMSLBQ <KD:7C;DJ7B KD?JI: SLGRQ RF?R A?L MLJW @C CVNPCQQCB PCJ?RGTC RM RFC NPMACBSPC SQCB RM KC?QSPC RFCK A?BE=H7C: RFC 3) SLGR DMP K?QQ, ?@@PCTG?RCB (IE) B7M: ? BCQAPGNRGML, SQGLE AMLAGQC J?LES?EC MP ? K?RFCK?RGA?J DMPKSJ?, ? ECLCP?JGXCB N?RRCPL GL L?RSPC RF?R GQ QSNNMPRCB @W QAGCLRGDGA CTGBCLAC ?LB PCNC?RCB CVNCPGKCLRQ C;J;H: RFC 3) SLGR DMP JCLERF, ?@@PCTG?RCB (K) C;J>E: E< 7::?D= F;H9;DJI: RFC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW GL ? OS?LRGRW A?JASJ?RCB @W KSJRGNJGA?RGML MP BGTGQGML GQ RFC QSK MD RFC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRGCQ GL RFC GRCKQ SQCB RM K?IC RFC A?JASJ?RGML C;JH?9 IOIJ;C: ? QWQRCK GL UFGAF T?JSCQ A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB GL D?ARMPQ MD 10 CE:;B: PCNPCQCLR?RGML MD QMKCRFGLE RF?R GQ MDRCL RMM BGDDGASJR (MP GKNMQQG@JC) RM BGQNJ?W BGPCARJW CE:;HD F>OI?9I: RFC QRSBW MD PCJ?RGTGRW, OS?LRSK KCAF?LGAQ, MP @MRF EH:;H E< C7=D?JK:;: PCDCPQ RM RFC QGXC MD ? OS?LRGRW ?Q GR PCJ?RCQ RM ? NMUCP MD 10 F;H9;DJ KD9;HJ7?DJO: RFC P?RGM MD RFC SLACPR?GLRW MD ? KC?QSPCKCLR RM RFC KC?QSPCB T?JSC, CVNPCQQCB ?Q ? NCPACLR?EC F>OI?97B GK7DJ?JO : ? AF?P?ARCPGQRGA MP NPMNCPRW MD ?L M@HCAR RF?R A?L @C KC?QSPCB MP A?JASJ?RCB DPMK MRFCP KC?QSPCKCLRQ F>OI?9I: RFC QAGCLAC AMLACPLCB UGRF BCQAPG@GLE RFC GLRCP?ARGMLQ MD CLCPEW, K?RRCP, QN?AC, ?LB RGKC; GR GQ CQNCAG?JJW GLRCPCQRCB GL UF?R DSLB?KCLR?J KCAF?LGQKQ SLBCPJGC CTCPW NFCLMKCLML FH;9?I?ED: RFC BCEPCC RM UFGAF PCNC?RCB KC?QSPCKCLRQ ?EPCC UGRF C?AF MRFCP GK7DJKC C;9>7D?9I: RFC QRSBW MD M@HCARQ QK?JJCP RF?L A?L @C QCCL UGRF ? KGAPMQAMNC H;B7J?L?JO: RFC QRSBW MD M@HCARQ KMTGLE ?R QNCCBQ EPC?RCP RF?L ?@MSR 1% MD RFC QNCCB MD JGEFR, MP MD M@HCARQ @CGLE ?DDCARCB @W ? QRPMLE EP?TGR?RGML?J DGCJB ," KD?JI : RFC GLRCPL?RGML?J QWQRCK MD SLGRQ RF?R QAGCLRGQRQ GL KMQR AMSLRPGCQ F?TC ?EPCCB RM SQC; GLAJSBCQ SLGRQ QSAF ?Q KCRCPQ, JGRCPQ, ?LB EP?KQ I9?;DJ?<?9 C;J>E:: ? KCRFMB RF?R RWNGA?JJW @CEGLQ UGRF ?L M@QCPT?RGML ?LB OSCQRGML RF?R RFC QAGCLRGQR UGJJ PCQC?PAF; LCVR, RFC QAGCLRGQR RWNGA?JJW NCPDMPKQ QMKC PCQC?PAF ?@MSR RFC RMNGA ?LB RFCL BCTGQCQ ? FWNMRFCQGQ; RFCL, RFC QAGCLRGQR UGJJ RCQR RFC FWNMRFCQGQ @W NCPDMPKGLE ?L CVNCPGKCLR; DGL?JJW, RFC QAGCLRGQR ?L?JWXCQ RFC PCQSJRQ MD RFC CVNCPGKCLR ?LB BP?UQ ? AMLAJSQGML I;9ED:: RFC 3) SLGR DMP RGKC, ?@@PCTG?RCB (Q) I?=D?<?97DJ <?=KH;I: CVNPCQQ RFC NPCAGQGML MD ? KC?QSPGLE RMMJ SQCB RM KC?QSPC ? T?JSC J>;EHO: ?L CVNJ?L?RGML DMP N?RRCPLQ GL L?RSPC RF?R GQ QSNNMPRCB @W QAGCLRGDGA CTGBCLAC ?LB TCPGDGCB KSJRGNJC RGKCQ @W T?PGMSQ EPMSNQ MD PCQC?PAFCPQ KD9;HJ7?DJO: ? OS?LRGR?RGTC KC?QSPC MD FMU KSAF WMSP KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ BCTG?RC DPMK ? QR?LB?PB MP CVNCARCB T?JSC

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

31

KD?JI : ? QR?LB?PB SQCB DMP CVNPCQQGLE ?LB AMKN?PGLE KC?QSPCKCLRQ

,;9J?ED ,KCC7HO 1.1 )>OI?9I: AD "DJHE:K9J?ED


w 3AGCLAC QCCIQ RM BGQAMTCP ?LB BCQAPG@C RFC SLBCPJWGLE MPBCP ?LB QGKNJGAGRW GL L?RSPC. w 0FWQGAQ GQ RFC KMQR @?QGA MD RFC QAGCLACQ, AMLACPLGLE GRQCJD UGRF CLCPEW, K?RRCP, QN?AC ?LB RGKC, ?LB RFCGP GLRCP?ARGMLQ. w 3AGCLRGDGA J?UQ ?LB RFCMPGCQ CVNPCQQ RFC ECLCP?J RPSRFQ MD L?RSPC ?LB RFC @MBW MD ILMUJCBEC RFCW CLAMKN?QQ. 4FCQC J?UQ MD L?RSPC ?PC PSJCQ RF?R ?JJ L?RSP?J NPMACQQCQ ?NNC?P RM DMJJMU.

1.2 )>OI?97B *K7DJ?J?;I 7D: .D?JI


w 0FWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ ?PC ? AF?P?ARCPGQRGA MP NPMNCPRW MD ?L M@HCAR RF?R A?L @C KC?QSPCB MP A?JASJ?RCB DPMK MRFCP KC?QSPCKCLRQ. w 5LGRQ ?PC QR?LB?PBQ DMP CVNPCQQGLE ?LB AMKN?PGLE RFC KC?QSPCKCLR MD NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ. !JJ SLGRQ A?L @C CVNPCQQCB ?Q AMK@GL?RGMLQ MD DMSP DSLB?KCLR?J SLGRQ. w 4FC DMSP DSLB?KCLR?J SLGRQ UC UGJJ SQC GL RFGQ RCVR ?PC RFC KCRCP (DMP JCLERF), RFC IGJMEP?K (DMP K?QQ), RFC QCAMLB (DMP RGKC), ?LB RFC ?KNCPC (DMP CJCARPGA ASPPCLR). 4FCQC SLGRQ ?PC N?PR MD RFC KCRPGA QWQRCK, UFGAF SQCQ NMUCPQ MD 10 RM PCJ?RC OS?LRGRGCQ MTCP RFC T?QR P?LECQ CLAMSLRCPCB GL L?RSPC. w 4FC DMSP DSLB?KCLR?J SLGRQ ?PC ?@@PCTG?RCB ?Q DMJJMUQ: KCRCP, K; IGJMEP?K, IE; QCAMLB, Q; ?LB ?KNCPC, !. 4FC KCRPGA QWQRCK ?JQM SQCQ ? QR?LB?PB QCR MD NPCDGVCQ RM BCLMRC C?AF MPBCP MD K?ELGRSBC EPC?RCP RF?L MP JCQQCP RF?L RFC DSLB?KCLR?J SLGR GRQCJD. w 5LGR AMLTCPQGMLQ GLTMJTC AF?LEGLE ? T?JSC CVNPCQQCB GL MLC RWNC MD SLGR RM ?LMRFCP RWNC MD SLGR. 4FGQ GQ BMLC @W SQGLE AMLTCPQGML D?ARMPQ, UFGAF ?PC P?RGMQ PCJ?RGLE COS?J OS?LRGRGCQ MD BGDDCPCLR SLGRQ.

1.3 A99KH79O, )H;9?I?ED, 7D: ,?=D?<?97DJ F?=KH;I


w !AASP?AW MD ? KC?QSPCB T?JSC PCDCPQ RM FMU AJMQC ? KC?QSPCKCLR GQ RM RFC AMPPCAR T?JSC. 4FC SLACPR?GLRW GL ? KC?QSPCKCLR GQ ?L CQRGK?RC MD RFC ?KMSLR @W UFGAF RFC KC?QSPCKCLR PCQSJR K?W BGDDCP DPMK RFGQ T?JSC. w 0PCAGQGML MD KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ PCDCPQ RM FMU AJMQC RFC ?EPCCKCLR GQ @CRUCCL PCNC?RCB KC?QSPCKCLRQ. w 4FC NPCAGQGML MD ? @84FHE<A: GBB? GQ PCJ?RCB RM RFC QGXC MD GRQ KC?QSPCKCLR GLAPCKCLRQ. 4FC QK?JJCP RFC KC?QSPCKCLR GLAPCKCLR, RFC KMPC NPCAGQC RFC RMMJ. w 3GELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ CVNPCQQ RFC NPCAGQGML MD ? KC?QSPGLE RMMJ. w 7FCL KSJRGNJWGLE MP BGTGBGLE KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ, RFC DGL?J ?LQUCP A?L AMLR?GL MLJW ?Q K?LW QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ ?Q RFC JC?QR NPCAGQC T?JSC. w 7FCL ?BBGLE MP QS@RP?ARGLE KC?QSPCB T?JSCQ, RFC DGL?J ?LQUCP A?LLMR AMLR?GL KMPC BCAGK?J NJ?ACQ RF?L RFC JC?QR NPCAGQC T?JSC.

1.4 AFFHEN?C7J?ED
3AGCLRGQRQ MDRCL ?NNPMVGK?RC RFC T?JSCQ MD OS?LRGRGCQ RM NCPDMPK A?JASJ?RGMLQ ?LB ?L?JWXC QWQRCKQ.

CED9;FJK7B *K;IJ?EDI 1.1 )>OI?9I: AD "DJHE:K9J?ED


1. -MBCJQ ?PC N?PRGASJ?PJW SQCDSJ GL PCJ?RGTGRW ?LB OS?LRSK KCAF?LGAQ, UFCPC AMLBGRGMLQ ?PC MSRQGBC RFMQC LMPK?JJW CLAMSLRCPCB @W FSK?LQ. 7F?R GQ ? KMBCJ? 2. (MU BMCQ ? KMBCJ BGDDCP DPMK ? RFCMPW? 3. )D RUM BGDDCPCLR RFCMPGCQ BCQAPG@C CVNCPGKCLR?J M@QCPT?RGMLQ COS?JJW UCJJ, A?L MLC @C Q?GB RM @C KMPC T?JGB RF?L RFC MRFCP (?QQSKGLE @MRF SQC ?AACNRCB PSJCQ MD JMEGA)? 4. 7F?R BCRCPKGLCQ RFC T?JGBGRW MD ? RFCMPW? 5. #CPR?GL APGRCPG? KSQR @C Q?RGQDGCB GD ? KC?QSPCKCLR MP M@QCPT?RGML GQ RM @C @CJGCTCB. 7GJJ RFC APGRCPG? LCACQQ?PGJW @C ?Q QRPGAR DMP ?L CVNCARCB PCQSJR ?Q DMP ?L SLCVNCARCB PCQSJR? 6. #?L RFC T?JGBGRW MD ? KMBCJ @C JGKGRCB, MP KSQR GR @C SLGTCPQ?JJW T?JGB? (MU BMCQ RFGQ AMKN?PC RM RFC PCOSGPCB T?JGBGRW MD ? RFCMPW MP ? J?U? 7. #J?QQGA?J NFWQGAQ GQ ? EMMB ?NNPMVGK?RGML RM KMBCPL NFWQGAQ SLBCP ACPR?GL AGPASKQR?LACQ. 7F?R ?PC RFCW? 8. 7FCL GQ GR A868FF4EL RM SQC PCJ?RGTGQRGA OS?LRSK KCAF?LGAQ? 9. #?L AJ?QQGA?J NFWQGAQ @C SQCB RM ?AASP?RCJW BCQAPG@C ? Q?RCJJGRC KMTGLE ?R ? QNCCB MD 7500 K/Q? %VNJ?GL UFW MP UFW LMR.

1.2 )>OI?97B *K7DJ?J?;I 7D: .D?JI


10. )BCLRGDW QMKC ?BT?LR?ECQ MD KCRPGA SLGRQ.

1.3 A99KH79O, )H;9?I?ED, 7D: ,?=D?<?97DJ F?=KH;I


11. 7F?R GQ RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL RFC ?AASP?AW ?LB SLACPR?GLRW MD ? KC?QSPCKCLR? 12. 0PCQAPGNRGMLQ DMP TGQGML AMPPCARGML ?PC EGTCL GL SLGRQ A?JJCB 7<BCG8EF ($). $CRCPKGLC RFC KC?LGLE MD RF?R SLGR. /@R?GL GLDMPK?RGML (NCPF?NQ @W A?JJGLE ?L MNRMKCRPGQR MP NCPDMPKGLE ?L GLRCPLCR QC?PAF) ML RFC KGLGKSK SLACPR?GLRW UGRF UFGAF AMPPCARGMLQ GL BGMNRCPQ ?PC BCRCPKGLCB ?LB RFC ?AASP?AW UGRF UFGAF AMPPCARGTC JCLQCQ A?L @C NPMBSACB. $GQASQQ RFC QMSPACQ MD SLACPR?GLRGCQ GL @MRF RFC NPCQAPGNRGML ?LB ?AASP?AW GL RFC K?LSD?ARSPC MD JCLQCQ.

32

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

)HE8B;CI & EN;H9?I;I 1.2 )>OI?97B *K7DJ?J?;I 7D: .D?JI


13. 4FC QNCCB JGKGR ML QMKC GLRCPQR?RC FGEFU?WQ GQ PMSEFJW 100 IK/F. (?) 7F?R GQ RFGQ GL KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB? (@) (MU K?LW KGJCQ NCP FMSP GQ RFGQ?

32. (?) ! NCPQMLtQ @JMMB NPCQQSPC GQ KC?QSPCB RM @C

120 2 mm Hg .

7F?R GQ GRQ NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW? (@) !QQSKGLE RFC Q?KC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW, UF?R GQ RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL ? @JMMB NPCQQSPC KC?QSPCKCLR MD 80 mm Hg ? 33. ! NCPQML KC?QSPCQ FGQ MP FCP FC?PR P?RC @W AMSLRGLE RFC LSK@CP MD @C?RQ GL 30 s . )D 40 1 @C?RQ ?PC AMSLRCB GL 30.0 0.5 s , UF?R GQ RFC FC?PR P?RC ?LB GRQ SLACPR?GLRW GL @C?RQ NCP KGLSRC? 34. 7F?R GQ RFC ?PC? MD ? AGPAJC

33 m/s . (?) 7F?R GQ GRQ QNCCB GL IGJMKCRCPQ NCP FMSP? (@) )Q GR CVACCBGLE RFC 90 km/h QNCCB JGKGR?
14. ! A?P GQ RP?TCJGLE ?R ? QNCCB MD

1.0 m/s = 3.6 km/h . (GLR: 3FMU RFC CVNJGAGR QRCNQ GLTMJTCB GL AMLTCPRGLE 1.0 m/s = 3.6 km/h.
15. 3FMU RF?R 16. !KCPGA?L DMMR@?JJ GQ NJ?WCB ML ? 100-WB-JMLE DGCJB, CVAJSBGLE RFC CLB XMLCQ. (MU JMLE GQ RFC DGCJB GL KCRCPQ? (!QQSKC RF?R 1 KCRCP COS?JQ 3.281 DCCR.) 17. 3MAACP DGCJBQ T?PW GL QGXC. ! J?PEC QMAACP DGCJB GQ 115 K JMLE ?LB 85 K UGBC. 7F?R ?PC GRQ BGKCLQGMLQ GL DCCR ?LB GLAFCQ? (!QQSKC RF?R 1 KCRCP COS?JQ 3.281 DCCR.) 18. 7F?R GQ RFC FCGEFR GL KCRCPQ MD ? NCPQML UFM GQ 6 DR 1.0 GL. R?JJ? (!QQSKC RF?R 1 KCRCP COS?JQ 39.37 GL.) 19. -MSLR %TCPCQR, ?R 29,028 DCCR, GQ RFC R?JJCQR KMSLR?GL ML RFC %?PRF. 7F?R GQ GRQ FCGEFR GL IGJMKCRCPQ? (!QQSKC RF?R 1 IGJMKCRCP COS?JQ 3,281 DCCR.) 20. 4FC QNCCB MD QMSLB GQ KC?QSPCB RM @C 7F?R GQ RFGQ GL IK/F?

3.102 cm GL BG?KCRCP?

35. )D ? K?P?RFML PSLLCP ?TCP?ECQ 9.5 KG/F, FMU JMLE BMCQ GR R?IC FGK MP FCP RM PSL ? 26.22-KG K?P?RFML? 36. ! K?P?RFML PSLLCP AMKNJCRCQ ? ?LB 12 s . 4FCPC GQ ?L SLACPR?GLRW MD 25 m GL RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB ?LB ?L SLACPR?GLRW MD 1 Q GL RFC CJ?NQCB RGKC. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW GL RFC BGQR?LAC. (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL RFC CJ?NQCB RGKC. (A) 7F?R GQ RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB GL KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB? (B) 7F?R GQ RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB? 37. 4FC QGBCQ MD ? QK?JJ PCAR?LESJ?P @MV ?PC KC?QSPCB RM @C 1.80 0.01 cm , 2.05 0.02 cm, and 3.1 0.1 cm JMLE. #?JASJ?RC GRQ TMJSKC ?LB SLACPR?GLRW GL AS@GA ACLRGKCRCPQ. 38. 7FCL LML-KCRPGA SLGRQ UCPC SQCB GL RFC 5LGRCB +GLEBMK, ? SLGR MD K?QQ A?JJCB RFC CBHA7-@4FF (J@K) U?Q CKNJMWCB, UFCPC 1 lbm = 0.4539 kg . (?) )D RFCPC GQ ?L SLACPR?GLRW MD 0.0001 kg GL RFC NMSLB-K?QQ SLGR, UF?R GQ GRQ NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW? (@) "?QCB ML RF?R NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW, UF?R K?QQ GL NMSLB-K?QQ F?Q ?L SLACPR?GLRW MD 1 IE UFCL AMLTCPRCB RM IGJMEP?KQ? 39. 4FC JCLERF ?LB UGBRF MD ? PCAR?LESJ?P PMMK ?PC KC?QSPCB RM @C 3.955 0.005 m ?LB 3.050 0.005 m . #?JASJ?RC RFC ?PC? MD RFC PMMK ?LB GRQ SLACPR?GLRW GL QOS?PC KCRCPQ. 40. ! A?P CLEGLC KMTCQ ? NGQRML UGRF ? AGPASJ?P APMQQ QCARGML MD 7.500 0.002 cm BG?KCRCP ? BGQR?LAC MD 3.250 0.001 cm RM AMKNPCQQ RFC E?Q GL RFC AWJGLBCP. (?) "W UF?R ?KMSLR GQ RFC E?Q BCAPC?QCB GL TMJSKC GL AS@GA ACLRGKCRCPQ? (@) &GLB RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL RFGQ TMJSKC.

42.188-km AMSPQC GL 2 h , 30 KGL,

342 m/s ML ? ACPR?GL B?W.

21. 4CARMLGA NJ?RCQ ?PC J?PEC QCEKCLRQ MD RFC %?PRFtQ APSQR RF?R KMTC QJMUJW. 3SNNMQC RF?R MLC QSAF NJ?RC F?Q ?L ?TCP?EC QNCCB MD 4.0 AK/ WC?P. (?) 7F?R BGQR?LAC BMCQ GR KMTC GL 1 Q ?R RFGQ QNCCB? (@) 7F?R GQ GRQ QNCCB GL IGJMKCRCPQ NCP KGJJGML WC?PQ? 22. (?) 2CDCP RM -78B; 1.3 RM BCRCPKGLC RFC ?TCP?EC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RFC %?PRF ?LB RFC 3SL. 4FCL A?JASJ?RC RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB MD RFC %?PRF GL GRQ MP@GR GL IGJMKCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB. (@) 7F?R GQ RFGQ GL KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB?

1.3 A99KH79O, )H;9?I?ED, 7D: ,?=D?<?97DJ F?=KH;I


ENFH;II OEKH 7DIM;HI JE FHE8B;CI ?D J>?I I;9J?ED JE J>; 9EHH;9J DKC8;H E< I?=D?<?97DJ <?=KH;I 7D: FHEF;H KD?JI. 23. 3SNNMQC RF?R WMSP @?RFPMMK QA?JC PC?BQ WMSP K?QQ ?Q 65 IE UGRF ? 3% SLACPR?GLRW. 7F?R GQ RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL WMSP K?QQ (GL IGJMEP?KQ)? 24. ! EMMB-OS?JGRW KC?QSPGLE R?NC A?L @C MDD @W 0.50 AK MTCP ? BGQR?LAC MD 20 K. 7F?R GQ GRQ NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW? 25. (?) ! A?P QNCCBMKCRCP F?Q ?

1.4 AFFHEN?C7J?ED
41. (MU K?LW FC?PR@C?RQ ?PC RFCPC GL ? JGDCRGKC? 42. ! ECLCP?RGML GQ ?@MSR MLC-RFGPB MD ? JGDCRGKC. !NNPMVGK?RCJW FMU K?LW

5.0% SLACPR?GLRW. 7F?R GQ RFC P?LEC MD ECLCP?RGMLQ F?TC N?QQCB QGLAC RFC WC?P 0 !$? NMQQG@JC QNCCBQ UFCL GR PC?BQ 90 km/h ? (@) #MLTCPR RFGQ P?LEC RM KGJCQ 43. (MU K?LW RGKCQ JMLECP RF?L RFC KC?L JGDC MD ?L CVRPCKCJW SLQR?@JC ?RMKGA LSAJCSQ GQ RFC JGDCRGKC MD ? FSK?L? ((GLR: 4FC JGDCRGKC MD ?L NCP FMSP. (1 km = 0.6214 mi) SLQR?@JC ?RMKGA LSAJCSQ GQ ML RFC MPBCP MD 10 22 s .) 26. !L GLD?LRtQ NSJQC P?RC GQ KC?QSPCB RM @C 130 5 @C?RQ/KGL. 7F?R GQ
RFC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW GL RFGQ KC?QSPCKCLR? 27. (?) 3SNNMQC RF?R ? NCPQML F?Q ?L ?TCP?EC FC?PR P?RC MD 72.0 @C?RQ/ KGL. (MU K?LW @C?RQ BMCQ FC MP QFC F?TC GL 2.0 W? (@) )L 2.00 W? (A) )L 2.000 W? 28. ! A?L AMLR?GLQ 375 K, MD QMB?. (MU KSAF GQ JCDR ?DRCP 308 K, GQ PCKMTCB? 29. 3R?RC FMU K?LW QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ ?PC NPMNCP GL RFC PCQSJRQ MD RFC DMJJMUGLE A?JASJ?RGMLQ: (?) (A) 1.6010

44. #?JASJ?RC RFC ?NNPMVGK?RC LSK@CP MD ?RMKQ GL ? @?ARCPGSK. !QQSKC RF?R RFC ?TCP?EC K?QQ MD ?L ?RMK GL RFC @?ARCPGSK GQ RCL RGKCQ RFC K?QQ MD ? FWBPMECL ?RMK. ((GLR: 4FC K?QQ MD ? FWBPMECL ?RMK GQ ML RFC MPBCP 27 MD 10 kg ?LB RFC K?QQ MD ? @?ARCPGSK GQ ML RFC MPBCP MD

10 15 kg. )

19

(106.7)(98.2) / (46.210)(1.01) (@) (18.7) 2

(3712) .

30. (?) (MU K?LW QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ ?PC GL RFC LSK@CPQ 99 ?LB 100? (@) )D RFC SLACPR?GLRW GL C?AF LSK@CP GQ 1, UF?R GQ RFC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW GL C?AF? (A) 7FGAF GQ ? KMPC KC?LGLEDSJ U?W RM CVNPCQQ RFC ?AASP?AW MD RFCQC RUM LSK@CPQ, QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ MP NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRGCQ? MD

2.0 km/h ?R ? QNCCB 90 km/h , UF?R GQ RFC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW? (@) )D GR F?Q RFC Q?KC NCPACLR SLACPR?GLRW UFCL GR PC?BQ 60 km/h , UF?R GQ RFC P?LEC MD QNCCBQ
31. (?) )D WMSP QNCCBMKCRCP F?Q ?L SLACPR?GLRW MD WMS AMSJB @C EMGLE?
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

33

F?=KH; 1.28 4FGQ AMJMP-CLF?LACB NFMRM QFMUQ *4?@BA8??4 GLC;<@HE<H@ (PCB) ?RR?AIGLE FSK?L ACJJQ. 4FCQC @?ARCPG? ?PC AMKKMLJW ILMUL DMP A?SQGLE DMMB@MPLC GJJLCQQ. #?L WMS CQRGK?RC RFC LSK@CP MD ?RMKQ GL C?AF @?ARCPGSK? (APCBGR: 2MAIW -MSLR?GL ,?@MP?RMPGCQ, .)!)$, .)()

45. !NNPMVGK?RCJW FMU K?LW ?RMKQ RFGAI GQ ? ACJJ KCK@P?LC, ?QQSKGLE ?JJ ?RMKQ RFCPC ?TCP?EC ?@MSR RUGAC RFC QGXC MD ? FWBPMECL ?RMK? 46. (?) 7F?R DP?ARGML MD %?PRFtQ BG?KCRCP GQ RFC EPC?RCQR MAC?L BCNRF? (@) 4FC EPC?RCQR KMSLR?GL FCGEFR? 47. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC LSK@CP MD ACJJQ GL ? FSKKGLE@GPB ?QQSKGLE RFC K?QQ MD ?L ?TCP?EC ACJJ GQ RCL RGKCQ RFC K?QQ MD ? @?ARCPGSK. (@) -?IGLE RFC Q?KC ?QQSKNRGML, FMU K?LW ACJJQ ?PC RFCPC GL ? FSK?L? 48. !QQSKGLE MLC LCPTC GKNSJQC KSQR CLB @CDMPC ?LMRFCP A?L @CEGL, UF?R GQ RFC K?VGKSK DGPGLE P?RC MD ? LCPTC GL GKNSJQCQ NCP QCAMLB?

34

#(!04%2 1 Y ).42/$5#4)/.: 4(% .!452% /& 3#)%.#% !.$ 0(93)#3

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

35

+).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.1 4FC KMRGML MD ?L !KCPGA?L ICQRPCJ RFPMSEF RFC ?GP A?L @C BCQAPG@CB @W RFC @GPBtQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR, QNCCB, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML. 7FCL GR DJGCQ GL ? QRP?GEFR JGLC UGRFMSR ?LW AF?LEC GL BGPCARGML, GRQ KMRGML GQ Q?GB RM @C MLC BGKCLQGML?J. (APCBGR: 6GLAC -?GBCLQ, 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

,C?PLGLE /@HCARGTCQ
2.1. D?IFB79;C;DJ 2.2. /;9JEHI, ,97B7HI, 7D: CEEH:?D7J; ,OIJ;CI 2.3. -?C;, /;BE9?JO, 7D: ,F;;: 2.4. A99;B;H7J?ED 2.5. &EJ?ED EGK7J?EDI <EH CEDIJ7DJ A99;B;H7J?ED ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED 2.6. )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= B7I?9I <EH (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I 2.7. F7BB?D= (8@;9JI 2.8. H7F>?97B AD7BOI?I E< (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B &EJ?ED

"DJHE:K9J?ED JE (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I


/@HCARQ ?PC GL KMRGML CTCPWUFCPC UC JMMI. %TCPWRFGLE DPMK ? RCLLGQ E?KC RM ? QN?AC-NPM@C DJW@W MD RFC NJ?LCR .CNRSLC GLTMJTCQ KMRGML. 7FCL WMS ?PC PCQRGLE, WMSP FC?PR KMTCQ @JMMB RFPMSEF WMSP TCGLQ. !LB CTCL GL GL?LGK?RC M@HCARQ, RFCPC GQ AMLRGLSMSQ KMRGML GL RFC TG@P?RGMLQ MD ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ. 1SCQRGMLQ ?@MSR KMRGML ?PC GLRCPCQRGLE GL ?LB MD RFCKQCJTCQ: HBJ ?BA: J<?? <G G4>8 9BE 4 FC468 CEB58 GB :8G GB $4EF? .;8E8 J<?? 4 9BBG54?? ?4A7 <9 <G <F G;EBJA 4G 4 68EG4<A 4A:?8? "SR ?L SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD KMRGML GQ ?JQM ICW RM SLBCPQR?LBGLE MRFCP AMLACNRQ GL NFWQGAQ. !L SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD ?AACJCP?RGML, DMP CV?KNJC, GQ APSAG?J RM RFC QRSBW MD DMPAC. /SP DMPK?J QRSBW MD NFWQGAQ @CEGLQ UGRF A?D;C7J?9I UFGAF GQ BCDGLCB ?Q RFC FGH7L B9 @BG<BA J<G;BHG 6BAF<78E<A: <GF 64HF8F. 4FC UMPB uIGLCK?RGAQv AMKCQ DPMK ? 'PCCI RCPK KC?LGLE KMRGML ?LB GQ PCJ?RCB RM MRFCP %LEJGQF UMPBQ QSAF ?Q uAGLCK?v (KMTGCQ) ?LB uIGLCQGMJMEWv (RFC QRSBW MD FSK?L KMRGML). )L MLC-BGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ ?LB -ME-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I UC UGJJ QRSBW MLJW RFC @BG<BA MD ? DMMR@?JJ, DMP CV?KNJC, UGRFMSR UMPPWGLE ?@MSR UF?R DMPACQ A?SQC MP AF?LEC GRQ KMRGML. 3SAF AMLQGBCP?RGMLQ AMKC GL MRFCP AF?NRCPQ. )L RFGQ AF?NRCP, UC CV?KGLC RFC QGKNJCQR RWNC MD KMRGMLrL?KCJW, KMRGML ?JMLE ? QRP?GEFR JGLC, MP MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML. )L -ME-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I, UC ?NNJW AMLACNRQ BCTCJMNCB FCPC RM QRSBW KMRGML ?JMLE ASPTCB N?RFQ (RUM- ?LB RFPCC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML); DMP CV?KNJC, RF?R MD ? A?P PMSLBGLE ? ASPTC.

36

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

2.1 D?IFB79;C;DJ

F?=KH; 2.2 4FCQC AWAJGQRQ GL 6GCRL?K A?L @C BCQAPG@CB @W RFCGP NMQGRGML PCJ?RGTC RM @SGJBGLEQ ?LB ? A?L?J. 4FCGP KMRGML A?L @C BCQAPG@CB @W RFCGP AF?LEC GL NMQGRGML, MP BGQNJ?ACKCLR, GL RFC DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC. (APCBGR: 3SX?L "J?AI, &MRMNCBG?)

0MQGRGML
)L MPBCP RM BCQAPG@C RFC KMRGML MD ?L M@HCAR, WMS KSQR DGPQR @C ?@JC RM BCQAPG@C GRQ FEI?J?EDrUFCPC GR GQ ?R ?LW N?PRGASJ?P RGKC. -MPC NPCAGQCJW, WMS LCCB RM QNCAGDW GRQ NMQGRGML PCJ?RGTC RM ? AMLTCLGCLR PCDCPCLAC DP?KC. %?PRF GQ MDRCL SQCB ?Q ? PCDCPCLAC DP?KC, ?LB UC MDRCL BCQAPG@C RFC NMQGRGML MD ?L M@HCAR ?Q GR PCJ?RCQ RM QR?RGML?PW M@HCARQ GL RF?R PCDCPCLAC DP?KC. &MP CV?KNJC, ? PMAICR J?SLAF UMSJB @C BCQAPG@CB GL RCPKQ MD RFC NMQGRGML MD RFC PMAICR UGRF PCQNCAR RM RFC %?PRF ?Q ? UFMJC, UFGJC ? NPMDCQQMPtQ NMQGRGML AMSJB @C BCQAPG@CB GL RCPKQ MD UFCPC QFC GQ GL PCJ?RGML RM RFC LC?P@W UFGRC @M?PB. (3CC F?=KH; 2.3.) )L MRFCP A?QCQ, UC SQC PCDCPCLAC DP?KCQ RF?R ?PC LMR QR?RGML?PW @SR ?PC GL KMRGML PCJ?RGTC RM RFC %?PRF. 4M BCQAPG@C RFC NMQGRGML MD ? NCPQML GL ?L ?GPNJ?LC, DMP CV?KNJC, UC SQC RFC ?GPNJ?LC, LMR RFC %?PRF, ?Q RFC PCDCPCLAC DP?KC. (3CC F?=KH; 2.4.)

$GQNJ?ACKCLR
)D ?L M@HCAR KMTCQ PCJ?RGTC RM ? PCDCPCLAC DP?KC (DMP CV?KNJC, GD ? NPMDCQQMP KMTCQ RM RFC PGEFR PCJ?RGTC RM ? UFGRC @M?PB MP ? N?QQCLECP KMTCQ RMU?PB RFC PC?P MD ?L ?GPNJ?LC), RFCL RFC M@HCARtQ NMQGRGML AF?LECQ. 4FGQ AF?LEC GL NMQGRGML GQ ILMUL ?Q :?IFB79;C;DJ. 4FC UMPB uBGQNJ?ACKCLRv GKNJGCQ RF?R ?L M@HCAR F?Q KMTCB, MP F?Q @CCL BGQNJ?ACB. $GQNJ?ACKCLR $GQNJ?ACKCLR GQ RFC 6;4A:8 <A CBF<G<BA MD ?L M@HCAR:

x = x f x 0,
UFCPC

(2.1)

x GQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR, x f GQ RFC DGL?J NMQGRGML, ?LB x 0 GQ RFC GLGRG?J NMQGRGML. x KC?LQ 6;4A:8 <A CBF<G<BA.

)L RFGQ RCVR RFC SNNCP A?QC 'PCCI JCRRCP (BCJR?) ?JU?WQ KC?LQ uAF?LEC GLv UF?RCTCP OS?LRGRW DMJJMUQ GR; RFSQ, !JU?WQ QMJTC DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR @W QS@RP?ARGLE GLGRG?J NMQGRGML x 0 DPMK DGL?J NMQGRGML x f .

.MRC RF?R RFC 3) SLGR DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ RFC KCRCP (K) (QCC )>OI?97B *K7DJ?J?;I 7D: .D?JI), @SR QMKCRGKCQ IGJMKCRCPQ, KGJCQ, DCCR, ?LB MRFCP SLGRQ MD JCLERF ?PC SQCB. +CCN GL KGLB RF?R UFCL SLGRQ MRFCP RF?L RFC KCRCP ?PC SQCB GL ? NPM@JCK, WMS K?W LCCB RM AMLTCPR RFCK GLRM KCRCPQ RM AMKNJCRC RFC A?JASJ?RGML.

F?=KH; 2.3 ! NPMDCQQMP N?ACQ JCDR ?LB PGEFR UFGJC JCARSPGLE. (CP NMQGRGML PCJ?RGTC RM %?PRF GQ EGTCL @W PCNPCQCLRCB @W ?L ?PPMU NMGLRGLE RM RFC PGEFR.

x . 4FC +2.0 m

BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD RFC NPMDCQQMP PCJ?RGTC RM %?PRF GQ

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

37

F?=KH; 2.4 ! N?QQCLECP KMTCQ DPMK FGQ QC?R RM RFC @?AI MD RFC NJ?LC. (GQ JMA?RGML PCJ?RGTC RM RFC ?GPNJ?LC GQ EGTCL @W

PCJ?RGTC RM RFC NJ?LC GQ PCNPCQCLRCB @W ?L ?PPMU RMU?PB RFC PC?P MD RFC NJ?LC. .MRGAC RF?R RFC ?PPMU PCNPCQCLRGLE FGQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ RUGAC ?Q JMLE ?Q RFC ?PPMU PCNPCQCLRGLE RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD RFC NPMDCQQMP (FC KMTCQ RUGAC ?Q D?P) GL F?=KH; 2.3.

x . 4FC 4.0-m

BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD RFC N?QQCLECP

.MRC RF?R BGQNJ?ACKCLR F?Q ? BGPCARGML ?Q UCJJ ?Q ? K?ELGRSBC. 4FC NPMDCQQMPtQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ 2.0 K RM RFC PGEFR, ?LB RFC ?GPJGLC N?QQCLECPtQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ 4.0 K RMU?PB RFC PC?P. )L MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML, BGPCARGML A?L @C QNCAGDGCB UGRF ? NJSQ MP KGLSQ QGEL. 7FCL WMS @CEGL ? NPM@JCK, WMS QFMSJB QCJCAR UFGAF BGPCARGML GQ NMQGRGTC (SQS?JJW RF?R UGJJ @C RM RFC PGEFR MP SN, @SR WMS ?PC DPCC RM QCJCAR NMQGRGTC ?Q @CGLE ?LW BGPCARGML). 4FC NPMDCQQMPtQ GLGRG?J NMQGRGML GQ x 0 = 1.5 m ?LB FCP DGL?J NMQGRGML GQ x f = 3.5 m . 4FSQ FCP BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ

x = x f x 0 = 3.5 m 1.5 m = + 2.0 m.

(2.2)

)L RFGQ AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK, KMRGML RM RFC PGEFR GQ NMQGRGTC, UFCPC?Q KMRGML RM RFC JCDR GQ LCE?RGTC. 3GKGJ?PJW, RFC ?GPNJ?LC N?QQCLECPtQ GLGRG?J NMQGRGML GQ x 0 = 6.0 m ?LB FGQ DGL?J NMQGRGML GQ x f = 2.0 m , QM FGQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ

x = x f x 0 = 2.0 m 6.0 m = 4.0 m.


(GQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ LCE?RGTC @CA?SQC FGQ KMRGML GQ RMU?PB RFC PC?P MD RFC NJ?LC, MP GL RFC LCE?RGTC

(2.3)

x BGPCARGML GL MSP AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK.

$GQR?LAC
!JRFMSEF BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ BCQAPG@CB GL RCPKQ MD BGPCARGML, BGQR?LAC GQ LMR. D?IJ7D9; GQ BCDGLCB RM @C G;8 @4:A<GH78 BE F<M8 B9 7<FC?468@8AG 58GJ88A GJB CBF<G<BAF. .MRC RF?R RFC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RUM NMQGRGMLQ GQ LMR RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB @CRUCCL RFCK. D?IJ7D9; JH7L;B;: GQ G;8 GBG4? ?8A:G; B9 G;8 C4G; GE4I8?87 58GJ88A GJB CBF<G<BAF. $GQR?LAC F?Q LM BGPCARGML ?LB, RFSQ, LM QGEL. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC BGQR?LAC RFC NPMDCQQMP U?JIQ GQ 2.0 K. 4FC BGQR?LAC RFC ?GPNJ?LC N?QQCLECP U?JIQ GQ 4.0 K. -GQAMLACNRGML !JCPR: $GQR?LAC 4P?TCJCB TQ. -?ELGRSBC MD $GQNJ?ACKCLR )R GQ GKNMPR?LR RM LMRC RF?R RFC 7<FG4A68 GE4I8?87, FMUCTCP, A?L @C EPC?RCP RF?L RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR (@W K?ELGRSBC, UC KC?L HSQR RFC QGXC MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR UGRFMSR PCE?PB RM GRQ BGPCARGML; RF?R GQ, HSQR ? LSK@CP UGRF ? SLGR). &MP CV?KNJC, RFC NPMDCQQMP AMSJB N?AC @?AI ?LB DMPRF K?LW RGKCQ, NCPF?NQ U?JIGLE ? BGQR?LAC MD 150 K BSPGLE ? JCARSPC, WCR QRGJJ CLB SN MLJW 2.0 K RM RFC PGEFR MD FCP QR?PRGLE NMGLR. )L RFGQ A?QC FCP BGQNJ?ACKCLR UMSJB @C +2.0 K, RFC K?ELGRSBC MD FCP BGQNJ?ACKCLR UMSJB @C 2.0 K, @SR RFC BGQR?LAC QFC RP?TCJCB UMSJB @C 150 K. )L IGLCK?RGAQ UC LC?PJW ?JU?WQ BC?J UGRF BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB K?ELGRSBC MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR, ?LB ?JKMQR LCTCP UGRF BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB. /LC U?W RM RFGLI ?@MSR RFGQ GQ RM ?QQSKC WMS K?PICB RFC QR?PR MD RFC KMRGML ?LB RFC CLB MD RFC KMRGML. 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ QGKNJW RFC BGDDCPCLAC GL RFC NMQGRGML MD RFC RUM K?PIQ ?LB GQ GLBCNCLBCLR MD RFC N?RF R?ICL GL RP?TCJGLE @CRUCCL RFC RUM K?PIQ. 4FC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB, FMUCTCP, GQ RFC RMR?J JCLERF MD RFC N?RF R?ICL @CRUCCL RFC RUM K?PIQ.

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


! AWAJGQR PGBCQ 3 IK UCQR ?LB RFCL RSPLQ ?PMSLB ?LB PGBCQ 2 IK C?QR. (?) 7F?R GQ FCP BGQNJ?ACKCLR? (@) 7F?R BGQR?LAC BMCQ QFC PGBC? (A) 7F?R GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD FCP BGQNJ?ACKCLR? ,EBKJ?ED

38

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.5

(?) 4FC PGBCPtQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ LCE?RGTC.) (@) 4FC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB GQ

x = x f x 0 = 1 km . (4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ LCE?RGTC @CA?SQC UC R?IC C?QR RM @C NMQGRGTC ?LB UCQR RM @C

3 km + 2 km = 5 km . 1 km .

(A) 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ

2.2 /;9JEHI, ,97B7HI, 7D: CEEH:?D7J; ,OIJ;CI

F?=KH; 2.6 4FC KMRGML MD RFGQ %AJGNQC #MLACNR HCR A?L @C BCQAPG@CB GL RCPKQ MD RFC BGQR?LAC GR F?Q RP?TCJCB (? QA?J?P OS?LRGRW) MP GRQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR GL ? QNCAGDGA BGPCARGML (? TCARMP OS?LRGRW). )L MPBCP RM QNCAGDW RFC BGPCARGML MD KMRGML, GRQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR KSQR @C BCQAPG@CB @?QCB ML ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK. )L RFGQ A?QC, GR K?W @C AMLTCLGCLR RM AFMMQC KMRGML RMU?PB RFC JCDR ?Q NMQGRGTC KMRGML (GR GQ RFC DMPU?PB BGPCARGML DMP RFC NJ?LC), ?JRFMSEF GL K?LW A?QCQ, RFC x -AMMPBGL?RC PSLQ DPMK JCDR RM PGEFR, UGRF KMRGML RM RFC PGEFR ?Q NMQGRGTC ?LB KMRGML RM RFC JCDR ?Q LCE?RGTC. (APCBGR: !PKAF?GP !TG?RMP, &JGAIP)

7F?R GQ RFC BGDDCPCLAC @CRUCCL BGQR?LAC ?LB BGQNJ?ACKCLR? 7FCPC?Q BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ BCDGLCB @W @MRF BGPCARGML ?LB K?ELGRSBC, BGQR?LAC GQ BCDGLCB MLJW @W K?ELGRSBC. $GQNJ?ACKCLR GQ ?L CV?KNJC MD ? TCARMP OS?LRGRW. $GQR?LAC GQ ?L CV?KNJC MD ? QA?J?P OS?LRGRW. ! L;9JEH GQ ?LW OS?LRGRW UGRF @MRF @4:A<GH78 4A7 7<E86G<BA. /RFCP CV?KNJCQ MD TCARMPQ GLAJSBC ? TCJMAGRW MD 90 IK/F C?QR ?LB ? DMPAC MD 500 LCURMLQ QRP?GEFR BMUL. 4FC BGPCARGML MD ? TCARMP GL MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML GQ EGTCL QGKNJW @W ? NJSQ

( + ) MP KGLSQ ( ) QGEL. 6CARMPQ ?PC PCNPCQCLRCB EP?NFGA?JJW @W

?PPMUQ. !L ?PPMU SQCB RM PCNPCQCLR ? TCARMP F?Q ? JCLERF NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC TCARMPtQ K?ELGRSBC (C.E., RFC J?PECP RFC K?ELGRSBC, RFC JMLECP RFC JCLERF MD RFC TCARMP) ?LB NMGLRQ GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC TCARMP. 3MKC NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ, JGIC BGQR?LAC, CGRFCP F?TC LM BGPCARGML MP LMLC GQ QNCAGDGCB. ! I97B7H GQ ?LW OS?LRGRW RF?R F?Q ? K?ELGRSBC, @SR LM BGPCARGML. &MP CV?KNJC, ? 20C RCKNCP?RSPC, RFC 250 IGJMA?JMPGCQ (250 #?JMPGCQ) MD CLCPEW GL ? A?LBW @?P, ? 90 IK/F QNCCB JGKGR, ? NCPQMLtQ 1.8 K FCGEFR, ?LB ? BGQR?LAC MD 2.0 K ?PC ?JJ QA?J?PQrOS?LRGRGCQ UGRF LM QNCAGDGCB BGPCARGML. .MRC, FMUCTCP, RF?R ? QA?J?P A?L @C LCE?RGTC, QSAF ?Q ? 20C RCKNCP?RSPC. )L RFGQ A?QC, RFC KGLSQ QGEL GLBGA?RCQ ? NMGLR ML ? QA?JC P?RFCP RF?L ? BGPCARGML. 3A?J?PQ ?PC LCTCP PCNPCQCLRCB @W ?PPMUQ.

#MMPBGL?RC 3WQRCKQ DMP /LC-$GKCLQGML?J -MRGML


)L MPBCP RM BCQAPG@C RFC BGPCARGML MD ? TCARMP OS?LRGRW, WMS KSQR BCQGEL?RC ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UGRFGL RFC PCDCPCLAC DP?KC. &MP MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML, RFGQ GQ ? QGKNJC AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK AMLQGQRGLE MD ? MLC-BGKCLQGML?J AMMPBGL?RC JGLC. )L ECLCP?J, UFCL BCQAPG@GLE FMPGXMLR?J KMRGML, KMRGML RM RFC PGEFR GQ SQS?JJW AMLQGBCPCB NMQGRGTC, ?LB KMRGML RM RFC JCDR GQ AMLQGBCPCB LCE?RGTC. 7GRF TCPRGA?J KMRGML, KMRGML SN GQ SQS?JJW NMQGRGTC ?LB KMRGML BMUL GQ LCE?RGTC. )L QMKC A?QCQ, FMUCTCP, ?Q UGRF RFC HCR GL F?=KH; 2.6, GR A?L @C KMPC AMLTCLGCLR RM QUGRAF RFC NMQGRGTC ?LB LCE?RGTC BGPCARGMLQ. &MP CV?KNJC, GD WMS ?PC ?L?JWXGLE RFC KMRGML MD D?JJGLE M@HCARQ, GR A?L @C SQCDSJ RM BCDGLC BMULU?PBQ ?Q RFC NMQGRGTC BGPCARGML. )D NCMNJC GL ? P?AC ?PC PSLLGLE RM RFC JCDR, GR GQ SQCDSJ RM BCDGLC JCDR ?Q RFC NMQGRGTC BGPCARGML. )R BMCQ LMR K?RRCP ?Q JMLE ?Q RFC QWQRCK GQ AJC?P ?LB AMLQGQRCLR. /LAC WMS ?QQGEL ? NMQGRGTC BGPCARGML ?LB QR?PR QMJTGLE ? NPM@JCK, WMS A?LLMR AF?LEC GR.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

39

F?=KH; 2.7 )R GQ SQS?JJW AMLTCLGCLR RM AMLQGBCP KMRGML SNU?PB MP RM RFC PGEFR ?Q NMQGRGTC

(+)

?LB KMRGML BMULU?PB MP RM RFC JCDR ?Q LCE?RGTC

().

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


! NCPQMLtQ QNCCB A?L QR?W RFC Q?KC ?Q FC MP QFC PMSLBQ ? AMPLCP ?LB AF?LECQ BGPCARGML. 'GTCL RFGQ GLDMPK?RGML, GQ QNCCB ? QA?J?P MP ? TCARMP OS?LRGRW? %VNJ?GL. ,EBKJ?ED 3NCCB GQ ? QA?J?P OS?LRGRW. )R BMCQ LMR AF?LEC ?R ?JJ UGRF BGPCARGML AF?LECQ; RFCPCDMPC, GR F?Q K?ELGRSBC MLJW. )D GR UCPC ? TCARMP OS?LRGRW, GR UMSJB AF?LEC ?Q BGPCARGML AF?LECQ (CTCL GD GRQ K?ELGRSBC PCK?GLCB AMLQR?LR).

2.3 -?C;, /;BE9?JO, 7D: ,F;;:

F?=KH; 2.8 4FC KMRGML MD RFCQC P?AGLE QL?GJQ A?L @C BCQAPG@CB @W RFCGP QNCCBQ ?LB RFCGP TCJMAGRGCQ. (APCBGR: RM@GR?QDJGAIP, &JGAIP)

4FCPC GQ KMPC RM KMRGML RF?L BGQR?LAC ?LB BGQNJ?ACKCLR. 1SCQRGMLQ QSAF ?Q, u(MU JMLE BMCQ ? DMMR P?AC R?IC?v ?LB u7F?R U?Q RFC PSLLCPtQ QNCCB?v A?LLMR @C ?LQUCPCB UGRFMSR ?L SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD MRFCP AMLACNRQ. )L RFGQ QCARGML UC ?BB BCDGLGRGMLQ MD RGKC, TCJMAGRW, ?LB QNCCB RM CVN?LB MSP BCQAPGNRGML MD KMRGML.

4GKC
!Q BGQASQQCB GL )>OI?97B *K7DJ?J?;I 7D: .D?JI, RFC KMQR DSLB?KCLR?J NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ ?PC BCDGLCB @W FMU RFCW ?PC KC?QSPCB. 4FGQ GQ RFC A?QC UGRF RGKC. %TCPW KC?QSPCKCLR MD RGKC GLTMJTCQ KC?QSPGLE ? AF?LEC GL QMKC NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRW. )R K?W @C ? LSK@CP ML ? BGEGR?J AJMAI, ? FC?PR@C?R, MP RFC NMQGRGML MD RFC 3SL GL RFC QIW. )L NFWQGAQ, RFC BCDGLGRGML MD RGKC GQ QGKNJCr J?C; GQ 6;4A:8, MP RFC GLRCPT?J MTCP UFGAF AF?LEC MAASPQ. )R GQ GKNMQQG@JC RM ILMU RF?R RGKC F?Q N?QQCB SLJCQQ QMKCRFGLE AF?LECQ. 4FC ?KMSLR MD RGKC MP AF?LEC GQ A?JG@P?RCB @W AMKN?PGQML UGRF ? QR?LB?PB. 4FC 3) SLGR DMP RGKC GQ RFC QCAMLB, ?@@PCTG?RCB Q. 7C KGEFR, DMP CV?KNJC, M@QCPTC RF?R ? ACPR?GL NCLBSJSK K?ICQ MLC DSJJ QUGLE CTCPW 0.75 Q. 7C AMSJB RFCL SQC RFC NCLBSJSK RM KC?QSPC RGKC @W AMSLRGLE GRQ QUGLEQ MP, MD AMSPQC, @W AMLLCARGLE RFC NCLBSJSK RM ? AJMAI KCAF?LGQK RF?R PCEGQRCPQ RGKC ML ? BG?J. 4FGQ ?JJMUQ SQ RM LMR MLJW KC?QSPC RFC ?KMSLR MD RGKC, @SR ?JQM RM BCRCPKGLC ? QCOSCLAC MD CTCLRQ. (MU BMCQ RGKC PCJ?RC RM KMRGML? 7C ?PC SQS?JJW GLRCPCQRCB GL CJ?NQCB RGKC DMP ? N?PRGASJ?P KMRGML, QSAF ?Q FMU JMLE GR R?ICQ ?L ?GPNJ?LC N?QQCLECP RM ECR DPMK FGQ QC?R RM RFC @?AI MD RFC NJ?LC. 4M DGLB CJ?NQCB RGKC, UC LMRC RFC RGKC ?R RFC @CEGLLGLE ?LB CLB MD RFC KMRGML ?LB QS@RP?AR RFC RUM. &MP CV?KNJC, ? JCARSPC K?W QR?PR ?R 11:00 !.-. ?LB CLB ?R 11:50 !.-., QM RF?R RFC CJ?NQCB RGKC UMSJB @C 50 KGL. EB7FI;: J?C; t GQ RFC BGDDCPCLAC @CRUCCL RFC CLBGLE RGKC ?LB @CEGLLGLE RGKC,

t = t f t 0,
UFCPC RFC BCJR? QWK@MJ,

(2.4)

t GQ RFC AF?LEC GL RGKC MP CJ?NQCB RGKC, t f GQ RFC RGKC ?R RFC CLB MD RFC KMRGML, ?LB t 0 GQ RFC RGKC ?R RFC @CEGLLGLE MD RFC KMRGML. (!Q SQS?J, , KC?LQ RFC AF?LEC GL RFC OS?LRGRW RF?R DMJJMUQ GR.)

40

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

,GDC GQ QGKNJCP GD RFC @CEGLLGLE RGKC t 0 GQ R?ICL RM @C XCPM, ?Q UFCL UC SQC ? QRMNU?RAF. )D UC UCPC SQGLE ? QRMNU?RAF, GR UMSJB QGKNJW PC?B XCPM ?R RFC QR?PR MD RFC JCARSPC ?LB 50 KGL ?R RFC CLB. )D t 0 )L RFGQ RCVR, DMP QGKNJGAGRWtQ Q?IC, w KMRGML QR?PRQ ?R RGKC COS?J RM XCPM w RFC QWK@MJ

= 0 , RFCL t = t f t .

t GQ SQCB DMP CJ?NQCB RGKC SLJCQQ MRFCPUGQC QNCAGDGCB (t = t f t)

(t 0 = 0)

6CJMAGRW
9MSP LMRGML MD TCJMAGRW GQ NPM@?@JW RFC Q?KC ?Q GRQ QAGCLRGDGA BCDGLGRGML. 9MS ILMU RF?R GD WMS F?TC ? J?PEC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GL ? QK?JJ ?KMSLR MD RGKC WMS F?TC ? J?PEC TCJMAGRW, ?LB RF?R TCJMAGRW F?Q SLGRQ MD BGQR?LAC BGTGBCB @W RGKC, QSAF ?Q KGJCQ NCP FMSP MP IGJMKCRCPQ NCP FMSP. !TCP?EC 6CJMAGRW AL;H7=; L;BE9?JO GQ 7<FC?468@8AG (6;4A:8 <A CBF<G<BA) 7<I<787 5L G;8 G<@8 B9 GE4I8?,

UFCPC

- GQ RFC 4I8E4:8 (GLBGA?RCB @W RFC @?P MTCP RFC v ) TCJMAGRW, x GQ RFC AF?LEC GL NMQGRGML (MP BGQNJ?ACKCLR), ?LB x ?LB x ?PC RFC v 0 f DGL?J ?LB @CEGLLGLE NMQGRGMLQ ?R RGKCQ t f ?LB t 0 , PCQNCARGTCJW. )D RFC QR?PRGLE RGKC t 0 GQ R?ICL RM @C XCPM, RFCL RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW GQ QGKNJW - = x . v t
(2.6)

- = x = x f x 0 , v tf t0 t

(2.5)

.MRGAC RF?R RFGQ BCDGLGRGML GLBGA?RCQ RF?R I8?B6<GL <F 4 I86GBE 5864HF8 7<FC?468@8AG <F 4 I86GBE. )R F?Q @MRF K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML. 4FC 3) SLGR DMP TCJMAGRW GQ KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB MP K/Q, @SR K?LW MRFCP SLGRQ, QSAF ?Q IK/F, KG/F (?JQM UPGRRCL ?Q KNF), ?LB AK/Q, ?PC GL AMKKML SQC. 3SNNMQC, DMP CV?KNJC, ?L ?GPNJ?LC N?QQCLECP RMMI 5 QCAMLBQ RM KMTC {4 K (RFC LCE?RGTC QGEL GLBGA?RCQ RF?R BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ RMU?PB RFC @?AI MD RFC NJ?LC). (GQ ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW UMSJB @C

- = x = 4 m = 0.8 m/s. v t 5s
4FC KGLSQ QGEL GLBGA?RCQ RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW GQ ?JQM RMU?PB RFC PC?P MD RFC NJ?LC. 4FC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MD ?L M@HCAR BMCQ LMR RCJJ SQ ?LWRFGLE ?@MSR UF?R F?NNCLQ RM GR @CRUCCL RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR ?LB CLBGLE NMGLR, FMUCTCP. &MP CV?KNJC, UC A?LLMR RCJJ DPMK ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW UFCRFCP RFC ?GPNJ?LC N?QQCLECP QRMNQ KMKCLR?PGJW MP @?AIQ SN @CDMPC FC EMCQ RM RFC @?AI MD RFC NJ?LC. 4M ECR KMPC BCR?GJQ, UC KSQR AMLQGBCP QK?JJCP QCEKCLRQ MD RFC RPGN MTCP QK?JJCP RGKC GLRCPT?JQ.

(2.7)

F?=KH; 2.9 ! KMPC BCR?GJCB PCAMPB MD ?L ?GPNJ?LC N?QQCLECP FC?BGLE RMU?PB RFC @?AI MD RFC NJ?LC, QFMUGLE QK?JJCP QCEKCLRQ MD FGQ RPGN.

4FC QK?JJCP RFC RGKC GLRCPT?JQ AMLQGBCPCB GL ? KMRGML, RFC KMPC BCR?GJCB RFC GLDMPK?RGML. 7FCL UC A?PPW RFGQ NPMACQQ RM GRQ JMEGA?J AMLAJSQGML, UC ?PC JCDR UGRF ?L GLDGLGRCQGK?JJW QK?JJ GLRCPT?J. /TCP QSAF ?L GLRCPT?J, RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW @CAMKCQ RFC <AFG4AG4A8BHF I8?B6<GL MP RFC I8?B6<GL 4G 4 FC86<9<6 <AFG4AG. ! A?PtQ QNCCBMKCRCP, DMP CV?KNJC, QFMUQ RFC K?ELGRSBC (@SR LMR RFC BGPCARGML) MD RFC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW MD RFC A?P. (0MJGAC EGTC RGAICRQ @?QCB ML GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW, @SR UFCL A?JASJ?RGLE FMU JMLE GR UGJJ R?IC RM ECR DPMK MLC NJ?AC RM ?LMRFCP ML ? PM?B RPGN, WMS LCCB RM SQC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW.) "DIJ7DJ7D;EKI L;BE9?JO v GQ RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW ?R ? QNCAGDGA GLQR?LR GL RGKC (MP MTCP ?L GLDGLGRCQGK?JJW QK?JJ RGKC GLRCPT?J). -?RFCK?RGA?JJW, DGLBGLE GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW, v , ?R ? NPCAGQC GLQR?LR t A?L GLTMJTC R?IGLE ? JGKGR, ? A?JASJSQ MNCP?RGML @CWMLB RFC QAMNC MD RFGQ RCVR. (MUCTCP, SLBCP K?LW AGPASKQR?LACQ, UC A?L DGLB NPCAGQC T?JSCQ DMP GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW UGRFMSR A?JASJSQ.

3NCCB
)L CTCPWB?W J?LES?EC, KMQR NCMNJC SQC RFC RCPKQ uQNCCBv ?LB uTCJMAGRWv GLRCPAF?LEC?@JW. )L NFWQGAQ, FMUCTCP, RFCW BM LMR F?TC RFC Q?KC KC?LGLE ?LB RFCW ?PC BGQRGLAR AMLACNRQ. /LC K?HMP BGDDCPCLAC GQ RF?R QNCCB F?Q LM BGPCARGML. 4FSQ FC887 <F 4 F64?4E. *SQR ?Q UC LCCB RM BGQRGLESGQF @CRUCCL GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW ?LB ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW, UC ?JQM LCCB RM BGQRGLESGQF @CRUCCL GLQR?LR?LCMSQ QNCCB ?LB ?TCP?EC QNCCB. "DIJ7DJ7D;EKI IF;;: GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW. &MP CV?KNJC, QSNNMQC RFC ?GPNJ?LC N?QQCLECP ?R MLC GLQR?LR F?B ?L GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW MD {3.0 K/Q (RFC KGLSQ KC?LGLE RMU?PB RFC PC?P MD RFC NJ?LC). !R RF?R Q?KC RGKC FGQ GLQR?LR?LCMSQ QNCCB U?Q 3.0 K/Q. /P QSNNMQC RF?R ?R

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

41

MLC RGKC BSPGLE ? QFMNNGLE RPGN WMSP GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW GQ 40 IK/F BSC LMPRF. 9MSP GLQR?LR?LCMSQ QNCCB ?R RF?R GLQR?LR UMSJB @C 40 IK/FrRFC Q?KC K?ELGRSBC @SR UGRFMSR ? BGPCARGML. !TCP?EC QNCCB, FMUCTCP, GQ TCPW BGDDCPCLR DPMK ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW. AL;H7=; IF;;: GQ RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB BGTGBCB @W CJ?NQCB RGKC. 7C F?TC LMRCB RF?R BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB A?L @C EPC?RCP RF?L BGQNJ?ACKCLR. 3M ?TCP?EC QNCCB A?L @C EPC?RCP RF?L ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW, UFGAF GQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR BGTGBCB @W RGKC. &MP CV?KNJC, GD WMS BPGTC RM ? QRMPC ?LB PCRSPL FMKC GL F?JD ?L FMSP, ?LB WMSP A?PtQ MBMKCRCP QFMUQ RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB U?Q 6 IK, RFCL WMSP ?TCP?EC QNCCB U?Q 12 IK/F. 9MSP ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW, FMUCTCP, U?Q XCPM, @CA?SQC WMSP BGQNJ?ACKCLR DMP RFC PMSLB RPGN GQ XCPM. ($GQNJ?ACKCLR GQ AF?LEC GL NMQGRGML ?LB, RFSQ, GQ XCPM DMP ? PMSLB RPGN.) 4FSQ ?TCP?EC QNCCB GQ ABG QGKNJW RFC K?ELGRSBC MD ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW.

F?=KH; 2.10 $SPGLE ? 30-KGLSRC PMSLB RPGN RM RFC QRMPC, RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB GQ 6 IK. 4FC ?TCP?EC QNCCB GQ 12 IK/F. 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DMP RFC PMSLB RPGN GQ XCPM, QGLAC RFCPC U?Q LM LCR AF?LEC GL NMQGRGML. 4FSQ RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW GQ XCPM.

!LMRFCP U?W MD TGQS?JGXGLE RFC KMRGML MD ?L M@HCAR GQ RM SQC ? EP?NF. ! NJMR MD NMQGRGML MP MD TCJMAGRW ?Q ? DSLARGML MD RGKC A?L @C TCPW SQCDSJ. &MP CV?KNJC, DMP RFGQ RPGN RM RFC QRMPC, RFC NMQGRGML, TCJMAGRW, ?LB QNCCB-TQ.-RGKC EP?NFQ ?PC BGQNJ?WCB GL F?=KH; 2.11. (.MRC RF?R RFCQC EP?NFQ BCNGAR ? TCPW QGKNJGDGCB CE:;B MD RFC RPGN. 7C ?PC ?QQSKGLE RF?R QNCCB GQ AMLQR?LR BSPGLE RFC RPGN, UFGAF GQ SLPC?JGQRGA EGTCL RF?R UCtJJ NPM@?@JW QRMN ?R RFC QRMPC. "SR DMP QGKNJGAGRWtQ Q?IC, UC UGJJ KMBCJ GR UGRF LM QRMNQ MP AF?LECQ GL QNCCB. 7C ?PC ?JQM ?QQSKGLE RF?R RFC PMSRC @CRUCCL RFC QRMPC ?LB RFC FMSQC GQ ? NCPDCARJW QRP?GEFR JGLC.)

42

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.11 0MQGRGML TQ. RGKC, TCJMAGRW TQ. RGKC, ?LB QNCCB TQ. RGKC ML ? RPGN. .MRC RF?R RFC TCJMAGRW DMP RFC PCRSPL RPGN GQ LCE?RGTC.

-?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC )LTCQRGE?RGMLr'CRRGLE ? 3CLQC MD 3NCCB )D WMS F?TC QNCLR KSAF RGKC BPGTGLE, WMS NPM@?@JW F?TC ? EMMB QCLQC MD QNCCBQ @CRUCCL ?@MSR 10 ?LB 70 KGJCQ NCP FMSP. "SR UF?R ?PC RFCQC GL KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB? 7F?R BM UC KC?L UFCL UC Q?W RF?R QMKCRFGLE GQ KMTGLE ?R 10 K/Q? 4M ECR ? @CRRCP QCLQC MD UF?R RFCQC T?JSCQ PC?JJW KC?L, BM QMKC M@QCPT?RGMLQ ?LB A?JASJ?RGMLQ ML WMSP MUL: w A?JASJ?RC RWNGA?J A?P QNCCBQ GL KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB w CQRGK?RC HMEEGLE ?LB U?JIGLE QNCCB @W RGKGLE WMSPQCJD; AMLTCPR RFC KC?QSPCKCLRQ GLRM @MRF K/Q ?LB KG/F w BCRCPKGLC RFC QNCCB MD ?L ?LR, QL?GJ, MP D?JJGLE JC?D

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


! AMKKSRCP RP?GL RP?TCJQ DPMK "?JRGKMPC RM 7?QFGLERML, $#, ?LB @?AI GL 1 FMSP ?LB 45 KGLSRCQ. 4FC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RFC RUM QR?RGMLQ GQ ?NNPMVGK?RCJW 40 KGJCQ. 7F?R GQ (?) RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MD RFC RP?GL, ?LB (@) RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB MD RFC RP?GL GL K/Q? ,EBKJ?ED

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

43

(?) 4FC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MD RFC RP?GL GQ XCPM @CA?SQC

x f = x 0 ; RFC RP?GL CLBQ SN ?R RFC Q?KC NJ?AC GR QR?PRQ.

(@) 4FC ?TCP?EC QNCCB MD RFC RP?GL GQ A?JASJ?RCB @CJMU. .MRC RF?R RFC RP?GL RP?TCJQ 40 KGJCQ MLC U?W ?LB 40 KGJCQ @?AI, DMP ? RMR?J BGQR?LAC MD 80 KGJCQ.

distance = 80 miles time 105 minutes 80 miles 5280 feet 1 meter 1 minute = 20 m/s 105 minutes 1 mile 3.28 feet 60 seconds

(2.8) (2.9)

2.4 A99;B;H7J?ED

F?=KH; 2.12 ! NJ?LC BCACJCP?RCQ, MP QJMUQ BMUL, ?Q GR AMKCQ GL DMP J?LBGLE GL 3R. -??PRCL. )RQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML RM GRQ TCJMAGRW. (APCBGR: 3RCTC #MLPW, &JGAIP)

)L CTCPWB?W AMLTCPQ?RGML, RM ?AACJCP?RC KC?LQ RM QNCCB SN. 4FC ?AACJCP?RMP GL ? A?P A?L GL D?AR A?SQC GR RM QNCCB SN. 4FC EPC?RCP RFC 799;B;H7J?ED, RFC EPC?RCP RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW MTCP ? EGTCL RGKC. 4FC DMPK?J BCDGLGRGML MD ?AACJCP?RGML GQ AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFCQC LMRGMLQ, @SR KMPC GLAJSQGTC. !TCP?EC !AACJCP?RGML AL;H7=; A99;B;H7J?ED GQ G;8 E4G8 4G J;<6; I8?B6<GL 6;4A:8F, (2.10)

UFCPC

- GQ ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML, v GQ TCJMAGRW, ?LB t GQ RGKC. (4FC @?P MTCP RFC a KC?LQ 4I8E4:8 ?AACJCP?RGML.) a

- = v = v f v 0 , a tf t0 t

"CA?SQC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ TCJMAGRW GL K/Q BGTGBCB @W RGKC GL Q, RFC 3) SLGRQ DMP ?AACJCP?RGML ?PC m/s 2 , KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB QOS?PCB MP KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB NCP QCAMLB, UFGAF JGRCP?JJW KC?LQ @W FMU K?LW KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB RFC TCJMAGRW AF?LECQ CTCPW QCAMLB. 2CA?JJ RF?R TCJMAGRW GQ ? TCARMPrGR F?Q @MRF K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML. 4FGQ KC?LQ RF?R ? AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW A?L @C ? AF?LEC GL K?ELGRSBC (MP QNCCB), @SR GR A?L ?JQM @C ? AF?LEC GL 7<E86G<BA. &MP CV?KNJC, GD ? A?P RSPLQ ? AMPLCP ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB, GR GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE @CA?SQC GRQ BGPCARGML GQ AF?LEGLE. 4FC OSGAICP WMS RSPL, RFC EPC?RCP RFC ?AACJCP?RGML. 3M RFCPC GQ ?L ?AACJCP?RGML UFCL TCJMAGRW AF?LECQ CGRFCP GL K?ELGRSBC (?L GLAPC?QC MP BCAPC?QC GL QNCCB) MP GL BGPCARGML, MP @MRF. !AACJCP?RGML ?Q ? 6CARMP !AACJCP?RGML GQ ? TCARMP GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC 6;4A:8 GL TCJMAGRW, v . 3GLAC TCJMAGRW GQ ? TCARMP, GR A?L AF?LEC CGRFCP GL K?ELGRSBC MP GL BGPCARGML. !AACJCP?RGML GQ RFCPCDMPC ? AF?LEC GL CGRFCP QNCCB MP BGPCARGML, MP @MRF. +CCN GL KGLB RF?R ?JRFMSEF ?AACJCP?RGML GQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC 6;4A:8 GL TCJMAGRW, GR GQ LMR ?JU?WQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MD @BG<BA. 7FCL ?L M@HCAR QJMUQ BMUL, GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ MNNMQGRC RM RFC BGPCARGML MD GRQ KMRGML. 4FGQ GQ ILMUL ?Q :;9;B;H7J?ED.

44

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.13 ! QS@U?W RP?GL GL 3?M 0?SJM, "P?XGJ, BCACJCP?RCQ ?Q GR AMKCQ GLRM ? QR?RGML. )R GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE GL ? BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM GRQ BGPCARGML MD KMRGML. (APCBGR: 9SQSIC +?U?Q?IG, &JGAIP)

-GQAMLACNRGML !JCPR: $CACJCP?RGML TQ. .CE?RGTC !AACJCP?RGML $CACJCP?RGML ?JU?WQ PCDCPQ RM ?AACJCP?RGML GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC TCJMAGRW. $CACJCP?RGML ?JU?WQ PCBSACQ QNCCB. .CE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML, FMUCTCP, GQ ?AACJCP?RGML <A G;8 A8:4G<I8 7<E86G<BA <A G;8 6;BF8A 6BBE7<A4G8 FLFG8@. .CE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML K?W MP K?W LMR @C BCACJCP?RGML, ?LB BCACJCP?RGML K?W MP K?W LMR @C AMLQGBCPCB LCE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML. &MP CV?KNJC, AMLQGBCP F?=KH; 2.14.

F?=KH; 2.14 (?) 4FGQ A?P GQ QNCCBGLE SN ?Q GR KMTCQ RMU?PB RFC PGEFR. )R RFCPCDMPC F?Q NMQGRGTC ?AACJCP?RGML GL MSP AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK. (@) 4FGQ A?P GQ QJMUGLE BMUL ?Q GR KMTCQ RMU?PB RFC PGEFR. 4FCPCDMPC, GR F?Q LCE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML GL MSP AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK, @CA?SQC GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RMU?PB RFC JCDR. 4FC A?P GQ ?JQM BCACJCP?RGLE: RFC BGPCARGML MD GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ MNNMQGRC RM GRQ BGPCARGML MD KMRGML. (A) 4FGQ A?P GQ KMTGLE RMU?PB RFC JCDR, @SR QJMUGLE BMUL MTCP RGKC. 4FCPCDMPC, GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ NMQGRGTC GL MSP AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK @CA?SQC GR GQ RMU?PB RFC PGEFR. (MUCTCP, RFC A?P GQ BCACJCP?RGLE @CA?SQC GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ MNNMQGRC RM GRQ KMRGML. (B) 4FGQ A?P GQ QNCCBGLE SN ?Q GR KMTCQ RMU?PB RFC JCDR. )R F?Q LCE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML @CA?SQC GR GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE RMU?PB RFC JCDR. (MUCTCP, @CA?SQC GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q GRQ KMRGML, GR GQ QNCCBGLE SN (ABG BCACJCP?RGLE).

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

45

EN7CFB; 2.1 C7B9KB7J?D= A99;B;H7J?ED: A +79;>EHI; %;7L;I J>;

7J;

! P?ACFMPQC AMKGLE MSR MD RFC E?RC ?AACJCP?RCQ DPMK PCQR RM ? TCJMAGRW MD 15.0 K/Q BSC UCQR GL 1.80 Q. 7F?R GQ GRQ ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML?

F?=KH; 2.15 (APCBGR: *ML 3SJJGT?L, 0$ 0FMRM.MPE)

,JH7J;=O &GPQR UC BP?U ? QICRAF ?LB ?QQGEL ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK RM RFC NPM@JCK. 4FGQ GQ ? QGKNJC NPM@JCK, @SR GR ?JU?WQ FCJNQ RM TGQS?JGXC GR. .MRGAC RF?R UC ?QQGEL C?QR ?Q NMQGRGTC ?LB UCQR ?Q LCE?RGTC. 4FSQ, GL RFGQ A?QC, UC F?TC LCE?RGTC TCJMAGRW.

F?=KH; 2.16

7C A?L QMJTC RFGQ NPM@JCK @W GBCLRGDWGLE COS?RGML ,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ.

v ?LB t DPMK RFC EGTCL GLDMPK?RGML ?LB RFCL A?JASJ?RGLE RFC ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML BGPCARJW DPMK RFC

- = v = v f v 0 . a tf t0 t v 0 = 0 , v f = 15.0 m/s (RFC LCE?RGTC QGEL GLBGA?RCQ BGPCARGML RMU?PB RFC UCQR), t = 1.80 s . 15.0 m/s , GRQ AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW COS?JQ GRQ DGL?J TCJMAGRW:

2. &GLB RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW. 3GLAC RFC FMPQC GQ EMGLE DPMK XCPM RM

v = v f = 15.0 m/s .
3. 0JSE GL RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ ( v ?LB

- . t ) ?LB QMJTC DMP RFC SLILMUL a - = v = 15.0 m/s = 8.33 m/s 2. a t 1.80 s
(2.11)

D?I9KII?ED 4FC LCE?RGTC QGEL DMP ?AACJCP?RGML GLBGA?RCQ RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RMU?PB RFC UCQR. !L ?AACJCP?RGML MD GLAPC?QCQ GRQ TCJMAGRW @W 8.33 K/Q BSC UCQR C?AF QCAMLB, RF?R GQ, 8.33 KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB NCP QCAMLB, UFGAF UC UPGRC ?Q 8.33 m/s 2 . 4FGQ GQ RPSJW ?L ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML, @CA?SQC RFC PGBC GQ LMR QKMMRF. 7C QF?JJ QCC J?RCP RF?R ?L ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFGQ K?ELGRSBC UMSJB PCOSGPC RFC PGBCP RM F?LE ML UGRF ? DMPAC LC?PJW COS?J RM FGQ UCGEFR.

8.33 m/s 2 BSC UCQR KC?LQ RF?R RFC FMPQC

)LQR?LR?LCMSQ !AACJCP?RGML "DIJ7DJ7D;EKI 799;B;H7J?ED a , MP RFC 4668?8E4G<BA 4G 4 FC86<9<6 <AFG4AG <A G<@8, GQ M@R?GLCB @W RFC Q?KC NPMACQQ ?Q BGQASQQCB DMP GLQR?LR?LCMSQ
TCJMAGRW GL -?C;, /;BE9?JO, 7D: ,F;;:rRF?R GQ, @W AMLQGBCPGLE ?L GLDGLGRCQGK?JJW QK?JJ GLRCPT?J MD RGKC. (MU BM UC DGLB GLQR?LR?LCMSQ ?AACJCP?RGML SQGLE MLJW ?JEC@P?? 4FC ?LQUCP GQ RF?R UC AFMMQC ?L ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML RF?R GQ PCNPCQCLR?RGTC MD RFC KMRGML. F?=KH; 2.17 QFMUQ EP?NFQ MD GLQR?LR?LCMSQ ?AACJCP?RGML TCPQSQ RGKC DMP RUM TCPW BGDDCPCLR KMRGMLQ. )L F?=KH; 2.17(?), RFC ?AACJCP?RGML T?PGCQ QJGEFRJW ?LB RFC ?TCP?EC MTCP RFC CLRGPC GLRCPT?J GQ LC?PJW RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ ?AACJCP?RGML ?R ?LW RGKC. )L RFGQ A?QC, UC QFMSJB RPC?R RFGQ KMRGML ?Q GD GR F?B ? AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML COS?J RM RFC ?TCP?EC (GL RFGQ A?QC ?@MSR 1.8 m/s 2 ). )L F?=KH; 2.17(@), RFC ?AACJCP?RGML T?PGCQ BP?QRGA?JJW MTCP RGKC. )L QSAF QGRS?RGMLQ GR

46

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

GQ @CQR RM AMLQGBCP QK?JJCP RGKC GLRCPT?JQ ?LB AFMMQC ?L ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML DMP C?AF. &MP CV?KNJC, UC AMSJB AMLQGBCP KMRGML MTCP RFC RGKC GLRCPT?JQ DPMK 0 RM 1.0 Q ?LB DPMK 1.0 RM 3.0 Q ?Q QCN?P?RC KMRGMLQ UGRF ?AACJCP?RGMLQ MD +3.0 m/s 2 ?LB 2.0 m/s 2 , PCQNCARGTCJW.

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

4FC LCVR QCTCP?J CV?KNJCQ AMLQGBCP RFC KMRGML MD RFC QS@U?W RP?GL QFMUL GL F?=KH; 2.18. )L (?) RFC QFSRRJC KMTCQ RM RFC PGEFR, ?LB GL (@) GR KMTCQ RM RFC JCDR. 4FC CV?KNJCQ ?PC BCQGELCB RM DSPRFCP GJJSQRP?RC ?QNCARQ MD KMRGML ?LB RM GJJSQRP?RC QMKC MD RFC PC?QMLGLE RF?R EMCQ GLRM QMJTGLE NPM@JCKQ.

F?=KH; 2.18 /LC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML MD ? QS@U?W RP?GL AMLQGBCPCB GL EN7CFB; 2.2, EN7CFB; 2.3, EN7CFB; 2.4, EN7CFB; 2.5, EN7CFB; 2.6, ?LB EN7CFB; 2.7. (CPC UC F?TC AFMQCL RFC x -?VGQ QM RF?R + KC?LQ RM RFC PGEFR ?LB KC?LQ RM RFC JCDR DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ, TCJMAGRGCQ, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGMLQ. (?) 4FC QS@U?W RP?GL KMTCQ RM RFC PGEFR DPMK x 0 RM

x f . )RQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR x

GQ +2.0 IK. (@) 4FC RP?GL KMTCQ RM RFC JCDR DPMK

x 0

RM

x f . )RQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR x

GQ

1.5 km . (.MRC RF?R RFC NPGKC QWK@MJ (y) GQ SQCB QGKNJW

RM BGQRGLESGQF @CRUCCL BGQNJ?ACKCLR GL RFC RUM BGDDCPCLR QGRS?RGMLQ. 4FC BGQR?LACQ MD RP?TCJ ?LB RFC QGXC MD RFC A?PQ ?PC ML BGDDCPCLR QA?JCQ RM DGR CTCPWRFGLE GLRM RFC BG?EP?K.)

EN7CFB; 2.2 C7B9KB7J?D= D?IFB79;C;DJ: A ,K8M7O -H7?D


7F?R ?PC RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB QGEL MD BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ DMP RFC KMRGMLQ MD RFC QS@U?W RP?GL QFMUL GL N?PRQ (?) ?LB (@) MD F?=KH; 2.18? ,JH7J;=O ! BP?UGLE UGRF ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK GQ ?JPC?BW NPMTGBCB, QM UC BMLtR LCCB RM K?IC ? QICRAF, @SR UC QFMSJB ?L?JWXC GR RM K?IC QSPC UC SLBCPQR?LB UF?R GR GQ QFMUGLE. 0?W N?PRGASJ?P ?RRCLRGML RM RFC AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK. 4M DGLB BGQNJ?ACKCLR, UC SQC RFC COS?RGML x = x f x 0 . 4FGQ GQ QRP?GEFRDMPU?PB QGLAC RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J NMQGRGMLQ ?PC EGTCL. ,EBKJ?ED

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

47

1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ. )L RFC DGESPC UC QCC RF?R N?PR (@). 2. 3MJTC DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR GL N?PR (?).

x f = 6.70 km ?LB x 0 = 4.70 km DMP N?PR (?), ?LB x f = 3.75 km ?LB x 0 = 5.25 km DMP

x = x f x 0 = 6.70 km 4.70 km= +2.00 km


3. 3MJTC DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR GL N?PR (@).

(2.12)

x = x f x 0 = 3.75 km 5.25 km = 1.50 km


D?I9KII?ED

(2.13)

4FC BGPCARGML MD RFC KMRGML GL (?) GQ RM RFC PGEFR ?LB RFCPCDMPC GRQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR F?Q ? NMQGRGTC QGEL, UFCPC?Q KMRGML GL (@) GQ RM RFC JCDR ?LB RFSQ F?Q ? LCE?RGTC QGEL.

EN7CFB; 2.3 CECF7H?D= D?IJ7D9; -H7L;B;: M?J> D?IFB79;C;DJ: A ,K8M7O -H7?D


7F?R ?PC RFC BGQR?LACQ RP?TCJCB DMP RFC KMRGMLQ QFMUL GL N?PRQ (?) ?LB (@) MD RFC QS@U?W RP?GL GL F?=KH; 2.18? ,JH7J;=O 4M ?LQUCP RFGQ OSCQRGML, RFGLI ?@MSR RFC BCDGLGRGMLQ MD BGQR?LAC ?LB BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB, ?LB FMU RFCW ?PC PCJ?RCB RM BGQNJ?ACKCLR. $GQR?LAC @CRUCCL RUM NMQGRGMLQ GQ BCDGLCB RM @C RFC K?ELGRSBC MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR, UFGAF U?Q DMSLB GL EN7CFB; 2.2. $GQR?LAC RP?TCJCB GQ RFC RMR?J JCLERF MD RFC N?RF RP?TCJCB @CRUCCL RFC RUM NMQGRGMLQ. (3CC D?IFB79;C;DJ.) )L RFC A?QC MD RFC QS@U?W RP?GL QFMUL GL F?=KH; 2.18, RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J NMQGRGMLQ MD RFC RP?GL. ,EBKJ?ED 1. 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DMP N?PR (?) U?Q +2.00 IK. 4FCPCDMPC, RFC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J NMQGRGMLQ U?Q 2.00 IK, ?LB RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB U?Q 2.00 IK. 2. 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DMP N?PR (@) U?Q RP?TCJCB U?Q 1.50 IK. D?I9KII?ED $GQR?LAC GQ ? QA?J?P. )R F?Q K?ELGRSBC @SR LM QGEL RM GLBGA?RC BGPCARGML.

1.5 km. 4FCPCDMPC, RFC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J NMQGRGMLQ U?Q 1.50 IK, ?LB RFC BGQR?LAC

EN7CFB; 2.4 C7B9KB7J?D= A99;B;H7J?ED: A ,K8M7O -H7?D ,F;;:?D= .F


3SNNMQC RFC RP?GL GL F?=KH; 2.18(?) ?AACJCP?RCQ DPMK PCQR RM 30.0 IK/F GL RFC DGPQR 20.0 Q MD GRQ KMRGML. 7F?R GQ GRQ ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML BSPGLE RF?R RGKC GLRCPT?J? ,JH7J;=O )R GQ UMPRF GR ?R RFGQ NMGLR RM K?IC ? QGKNJC QICRAF:

F?=KH; 2.19

4FGQ NPM@JCK GLTMJTCQ RFPCC QRCNQ. &GPQR UC KSQR BCRCPKGLC RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW, RFCL UC KSQR BCRCPKGLC RFC AF?LEC GL RGKC, ?LB DGL?JJW UC SQC RFCQC T?JSCQ RM A?JASJ?RC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML. ,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ. 2. #?JASJ?RC

v 0 = 0 (RFC RP?GLQ QR?PRQ ?R PCQR), v f = 30.0 km/h , ?LB t = 20.0 s .

v . 3GLAC RFC RP?GL QR?PRQ DPMK PCQR, GRQ AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW GQ v= +30.0 km/h , UFCPC RFC NJSQ QGEL KC?LQ TCJMAGRW RM RFC PGEFR. 3. 0JSE GL ILMUL T?JSCQ ?LB QMJTC DMP RFC SLILMUL, a . - = v = +30.0 km/h a t 20.0 s
(2.14)

4. 3GLAC RFC SLGRQ ?PC KGVCB (UC F?TC @MRF FMSPQ ?LB QCAMLBQ DMP RGKC), UC LCCB RM AMLTCPR CTCPWRFGLE GLRM 3) SLGRQ MD KCRCPQ ?LB QCAMLBQ. (3CC )>OI?97B *K7DJ?J?;I 7D: .D?JI DMP KMPC ESGB?LAC.)

48

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

- = +30 km/h 10 3 m 1 h = 0.417 m/s 2 a 20.0 s 1 km 3600 s


D?I9KII?ED

(2.15)

4FC NJSQ QGEL KC?LQ RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RM RFC PGEFR. 4FGQ GQ PC?QML?@JC @CA?SQC RFC RP?GL QR?PRQ DPMK PCQR ?LB CLBQ SN UGRF ? TCJMAGRW RM RFC PGEFR (?JQM NMQGRGTC). 3M ?AACJCP?RGML GQ GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC 6;4A:8 GL TCJMAGRW, ?Q GQ ?JU?WQ RFC A?QC.

EN7CFB; 2.5 C7B9KB7J; A99;B;H7J?ED: A ,K8M7O -H7?D ,BEM?D= DEMD


.MU QSNNMQC RF?R ?R RFC CLB MD GRQ RPGN, RFC RP?GL GL F?=KH; 2.18(?) QJMUQ RM ? QRMN DPMK ? QNCCB MD 30.0 IK/F GL 8.00 Q. 7F?R GQ GRQ ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML UFGJC QRMNNGLE? ,JH7J;=O

F?=KH; 2.20

)L RFGQ A?QC, RFC RP?GL GQ BCACJCP?RGLE ?LB GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ LCE?RGTC @CA?SQC GR GQ RMU?PB RFC JCDR. !Q GL RFC NPCTGMSQ CV?KNJC, UC KSQR DGLB RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW ?LB RFC AF?LEC GL RGKC ?LB RFCL QMJTC DMP ?AACJCP?RGML. ,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ.

v 0 = 30.0 km/h , v f = 0 km/h (RFC RP?GL GQ QRMNNCB, QM GRQ TCJMAGRW GQ 0), ?LB t = 8.00 s . v . v = v f v 0 = 0 30.0 km/h = 30.0 km/h - = v = 30.0 km/h a t 8.00 s
(2.16)

2. 3MJTC DMP RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW,

3. 0JSE GL RFC ILMULQ,

- . v ?LB t , ?LB QMJTC DMP a

(2.17)

4. #MLTCPR RFC SLGRQ RM KCRCPQ ?LB QCAMLBQ.

- = v = 30.0 km/h 10 3 m 1 h = 1.04 m/s 2. a t 8.00 s 1 km 3600 s

(2.18)

D?I9KII?ED 4FC KGLSQ QGEL GLBGA?RCQ RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RM RFC JCDR. 4FGQ QGEL GQ PC?QML?@JC @CA?SQC RFC RP?GL GLGRG?JJW F?Q ? NMQGRGTC TCJMAGRW GL RFGQ NPM@JCK, ?LB ? LCE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML UMSJB MNNMQC RFC KMRGML. !E?GL, ?AACJCP?RGML GQ GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC 6;4A:8 GL TCJMAGRW, UFGAF GQ LCE?RGTC FCPC. 4FGQ ?AACJCP?RGML A?L @C A?JJCB ? BCACJCP?RGML @CA?SQC GR F?Q ? BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM RFC TCJMAGRW.

4FC EP?NFQ MD NMQGRGML, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML TQ. RGKC DMP RFC RP?GLQ GL EN7CFB; 2.4 ?LB EN7CFB; 2.5 ?PC BGQNJ?WCB GL F?=KH; 2.21. (7C F?TC R?ICL RFC TCJMAGRW RM PCK?GL AMLQR?LR DPMK 20 RM 40 Q, ?DRCP UFGAF RFC RP?GL BCACJCP?RCQ.)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

49

F?=KH; 2.21 (?) 0MQGRGML MD RFC RP?GL MTCP RGKC. .MRGAC RF?R RFC RP?GLtQ NMQGRGML AF?LECQ QJMUJW ?R RFC @CEGLLGLE MD RFC HMSPLCW, RFCL KMPC ?LB KMPC OSGAIJW ?Q GR NGAIQ SN QNCCB. )RQ NMQGRGML RFCL AF?LECQ KMPC QJMUJW ?Q GR QJMUQ BMUL ?R RFC CLB MD RFC HMSPLCW. )L RFC KGBBJC MD RFC HMSPLCW, UFGJC RFC TCJMAGRW PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR, RFC NMQGRGML AF?LECQ ?R ? AMLQR?LR P?RC. (@) 6CJMAGRW MD RFC RP?GL MTCP RGKC. 4FC RP?GLtQ TCJMAGRW GLAPC?QCQ ?Q GR ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R RFC @CEGLLGLE MD RFC HMSPLCW. )R PCK?GLQ RFC Q?KC GL RFC KGBBJC MD RFC HMSPLCW (UFCPC RFCPC GQ LM ?AACJCP?RGML). )R BCAPC?QCQ ?Q RFC RP?GL BCACJCP?RCQ ?R RFC CLB MD RFC HMSPLCW. (A) 4FC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC RP?GL MTCP RGKC. 4FC RP?GL F?Q NMQGRGTC ?AACJCP?RGML ?Q GR QNCCBQ SN ?R RFC @CEGLLGLE MD RFC HMSPLCW. )R F?Q LM ?AACJCP?RGML ?Q GR RP?TCJQ ?R AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW GL RFC KGBBJC MD RFC HMSPLCW. )RQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ LCE?RGTC ?Q GR QJMUQ BMUL ?R RFC CLB MD RFC HMSPLCW.

EN7CFB; 2.6 C7B9KB7J?D= AL;H7=; /;BE9?JO: ->; ,K8M7O -H7?D


7F?R GQ RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MD RFC RP?GL GL N?PR @ MD EN7CFB; 2.2, ?LB QFMUL ?E?GL @CJMU, GD GR R?ICQ 5.00 KGL RM K?IC GRQ RPGN?

50

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.22

,JH7J;=O !TCP?EC TCJMAGRW GQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR BGTGBCB @W RGKC. )R UGJJ @C LCE?RGTC FCPC, QGLAC RFC RP?GL KMTCQ RM RFC JCDR ?LB F?Q ? LCE?RGTC BGQNJ?ACKCLR. ,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ.

x f = 3.75 km , x 0 = 5.25 km , t = 5.00 min . x . 7C DMSLB x RM @C 1.5 km GL EN7CFB; 2.2. - = x = 1.50 km v t 5.00 min
(2.19)

2. $CRCPKGLC BGQNJ?ACKCLR,

3. 3MJTC DMP ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW.

4. #MLTCPR SLGRQ.

- = x = 1.50 km 60 min = 18.0 km/h v 5.00 min 1 h t

(2.20)

D?I9KII?ED 4FC LCE?RGTC TCJMAGRW GLBGA?RCQ KMRGML RM RFC JCDR.

EN7CFB; 2.7 C7B9KB7J?D= D;9;B;H7J?ED: ->; ,K8M7O -H7?D


&GL?JJW, QSNNMQC RFC RP?GL GL F?=KH; 2.22 QJMUQ RM ? QRMN DPMK ? TCJMAGRW MD 20.0 IK/F GL 10.0 Q. 7F?R GQ GRQ ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML? ,JH7J;=O /LAC ?E?GL, JCRtQ BP?U ? QICRAF:

F?=KH; 2.23

!Q @CDMPC, UC KSQR DGLB RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW ?LB RFC AF?LEC GL RGKC RM A?JASJ?RC ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML. ,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ. 2. #?JASJ?RC

v 0 = 20 km/h , v f = 0 km/h , t = 10.0 s . v = v f v 0 = 0 (20 km/h)=+20 km/h. - = v = +20.0 km/h a t 10.0 s


(2.21)

v . 4FC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW FCPC GQ ?ARS?JJW NMQGRGTC, QGLAC - . a

3. 3MJTC DMP

(2.22)

4. #MLTCPR SLGRQ.

- = +20.0 km/h 10 3 m 1 h = +0.556 m/s 2 a 10.0 s 1 km 3600 s

(2.23)

D?I9KII?ED 4FC NJSQ QGEL KC?LQ RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RM RFC PGEFR. 4FGQ GQ PC?QML?@JC @CA?SQC RFC RP?GL GLGRG?JJW F?Q ? LCE?RGTC TCJMAGRW (RM RFC JCDR) GL RFGQ NPM@JCK ?LB ? NMQGRGTC ?AACJCP?RGML MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML (?LB QM GR GQ RM RFC PGEFR). !E?GL, ?AACJCP?RGML GQ GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC 6;4A:8 GL

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

51

TCJMAGRW, UFGAF GQ NMQGRGTC FCPC. !Q GL EN7CFB; 2.5, RFGQ ?AACJCP?RGML A?L @C A?JJCB ? BCACJCP?RGML QGLAC GR GQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM RFC TCJMAGRW.

3GEL ?LB $GPCARGML


0CPF?NQ RFC KMQR GKNMPR?LR RFGLE RM LMRC ?@MSR RFCQC CV?KNJCQ GQ RFC QGELQ MD RFC ?LQUCPQ. )L MSP AFMQCL AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK, NJSQ KC?LQ RFC OS?LRGRW GQ RM RFC PGEFR ?LB KGLSQ KC?LQ GR GQ RM RFC JCDR. 4FGQ GQ C?QW RM GK?EGLC DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB TCJMAGRW. "SR GR GQ ? JGRRJC JCQQ M@TGMSQ DMP ?AACJCP?RGML. -MQR NCMNJC GLRCPNPCR LCE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML ?Q RFC QJMUGLE MD ?L M@HCAR. 4FGQ U?Q LMR RFC A?QC GL EN7CFB; 2.7, UFCPC ? NMQGRGTC ?AACJCP?RGML QJMUCB ? LCE?RGTC TCJMAGRW. 4FC APSAG?J BGQRGLARGML U?Q RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML U?Q GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML DPMK RFC TCJMAGRW. )L D?AR, ? LCE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML UGJJ <A6E84F8 ? LCE?RGTC TCJMAGRW. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC RP?GL KMTGLE RM RFC JCDR GL F?=KH; 2.22 GQ QNCB SN @W ?L ?AACJCP?RGML RM RFC JCDR. )L RF?R A?QC, @MRF v ?LB a ?PC LCE?RGTC. 4FC NJSQ ?LB KGLSQ QGELQ EGTC RFC BGPCARGMLQ MD RFC ?AACJCP?RGMLQ. )D ?AACJCP?RGML F?Q RFC Q?KC QGEL ?Q RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW, RFC M@HCAR GQ QNCCBGLE SN. )D ?AACJCP?RGML F?Q RFC MNNMQGRC QGEL MD RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW, RFC M@HCAR GQ QJMUGLE BMUL.

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


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

F?=KH; 2.24 &EL?D= &7D (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42100/1.3/CEL?D=-C7D6;D.@7H)

2.5 &EJ?ED EGK7J?EDI <EH CEDIJ7DJ A99;B;H7J?ED ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED

F?=KH; 2.25 +GLCK?RGA COS?RGMLQ A?L FCJN SQ BCQAPG@C ?LB NPCBGAR RFC KMRGML MD KMTGLE M@HCARQ QSAF ?Q RFCQC I?W?IQ P?AGLE GL .CU@SPW, %LEJ?LB. (APCBGR: "?PPW 3IC?RCQ, &JGAIP)

7C KGEFR ILMU RF?R RFC EPC?RCP RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD, Q?W, ? A?P KMTGLE ?U?W DPMK ? QRMN QGEL, RFC EPC?RCP RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GL ? EGTCL RGKC. "SR UC F?TC LMR BCTCJMNCB ? QNCAGDGA COS?RGML RF?R PCJ?RCQ ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB BGQNJ?ACKCLR. )L RFGQ QCARGML, UC BCTCJMN QMKC AMLTCLGCLR COS?RGMLQ DMP IGLCK?RGA PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ, QR?PRGLE DPMK RFC BCDGLGRGMLQ MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML ?JPC?BW AMTCPCB.

.MR?RGML: G, K, I, 4
&GPQR, JCR SQ K?IC QMKC QGKNJGDGA?RGMLQ GL LMR?RGML. 4?IGLE RFC GLGRG?J RGKC RM @C XCPM, ?Q GD RGKC GQ KC?QSPCB UGRF ? QRMNU?RAF, GQ ? EPC?R QGKNJGDGA?RGML. 3GLAC CJ?NQCB RGKC GQ t = t f t 0 , R?IGLE t 0 = 0 KC?LQ RF?R t = t f , RFC DGL?J RGKC ML RFC QRMNU?RAF. 7FCL GLGRG?J RGKC GQ R?ICL RM @C XCPM, UC

SQC RFC QS@QAPGNR 0 RM BCLMRC GLGRG?J T?JSCQ MD NMQGRGML ?LB TCJMAGRW. 4F?R GQ, QS@QAPGNRQ ML RFC DGL?J T?JSCQ. 4F?R GQ,

x 0 <F G;8 <A<G<4? CBF<G<BA ?LB v 0 <F G;8 <A<G<4? I8?B6<GL. 7C NSR LM t <F G;8 9<A4? G<@8, x <F G;8 9<A4? CBF<G<BA, ?LB v <F G;8 9<A4? I8?B6<GL. 4FGQ EGTCQ ? QGKNJCP CVNPCQQGML DMP CJ?NQCB RGKCrLMU, t = t . )R ?JQM QGKNJGDGCQ RFC CVNPCQQGML DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR, UFGAF GQ LMU x = x x 0 . !JQM, GR QGKNJGDGCQ RFC CVNPCQQGML DMP v = v v 0 . 4M QSKK?PGXC, SQGLE RFC QGKNJGDGCB LMR?RGML, UGRF RFC GLGRG?J RGKC R?ICL RM @C XCPM,

AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW, UFGAF GQ LMU

52

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

t = t x = x x 0 v = v v 0
UFCPC G;8 FH5F6E<CG 0 78ABG8F 4A <A<G<4? I4?H8 4A7 G;8 45F8A68 B9 4 FH5F6E<CG 78ABG8F 4 9<A4? I4?H8 GL UF?RCTCP KMRGML GQ SLBCP AMLQGBCP?RGML. 7C LMU K?IC RFC GKNMPR?LR ?QQSKNRGML RF?R 4668?8E4G<BA <F 6BAFG4AG. 4FGQ ?QQSKNRGML ?JJMUQ SQ RM ?TMGB SQGLE A?JASJSQ RM DGLB GLQR?LR?LCMSQ ?AACJCP?RGML. 3GLAC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ AMLQR?LR, RFC ?TCP?EC ?LB GLQR?LR?LCMSQ ?AACJCP?RGMLQ ?PC COS?J. 4F?R GQ,

(2.24)

- = a = constant, a

(2.25)

QM UC SQC RFC QWK@MJ a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x ) ?LB &GL?J 0MQGRGML ( x ) DPMK !TCP?EC 6CJMAGRW UFCL !AACJCP?RGML ( a ) GQ #MLQR?LR 4M ECR MSP DGPQR RUM LCU COS?RGMLQ, UC QR?PR UGRF RFC BCDGLGRGML MD ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW:

- = x . v t
3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC QGKNJGDGCB LMR?RGML DMP

(2.26)

x ?LB t WGCJBQ - = x x0. v t


(2.27)

3MJTGLE DMP

x WGCJBQ

- t, x = x0 + v - = v 0 + v (constant a). v 2

(2.28)

UFCPC RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW GQ (2.29)

4FC COS?RGML

CV?KNJC, GD WMS QRC?BGJW GLAPC?QC WMSP TCJMAGRW (RF?R GQ, UGRF AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML) DPMK 30 RM 60 IK/F, RFCL WMSP ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW BSPGLE RFGQ QRC?BW v +v GLAPC?QC GQ 45 IK/F. 5QGLE RFC COS?RGML v = 0 RM AFCAI RFGQ, UC QCC RF?R

- = v 0 + v PCDJCARQ RFC D?AR RF?R, UFCL ?AACJCP?RGML GQ AMLQR?LR, v GQ HSQR RFC QGKNJC ?TCP?EC MD RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J TCJMAGRGCQ. &MP v 2 2

- = v 0 + v = 30 km/h + 60 km/h = 45 km/h, v 2 2


UFGAF QCCKQ JMEGA?J.

(2.30)

EN7CFB; 2.8 C7B9KB7J?D= D?IFB79;C;DJ: !EM F7H :E;I J>; #E==;H +KD?
! HMEECP PSLQ BMUL ? QRP?GEFR QRPCRAF MD PM?B UGRF ?L ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MD 4.00 K/Q DMP 2.00 KGL. 7F?R GQ FGQ DGL?J NMQGRGML, R?IGLE FGQ GLGRG?J NMQGRGML RM @C XCPM? ,JH7J;=O $P?U ? QICRAF.

F?=KH; 2.26

4FC DGL?J NMQGRGML

x GQ EGTCL @W RFC COS?RGML

4M DGLB

- , ?LB t DPMK RFC QR?RCKCLR MD RFC NPM@JCK ?LB QS@QRGRSRC RFCK GLRM RFC COS?RGML. x , UC GBCLRGDW RFC T?JSCQ MD x 0 , v

- t. x = x0 + v

(2.31)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

53

,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ.

- = 4.00 m/s , t = 2.00 min , ?LB x = 0 m . v 0 - t = 0 + (4.00 m/s)(120 s) = 480 m x = x0 + v


(2.32)

2. %LRCP RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ GLRM RFC COS?RGML.

D?I9KII?ED 6CJMAGRW ?LB DGL?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?PC @MRF NMQGRGTC, UFGAF KC?LQ RFCW ?PC GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML.

4FC COS?RGML

QMKC MRFCP NMUCP, QSAF ?Q v 2 . 7FCL EP?NFCB, JGLC?P DSLARGMLQ JMMI JGIC QRP?GEFR JGLCQ UGRF ? AMLQR?LR QJMNC.) /L ? A?P RPGN, DMP CV?KNJC, UC UGJJ ECR RUGAC ?Q D?P GL ? EGTCL RGKC GD UC ?TCP?EC 90 IK/F RF?L GD UC ?TCP?EC 45 IK/F.

- t EGTCQ GLQGEFR GLRM RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL BGQNJ?ACKCLR, ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW, ?LB RGKC. )R QFMUQ, DMP CV?KNJC, RF?R x = x0 + v BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ ? JGLC?P DSLARGML MD ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW. ("W JGLC?P DSLARGML, UC KC?L RF?R BGQNJ?ACKCLR BCNCLBQ ML v P?RFCP RF?L ML v P?GQCB RM

F?=KH; 2.27 4FCPC GQ ? JGLC?P PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW. &MP ? EGTCL RGKC D?P ?Q RFC MRFCP M@HCAR.

t , ?L M@HCAR KMTGLE RUGAC ?Q D?QR ?Q ?LMRFCP M@HCAR UGJJ KMTC RUGAC ?Q

3MJTGLE DMP &GL?J 6CJMAGRW 7C A?L BCPGTC ?LMRFCP SQCDSJ COS?RGML @W K?LGNSJ?RGLE RFC BCDGLGRGML MD ?AACJCP?RGML.

a = v t
3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC QGKNJGDGCB LMR?RGML DMP

(2.33)

v ?LB t EGTCQ SQ a= v v0 t (constant a).


(2.34)

3MJTGLE DMP

v WGCJBQ v = v 0 + at (constant a).


(2.35)

EN7CFB; 2.9 C7B9KB7J?D= F?D7B /;BE9?JO: AD A?HFB7D; ,BEM?D= DEMD 7<J;H %7D:?D=
!L ?GPNJ?LC J?LBQ UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 70.0 K/Q ?LB RFCL BCACJCP?RCQ ?R ,JH7J;=O $P?U ? QICRAF. 7C BP?U RFC ?AACJCP?RGML TCARMP GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RFC TCJMAGRW TCARMP @CA?SQC RFC NJ?LC GQ BCACJCP?RGLE.

1.50 m/s 2 DMP 40.0 Q. 7F?R GQ GRQ DGL?J TCJMAGRW?

54

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.28

,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ.

v = 70.0 m/s , a = 1.50 m/s 2 , t = 40.0 s . vf . v = v 0 + at .


(2.36)

2. )BCLRGDW RFC SLILMUL. )L RFGQ A?QC, GR GQ DGL?J TCJMAGRW,

3. $CRCPKGLC UFGAF COS?RGML RM SQC. 7C A?L A?JASJ?RC RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW SQGLE RFC COS?RGML 4. 0JSE GL RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ ?LB QMJTC.

2 v = v 0 + at = 70.0 m/s + 1.50 m/s (40.0 s) = 10.0 m/s

D?I9KII?ED 4FC DGL?J TCJMAGRW GQ KSAF JCQQ RF?L RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW, ?Q BCQGPCB UFCL QJMUGLE BMUL, @SR QRGJJ NMQGRGTC. 7GRF HCR CLEGLCQ, PCTCPQC RFPSQR AMSJB @C K?GLR?GLCB JMLE CLMSEF RM QRMN RFC NJ?LC ?LB QR?PR KMTGLE GR @?AIU?PB. 4F?R UMSJB @C GLBGA?RCB @W ? LCE?RGTC DGL?J TCJMAGRW, UFGAF GQ LMR RFC A?QC FCPC.

F?=KH; 2.29 4FC ?GPNJ?LC J?LBQ UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 70.0 K/Q ?LB QJMUQ RM ? DGL?J TCJMAGRW MD 10.0 K/Q @CDMPC FC?BGLE DMP RFC RCPKGL?J. .MRC RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ LCE?RGTC @CA?SQC GRQ BGPCARGML GQ MNNMQGRC RM GRQ TCJMAGRW, UFGAF GQ NMQGRGTC.

)L ?BBGRGML RM @CGLE SQCDSJ GL NPM@JCK QMJTGLE, RFC COS?RGML RGKC. &PMK GR UC A?L QCC, DMP CV?KNJC, RF?R

v = v 0 + at EGTCQ SQ GLQGEFR GLRM RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ ?KMLE TCJMAGRW, ?AACJCP?RGML, ?LB = v 0) , ?Q CVNCARCB (G.C., TCJMAGRW GQ AMLQR?LR)

w DGL?J TCJMAGRW BCNCLBQ ML FMU J?PEC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ ?LB FMU JMLE GR J?QRQ w GD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ XCPM, RFCL RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW COS?JQ RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW (v w GD

a GQ LCE?RGTC, RFCL RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW GQ JCQQ RF?L RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW

(!JJ MD RFCQC M@QCPT?RGMLQ DGR MSP GLRSGRGML, ?LB GR GQ ?JU?WQ SQCDSJ RM CV?KGLC @?QGA COS?RGMLQ GL JGEFR MD MSP GLRSGRGML ?LB CVNCPGCLACQ RM AFCAI RF?R RFCW BM GLBCCB BCQAPG@C L?RSPC ?AASP?RCJW.) -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 2C?J-7MPJB #MLLCARGML

F?=KH; 2.30 4FC 3N?AC 3FSRRJC EA784IBE @J?QRQ MDD DPMK RFC +CLLCBW 3N?AC #CLRCP GL &C@PS?PW 2010. (APCBGR: -?RRFCU 3GK?LRMT, &JGAIP)

!L GLRCPAMLRGLCLR?J @?JJGQRGA KGQQGJC ()#"-) F?Q ? J?PECP ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML RF?L RFC 3N?AC 3FSRRJC ?LB ?AFGCTCQ ? EPC?RCP TCJMAGRW GL RFC DGPQR KGLSRC MP RUM MD DJGEFR (?ARS?J )#"- @SPL RGKCQ ?PC AJ?QQGDGCBrQFMPR-@SPL-RGKC KGQQGJCQ ?PC KMPC BGDDGASJR DMP ?L CLCKW RM BCQRPMW). "SR RFC 3N?AC

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

55

3FSRRJC M@R?GLQ ? EPC?RCP DGL?J TCJMAGRW, QM RF?R GR A?L MP@GR RFC C?PRF P?RFCP RF?L AMKC BGPCARJW @?AI BMUL ?Q ?L )#"- BMCQ. 4FC 3N?AC 3FSRRJC BMCQ RFGQ @W ?AACJCP?RGLE DMP ? JMLECP RGKC. 3MJTGLE DMP &GL?J 0MQGRGML 7FCL 6CJMAGRW GQ .MR #MLQR?LR ( a

0)

7C A?L AMK@GLC RFC COS?RGMLQ ?@MTC RM DGLB ? RFGPB COS?RGML RF?R ?JJMUQ SQ RM A?JASJ?RC RFC DGL?J NMQGRGML MD ?L M@HCAR CVNCPGCLAGLE AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML. 7C QR?PR UGRF

v = v 0 + at.
!BBGLE

(2.37)

v 0 RM C?AF QGBC MD RFGQ COS?RGML ?LB BGTGBGLE @W 2 EGTCQ v0 + v = v 0 + 1 at. 2 2


(2.38)

3GLAC

v0 + v - DMP AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML, RFCL = v 2 - GLRM RFC COS?RGML DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR, x = x + v - t , WGCJBGLE v 0 x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 (constant a). 2
(2.40)

- = v + 1 at. v 0 2

(2.39)

.MU UC QS@QRGRSRC RFGQ CVNPCQQGML DMP

EN7CFB; 2.10 C7B9KB7J?D= D?IFB79;C;DJ E< 7D A99;B;H7J?D= (8@;9J: DH7=IJ;HI


$P?EQRCPQ A?L ?AFGCTC ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGMLQ MD GR RP?TCJ GL RFGQ RGKC?

26.0 m/s 2 . 3SNNMQC QSAF ? BP?EQRCP ?AACJCP?RCQ DPMK PCQR ?R RFGQ P?RC DMP 5.56 Q. (MU D?P BMCQ

F?=KH; 2.31 5.3. !PKW 4MN &SCJ NGJMR 4MLW u4FC 3?PECv 3AFSK?AFCP @CEGLQ ? P?AC UGRF ? AMLRPMJJCB @SPLMSR. (APCBGR: ,R. #MJ. 7GJJG?K 4FSPKMLB. 0FMRM #MSPRCQW MD 5.3. !PKW.)

,JH7J;=O $P?U ? QICRAF.

F?=KH; 2.32

7C ?PC ?QICB RM DGLB BGQNJ?ACKCLR, UFGAF GQ

x GD UC R?IC x 0 RM @C XCPM. (4FGLI ?@MSR GR JGIC RFC QR?PRGLE JGLC MD ? P?AC. )R A?L @C ?LWUFCPC, @SR

UC A?JJ GR 0 ?LB KC?QSPC ?JJ MRFCP NMQGRGMLQ PCJ?RGTC RM GR.) 7C A?L SQC RFC COS?RGML RFC QR?RCKCLR MD RFC NPM@JCK. ,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ. 3R?PRGLE DPMK PCQR KC?LQ RF?R

x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 MLAC UC GBCLRGDW v 0 , a , ?LB t DPMK 2

v 0 = 0 , a GQ EGTCL ?Q 26.0 m/s 2 ?LB t GQ EGTCL ?Q 5.56 Q.

56

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

2. 0JSE RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ GLRM RFC COS?RGML RM QMJTC DMP RFC SLILMUL

x:
(2.41)

x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2. 2
3GLAC RFC GLGRG?J NMQGRGML ?LB TCJMAGRW ?PC @MRF XCPM, RFGQ QGKNJGDGCQ RM

x = 1 at 2. 2
3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC GBCLRGDGCB T?JSCQ MD

(2.42)

a ?LB t EGTCQ
2 x = 1 26.0 m/s 2 (5.56 s) , 2

(2.43)

WGCJBGLE

x = 402 m.
D?I9KII?ED

(2.44)

)D UC AMLTCPR 402 K RM KGJCQ, UC DGLB RF?R RFC BGQR?LAC AMTCPCB GQ TCPW AJMQC RM MLC OS?PRCP MD ? KGJC, RFC QR?LB?PB BGQR?LAC DMP BP?E P?AGLE. 3M RFC ?LQUCP GQ PC?QML?@JC. 4FGQ GQ ?L GKNPCQQGTC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GL MLJW 5.56 Q, @SR RMN-LMRAF BP?EQRCPQ A?L BM ? OS?PRCP KGJC GL CTCL JCQQ RGKC RF?L RFGQ.

7F?R CJQC A?L UC JC?PL @W CV?KGLGLE RFC COS?RGML

x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 ? 7C QCC RF?R: 2

w BGQNJ?ACKCLR BCNCLBQ ML RFC QOS?PC MD RFC CJ?NQCB RGKC UFCL ?AACJCP?RGML GQ LMR XCPM. )L EN7CFB; 2.10, RFC BP?EQRCP AMTCPQ MLJW MLC DMSPRF MD RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC GL RFC DGPQR F?JD MD RFC CJ?NQCB RGKC w GD ?AACJCP?RGML GQ XCPM, RFCL RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW COS?JQ ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW ( v 0 = v ) ?LB x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 @CAMKCQ x = x 0 + v 0t 2 3MJTGLE DMP &GL?J 6CJMAGRW UFCL 6CJMAGRW )Q .MR #MLQR?LR ( a

0)

! DMSPRF SQCDSJ COS?RGML A?L @C M@R?GLCB DPMK ?LMRFCP ?JEC@P?GA K?LGNSJ?RGML MD NPCTGMSQ COS?RGMLQ. )D UC QMJTC

v = v 0 + at DMP t , UC ECR t= v v0 a .
(2.45)

3S@QRGRSRGLE RFGQ ?LB

- = v 0 + v GLRM x = x + v - t , UC ECR v 0 2 v2 = v2 0 + 2a( x x 0) (constanta).


(2.46)

EN7CFB; 2.11 C7B9KB7J?D= F?D7B /;BE9?JO: DH7=IJ;HI


#?JASJ?RC RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW MD RFC BP?EQRCP GL EN7CFB; 2.10 UGRFMSR SQGLE GLDMPK?RGML ?@MSR RGKC. ,JH7J;=O $P?U ? QICRAF.

F?=KH; 2.33

4FC COS?RGML ,EBKJ?ED

v2 = v2 0 + 2a( x x 0) GQ GBC?JJW QSGRCB RM RFGQ R?QI @CA?SQC GR PCJ?RCQ TCJMAGRGCQ, ?AACJCP?RGML, ?LB BGQNJ?ACKCLR, ?LB LM RGKC

GLDMPK?RGML GQ PCOSGPCB. 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ. 7C ILMU RF?R

v 0 = 0 , QGLAC RFC BP?EQRCP QR?PRQ DPMK PCQR. 4FCL UC LMRC RF?R x x 0 = 402 m (RFGQ U?Q RFC a = 26.0 m/s 2 .

?LQUCP GL EN7CFB; 2.10). &GL?JJW, RFC ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML U?Q EGTCL RM @C 2. 0JSE RFC ILMULQ GLRM RFC COS?RGML

v2 = v2 0 + 2a( x x 0) ?LB QMJTC DMP v.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

57

2 v 2 = 0 + 2 26.0 m/s (402 m).

(2.47)

4FSQ

v 2 = 2.0910 4 m 2 /s 2.
4M ECR

(2.48)

v , UC R?IC RFC QOS?PC PMMR: v = 2.0910 4 m 2 /s 2 = 145 m/s.


(2.49)

D?I9KII?ED 145 K/Q GQ ?@MSR 522 IK/F MP ?@MSR 324 KG/F, @SR CTCL RFGQ @PC?ILCAI QNCCB GQ QFMPR MD RFC PCAMPB DMP RFC OS?PRCP KGJC. !JQM, LMRC RF?R ? QOS?PC PMMR F?Q RUM T?JSCQ; UC RMMI RFC NMQGRGTC T?JSC RM GLBGA?RC ? TCJMAGRW GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC ?AACJCP?RGML.

!L CV?KGL?RGML MD RFC COS?RGML

v2 = v2 0 + 2a( x x 0) A?L NPMBSAC DSPRFCP GLQGEFRQ GLRM RFC ECLCP?J PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ ?KMLE NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ:

w 4FC DGL?J TCJMAGRW BCNCLBQ ML FMU J?PEC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ ?LB RFC BGQR?LAC MTCP UFGAF GR ?ARQ w &MP ? DGVCB BCACJCP?RGML, ? A?P RF?R GQ EMGLE RUGAC ?Q D?QR BMCQLtR QGKNJW QRMN GL RUGAC RFC BGQR?LACrGR R?ICQ KSAF DSPRFCP RM QRMN. (4FGQ GQ UFW UC F?TC PCBSACB QNCCB XMLCQ LC?P QAFMMJQ.)

0SRRGLE %OS?RGMLQ 4MECRFCP


)L RFC DMJJMUGLE CV?KNJCQ, UC DSPRFCP CVNJMPC MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML, @SR GL QGRS?RGMLQ PCOSGPGLE QJGEFRJW KMPC ?JEC@P?GA K?LGNSJ?RGML. 4FC CV?KNJCQ ?JQM EGTC GLQGEFR GLRM NPM@JCK-QMJTGLE RCAFLGOSCQ. 4FC @MV @CJMU NPMTGBCQ C?QW PCDCPCLAC RM RFC COS?RGMLQ LCCBCB. 3SKK?PW MD +GLCK?RGA %OS?RGMLQ (AMLQR?LR

a)

v2 = v2 0 + 2a( x x 0) EN7CFB; 2.12 C7B9KB7J?D= D?IFB79;C;DJ: !EM F7H DE;I 7 C7H E 0>;D CEC?D= JE 7 !7BJ?

x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 2

-t x = x0 + v - = v0 + v v 2 v = v 0 + at

(2.50) (2.51) (2.52) (2.53) (2.54)

/L BPW AMLAPCRC, ? A?P A?L BCACJCP?RC ?R ? P?RC MD 7.00 m/s 2 , UFCPC?Q ML UCR AMLAPCRC GR A?L BCACJCP?RC ?R MLJW 5.00 m/s 2 . &GLB RFC BGQR?LACQ LCACQQ?PW RM QRMN ? A?P KMTGLE ?R 30.0 K/Q (?@MSR 110 IK/F) (?) ML BPW AMLAPCRC ?LB (@) ML UCR AMLAPCRC. (A) 2CNC?R @MRF A?JASJ?RGMLQ, DGLBGLE RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK RFC NMGLR UFCPC RFC BPGTCP QCCQ ? RP?DDGA JGEFR RSPL PCB, R?IGLE GLRM ?AAMSLR FGQ PC?ARGML RGKC MD 0.500 Q RM ECR FGQ DMMR ML RFC @P?IC. ,JH7J;=O $P?U ? QICRAF.

F?=KH; 2.34

)L MPBCP RM BCRCPKGLC UFGAF COS?RGMLQ ?PC @CQR RM SQC, UC LCCB RM JGQR ?JJ MD RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ ?LB GBCLRGDW CV?ARJW UF?R UC LCCB RM QMJTC DMP. 7C QF?JJ BM RFGQ CVNJGAGRJW GL RFC LCVR QCTCP?J CV?KNJCQ, SQGLE R?@JCQ RM QCR RFCK MDD. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7)

58

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ ?LB UF?R UC U?LR RM QMJTC DMP. 7C ILMU RF?R ? BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM TCJMAGRW). 7C R?IC

x 0 RM @C 0. 7C ?PC JMMIGLE DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR x , MP x x 0 . v2 = v2 0 + 2a( x x 0).

v 0 = 30.0 m/s ; v = 0 ; a = 7.00 m/s 2 ( a GQ LCE?RGTC @CA?SQC GR GQ GL

2. )BCLRGDW RFC COS?RGML RF?R UGJJ FCJN SN QMJTC RFC NPM@JCK. 4FC @CQR COS?RGML RM SQC GQ (2.55)

4FGQ COS?RGML GQ @CQR @CA?SQC GR GLAJSBCQ MLJW MLC SLILMUL, x . 7C ILMU RFC T?JSCQ MD ?JJ RFC MRFCP T?PG?@JCQ GL RFGQ COS?RGML. (4FCPC ?PC MRFCP COS?RGMLQ RF?R UMSJB ?JJMU SQ RM QMJTC DMP x , @SR RFCW PCOSGPC SQ RM ILMU RFC QRMNNGLE RGKC, t , UFGAF UC BM LMR ILMU. 7C AMSJB SQC RFCK @SR GR UMSJB CLR?GJ ?BBGRGML?J A?JASJ?RGMLQ.) 3. 2C?PP?LEC RFC COS?RGML RM QMJTC DMP

x. x x0 = v2 v2 0 2a
(2.56)

4. %LRCP ILMUL T?JSCQ.

x0=
4FSQ,

0 2 (30.0 m/s) 2 2 2 7.00 m/s

(2.57)

x = 64.3 m on dry concrete.


,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) 4FGQ N?PR A?L @C QMJTCB GL CV?ARJW RFC Q?KC K?LLCP ?Q 0?PR !. 4FC MLJW BGDDCPCLAC GQ RF?R RFC BCACJCP?RGML GQ

(2.58)

5.00 m/s 2 . 4FC PCQSJR GQ


(2.59)

x wet = 90.0 m on wet concrete.


,EBKJ?ED <EH (9)

/LAC RFC BPGTCP PC?ARQ, RFC QRMNNGLE BGQR?LAC GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q GR GQ GL 0?PRQ ! ?LB " DMP BPW ?LB UCR AMLAPCRC. 3M RM ?LQUCP RFGQ OSCQRGML, UC LCCB RM A?JASJ?RC FMU D?P RFC A?P RP?TCJQ BSPGLE RFC PC?ARGML RGKC, ?LB RFCL ?BB RF?R RM RFC QRMNNGLE RGKC. )R GQ PC?QML?@JC RM ?QQSKC RF?R RFC TCJMAGRW PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR BSPGLE RFC BPGTCPtQ PC?ARGML RGKC. 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ ?LB UF?R UC U?LR RM QMJTC DMP. 7C ILMU RF?R RM @C 0. 7C ?PC JMMIGLE DMP

x reaction .

- = 30.0 m/s ; t v reaction = 0.500 s ; a reaction = 0 . 7C R?IC x 0 reaction

2. )BCLRGDW RFC @CQR COS?RGML RM SQC.

- t UMPIQ UCJJ @CA?SQC RFC MLJW SLILMUL T?JSC GQ x , UFGAF GQ UF?R UC U?LR RM QMJTC DMP. x = x0 + v x = 0 + (30.0 m/s)(0.500 s) = 15.0 m.
(2.60)

3. 0JSE GL RFC ILMULQ RM QMJTC RFC COS?RGML.

4FGQ KC?LQ RFC A?P RP?TCJQ 15.0 K UFGJC RFC BPGTCP PC?ARQ, K?IGLE RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ GL RFC RUM A?QCQ MD BPW ?LB UCR AMLAPCRC 15.0 K EPC?RCP RF?L GD FC PC?ARCB GLQR?LRJW. 4. !BB RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR BSPGLE RFC PC?ARGML RGKC RM RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR UFCL @P?IGLE.

x braking + x reaction = x total


?. 64.3 K + 15.0 K = 79.3 K UFCL BPW @. 90.0 K + 15.0 K = 105 K UFCL UCR

(2.61)

F?=KH; 2.35 4FC BGQR?LAC LCACQQ?PW RM QRMN ? A?P T?PGCQ EPC?RJW, BCNCLBGLE ML PM?B AMLBGRGMLQ ?LB BPGTCP PC?ARGML RGKC. 3FMUL FCPC ?PC RFC @P?IGLE BGQR?LACQ DMP BPW ?LB UCR N?TCKCLR, ?Q A?JASJ?RCB GL RFGQ CV?KNJC, DMP ? A?P GLGRG?JJW RP?TCJGLE ?R 30.0 K/Q. !JQM QFMUL ?PC RFC RMR?J BGQR?LACQ RP?TCJCB DPMK RFC NMGLR UFCPC RFC BPGTCP DGPQR QCCQ ? JGEFR RSPL PCB, ?QQSKGLE ? 0.500 Q PC?ARGML RGKC.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

59

D?I9KII?ED 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ DMSLB GL RFGQ CV?KNJC QCCK PC?QML?@JC DMP QRMNNGLE ? D?QR-KMTGLE A?P. )R QFMSJB R?IC JMLECP RM QRMN ? A?P ML UCR P?RFCP RF?L BPW N?TCKCLR. )R GQ GLRCPCQRGLE RF?R PC?ARGML RGKC ?BBQ QGELGDGA?LRJW RM RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ. "SR KMPC GKNMPR?LR GQ RFC ECLCP?J ?NNPM?AF RM QMJTGLE NPM@JCKQ. 7C GBCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ ?LB RFC OS?LRGRGCQ RM @C BCRCPKGLCB ?LB RFCL DGLB ?L ?NNPMNPG?RC COS?RGML. 4FCPC GQ MDRCL KMPC RF?L MLC U?W RM QMJTC ? NPM@JCK. 4FC T?PGMSQ N?PRQ MD RFGQ CV?KNJC A?L GL D?AR @C QMJTCB @W MRFCP KCRFMBQ, @SR RFC QMJSRGMLQ NPCQCLRCB ?@MTC ?PC RFC QFMPRCQR.

EN7CFB; 2.13 C7B9KB7J?D= -?C;: A C7H &;H=;I ?DJE -H7<<?9


3SNNMQC ? A?P KCPECQ GLRM DPCCU?W RP?DDGA ML ? 200-K-JMLE P?KN. )D GRQ GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW GQ 10.0 K/Q ?LB GR ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R GR R?IC RM RP?TCJ RFC 200 K SN RFC P?KN? (3SAF GLDMPK?RGML KGEFR @C SQCDSJ RM ? RP?DDGA CLEGLCCP.) ,JH7J;=O $P?U ? QICRAF.

2.00 m/s 2 , FMU JMLE BMCQ

F?=KH; 2.36

7C ?PC ?QICB RM QMJTC DMP RFC RGKC t . !Q @CDMPC, UC GBCLRGDW RFC ILMUL OS?LRGRGCQ GL MPBCP RM AFMMQC ? AMLTCLGCLR NFWQGA?J PCJ?RGMLQFGN (RF?R GQ, ?L COS?RGML UGRF MLC SLILMUL, t ). ,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ ?LB UF?R UC U?LR RM QMJTC DMP. 7C ILMU RF?R 2. 7C LCCB RM QMJTC DMP T?PG?@JC

v 0 = 10 m/s ; a = 2.00 m/s 2 ; ?LB x = 200 m .

t DMP UFGAF UC LCCB RM QMJTC.

t . #FMMQC RFC @CQR COS?RGML. x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 UMPIQ @CQR @CA?SQC RFC MLJW SLILMUL GL RFC COS?RGML GQ RFC 2 t . )L RFGQ A?QC, GR UGJJ @C C?QGCP RM NJSE GL RFC ILMULQ DGPQR.
(2.62)

3. 7C UGJJ LCCB RM PC?PP?LEC RFC COS?RGML RM QMJTC DMP

2 200 m = 0 m + (10.0 m/s)t + 1 2.00 m/s 2 t 2

4. 3GKNJGDW RFC COS?RGML. 4FC SLGRQ MD KCRCPQ (K) A?LACJ @CA?SQC RFCW ?PC GL C?AF RCPK. 7C A?L ECR RFC SLGRQ MD QCAMLBQ (Q) RM A?LACJ @W R?IGLE t = t s , UFCPC t GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RGKC ?LB Q GQ RFC SLGR. $MGLE QM JC?TCQ

200 = 10t + t 2.
5. 5QC RFC OS?BP?RGA DMPKSJ? RM QMJTC DMP

(2.63)

t. t 2 + 10t 200 = 0
(2.64)

(?) 2C?PP?LEC RFC COS?RGML RM ECR 0 ML MLC QGBC MD RFC COS?RGML.

4FGQ GQ ? OS?BP?RGA COS?RGML MD RFC DMPK

at 2 + bt + c = 0,
UFCPC RFC AMLQR?LRQ ?PC

(2.65)

a = 1.00, b = 10.0, and c = 200 .


2 t = b b 4ac . 2a

(@) )RQ QMJSRGMLQ ?PC EGTCL @W RFC OS?BP?RGA DMPKSJ?: (2.66)

4FGQ WGCJBQ RUM QMJSRGMLQ DMP

t , UFGAF ?PC t = 10.0 and20.0.


(2.67)

)L RFGQ A?QC, RFCL, RFC RGKC GQ

t = t GL QCAMLBQ, MP t = 10.0 s and 20.0 s.


(2.68)

60

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

! LCE?RGTC T?JSC DMP RGKC GQ SLPC?QML?@JC, QGLAC GR UMSJB KC?L RF?R RFC CTCLR F?NNCLCB 20 Q @CDMPC RFC KMRGML @CE?L. 7C A?L BGQA?PB RF?R QMJSRGML. 4FSQ,

t = 10.0 s.
D?I9KII?ED

(2.69)

7FCLCTCP ?L COS?RGML AMLR?GLQ ?L SLILMUL QOS?PCB, RFCPC UGJJ @C RUM QMJSRGMLQ. )L QMKC NPM@JCKQ @MRF QMJSRGMLQ ?PC KC?LGLEDSJ, @SR GL MRFCPQ, QSAF ?Q RFC ?@MTC, MLJW MLC QMJSRGML GQ PC?QML?@JC. 4FC 10.0 Q ?LQUCP QCCKQ PC?QML?@JC DMP ? RWNGA?J DPCCU?W ML-P?KN.

7GRF RFC @?QGAQ MD IGLCK?RGAQ CQR?@JGQFCB, UC A?L EM ML RM K?LW MRFCP GLRCPCQRGLE CV?KNJCQ ?LB ?NNJGA?RGMLQ. )L RFC NPMACQQ MD BCTCJMNGLE IGLCK?RGAQ, UC F?TC ?JQM EJGKNQCB ? ECLCP?J ?NNPM?AF RM NPM@JCK QMJTGLE RF?R NPMBSACQ @MRF AMPPCAR ?LQUCPQ ?LB GLQGEFRQ GLRM NFWQGA?J PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ. )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= B7I?9I BGQASQQCQ NPM@JCK-QMJTGLE @?QGAQ ?LB MSRJGLCQ ?L ?NNPM?AF RF?R UGJJ FCJN WMS QSAACCB GL RFGQ GLT?JS?@JC R?QI. -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLRr"PC?IGLE .CUQ 7C F?TC @CCL SQGLE 3) SLGRQ MD KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB QOS?PCB RM BCQAPG@C QMKC CV?KNJCQ MD ?AACJCP?RGML MP BCACJCP?RGML MD A?PQ, PSLLCPQ, ?LB RP?GLQ. 4M ?AFGCTC ? @CRRCP DCCJ DMP RFCQC LSK@CPQ, MLC A?L KC?QSPC RFC @P?IGLE BCACJCP?RGML MD ? A?P BMGLE ? QJMU (?LB Q?DC) QRMN. 2CA?JJ RF?R, DMP ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML, a = v / t . 7FGJC RP?TCJGLE GL ? A?P, QJMUJW ?NNJW RFC @P?ICQ ?Q WMS AMKC SN RM ? QRMN QGEL. (?TC ? N?QQCLECP LMRC RFC GLGRG?J QNCCB GL KGJCQ NCP FMSP ?LB RFC RGKC R?ICL (GL QCAMLBQ) RM QRMN. &PMK RFGQ, A?JASJ?RC RFC BCACJCP?RGML GL KGJCQ NCP FMSP NCP QCAMLB. #MLTCPR RFGQ RM KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB QOS?PCB ?LB AMKN?PC UGRF MRFCP BCACJCP?RGMLQ KCLRGMLCB GL RFGQ AF?NRCP. #?JASJ?RC RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB GL @P?IGLE.

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


! K?LLCB PMAICR ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD ,EBKJ?ED 4M ?LQUCP RFGQ, AFMMQC ?L COS?RGML RF?R ?JJMUQ WMS RM QMJTC DMP RGKC

20 m/s 2 BSPGLE J?SLAF. (MU JMLE BMCQ GR R?IC RFC PMAICR PC?AF ? TCJMAGRW MD 400 K/Q? t , EGTCL MLJW a , v 0 , ?LB v .
(2.70)

v = v 0 + at
2C?PP?LEC RM QMJTC DMP

t. v 400 m/s 0 m/s = 20 s t = v a = 20 m/s 2


(2.71)

2.6 )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= B7I?9I <EH (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I

F?=KH; 2.37 0PM@JCK-QMJTGLE QIGJJQ ?PC CQQCLRG?J RM WMSP QSAACQQ GL 0FWQGAQ. (APCBGR: QASG3?QRCTCM, &JGAIP)

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

0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RCNQ
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

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

61

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uQRMNNCBv KC?LQ TCJMAGRW GQ XCPM, ?LB UC MDRCL A?L R?IC GLGRG?J RGKC ?LB NMQGRGML ?Q XCPM. ,J;F 3 78AG<9L 8K46G?L J;4G A887F GB 58 78G8E@<A87 <A G;8 CEB5?8@ (<78AG<9L G;8 HA>ABJAF). )L AMKNJCV NPM@JCKQ, CQNCAG?JJW, GR GQ LMR ?JU?WQ M@TGMSQ UF?R LCCBQ RM @C DMSLB MP GL UF?R QCOSCLAC. -?IGLE ? JGQR A?L FCJN. ,J;F 4 F<A7 4A 8DH4G<BA BE F8G B9 8DH4G<BAF G;4G 64A ;8?C LBH FB?I8 G;8 CEB5?8@. 9MSP JGQR MD ILMULQ ?LB SLILMULQ A?L FCJN FCPC. )R GQ C?QGCQR GD WMS A?L DGLB COS?RGMLQ RF?R AMLR?GL MLJW MLC SLILMULr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rRFC EM?J MD NFWQGAQ GQ RM ?AASP?RCJW BCQAPG@C L?RSPC. 4M QCC GD RFC ?LQUCP GQ PC?QML?@JC, AFCAI @MRF GRQ K?ELGRSBC ?LB GRQ QGEL, GL ?BBGRGML RM GRQ SLGRQ. 9MSP HSBEKCLR UGJJ GKNPMTC ?Q WMS QMJTC KMPC ?LB KMPC NFWQGAQ NPM@JCKQ, ?LB GR UGJJ @CAMKC NMQQG@JC DMP WMS RM K?IC DGLCP ?LB DGLCP HSBEKCLRQ PCE?PBGLE UFCRFCP L?RSPC GQ ?BCOS?RCJW BCQAPG@CB @W RFC ?LQUCP RM ? NPM@JCK. 4FGQ QRCN @PGLEQ RFC NPM@JCK @?AI RM GRQ AMLACNRS?J KC?LGLE. )D WMS A?L HSBEC UFCRFCP RFC ?LQUCP GQ PC?QML?@JC, WMS F?TC ? BCCNCP SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD NFWQGAQ RF?L HSQR @CGLE ?@JC RM KCAF?LGA?JJW QMJTC ? NPM@JCK. 7FCL QMJTGLE NPM@JCKQ, UC MDRCL NCPDMPK RFCQC QRCNQ GL BGDDCPCLR MPBCP, ?LB UC ?JQM RCLB RM BM QCTCP?J QRCNQ QGKSJR?LCMSQJW. 4FCPC GQ LM PGEGB NPMACBSPC RF?R UGJJ UMPI CTCPW RGKC. #PC?RGTGRW ?LB GLQGEFR EPMU UGRF CVNCPGCLAC, ?LB RFC @?QGAQ MD NPM@JCK QMJTGLE @CAMKC ?JKMQR ?SRMK?RGA. /LC U?W RM ECR NP?ARGAC GQ RM UMPI MSR RFC RCVRtQ CV?KNJCQ DMP WMSPQCJD ?Q WMS PC?B. !LMRFCP GQ RM UMPI ?Q K?LW CLB-MD-QCARGML NPM@JCKQ ?Q NMQQG@JC, QR?PRGLE UGRF RFC C?QGCQR RM @SGJB AMLDGBCLAC ?LB NPMEPCQQGLE RM RFC KMPC BGDDGASJR. /LAC WMS @CAMKC GLTMJTCB GL NFWQGAQ, WMS UGJJ QCC GR ?JJ ?PMSLB WMS, ?LB WMS A?L @CEGL RM ?NNJW GR RM QGRS?RGMLQ WMS CLAMSLRCP MSRQGBC RFC AJ?QQPMMK, HSQR ?Q GQ BMLC GL K?LW MD RFC ?NNJGA?RGMLQ GL RFGQ RCVR.

5LPC?QML?@JC 2CQSJRQ
0FWQGAQ KSQR BCQAPG@C L?RSPC ?AASP?RCJW. 3MKC NPM@JCKQ F?TC PCQSJRQ RF?R ?PC SLPC?QML?@JC @CA?SQC MLC NPCKGQC GQ SLPC?QML?@JC MP @CA?SQC ACPR?GL NPCKGQCQ ?PC GLAMLQGQRCLR UGRF MLC ?LMRFCP. 4FC NFWQGA?J NPGLAGNJC ?NNJGCB AMPPCARJW RFCL NPMBSACQ ?L SLPC?QML?@JC PCQSJR. &MP CV?KNJC, GD ? NCPQML QR?PRGLE ? DMMR P?AC ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R 0.40 m/s 2 DMP 100 Q, FGQ DGL?J QNCCB UGJJ @C 40 K/Q (?@MSR 150 IK/F)rAJC?PJW SLPC?QML?@JC @CA?SQC RFC RGKC MD 100 Q GQ ?L SLPC?QML?@JC NPCKGQC. 4FC NFWQGAQ GQ AMPPCAR GL ? QCLQC, @SR RFCPC GQ KMPC RM BCQAPG@GLE L?RSPC RF?L HSQR K?LGNSJ?RGLE COS?RGMLQ AMPPCARJW. #FCAIGLE RFC PCQSJR MD ? NPM@JCK RM QCC GD GR GQ PC?QML?@JC BMCQ KMPC RF?L FCJN SLAMTCP CPPMPQ GL NPM@JCK QMJTGLEr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
2 v = v 0 + at = 0 + 0.40 m/s (100 s) = 40 m/s.

(2.72)

,J;F 2 C;86> GB F88 <9 G;8 4AFJ8E <F E84FBA45?8. )Q GR RMM J?PEC MP RMM QK?JJ, MP BMCQ GR F?TC RFC UPMLE QGEL, GKNPMNCP SLGRQ, x? )L RFGQ A?QC, WMS K?W LCCB RM AMLTCPR KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB GLRM ? KMPC D?KGJG?P SLGR, QSAF ?Q KGJCQ NCP FMSP.
40 m 3.28 s m

ft 1 mi 60 s 60 min = 89 mph 5280 ft min 1 h

(2.73)

4FGQ TCJMAGRW GQ ?@MSR DMSP RGKCQ EPC?RCP RF?L ? NCPQML A?L PSLrQM GR GQ RMM J?PEC. ,J;F 3 9 G;8 4AFJ8E <F HAE84FBA45?8, ?BB> 9BE J;4G FC86<9<64??L 6BH?7 64HF8 G;8 <78AG<9<87 7<99<6H?GL . )L RFC CV?KNJC MD RFC PSLLCP, RFCPC ?PC MLJW RUM ?QQSKNRGMLQ RF?R ?PC QSQNCAR. 4FC ?AACJCP?RGML AMSJB @C RMM EPC?R MP RFC RGKC RMM JMLE. &GPQR JMMI ?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB RFGLI ?@MSR UF?R RFC LSK@CP KC?LQ. )D QMKCMLC ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R 0.40 m/s 2 , RFCGP TCJMAGRW GQ GLAPC?QGLE @W 0.4 K/Q C?AF QCAMLB. $MCQ RFGQ QCCK PC?QML?@JC? )D QM, RFC RGKC KSQR @C RMM JMLE. )R GQ LMR NMQQG@JC DMP QMKCMLC RM ?AACJCP?RC ?R ? AMLQR?LR P?RC MD

0.40 m/s 2 DMP 100 Q (?JKMQR RUM KGLSRCQ).

62

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

2.7 F7BB?D= (8@;9JI


&?JJGLE M@HCARQ DMPK ?L GLRCPCQRGLE AJ?QQ MD KMRGML NPM@JCKQ. &MP CV?KNJC, UC A?L CQRGK?RC RFC BCNRF MD ? TCPRGA?J KGLC QF?DR @W BPMNNGLE ? PMAI GLRM GR ?LB JGQRCLGLE DMP RFC PMAI RM FGR RFC @MRRMK. "W ?NNJWGLE RFC IGLCK?RGAQ BCTCJMNCB QM D?P RM D?JJGLE M@HCARQ, UC A?L CV?KGLC QMKC GLRCPCQRGLE QGRS?RGMLQ ?LB JC?PL KSAF ?@MSR EP?TGRW GL RFC NPMACQQ.

'P?TGRW
4FC KMQR PCK?PI?@JC ?LB SLCVNCARCB D?AR ?@MSR D?JJGLE M@HCARQ GQ RF?R, GD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC ?LB DPGARGML ?PC LCEJGEG@JC, RFCL GL ? EGTCL JMA?RGML ?JJ M@HCARQ D?JJ RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP MD %?PRF UGRF RFC F4@8 6BAFG4AG 4668?8E4G<BA, <A78C8A78AG B9 G;8<E @4FF. 4FGQ CVNCPGKCLR?JJW BCRCPKGLCB D?AR GQ SLCVNCARCB, @CA?SQC UC ?PC QM ?AASQRMKCB RM RFC CDDCARQ MD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC ?LB DPGARGML RF?R UC CVNCAR JGEFR M@HCARQ RM D?JJ QJMUCP RF?L FC?TW MLCQ.

F?=KH; 2.38 ! F?KKCP ?LB ? DC?RFCP UGJJ D?JJ UGRF RFC Q?KC AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML GD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ AMLQGBCPCB LCEJGEG@JC. 4FGQ GQ ? ECLCP?J AF?P?ARCPGQRGA MD EP?TGRW LMR SLGOSC RM %?PRF, ?Q ?QRPML?SR $?TGB 2. 3AMRR BCKMLQRP?RCB ML RFC -MML GL 1971, UFCPC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW GQ MLJW

1.67 m/s 2 .

)L RFC PC?J UMPJB, ?GP PCQGQR?LAC A?L A?SQC ? JGEFRCP M@HCAR RM D?JJ QJMUCP RF?L ? FC?TGCP M@HCAR MD RFC Q?KC QGXC. ! RCLLGQ @?JJ UGJJ PC?AF RFC EPMSLB ?DRCP ? F?PB @?QC@?JJ BPMNNCB ?R RFC Q?KC RGKC. ()R KGEFR @C BGDDGASJR RM M@QCPTC RFC BGDDCPCLAC GD RFC FCGEFR GQ LMR J?PEC.) !GP PCQGQR?LAC MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML MD ?L M@HCAR RFPMSEF RFC ?GP, UFGJC DPGARGML @CRUCCL M@HCARQrQSAF ?Q @CRUCCL AJMRFCQ ?LB ? J?SLBPW AFSRC MP @CRUCCL ? QRMLC ?LB ? NMMJ GLRM UFGAF GR GQ BPMNNCBr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g . )R GQ AMLQR?LR ?R ?LW EGTCL JMA?RGML ML %?PRF ?LB F?Q RFC ?TCP?EC T?JSC

g = 9.80 m/s 2.
!JRFMSEF

(2.74)

g T?PGCQ DPMK 9.78 m/s 2 RM 9.83 m/s 2 , BCNCLBGLE ML J?RGRSBC, ?JRGRSBC, SLBCPJWGLE ECMJMEGA?J DMPK?RGMLQ, ?LB JMA?J RMNMEP?NFW, RFC

?TCP?EC T?JSC MD 9.80 m/s 2 UGJJ @C SQCB GL RFGQ RCVR SLJCQQ MRFCPUGQC QNCAGDGCB. 4FC BGPCARGML MD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW GQ 7BJAJ4E7 (GBJ4E7F G;8 68AG8E B9 E4EG;). )L D?AR, GRQ BGPCARGML 789<A8F UF?R UC A?JJ TCPRGA?J. .MRC RF?R UFCRFCP RFC ?AACJCP?RGML a GL RFC IGLCK?RGA COS?RGMLQ F?Q RFC T?JSC + g MP g BCNCLBQ ML FMU UC BCDGLC MSP AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK. )D UC BCDGLC RFC SNU?PB BGPCARGML ?Q NMQGRGTC, RFCL

a = g = 9.80 m/s 2 , ?LB GD UC BCDGLC RFC BMULU?PB BGPCARGML ?Q NMQGRGTC, RFCL a = g = 9.80 m/s 2 . /LC-$GKCLQGML?J -MRGML )LTMJTGLE 'P?TGRW
4FC @CQR U?W RM QCC RFC @?QGA DC?RSPCQ MD KMRGML GLTMJTGLE EP?TGRW GQ RM QR?PR UGRF RFC QGKNJCQR QGRS?RGMLQ ?LB RFCL NPMEPCQQ RMU?PB KMPC AMKNJCV MLCQ. 3M UC QR?PR @W AMLQGBCPGLE QRP?GEFR SN ?LB BMUL KMRGML UGRF LM ?GP PCQGQR?LAC MP DPGARGML. 4FCQC ?QQSKNRGMLQ KC?L RF?R RFC TCJMAGRW (GD RFCPC GQ ?LW) GQ TCPRGA?J. )D RFC M@HCAR GQ BPMNNCB, UC ILMU RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW GQ XCPM. /LAC RFC M@HCAR F?Q JCDR AMLR?AR UGRF UF?RCTCP FCJB MP RFPCU GR, RFC M@HCAR GQ GL DPCC-D?JJ. 5LBCP RFCQC AGPASKQR?LACQ, RFC KMRGML GQ MLC-BGKCLQGML?J ?LB F?Q AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML MD K?ELGRSBC g . 7C UGJJ ?JQM PCNPCQCLR TCPRGA?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR UGRF RFC QWK@MJ

y ?LB SQC x DMP FMPGXMLR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR.

+GLCK?RGA %OS?RGMLQ DMP /@HCARQ GL &PCC-&?JJ UFCPC !AACJCP?RGML = -:

v2 = v2 0 - 2g(y y 0) EN7CFB; 2.14 C7B9KB7J?D= )EI?J?ED 7D: /;BE9?JO E< 7 F7BB?D= (8@;9J: A +E9A ->HEMD .FM7H:

y = y 0 + v 0t - 1 gt 2

v = v 0 - gt

(2.75)
2

(2.76) (2.77)

! NCPQML QR?LBGLE ML RFC CBEC MD ? FGEF AJGDD RFPMUQ ? PMAI QRP?GEFR SN UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 13.0 K/Q. 4FC PMAI KGQQCQ RFC CBEC MD RFC AJGDD ?Q GR D?JJQ @?AI RM C?PRF. #?JASJ?RC RFC NMQGRGML ?LB TCJMAGRW MD RFC PMAI 1.00 Q, 2.00 Q, ?LB 3.00 Q ?DRCP GR GQ RFPMUL, LCEJCARGLE RFC CDDCARQ MD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC. ,JH7J;=O $P?U ? QICRAF.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

63

F?=KH; 2.39

7C ?PC ?QICB RM BCRCPKGLC RFC NMQGRGML y ?R T?PGMSQ RGKCQ. )R GQ PC?QML?@JC RM R?IC RFC GLGRG?J NMQGRGML y 0 RM @C XCPM. 4FGQ NPM@JCK GLTMJTCQ MLCBGKCLQGML?J KMRGML GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML. 7C SQC NJSQ ?LB KGLSQ QGELQ RM GLBGA?RC BGPCARGML, UGRF SN @CGLE NMQGRGTC ?LB BMUL LCE?RGTC. 3GLAC SN GQ NMQGRGTC, ?LB RFC PMAI GQ RFPMUL SNU?PB, RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW KSQR @C NMQGRGTC RMM. 4FC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW GQ BMULU?PB, QM a GQ LCE?RGTC. )R GQ APSAG?J RF?R RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW ?LB RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW F?TC MNNMQGRC QGELQ. /NNMQGRC QGELQ GLBGA?RC RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW MNNMQCQ RFC GLGRG?J KMRGML ?LB UGJJ QJMU ?LB CTCLRS?JJW PCTCPQC GR. 3GLAC UC ?PC ?QICB DMP T?JSCQ MD NMQGRGML ?LB TCJMAGRW ?R RFPCC RGKCQ, UC UGJJ PCDCP RM RFCQC ?Q ,EBKJ?ED <EH )EI?J?ED

y 1 ?LB v 1 ; y 2 ?LB v 2 ; ?LB y 3 ?LB v 3 .

y1 y 0 = 0 ; v 0 = 13.0 m/s ; a = g = 9.80 m/s 2 ; ?LB t = 1.00 s . y = y 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 @CA?SQC GR GLAJSBCQ MLJW MLC SLILMUL, y (MP y 1 , FCPC), UFGAF GQ RFC 2

1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ. 7C ILMU RF?R

2. )BCLRGDW RFC @CQR COS?RGML RM SQC. 7C UGJJ SQC T?JSC UC U?LR RM DGLB. 3. 0JSE GL RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ ?LB QMJTC DMP

y1 .
(2.78)

2 y = 0 + (13.0 m/s)(1.00 s) + 1 9.80 m/s 2 (1.00 s) = 8.10 m 2

D?I9KII?ED 4FC PMAI GQ 8.10 K ?@MTC GRQ QR?PRGLE NMGLR ?R ?LB DGLB MSR GD GR GQ NMQGRGTC MP LCE?RGTC. ,EBKJ?ED <EH /;BE9?JO

t = 1.00 Q, QGLAC y 1 > y 0 . )R AMSJB @C @BI<A: SN MP BMUL; RFC MLJW U?W RM RCJJ GQ RM A?JASJ?RC v 1

v1 y 0 = 0 ; v 0 = 13.0 m/s ; a = g = 9.80 m/s 2 ; ?LB t = 1.00 s . 7C ?JQM ILMU DPMK RFC QMJSRGML v = v 0 gt (DPMK v = v 0 + at , UFCPC

1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ. 7C ILMU RF?R ?@MTC RF?R

y 1 = 8.10 m .

2. )BCLRGDW RFC @CQR COS?RGML RM SQC. 4FC KMQR QRP?GEFRDMPU?PB GQ

a = gravitational acceleration = g ).
3. 0JSE GL RFC ILMULQ ?LB QMJTC.

2 v 1 = v 0 gt = 13.0 m/s 9.80 m/s (1.00 s) = 3.20 m/s

(2.79)

D?I9KII?ED 4FC NMQGRGTC T?JSC DMP CVNCARCB. ,EBKJ?ED <EH +;C7?D?D= -?C;I 4FC NPMACBSPCQ DMP A?JASJ?RGLE RFC NMQGRGML ?LB TCJMAGRW ?R -78B; 2.1 ?LB GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 2.40. 4?@JC 2.1 2CQSJRQ -?C;, 4 )EI?J?ED, 9 /;BE9?JO, 6 A99;B;H7J?ED, "

v 1 KC?LQ RF?R RFC PMAI GQ QRGJJ FC?BGLE SNU?PB ?R t = 1.00 s . (MUCTCP, GR F?Q QJMUCB DPMK GRQ MPGEGL?J 13.0 K/Q, ?Q

t = 2.00 s ?LB 3.00 s ?PC RFC Q?KC ?Q RFMQC ?@MTC. 4FC PCQSJRQ ?PC QSKK?PGXCB GL

1.00 s 2.00 s 3.00 s


'P?NFGLE RFC B?R? FCJNQ SQ SLBCPQR?LB GR KMPC AJC?PJW.

8.10 m 6.40 m 5.10 m

3.20 m/s 6.60 m/s 16.4 m/s

9.80 m/s 2 9.80 m/s 2 9.80 m/s 2

64

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.40 6CPRGA?J NMQGRGML, TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW, ?LB TCPRGA?J ?AACJCP?RGML TQ. RGKC DMP ? PMAI RFPMUL TCPRGA?JJW SN ?R RFC CBEC MD ? AJGDD. .MRGAC RF?R TCJMAGRW AF?LECQ JGLC?PJW UGRF RGKC ?LB RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML GQ AMLQR?LR. $<F6BA68CG<BA A?8EG! .MRGAC RF?R RFC NMQGRGML TQ. RGKC EP?NF QFMUQ TCPRGA?J NMQGRGML MLJW. )R GQ C?QW RM ECR RFC GKNPCQQGML RF?R RFC EP?NF QFMUQ QMKC FMPGXMLR?J KMRGMLrRFC QF?NC MD RFC EP?NF JMMIQ JGIC RFC N?RF MD ? NPMHCARGJC. "SR RFGQ GQ LMR RFC A?QC; RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?VGQ GQ G<@8, LMR QN?AC. 4FC ?ARS?J N?RF MD RFC PMAI GL QN?AC GQ QRP?GEFR SN, ?LB QRP?GEFR BMUL.

D?I9KII?ED

y 1 ?LB v 1 ?PC @MRF NMQGRGTC. !R 2.00 Q, RFC PMAI GQ QRGJJ ?@MTC GRQ QR?PRGLE NMGLR, @SR RFC LCE?RGTC TCJMAGRW KC?LQ GR GQ KMTGLE BMULU?PB. !R 3.00 Q, @MRF y 3 ?LB v 3
4FC GLRCPNPCR?RGML MD RFCQC PCQSJRQ GQ GKNMPR?LR. !R 1.00 Q RFC PMAI GQ ?@MTC GRQ QR?PRGLE NMGLR ?LB FC?BGLE SNU?PB, QGLAC ?PC LCE?RGTC, KC?LGLE RFC PMAI GQ @CJMU GRQ QR?PRGLE NMGLR ?LB AMLRGLSGLE RM KMTC BMULU?PB. .MRGAC RF?R UFCL RFC PMAI GQ ?R GRQ FGEFCQR NMGLR (?R 1.5 Q), GRQ TCJMAGRW GQ XCPM, @SR GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ QRGJJ 9.80 m/s 2 . )RQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ 9.80 m/s 2 DMP RFC UFMJC RPGNrUFGJC GR GQ KMTGLE SN ?LB UFGJC GR GQ KMTGLE BMUL. .MRC RF?R RFC T?JSCQ DMP

y ?PC RFC NMQGRGMLQ (MP BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ) MD RFC PMAI, LMR RFC RMR?J BGQR?LACQ RP?TCJCB. &GL?JJW, LMRC

RF?R DPCC-D?JJ ?NNJGCQ RM SNU?PB KMRGML ?Q UCJJ ?Q BMULU?PB. "MRF F?TC RFC Q?KC ?AACJCP?RGMLrRFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW, UFGAF PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR RFC CLRGPC RGKC. !QRPML?SRQ RP?GLGLE GL RFC D?KMSQ 6MKGR #MKCR, DMP CV?KNJC, CVNCPGCLAC DPCC-D?JJ UFGJC ?PAGLE SN ?Q UCJJ ?Q BMUL, ?Q UC UGJJ BGQASQQ GL KMPC BCR?GJ J?RCP.

-?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLRr2C?ARGML 4GKC ! QGKNJC CVNCPGKCLR A?L @C BMLC RM BCRCPKGLC WMSP PC?ARGML RGKC. (?TC ? DPGCLB FMJB ? PSJCP @CRUCCL WMSP RFSK@ ?LB GLBCV DGLECP, QCN?P?RCB @W ?@MSR 1 AK. .MRC RFC K?PI ML RFC PSJCP RF?R GQ PGEFR @CRUCCL WMSP DGLECPQ. (?TC WMSP DPGCLB BPMN RFC PSJCP SLCVNCARCBJW, ?LB RPW RM A?RAF GR @CRUCCL WMSP RUM DGLECPQ. .MRC RFC LCU PC?BGLE ML RFC PSJCP. !QQSKGLE ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RF?R BSC RM EP?TGRW, A?JASJ?RC WMSP PC?ARGML RGKC. (MU D?P UMSJB WMS RP?TCJ GL ? A?P (KMTGLE ?R 30 K/Q) GD RFC RGKC GR RMMI WMSP DMMR RM EM DPMK RFC E?Q NCB?J RM RFC @P?IC U?Q RUGAC RFGQ PC?ARGML RGKC?

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

65

EN7CFB; 2.15 C7B9KB7J?D= /;BE9?JO E< 7 F7BB?D= (8@;9J: A +E9A ->HEMD DEMD
7F?R F?NNCLQ GD RFC NCPQML ML RFC AJGDD RFPMUQ RFC PMAI QRP?GEFR BMUL, GLQRC?B MD QRP?GEFR SN? 4M CVNJMPC RFGQ OSCQRGML, A?JASJ?RC RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC PMAI UFCL GR GQ 5.10 K @CJMU RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR, ?LB F?Q @CCL RFPMUL BMULU?PB UGRF ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 13.0 K/Q. ,JH7J;=O $P?U ? QICRAF.

F?=KH; 2.41

3GLAC SN GQ NMQGRGTC, RFC DGL?J NMQGRGML MD RFC PMAI UGJJ @C LCE?RGTC @CA?SQC GR DGLGQFCQ @CJMU RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR ?R

y 0 = 0 . 3GKGJ?PJW, RFC GLGRG?J

TCJMAGRW GQ BMULU?PB ?LB RFCPCDMPC LCE?RGTC, ?Q GQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW. 7C CVNCAR RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW RM @C LCE?RGTC QGLAC RFC PMAI UGJJ AMLRGLSC RM KMTC BMULU?PB. ,EBKJ?ED 1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ.

y 0 = 0 ; y 1 = 5.10 m ; v 0 = 13.0 m/s ; a = g = 9.80 m/s 2 . v2 = v2 0 + 2a(y y 0) UMPIQ UCJJ @CA?SQC RFC MLJW

2. #FMMQC RFC IGLCK?RGA COS?RGML RF?R K?ICQ GR C?QGCQR RM QMJTC RFC NPM@JCK. 4FC COS?RGML SLILMUL GL GR GQ

v . (7C UGJJ NJSE y 1 GL DMP y .)

3. %LRCP RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ


2 2 2 v 2 = (13.0 m/s) 2 + 2 9.80 m/s (5.10 m 0 m) = 268.96 m /s ,

(2.80)

UFCPC UC F?TC PCR?GLCB CVRP? QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ @CA?SQC RFGQ GQ ?L GLRCPKCBG?RC PCQSJR. 4?IGLE RFC QOS?PC PMMR, ?LB LMRGLE RF?R ? QOS?PC PMMR A?L @C NMQGRGTC MP LCE?RGTC, EGTCQ

v = 16.4 m/s.
4FC LCE?RGTC PMMR GQ AFMQCL RM GLBGA?RC RF?R RFC PMAI GQ QRGJJ FC?BGLE BMUL. 4FSQ,

(2.81)

v = 16.4 m/s.
D?I9KII?ED

(2.82)

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m/s GQ M@R?GLCB. (CPC @MRF QGELQ ?PC KC?LGLEDSJ; RFC NMQGRGTC T?JSC MAASPQ UFCL RFC PMAI GQ ?R 8.10 K ?LB FC?BGLE SN, ?LB RFC LCE?RGTC T?JSC MAASPQ UFCL RFC PMAI GQ ?R 8.10 K ?LB FC?BGLE @?AI BMUL. )R F?Q RFC Q?KC FC887 @SR RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML.

66

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.42 (?) ! NCPQML RFPMUQ ? PMAI QRP?GEFR SN, ?Q CVNJMPCB GL EN7CFB; 2.14. 4FC ?PPMUQ ?PC TCJMAGRW TCARMPQ ?R 0, 1.00, 2.00, ?LB 3.00 Q. (@) ! NCPQML RFPMUQ ? PMAI QRP?GEFR BMUL DPMK ? AJGDD UGRF RFC Q?KC GLGRG?J QNCCB ?Q @CDMPC, ?Q GL EN7CFB; 2.15. .MRC RF?R ?R RFC Q?KC BGQR?LAC @CJMU RFC NMGLR MD PCJC?QC, RFC PMAI F?Q RFC Q?KC TCJMAGRW GL @MRF A?QCQ.

!LMRFCP U?W RM JMMI ?R GR GQ RFGQ: )L EN7CFB; 2.14, RFC PMAI GQ RFPMUL SN UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 7FCL GRQ NMQGRGML GQ 7C UMSJB RFCL CVNCAR GRQ TCJMAGRW ?R ? NMQGRGML MD

y = 0 ML GRQ U?W @?AI BMUL, GRQ TCJMAGRW GQ 13.0 m/s . 4F?R GQ, GR F?Q RFC Q?KC QNCCB ML GRQ U?W BMUL ?Q ML GRQ U?W SN.

13.0 m/s . )R PGQCQ ?LB RFCL D?JJQ @?AI BMUL.

y = 5.10 m RM @C RFC Q?KC UFCRFCP UC F?TC RFPMUL GR SNU?PBQ ?R +13.0 m/s MP RFPMUL GR BMULU?PBQ ?R 13.0 m/s . 4FC TCJMAGRW MD RFC PMAI ML GRQ U?W BMUL DPMK y = 0 GQ RFC Q?KC UFCRFCP UC F?TC RFPMUL GR SN MP BMUL RM QR?PR
UGRF, ?Q JMLE ?Q RFC QNCCB UGRF UFGAF GR U?Q GLGRG?JJW RFPMUL GQ RFC Q?KC.

EN7CFB; 2.16 F?D: ( <HEC D7J7 ED 7 F7BB?D= (8@;9J


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

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

67

F?=KH; 2.43 0MQGRGMLQ ?LB TCJMAGRGCQ MD ? KCR?J @?JJ PCJC?QCB DPMK PCQR UFCL ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC. 6CJMAGRW GQ QCCL RM GLAPC?QC JGLC?PJW UGRF RGKC UFGJC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GLAPC?QCQ UGRF RGKC QOS?PCB. !AACJCP?RGML GQ ? AMLQR?LR ?LB GQ COS?J RM EP?TGR?RGML?J ?AACJCP?RGML.

3SNNMQC RFC @?JJ D?JJQ 1.0000 K GL 0.45173 Q. !QQSKGLE RFC @?JJ GQ LMR ?DDCARCB @W ?GP PCQGQR?LAC, UF?R GQ RFC NPCAGQC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW ?R RFGQ JMA?RGML? ,JH7J;=O $P?U ? QICRAF.

F?=KH; 2.44

7C LCCB RM QMJTC DMP ?AACJCP?RGML ,EBKJ?ED

a . .MRC RF?R GL RFGQ A?QC, BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ BMULU?PB ?LB RFCPCDMPC LCE?RGTC, ?Q GQ ?AACJCP?RGML.

68

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

1. )BCLRGDW RFC ILMULQ.

y 0 = 0 ; y = 1.0000 m ; t = 0.45173 ; v 0 = 0 . a SQGLE RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ. y = y 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 2


(2.83)

2. #FMMQC RFC COS?RGML RF?R ?JJMUQ WMS RM QMJTC DMP

3. 3S@QRGRSRC 0 DMP

v 0 ?LB PC?PP?LEC RFC COS?RGML RM QMJTC DMP a . 3S@QRGRSRGLE 0 DMP v 0 WGCJBQ y = y 0 + 1 at 2. 2


(2.84)

3MJTGLE DMP

a EGTCQ a= 2(y y 0) . t2
(2.85)

4. 3S@QRGRSRC ILMUL T?JSCQ WGCJBQ

a=
QM, @CA?SQC

2( 1.0000 m 0) = 9.8010 m/s 2 , (0.45173 s) 2 g = 9.8010 m/s 2.

(2.86)

a = g UGRF RFC BGPCARGMLQ UC F?TC AFMQCL,


(2.87)

D?I9KII?ED 4FC LCE?RGTC T?JSC DMP RFC ?TCP?EC T?JSC MD

a GLBGA?RCQ RF?R RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J ?AACJCP?RGML GQ BMULU?PB, ?Q CVNCARCB. 7C CVNCAR RFC T?JSC RM @C QMKCUFCPC ?PMSLB

g GQ KMPC NPCAGQC RF?L RFC ?TCP?EC T?JSC MD 9.80 m/s 2 ; GR PCNPCQCLRQ RFC JMA?J T?JSC DMP RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW. C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=

9.80 m/s 2 , QM 9.8010 m/s 2 K?ICQ QCLQC. 3GLAC RFC B?R? EMGLE GLRM RFC A?JASJ?RGML ?PC PCJ?RGTCJW NPCAGQC, RFGQ T?JSC DMP

! AFSLI MD GAC @PC?IQ MDD ? EJ?AGCP ?LB D?JJQ 30.0 KCRCPQ @CDMPC GR FGRQ RFC U?RCP. !QQSKGLE GR D?JJQ DPCCJW (RFCPC GQ LM ?GP PCQGQR?LAC), FMU JMLE BMCQ GR R?IC RM FGR RFC U?RCP? ,EBKJ?ED 7C ILMU RF?R GLGRG?J NMQGRGML

y = y 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 RM QMJTC DMP t . )LQCPRGLE a = g , UC M@R?GL 2 y t2 t = 0 + 0 1 gt 2 2 2y = g

y 0 = 0 , DGL?J NMQGRGML y = 30.0 m , ?LB a = g = 9.80 m/s 2 . 7C A?L RFCL SQC RFC COS?RGML

(2.88)

2y 2( 30.0 m) = g = = 6.12 s 2 = 2.47 s 2.5 s 2 9.80 m/s

UFCPC UC R?IC RFC NMQGRGTC T?JSC ?Q RFC NFWQGA?JJW PCJCT?LR ?LQUCP. 4FSQ, GR R?ICQ ?@MSR 2.5 QCAMLBQ DMP RFC NGCAC MD GAC RM FGR RFC U?RCP.

0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: %OS?RGML 'P?NFCP ,C?PL ?@MSR EP?NFGLE NMJWLMKG?JQ. 4FC QF?NC MD RFC ASPTC AF?LECQ ?Q RFC AMLQR?LRQ ?PC ?BHSQRCB. 6GCU RFC ASPTCQ DMP RFC GLBGTGBS?J RCPKQ (C.E. y = bx ) RM QCC FMU RFCW ?BB RM ECLCP?RC RFC NMJWLMKG?J ASPTC.

F?=KH; 2.45 EGK7J?ED

H7F>;H (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42102/1.5/;GK7J?ED-=H7F>;H6;D.@7H)

2.8

H7F>?97B AD7BOI?I E< (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B &EJ?ED

! EP?NF, JGIC ? NGARSPC, GQ UMPRF ? RFMSQ?LB UMPBQ. 'P?NFQ LMR MLJW AMLR?GL LSKCPGA?J GLDMPK?RGML; RFCW ?JQM PCTC?J PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ @CRUCCL NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ. 4FGQ QCARGML SQCQ EP?NFQ MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML TCPQSQ RGKC RM GJJSQRP?RC MLC-BGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ.
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

69

3JMNCQ ?LB 'CLCP?J 2CJ?RGMLQFGNQ


&GPQR LMRC RF?R EP?NFQ GL RFGQ RCVR F?TC NCPNCLBGASJ?P ?VCQ, MLC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB RFC MRFCP TCPRGA?J. 7FCL RUM NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ ?PC NJMRRCB ?E?GLQR MLC ?LMRFCP GL QSAF ? EP?NF, RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?VGQ GQ SQS?JJW AMLQGBCPCB RM @C ?L ?D:;F;D:;DJ L7H?78B; ?LB RFC TCPRGA?J ?VGQ ? :;F;D:;DJ L7H?78B;. )D UC A?JJ RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?VGQ RFC x -?VGQ ?LB RFC TCPRGA?J ?VGQ RFC y -?VGQ, ?Q GL F?=KH; 2.46, ? QRP?GEFR-JGLC EP?NF F?Q RFC ECLCP?J DMPK

y = mx + b.
(CPC m GQ RFC IBEF;, BCDGLCB RM @C RFC PGQC BGTGBCB @W RFC PSL (?Q QCCL GL RFC DGESPC) MD RFC QRP?GEFR JGLC. 4FC JCRRCP UFGAF GQ RFC NMGLR ?R UFGAF RFC JGLC APMQQCQ RFC TCPRGA?J ?VGQ.

(2.89)

b GQ SQCB DMP RFC 9-?DJ;H9;FJ,

F?=KH; 2.46 ! QRP?GEFR-JGLC EP?NF. 4FC COS?RGML DMP ? QRP?GEFR JGLC GQ

y = mx + b

'P?NF MD $GQNJ?ACKCLR TQ. 4GKC (4 = 0, QM I GQ AMLQR?LR)


4GKC GQ SQS?JJW ?L GLBCNCLBCLR T?PG?@JC RF?R MRFCP OS?LRGRGCQ, QSAF ?Q BGQNJ?ACKCLR, BCNCLB SNML. ! EP?NF MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCPQSQ RGKC UMSJB, RFSQ, F?TC x ML RFC TCPRGA?J ?VGQ ?LB t ML RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?VGQ. F?=KH; 2.47 GQ HSQR QSAF ? QRP?GEFR-JGLC EP?NF. )R QFMUQ ? EP?NF MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCPQSQ RGKC DMP ? HCR-NMUCPCB A?P ML ? TCPW DJ?R BPW J?IC @CB GL .CT?B?.

F?=KH; 2.47 'P?NF MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCPQSQ RGKC DMP ? HCR-NMUCPCB A?P ML RFC "MLLCTGJJC 3?JR &J?RQ.

5QGLE RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL BCNCLBCLR ?LB GLBCNCLBCLR T?PG?@JCQ, UC QCC RF?R RFC QJMNC GL RFC EP?NF ?@MTC GQ ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW GLRCPACNR GQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?R RGKC XCPMrRF?R GQ,

x 0 . 3S@QRGRSRGLE RFCQC QWK@MJQ GLRM y = mx + b EGTCQ -t+x x= v 0

- ?LB RFC v
(2.90)

MP

- t. x = x0 + v

(2.91)

4FSQ ? EP?NF MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCPQSQ RGKC EGTCQ ? ECLCP?J PCJ?RGMLQFGN ?KMLE BGQNJ?ACKCLR, TCJMAGRW, ?LB RGKC, ?Q UCJJ ?Q EGTGLE BCR?GJCB LSKCPGA?J GLDMPK?RGML ?@MSR ? QNCAGDGA QGRS?RGML. 4FC 3JMNC MD K TQ. G 4FC QJMNC MD RFC EP?NF MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR

x TQ. RGKC t GQ TCJMAGRW v . slope = x = v t


(2.92)

70

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

.MRGAC RF?R RFGQ COS?RGML GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q RF?R BCPGTCB ?JEC@P?GA?JJW DPMK MRFCP KMRGML COS?RGMLQ GL &EJ?ED EGK7J?EDI <EH CEDIJ7DJ A99;B;H7J?ED ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED. &PMK RFC DGESPC UC A?L QCC RF?R RFC A?P F?Q ? BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD 400 K ?R RGKC 0.650 K ?R t = 1.0 Q, ?LB QM ML. )RQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?R RGKCQ MRFCP RF?L RFMQC JGQRCB GL RFC R?@JC A?L @C PC?B DPMK RFC EP?NF; DSPRFCPKMPC, GLDMPK?RGML ?@MSR GRQ TCJMAGRW ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML A?L ?JQM @C M@R?GLCB DPMK RFC EP?NF.

EN7CFB; 2.17 D;J;HC?D?D= AL;H7=; /;BE9?JO <HEC 7


,JH7J;=O 4FC QJMNC MD ? EP?NF MD AF?LEC GL RGKC, QM RF?R

H7F> E< D?IFB79;C;DJ L;HIKI -?C;: #;J C7H

&GLB RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MD RFC A?P UFMQC NMQGRGML GQ EP?NFCB GL F?=KH; 2.47.

x TQ. t GQ ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW, QGLAC QJMNC COS?JQ PGQC MTCP PSL. )L RFGQ A?QC, PGQC = AF?LEC GL BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB PSL = -. slope = x = v t
(2.93)

3GLAC RFC QJMNC GQ AMLQR?LR FCPC, ?LW RUM NMGLRQ ML RFC EP?NF A?L @C SQCB RM DGLB RFC QJMNC. ('CLCP?JJW QNC?IGLE, GR GQ KMQR ?AASP?RC RM SQC RUM UGBCJW QCN?P?RCB NMGLRQ ML RFC QRP?GEFR JGLC. 4FGQ GQ @CA?SQC ?LW CPPMP GL PC?BGLE B?R? DPMK RFC EP?NF GQ NPMNMPRGML?JJW QK?JJCP GD RFC GLRCPT?J GQ J?PECP.) ,EBKJ?ED 1. #FMMQC RUM NMGLRQ ML RFC JGLC. )L RFGQ A?QC, UC AFMMQC RFC NMGLRQ J?@CJCB ML RFC EP?NF: (6.4 Q, 2000 K) ?LB (0.50 Q, 525 K). (.MRC, FMUCTCP, RF?R WMS AMSJB AFMMQC ?LW RUM NMGLRQ.) 2. 3S@QRGRSRC RFC GLGRG?J T?JSC.

x ?LB t T?JSCQ MD RFC AFMQCL NMGLRQ GLRM RFC COS?RGML. 2CKCK@CP GL A?JASJ?RGLE AF?LEC () UC ?JU?WQ SQC DGL?J T?JSC KGLSQ - = x = 2000 m 525 m , v t 6.4 s 0.50 s
(2.94)

WGCJBGLE

- = 250 m/s. v

(2.95)

D?I9KII?ED 4FGQ GQ ?L GKNPCQQGTCJW J?PEC J?LB QNCCB (900 IK/F, MP ?@MSR 560 KG/F): KSAF EPC?RCP RF?L RFC RWNGA?J FGEFU?W QNCCB JGKGR MD 60 KG/F (27 K/Q MP 96 IK/F), @SR AMLQGBCP?@JW QFW MD RFC PCAMPB MD 343 K/Q (1234 IK/F MP 766 KG/F) QCR GL 1997.

'P?NFQ MD -MRGML UFCL a GQ AMLQR?LR @SR a 0


4FC EP?NFQ GL F?=KH; 2.48 @CJMU PCNPCQCLR RFC KMRGML MD RFC HCR-NMUCPCB A?P ?Q GR ?AACJCP?RCQ RMU?PB GRQ RMN QNCCB, @SR MLJW BSPGLE RFC RGKC UFCL GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ AMLQR?LR. 4GKC QR?PRQ ?R XCPM DMP RFGQ KMRGML (?Q GD KC?QSPCB UGRF ? QRMNU?RAF), ?LB RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB TCJMAGRW ?PC GLGRG?JJW 200 K ?LB 15 K/Q, PCQNCARGTCJW.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

71

F?=KH; 2.48 'P?NFQ MD KMRGML MD ? HCR-NMUCPCB A?P BSPGLE RFC RGKC QN?L UFCL GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ AMLQR?LR. (?) 4FC QJMNC MD ?L

TQ.

EP?NF GQ TCJMAGRW. 4FGQ GQ QFMUL ?R RUM MTCP RFC RGKC GLRCPT?J NJMRRCB.

NMGLRQ, ?LB RFC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRGCQ M@R?GLCB ?PC NJMRRCB GL RFC LCVR EP?NF. )LQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW ?R ?LW NMGLR GQ RFC QJMNC MD RFC R?LECLR ?R RF?R NMGLR. (@) 4FC QJMNC MD RFC

TQ.

EP?NF GQ AMLQR?LR DMP RFGQ N?PR MD RFC KMRGML, GLBGA?RGLE AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML. (A) !AACJCP?RGML F?Q RFC AMLQR?LR T?JSC MD

5.0 m/s 2

72

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.49 ! 5.3. !GP &MPAC HCR A?P QNCCBQ BMUL ? RP?AI. (APCBGR: -?RR 4PMQRJC, &JGAIP)

4FC EP?NF MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCPQSQ RGKC GL F?=KH; 2.48(?) GQ ? ASPTC P?RFCP RF?L ? QRP?GEFR JGLC. 4FC QJMNC MD RFC ASPTC @CAMKCQ QRCCNCP ?Q RGKC NPMEPCQQCQ, QFMUGLE RF?R RFC TCJMAGRW GQ GLAPC?QGLE MTCP RGKC. 4FC QJMNC ?R ?LW NMGLR ML ? BGQNJ?ACKCLR-TCPQSQ-RGKC EP?NF GQ RFC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW ?R RF?R NMGLR. )R GQ DMSLB @W BP?UGLE ? QRP?GEFR JGLC R?LECLR RM RFC ASPTC ?R RFC NMGLR MD GLRCPCQR ?LB R?IGLE RFC QJMNC MD RFGQ QRP?GEFR JGLC. 4?LECLR JGLCQ ?PC QFMUL DMP RUM NMGLRQ GL F?=KH; 2.48(?). )D RFGQ GQ BMLC ?R CTCPW NMGLR ML RFC ASPTC ?LB RFC T?JSCQ ?PC NJMRRCB ?E?GLQR RGKC, RFCL RFC EP?NF MD TCJMAGRW TCPQSQ RGKC QFMUL GL F?=KH; 2.48(@) GQ M@R?GLCB. &SPRFCPKMPC, RFC QJMNC MD RFC EP?NF MD TCJMAGRW TCPQSQ RGKC GQ ?AACJCP?RGML, UFGAF GQ QFMUL GL F?=KH; 2.48(A).

EN7CFB; 2.18 D;J;HC?D?D= "DIJ7DJ7D;EKI /;BE9?JO <HEC J>; ,BEF; 7J 7 )E?DJ: #;J C7H
#?JASJ?RC RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC HCR A?P ?R ? RGKC MD 25 Q @W DGLBGLE RFC QJMNC MD RFC

x TQ. t EP?NF GL RFC EP?NF @CJMU.

F?=KH; 2.50 4FC QJMNC MD ?L

TQ.

EP?NF GQ TCJMAGRW. 4FGQ GQ QFMUL ?R RUM NMGLRQ. )LQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW ?R ?LW NMGLR GQ RFC QJMNC MD RFC R?LECLR ?R RF?R NMGLR.

,JH7J;=O 4FC QJMNC MD ? ASPTC ?R ? NMGLR GQ COS?J RM RFC QJMNC MD ? QRP?GEFR JGLC R?LECLR RM RFC ASPTC ?R RF?R NMGLR. 4FGQ NPGLAGNJC GQ GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 2.50, UFCPC 1 GQ RFC NMGLR ?R t = 25 s . ,EBKJ?ED 1. &GLB RFC R?LECLR JGLC RM RFC ASPTC ?R

t = 25 s . v.
(2.96)

2. $CRCPKGLC RFC CLBNMGLRQ MD RFC R?LECLR. 4FCQC AMPPCQNMLB RM ? NMQGRGML MD 1300 K ?R RGKC 19 Q ?LB ? NMQGRGML MD 3120 K ?R RGKC 32 Q. 3. 0JSE RFCQC CLBNMGLRQ GLRM RFC COS?RGML RM QMJTC DMP RFC QJMNC,

slope = v Q =
4FSQ,

x Q (3120 m 1300 m) = t Q (32 s 19 s)

v Q = 1820 m = 140 m/s. 13 s


D?I9KII?ED 4FGQ GQ RFC T?JSC EGTCL GL RFGQ DGESPCtQ R?@JC DMP

(2.97)

t A?L @C M@R?GLCB GL RFGQ D?QFGML.

v ?R t = 25 s . 4FC T?JSC MD 140 K/Q DMP v Q GQ NJMRRCB GL F?=KH; 2.50. 4FC CLRGPC EP?NF MD v TQ.

#?PPWGLE RFGQ MLC QRCN DSPRFCP, UC LMRC RF?R RFC QJMNC MD ? TCJMAGRW TCPQSQ RGKC EP?NF GQ ?AACJCP?RGML. 3JMNC GQ PGQC BGTGBCB @W PSL; ML ? PGQC = AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW

v ?LB PSL = AF?LEC GL RGKC t .

v TQ. t EP?NF,

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

73

4FC 3JMNC MD I TQ. G 4FC QJMNC MD ? EP?NF MD TCJMAGRW

v TQ. RGKC t GQ ?AACJCP?RGML a . slope = v = a t


(2.98)

3GLAC RFC TCJMAGRW TCPQSQ RGKC EP?NF GL F?=KH; 2.48(@) GQ ? QRP?GEFR JGLC, GRQ QJMNC GQ RFC Q?KC CTCPWUFCPC, GKNJWGLE RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML GQ AMLQR?LR. !AACJCP?RGML TCPQSQ RGKC GQ EP?NFCB GL F?=KH; 2.48(A). !BBGRGML?J ECLCP?J GLDMPK?RGML A?L @C M@R?GLCB DPMK F?=KH; 2.50 ?LB RFC CVNPCQQGML DMP ? QRP?GEFR JGLC, )L RFGQ A?QC, RFC TCPRGA?J ?VGQ

y = mx + b .

y GQ V , RFC GLRCPACNR b GQ v 0 , RFC QJMNC m GQ a , ?LB RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?VGQ x GQ t . 3S@QRGRSRGLE RFCQC QWK@MJQ WGCJBQ v = v 0 + at.
(2.99)

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

'P?NFQ MD -MRGML 7FCPC !AACJCP?RGML GQ .MR #MLQR?LR


.MU AMLQGBCP RFC KMRGML MD RFC HCR A?P ?Q GR EMCQ DPMK 165 K/Q RM GRQ RMN TCJMAGRW MD 250 K/Q, EP?NFCB GL F?=KH; 2.51. 4GKC ?E?GL QR?PRQ ?R XCPM, ?LB RFC GLGRG?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB TCJMAGRW ?PC 2900 K ?LB 165 K/Q, PCQNCARGTCJW. (4FCQC UCPC RFC DGL?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB TCJMAGRW MD RFC A?P GL RFC KMRGML EP?NFCB GL F?=KH; 2.48.) !AACJCP?RGML EP?BS?JJW BCAPC?QCQ DPMK 5.0 m/s 2 RM XCPM UFCL RFC A?P FGRQ 250 K/Q. 4FC QJMNC MD RFC x TQ. t EP?NF

GLAPC?QCQ SLRGJ t = 55 s , ?DRCP UFGAF RGKC RFC QJMNC GQ AMLQR?LR. 3GKGJ?PJW, TCJMAGRW GLAPC?QCQ SLRGJ 55 Q ?LB RFCL @CAMKCQ AMLQR?LR, QGLAC ?AACJCP?RGML BCAPC?QCQ RM XCPM ?R 55 Q ?LB PCK?GLQ XCPM ?DRCPU?PB.

74

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.51 'P?NFQ MD KMRGML MD ? HCR-NMUCPCB A?P ?Q GR PC?AFCQ GRQ RMN TCJMAGRW. 4FGQ KMRGML @CEGLQ UFCPC RFC KMRGML GL F?=KH; 2.48 CLBQ. (?) 4FC QJMNC MD RFGQ EP?NF GQ TCJMAGRW; GR GQ NJMRRCB GL RFC LCVR EP?NF. (@) 4FC TCJMAGRW EP?BS?JJW ?NNPM?AFCQ GRQ RMN T?JSC. 4FC QJMNC MD RFGQ EP?NF GQ ?AACJCP?RGML; GR GQ NJMRRCB GL RFC DGL?J EP?NF. (A) !AACJCP?RGML EP?BS?JJW BCAJGLCQ RM XCPM UFCL TCJMAGRW @CAMKCQ AMLQR?LR.

EN7CFB; 2.19 C7B9KB7J?D= A99;B;H7J?ED <HEC 7

H7F> E< /;BE9?JO L;HIKI -?C; v TQ. t EP?NF GL F?=KH; 2.51(@).

#?JASJ?RC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC HCR A?P ?R ? RGKC MD 25 Q @W DGLBGLE RFC QJMNC MD RFC ,JH7J;=O 4FC QJMNC MD RFC ASPTC ?R ,EBKJ?ED

t = 25 s GQ COS?J RM RFC QJMNC MD RFC JGLC R?LECLR ?R RF?R NMGLR, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 2.51(@). a.
(2.100) (2.101)

$CRCPKGLC CLBNMGLRQ MD RFC R?LECLR JGLC DPMK RFC DGESPC, ?LB RFCL NJSE RFCK GLRM RFC COS?RGML RM QMJTC DMP QJMNC,

(260 m/s 210 m/s) slope = v = t (51 s 1.0 s) a = 50 m/s = 1.0 m/s 2. 50 s
D?I9KII?ED

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

75

.MRC RF?R RFGQ T?JSC DMP

a GQ AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC T?JSC NJMRRCB GL F?=KH; 2.51(A) ?R t = 25 s .

! EP?NF MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCPQSQ RGKC A?L @C SQCB RM ECLCP?RC ? EP?NF MD TCJMAGRW TCPQSQ RGKC, ?LB ? EP?NF MD TCJMAGRW TCPQSQ RGKC A?L @C SQCB RM ECLCP?RC ? EP?NF MD ?AACJCP?RGML TCPQSQ RGKC. 7C BM RFGQ @W DGLBGLE RFC QJMNC MD RFC EP?NFQ ?R CTCPW NMGLR. )D RFC EP?NF GQ JGLC?P (G.C., ? JGLC UGRF ? AMLQR?LR QJMNC), GR GQ C?QW RM DGLB RFC QJMNC ?R ?LW NMGLR ?LB WMS F?TC RFC QJMNC DMP CTCPW NMGLR. 'P?NFGA?J ?L?JWQGQ MD KMRGML A?L @C SQCB RM BCQAPG@C @MRF QNCAGDGA ?LB ECLCP?J AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ MD IGLCK?RGAQ. 'P?NFQ A?L ?JQM @C SQCB DMP MRFCP RMNGAQ GL NFWQGAQ. !L GKNMPR?LR ?QNCAR MD CVNJMPGLE NFWQGA?J PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ GQ RM EP?NF RFCK ?LB JMMI DMP SLBCPJWGLE PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ.

C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


! EP?NF MD TCJMAGRW TQ. RGKC MD ? QFGN AMKGLE GLRM ? F?P@MP GQ QFMUL @CJMU. (?) $CQAPG@C RFC KMRGML MD RFC QFGN @?QCB ML RFC EP?NF. (@)7F?R UMSJB ? EP?NF MD RFC QFGNtQ ?AACJCP?RGML JMMI JGIC?

F?=KH; 2.52

,EBKJ?ED (?) 4FC QFGN KMTCQ ?R AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW ?LB RFCL @CEGLQ RM BCACJCP?RC ?R ? AMLQR?LR P?RC. !R QMKC NMGLR, GRQ BCACJCP?RGML P?RC BCAPC?QCQ. )R K?GLR?GLQ RFGQ JMUCP BCACJCP?RGML P?RC SLRGJ GR QRMNQ KMTGLE. (@) ! EP?NF MD ?AACJCP?RGML TQ. RGKC UMSJB QFMU XCPM ?AACJCP?RGML GL RFC DGPQR JCE, J?PEC ?LB AMLQR?LR LCE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML GL RFC QCAMLB JCE, ?LB AMLQR?LR LCE?RGTC ?AACJCP?RGML.

F?=KH; 2.53

BEII7HO
799;B;H7J?ED :K; JE =H7L?JO: ?AACJCP?RGML MD ?L M@HCAR ?Q ? PCQSJR MD EP?TGRW 799;B;H7J?ED: RFC P?RC MD AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW; RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW MTCP RGKC 7L;H7=; 799;B;H7J?ED: RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW BGTGBCB @W RFC RGKC MTCP UFGAF GR AF?LECQ 7L;H7=; IF;;:: BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB BGTGBCB @W RGKC BSPGLE UFGAF KMRGML MAASPQ 7L;H7=; L;BE9?JO: BGQNJ?ACKCLR BGTGBCB @W RGKC MTCP UFGAF BGQNJ?ACKCLR MAASPQ :;9;B;H7J?ED: ?AACJCP?RGML GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM TCJMAGRW; ?AACJCP?RGML RF?R PCQSJRQ GL ? BCAPC?QC GL TCJMAGRW :;F;D:;DJ L7H?78B;: RFC T?PG?@JC RF?R GQ @CGLE KC?QSPCB; SQS?JJW NJMRRCB ?JMLE RFC :?IFB79;C;DJ: RFC AF?LEC GL NMQGRGML MD ?L M@HCAR :?IJ7D9; JH7L;B;:: RFC RMR?J JCLERF MD RFC N?RF RP?TCJCB @CRUCCL RUM NMQGRGMLQ :?IJ7D9;: RFC K?ELGRSBC MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR @CRUCCL RUM NMQGRGMLQ ;B7FI;: J?C;: RFC BGDDCPCLAC @CRUCCL RFC CLBGLE RGKC ?LB @CEGLLGLE RGKC <H;;-<7BB: RFC QR?RC MD KMTCKCLR RF?R PCQSJRQ DPMK EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC MLJW ?D:;F;D:;DJ L7H?78B;: RFC T?PG?@JC RF?R RFC BCNCLBCLR T?PG?@JC GQ KC?QSPCB UGRF PCQNCAR RM; SQS?JJW NJMRRCB ?JMLE RFC ?DIJ7DJ7D;EKI 799;B;H7J?ED: ?AACJCP?RGML ?R ? QNCAGDGA NMGLR GL RGKC ?DIJ7DJ7D;EKI IF;;:: K?ELGRSBC MD RFC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW

y -?VGQ

x -?VGQ

76

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

?DIJ7DJ7D;EKI L;BE9?JO: TCJMAGRW ?R ? QNCAGDGA GLQR?LR, MP RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MTCP ?L GLDGLGRCQGK?J RGKC GLRCPT?J A?D;C7J?9I: RFC QRSBW MD KMRGML UGRFMSR AMLQGBCPGLE GRQ A?SQCQ CE:;B: QGKNJGDGCB BCQAPGNRGML RF?R AMLR?GLQ MLJW RFMQC CJCKCLRQ LCACQQ?PW RM BCQAPG@C RFC NFWQGAQ MD ? NFWQGA?J QGRS?RGML FEI?J?ED: RFC JMA?RGML MD ?L M@HCAR ?R ? N?PRGASJ?P RGKC I97B7H: ? OS?LRGRW RF?R GQ BCQAPG@CB @W K?ELGRSBC, @SR LMR BGPCARGML IBEF;: RFC BGDDCPCLAC GL

y -T?JSC (RFC PGQC) BGTGBCB @W RFC BGDDCPCLAC GL x -T?JSC (RFC PSL) MD RUM NMGLRQ ML ? QRP?GEFR JGLC

J?C;: AF?LEC, MP RFC GLRCPT?J MTCP UFGAF AF?LEC MAASPQ L;9JEH: ? OS?LRGRW RF?R GQ BCQAPG@CB @W @MRF K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML O-?DJ;H9;FJ: RFC

y- T?JSC UFCL x = 0, MP UFCL RFC EP?NF APMQQCQ RFC y -?VGQ

,;9J?ED ,KCC7HO 2.1 D?IFB79;C;DJ


w +GLCK?RGAQ GQ RFC QRSBW MD KMRGML UGRFMSR AMLQGBCPGLE GRQ A?SQCQ. )L RFGQ AF?NRCP, GR GQ JGKGRCB RM KMRGML ?JMLE ? QRP?GEFR JGLC, A?JJCB MLCBGKCLQGML?J KMRGML. w $GQNJ?ACKCLR GQ RFC AF?LEC GL NMQGRGML MD ?L M@HCAR. w )L QWK@MJQ, BGQNJ?ACKCLR x GQ BCDGLCB RM @C

x 0 GQ RFC GLGRG?J NMQGRGML ?LB x f GQ RFC DGL?J NMQGRGML. )L RFGQ RCVR, RFC 'PCCI JCRRCP (BCJR?) ?JU?WQ KC?LQ uAF?LEC GLv UF?RCTCP OS?LRGRW DMJJMUQ GR. 4FC 3) SLGR DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ RFC KCRCP (K). $GQNJ?ACKCLR F?Q ? BGPCARGML ?Q UCJJ ?Q ? K?ELGRSBC. w 7FCL WMS QR?PR ? NPM@JCK, ?QQGEL UFGAF BGPCARGML UGJJ @C NMQGRGTC. w $GQR?LAC GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR @CRUCCL RUM NMQGRGMLQ. w $GQR?LAC RP?TCJCB GQ RFC RMR?J JCLERF MD RFC N?RF RP?TCJCB @CRUCCL RUM NMQGRGMLQ.
UFCPC

x = x f x 0,

2.2 /;9JEHI, ,97B7HI, 7D: CEEH:?D7J; ,OIJ;CI


w w w w ! TCARMP GQ ?LW OS?LRGRW RF?R F?Q K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML. ! QA?J?P GQ ?LW OS?LRGRW RF?R F?Q K?ELGRSBC @SR LM BGPCARGML. $GQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB TCJMAGRW ?PC TCARMPQ, UFCPC?Q BGQR?LAC ?LB QNCCB ?PC QA?J?PQ. )L MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML, BGPCARGML GQ QNCAGDGCB @W ? NJSQ MP KGLSQ QGEL RM QGELGDW JCDR MP PGEFR, SN MP BMUL, ?LB RFC JGIC.

2.3 -?C;, /;BE9?JO, 7D: ,F;;:


w 4GKC GQ KC?QSPCB GL RCPKQ MD AF?LEC, ?LB GRQ 3) SLGR GQ RFC QCAMLB (Q). %J?NQCB RGKC DMP ?L CTCLR GQ UFCPC t f GQ RFC DGL?J RGKC ?LB t 0 GQ RFC GLGRG?J RGKC. 4FC GLGRG?J RGKC GQ MDRCL R?ICL RM @C XCPM, ?Q GD KC?QSPCB UGRF ? QRMNU?RAF; RFC CJ?NQCB RGKC GQ RFCL HSQR t . w !TCP?EC TCJMAGRW

t = t f t 0,

- GQ BCDGLCB ?Q BGQNJ?ACKCLR BGTGBCB @W RFC RP?TCJ RGKC. )L QWK@MJQ, ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW GQ v - = x = x f x 0 . v tf t0 t

w w w w w w

4FC 3) SLGR DMP TCJMAGRW GQ K/Q. 6CJMAGRW GQ ? TCARMP ?LB RFSQ F?Q ? BGPCARGML. )LQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW v GQ RFC TCJMAGRW ?R ? QNCAGDGA GLQR?LR MP RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW DMP ?L GLDGLGRCQGK?J GLRCPT?J. )LQR?LR?LCMSQ QNCCB GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW. )LQR?LR?LCMSQ QNCCB GQ ? QA?J?P OS?LRGRW, ?Q GR F?Q LM BGPCARGML QNCAGDGCB. !TCP?EC QNCCB GQ RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB BGTGBCB @W RFC CJ?NQCB RGKC. (!TCP?EC QNCCB GQ ABG RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW.) 3NCCB GQ ? QA?J?P OS?LRGRW; GR F?Q LM BGPCARGML ?QQMAG?RCB UGRF GR.

2.4 A99;B;H7J?ED
w !AACJCP?RGML GQ RFC P?RC ?R UFGAF TCJMAGRW AF?LECQ. )L QWK@MJQ, 7L;H7=; 799;B;H7J?ED

w w w w w

4FC 3) SLGR DMP ?AACJCP?RGML GQ m/s 2 . !AACJCP?RGML GQ ? TCARMP, ?LB RFSQ F?Q ? @MRF ? K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML. !AACJCP?RGML A?L @C A?SQCB @W CGRFCP ? AF?LEC GL RFC K?ELGRSBC MP RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC TCJMAGRW. )LQR?LR?LCMSQ ?AACJCP?RGML a GQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML ?R ? QNCAGDGA GLQR?LR GL RGKC. $CACJCP?RGML GQ ?L ?AACJCP?RGML UGRF ? BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM RF?R MD RFC TCJMAGRW.

- = v = v f v 0 . a tf t0 t

- GQ a

2.5 &EJ?ED EGK7J?EDI <EH CEDIJ7DJ A99;B;H7J?ED ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED w 4M QGKNJGDW A?JASJ?RGMLQ UC R?IC ?AACJCP?RGML RM @C AMLQR?LR, QM RF?R a = a ?R ?JJ RGKCQ.
w 7C ?JQM R?IC GLGRG?J RGKC RM @C XCPM.
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

77

w )LGRG?J NMQGRGML ?LB TCJMAGRW ?PC EGTCL ? QS@QAPGNR 0; DGL?J T?JSCQ F?TC LM QS@QAPGNR. 4FSQ,

w 4FC DMJJMUGLE IGLCK?RGA COS?RGMLQ DMP KMRGML UGRF AMLQR?LR

a ?PC SQCDSJ: -t x = x0 + v - = v0 + v v 2 v = v 0 + at

t = t x = x x 0 v = v v 0

w )L TCPRGA?J KMRGML,

y GQ QS@QRGRSRCB DMP x .

v2 = v2 0 + 2a( x x 0)

x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 2

2.6 )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= B7I?9I <EH (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I


w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

2.7 F7BB?D= (8@;9JI


w !L M@HCAR GL DPCC-D?JJ CVNCPGCLACQ AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML GD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC. w /L %?PRF, ?JJ DPCC-D?JJGLE M@HCARQ F?TC ?L ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW g , UFGAF ?TCP?ECQ

w 7FCRFCP RFC ?AACJCP?RGML 4 QFMSJB @C R?ICL ?Q BGPCARGML ?Q NMQGRGTC,


2

+ g MP g GQ BCRCPKGLCB @W WMSP AFMGAC MD AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK. )D WMS AFMMQC RFC SNU?PB

g = 9.80 m/s 2.

a = g = 9.80 m/s GQ LCE?RGTC. )L RFC MNNMQGRC A?QC, a = +g = 9.80 m/s 2 GQ NMQGRGTC. 3GLAC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ AMLQR?LR, RFC IGLCK?RGA COS?RGMLQ ?@MTC A?L @C ?NNJGCB UGRF RFC ?NNPMNPG?RC + g MP g QS@QRGRSRCB DMP a .
w &MP M@HCARQ GL DPCC-D?JJ, SN GQ LMPK?JJW R?ICL ?Q NMQGRGTC DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML.

2.8
w w w w w

H7F>?97B AD7BOI?I E< (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B &EJ?ED


'P?NFQ MD KMRGML A?L @C SQCB RM ?L?JWXC KMRGML. 'P?NFGA?J QMJSRGMLQ WGCJB GBCLRGA?J QMJSRGMLQ RM K?RFCK?RGA?J KCRFMBQ DMP BCPGTGLE KMRGML COS?RGMLQ. 4FC QJMNC MD ? EP?NF MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR x TQ. RGKC t GQ TCJMAGRW v . 4FC QJMNC MD ? EP?NF MD TCJMAGRW v TQ. RGKC t EP?NF GQ ?AACJCP?RGML a . !TCP?EC TCJMAGRW, GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML A?L ?JJ @C M@R?GLCB @W ?L?JWXGLE EP?NFQ.

CED9;FJK7B *K;IJ?EDI 2.1 D?IFB79;C;DJ


1. 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC GL UFGAF RFCPC ?PC AJC?P BGQRGLARGMLQ ?KMLE BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB, BGQNJ?ACKCLR, ?LB K?ELGRSBC MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR. 3NCAGDGA?JJW GBCLRGDW C?AF OS?LRGRW GL WMSP CV?KNJC. 2. 5LBCP UF?R AGPASKQR?LACQ BMCQ BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB COS?J K?ELGRSBC MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR? 7F?R GQ RFC MLJW A?QC GL UFGAF K?ELGRSBC MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?PC CV?ARJW RFC Q?KC? 3. "?ARCPG? KMTC @?AI ?LB DMPRF @W SQGLE RFCGP DJ?ECJJ? (QRPSARSPCQ RF?R JMMI JGIC JGRRJC R?GJQ). 3NCCBQ MD SN RM
6 50 m/s m/s 5010 F?TC @CCL

M@QCPTCB. 4FC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB @W ? @?ARCPGSK GQ J?PEC DMP GRQ QGXC, UFGJC GRQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ QK?JJ. 7FW GQ RFGQ?

2.2 /;9JEHI, ,97B7HI, 7D: CEEH:?D7J; ,OIJ;CI


4. ! QRSBCLR UPGRCQ, uA 5<E7 G;4G <F 7<I<A: 9BE CE8L ;4F 4 FC887 B9 ?ARS?JJW BCQAPG@CB? %VNJ?GL. 5. 7F?R GQ RFC QNCCB MD RFC @GPB GL EN;H9?I; 2.4? 6. !AACJCP?RGML GQ RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW MTCP RGKC. 'GTCL RFGQ GLDMPK?RGML, GQ ?AACJCP?RGML ? TCARMP MP ? QA?J?P OS?LRGRW? %VNJ?GL. 7. ! UC?RFCP DMPCA?QR QR?RCQ RF?R RFC RCKNCP?RSPC GQ NPCBGARCB RM @C %VNJ?GL.

10 m / s .v 7F?R GQ UPMLE UGRF RFC QRSBCLRtQ QR?RCKCLR? 7F?R F?Q RFC QRSBCLR

5C RFC DMJJMUGLE B?W. )Q RFGQ RCKNCP?RSPC ? TCARMP MP ? QA?J?P OS?LRGRW?

2.3 -?C;, /;BE9?JO, 7D: ,F;;:


8. 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC (@SR LMR MLC DPMK RFC RCVR) MD ? BCTGAC SQCB RM KC?QSPC RGKC ?LB GBCLRGDW UF?R AF?LEC GL RF?R BCTGAC GLBGA?RCQ ? AF?LEC GL RGKC.

78

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

9. 4FCPC GQ ? BGQRGLARGML @CRUCCL ?TCP?EC QNCCB ?LB RFC K?ELGRSBC MD ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW. 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC RF?R GJJSQRP?RCQ RFC BGDDCPCLAC @CRUCCL RFCQC RUM OS?LRGRGCQ. 10. $MCQ ? A?PtQ MBMKCRCP KC?QSPC NMQGRGML MP BGQNJ?ACKCLR? $MCQ GRQ QNCCBMKCRCP KC?QSPC QNCCB MP TCJMAGRW? 11. )D WMS BGTGBC RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB ML ? A?P RPGN (?Q BCRCPKGLCB @W RFC MBMKCRCP) @W RFC RGKC DMP RFC RPGN, ?PC WMS A?JASJ?RGLE RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB MP RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW? 5LBCP UF?R AGPASKQR?LACQ ?PC RFCQC RUM OS?LRGRGCQ RFC Q?KC? 12. (MU ?PC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW ?LB GLQR?LR?LCMSQ QNCCB PCJ?RCB RM MLC ?LMRFCP? (MU BM RFCW BGDDCP?

2.4 A99;B;H7J?ED
13. )Q GR NMQQG@JC DMP QNCCB RM @C AMLQR?LR UFGJC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ LMR XCPM? 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC MD QSAF ? QGRS?RGML. 14. )Q GR NMQQG@JC DMP TCJMAGRW RM @C AMLQR?LR UFGJC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ LMR XCPM? %VNJ?GL. 15. 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC GL UFGAF TCJMAGRW GQ XCPM WCR ?AACJCP?RGML GQ LMR. 16. )D ? QS@U?W RP?GL GQ KMTGLE RM RFC JCDR (F?Q ? LCE?RGTC TCJMAGRW) ?LB RFCL AMKCQ RM ? QRMN, UF?R GQ RFC BGPCARGML MD GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML? )Q RFC ?AACJCP?RGML NMQGRGTC MP LCE?RGTC? 17. 0JSQ ?LB KGLSQ QGELQ ?PC SQCB GL MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML RM GLBGA?RC BGPCARGML. 7F?R GQ RFC QGEL MD ?L ?AACJCP?RGML RF?R PCBSACQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD ? LCE?RGTC TCJMAGRW? /D ? NMQGRGTC TCJMAGRW?

2.6 )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= B7I?9I <EH (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I


18. 7F?R GLDMPK?RGML BM WMS LCCB GL MPBCP RM AFMMQC UFGAF COS?RGML MP COS?RGMLQ RM SQC RM QMJTC ? NPM@JCK? %VNJ?GL. 19. 7F?R GQ RFC J?QR RFGLE WMS QFMSJB BM UFCL QMJTGLE ? NPM@JCK? %VNJ?GL.

2.7 F7BB?D= (8@;9JI


20. 7F?R GQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? PMAI RFPMUL QRP?GEFR SNU?PB ML RFC U?W SN? !R RFC RMN MD GRQ DJGEFR? /L RFC U?W BMUL? 21. !L M@HCAR RF?R GQ RFPMUL QRP?GEFR SN D?JJQ @?AI RM %?PRF. 4FGQ GQ MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML. (?) 7FCL GQ GRQ TCJMAGRW XCPM? (@) $MCQ GRQ TCJMAGRW AF?LEC BGPCARGML? (A) $MCQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW F?TC RFC Q?KC QGEL ML RFC U?W SN ?Q ML RFC U?W BMUL? 22. 3SNNMQC WMS RFPMU ? PMAI LC?PJW QRP?GEFR SN ?R ? AMAMLSR GL ? N?JK RPCC, ?LB RFC PMAI KGQQCQ ML RFC U?W SN @SR FGRQ RFC AMAMLSR ML RFC U?W BMUL. .CEJCARGLE ?GP PCQGQR?LAC, FMU BMCQ RFC QNCCB MD RFC PMAI UFCL GR FGRQ RFC AMAMLSR ML RFC U?W BMUL AMKN?PC UGRF UF?R GR UMSJB F?TC @CCL GD GR F?B FGR RFC AMAMLSR ML RFC U?W SN? )Q GR KMPC JGICJW RM BGQJMBEC RFC AMAMLSR ML RFC U?W SN MP BMUL? %VNJ?GL. 23. )D ?L M@HCAR GQ RFPMUL QRP?GEFR SN ?LB ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC, RFCL GRQ QNCCB UFCL GR PCRSPLQ RM RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q UFCL GR U?Q PCJC?QCB. )D ?GP PCQGQR?LAC UCPC LMR LCEJGEG@JC, FMU UMSJB GRQ QNCCB SNML PCRSPL AMKN?PC UGRF GRQ GLGRG?J QNCCB? (MU UMSJB RFC K?VGKSK FCGEFR RM UFGAF GR PGQCQ @C ?DDCARCB? 24. 4FC QCTCPGRW MD ? D?JJ BCNCLBQ ML WMSP QNCCB UFCL WMS QRPGIC RFC EPMSLB. !JJ D?ARMPQ @SR RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW @CGLE RFC Q?KC, FMU K?LW RGKCQ FGEFCP AMSJB ? Q?DC D?JJ ML RFC -MML @C RF?L ML %?PRF (EP?TGR?RGML?J ?AACJCP?RGML ML RFC -MML GQ ?@MSR 1/6 RF?R MD RFC %?PRF)? 25. (MU K?LW RGKCQ FGEFCP AMSJB ?L ?QRPML?SR HSKN ML RFC -MML RF?L ML %?PRF GD FGQ R?ICMDD QNCCB GQ RFC Q?KC GL @MRF JMA?RGMLQ (EP?TGR?RGML?J ?AACJCP?RGML ML RFC -MML GQ ?@MSR 1/6 MD g ML %?PRF)?

2.8

H7F>?97B AD7BOI?I E< (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B &EJ?ED

26. (?) %VNJ?GL FMU WMS A?L SQC RFC EP?NF MD NMQGRGML TCPQSQ RGKC GL F?=KH; 2.54 RM BCQAPG@C RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW MTCP RGKC. )BCLRGDW (@) RFC RGKC ( t a , t b , t c , t d , MP t e ) ?R UFGAF RFC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW GQ EPC?RCQR, (A) RFC RGKC ?R UFGAF GR GQ XCPM, ?LB (B) RFC RGKC ?R UFGAF GR GQ LCE?RGTC.

F?=KH; 2.54

27. (?) 3ICRAF ? EP?NF MD TCJMAGRW TCPQSQ RGKC AMPPCQNMLBGLE RM RFC EP?NF MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCPQSQ RGKC EGTCL GL F?=KH; 2.55. (@) )BCLRGDW RFC RGKC MP RGKCQ ( t a , t b , t c , CRA.) ?R UFGAF RFC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW GQ EPC?RCQR. (A) !R UFGAF RGKCQ GQ GR XCPM? (B) !R UFGAF RGKCQ GQ GR LCE?RGTC?

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

79

F?=KH; 2.55

28. (?) %VNJ?GL FMU WMS A?L BCRCPKGLC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MTCP RGKC DPMK ? TCJMAGRW TCPQSQ RGKC EP?NF QSAF ?Q RFC MLC GL F?=KH; 2.56. (@) "?QCB ML RFC EP?NF, FMU BMCQ ?AACJCP?RGML AF?LEC MTCP RGKC?

F?=KH; 2.56

29. (?) 3ICRAF ? EP?NF MD ?AACJCP?RGML TCPQSQ RGKC AMPPCQNMLBGLE RM RFC EP?NF MD TCJMAGRW TCPQSQ RGKC EGTCL GL F?=KH; 2.57. (@) )BCLRGDW RFC RGKC MP RGKCQ ( t a , t b , t c , CRA.) ?R UFGAF RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ EPC?RCQR. (A) !R UFGAF RGKCQ GQ GR XCPM? (B) !R UFGAF RGKCQ GQ GR LCE?RGTC?

F?=KH; 2.57

30. #MLQGBCP RFC TCJMAGRW TQ. RGKC EP?NF MD ? NCPQML GL ?L CJCT?RMP QFMUL GL F?=KH; 2.58. 3SNNMQC RFC CJCT?RMP GQ GLGRG?JJW ?R PCQR. )R RFCL ?AACJCP?RCQ DMP 3 QCAMLBQ, K?GLR?GLQ RF?R TCJMAGRW DMP 15 QCAMLBQ, RFCL BCACJCP?RCQ DMP 5 QCAMLBQ SLRGJ GR QRMNQ. 4FC ?AACJCP?RGML DMP RFC CLRGPC RPGN GQ LMR AMLQR?LR QM UC A?LLMR SQC RFC COS?RGMLQ MD KMRGML DPMK &EJ?ED EGK7J?EDI <EH CEDIJ7DJ A99;B;H7J?ED ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED DMP RFC AMKNJCRC RPGN. (7C AMSJB, FMUCTCP, SQC RFCK GL RFC RFPCC GLBGTGBS?J QCARGMLQ UFCPC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ ? AMLQR?LR.) 3ICRAF EP?NFQ MD (?) NMQGRGML TQ. RGKC ?LB (@) ?AACJCP?RGML TQ. RGKC DMP RFGQ RPGN.

80

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 2.58

31. ! AWJGLBCP GQ EGTCL ? NSQF ?LB RFCL PMJJQ SN ?L GLAJGLCB NJ?LC. )D RFC MPGEGL GQ RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR, QICRAF RFC NMQGRGML, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC AWJGLBCP TQ. RGKC ?Q GR EMCQ SN ?LB RFCL BMUL RFC NJ?LC.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

81

)HE8B;CI & EN;H9?I;I 2.1 D?IFB79;C;DJ

43. 4FC QNCCB MD NPMN?E?RGML MD RFC ?ARGML NMRCLRG?J (?L CJCARPGA?J QGEL?J) GL ? LCPTC ACJJ BCNCLBQ (GLTCPQCJW) ML RFC BG?KCRCP MD RFC ?VML (LCPTC DG@CP). )D RFC LCPTC ACJJ AMLLCARGLE RFC QNGL?J AMPB RM WMSP DCCR GQ 1.1 K JMLE, ?LB RFC LCPTC GKNSJQC QNCCB GQ 18 K/Q, FMU JMLE BMCQ GR R?IC DMP RFC LCPTC QGEL?J RM RP?TCJ RFGQ BGQR?LAC? 44. #MLTCPQ?RGMLQ UGRF ?QRPML?SRQ ML RFC JSL?P QSPD?AC UCPC AF?P?ARCPGXCB @W ? IGLB MD CAFM GL UFGAF RFC C?PRF@MSLB NCPQMLtQ TMGAC U?Q QM JMSB GL RFC ?QRPML?SRtQ QN?AC FCJKCR RF?R GR U?Q NGAICB SN @W RFC ?QRPML?SRtQ KGAPMNFMLC ?LB RP?LQKGRRCB @?AI RM %?PRF. )R GQ PC?QML?@JC RM ?QQSKC RF?R RFC CAFM RGKC COS?JQ RFC RGKC LCACQQ?PW DMP RFC P?BGM U?TC RM RP?TCJ DPMK RFC %?PRF RM RFC -MML ?LB @?AI (RF?R GQ, LCEJCARGLE ?LW RGKC BCJ?WQ GL RFC CJCARPMLGA COSGNKCLR). #?JASJ?RC RFC BGQR?LAC DPMK %?PRF RM RFC -MML EGTCL RF?R RFC CAFM RGKC U?Q 2.56 Q ?LB RF?R P?BGM U?TCQ RP?TCJ 8 ?R RFC QNCCB MD JGEFR (3.0010 m/s) . 45. ! DMMR@?JJ OS?PRCP@?AI PSLQ 15.0 K QRP?GEFR BMUL RFC NJ?WGLE DGCJB GL 2.50 Q. (C GQ RFCL FGR ?LB NSQFCB 3.00 K QRP?GEFR @?AIU?PB GL 1.75 Q. (C @PC?IQ RFC R?AIJC ?LB PSLQ QRP?GEFR DMPU?PB ?LMRFCP 21.0 K GL 5.20 Q. #?JASJ?RC FGQ ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW (?) DMP C?AF MD RFC RFPCC GLRCPT?JQ ?LB (@) DMP RFC CLRGPC KMRGML. 46. 4FC NJ?LCR?PW KMBCJ MD RFC ?RMK NGARSPCQ CJCARPMLQ MP@GRGLE RFC ?RMKGA LSAJCSQ KSAF ?Q NJ?LCRQ MP@GR RFC 3SL. )L RFGQ KMBCJ WMS A?L TGCU FWBPMECL, RFC QGKNJCQR ?RMK, ?Q F?TGLE ? QGLEJC CJCARPML GL ? AGPASJ?P 10 MP@GR 1.0610 m GL BG?KCRCP. (?) )D RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB MD RFC 6 CJCARPML GL RFGQ MP@GR GQ ILMUL RM @C 2.2010 m/s , A?JASJ?RC RFC LSK@CP MD PCTMJSRGMLQ NCP QCAMLB GR K?ICQ ?@MSR RFC LSAJCSQ. (@) 7F?R GQ RFC CJCARPMLtQ ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW?

F?=KH; 2.59

32. &GLB RFC DMJJMUGLE DMP N?RF ! GL F?=KH; 2.59: (?) 4FC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB. (@) 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. (A) 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. 33. &GLB RFC DMJJMUGLE DMP N?RF " GL F?=KH; 2.59: (?) 4FC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB. (@) 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. (A) 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. 34. &GLB RFC DMJJMUGLE DMP N?RF # GL F?=KH; 2.59: (?) 4FC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB. (@) 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. (A) 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. 35. &GLB RFC DMJJMUGLE DMP N?RF $ GL F?=KH; 2.59: (?) 4FC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB. (@) 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. (A) 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF.

2.4 A99;B;H7J?ED
47. ! AFCCR?F A?L ?AACJCP?RC DPMK PCQR RM ? QNCCB MD 30.0 K/Q GL 7.00 Q. 7F?R GQ GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML? 48. )HE<;II?ED7B AFFB?97J?ED $P. *MFL 0?SJ 3R?NN U?Q 5.3. !GP &MPAC MDDGACP UFM QRSBGCB RFC CDDCARQ MD CVRPCKC BCACJCP?RGML ML RFC FSK?L @MBW. /L $CACK@CP 10, 1954, 3R?NN PMBC ? PMAICR QJCB, ?AACJCP?RGLE DPMK PCQR RM ? RMN QNCCB MD 282 K/Q (1015 IK/F) GL 5.00 Q, ?LB U?Q @PMSEFR H?PPGLEJW @?AI RM PCQR GL MLJW 1.40 Q! #?JASJ?RC FGQ (?) ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB (@) BCACJCP?RGML. %VNPCQQ C?AF GL KSJRGNJCQ MD g (9.80 m/s 2) @W R?IGLE GRQ P?RGM RM RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD EP?TGRW. 49. ! AMKKSRCP @?AIQ FCP A?P MSR MD FCP E?P?EC UGRF ?L ?AACJCP?RGML MD 1.40 m/s 2 . (?) (MU JMLE BMCQ GR R?IC FCP RM PC?AF ? QNCCB MD 2.00 K/Q? (@) )D QFC RFCL @P?ICQ RM ? QRMN GL 0.800 Q, UF?R GQ FCP BCACJCP?RGML? 50. !QQSKC RF?R ?L GLRCPAMLRGLCLR?J @?JJGQRGA KGQQGJC EMCQ DPMK PCQR RM ? QS@MP@GR?J QNCCB MD 6.50 IK/Q GL 60.0 Q (RFC ?ARS?J QNCCB ?LB RGKC ?PC AJ?QQGDGCB). 7F?R GQ GRQ ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML GL m/s 2 ?LB GL KSJRGNJCQ MD

2.3 -?C;, /;BE9?JO, 7D: ,F;;:


36. (?) #?JASJ?RC %?PRFtQ ?TCP?EC QNCCB PCJ?RGTC RM RFC 3SL. (@) 7F?R GQ GRQ ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MTCP ? NCPGMB MD MLC WC?P? 37. ! FCJGAMNRCP @J?BC QNGLQ ?R CV?ARJW 100 PCTMJSRGMLQ NCP KGLSRC. )RQ RGN GQ 5.00 K DPMK RFC ACLRCP MD PMR?RGML. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC ?TCP?EC QNCCB MD RFC @J?BC RGN GL RFC FCJGAMNRCPtQ DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC. (@) 7F?R GQ GRQ ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MTCP MLC PCTMJSRGML? 38. 4FC .MPRF !KCPGA?L ?LB %SPMNC?L AMLRGLCLRQ ?PC KMTGLE ?N?PR ?R ? P?RC MD ?@MSR 3 AK/W. !R RFGQ P?RC FMU JMLE UGJJ GR R?IC RFCK RM BPGDR 500 IK D?PRFCP ?N?PR RF?L RFCW ?PC ?R NPCQCLR? 39. ,?LB UCQR MD RFC 3?L !LBPC?Q D?SJR GL QMSRFCPL #?JGDMPLG? GQ KMTGLE ?R ?L ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW MD ?@MSR 6 AK/W LMPRFUCQR PCJ?RGTC RM J?LB C?QR MD RFC D?SJR. ,MQ !LECJCQ GQ UCQR MD RFC D?SJR ?LB K?W RFSQ QMKCB?W @C ?R RFC Q?KC J?RGRSBC ?Q 3?L &P?LAGQAM, UFGAF GQ C?QR MD RFC D?SJR. (MU D?P GL RFC DSRSPC UGJJ RFGQ MAASP GD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR RM @C K?BC GQ 590 IK LMPRFUCQR, ?QQSKGLE RFC KMRGML PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR? 40. /L -?W 26, 1934, ? QRPC?KJGLCB, QR?GLJCQQ QRCCJ BGCQCJ RP?GL A?JJCB RFC :CNFWP QCR RFC UMPJBt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tQ MP@GR GLAPC?QCQ @W 3.8410 m (1%)? 42. ! QRSBCLR BPMTC RM RFC SLGTCPQGRW DPMK FCP FMKC ?LB LMRCB RF?R RFC MBMKCRCP PC?BGLE MD FCP A?P GLAPC?QCB @W 12.0 IK. 4FC RPGN RMMI 18.0 KGL. (?) 7F?R U?Q FCP ?TCP?EC QNCCB? (@) )D RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC BGQR?LAC DPMK FCP FMKC RM RFC SLGTCPQGRW GQ 10.3 IK GL ? BGPCARGML 25.0 QMSRF MD C?QR, UF?R U?Q FCP ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW? (A) )D QFC PCRSPLCB FMKC @W RFC Q?KC N?RF 7 F 30 KGL ?DRCP QFC JCDR, UF?R UCPC FCP ?TCP?EC QNCCB ?LB TCJMAGRW DMP RFC CLRGPC RPGN?

g (9.80 m/s 2) ?

2.5 &EJ?ED EGK7J?EDI <EH CEDIJ7DJ A99;B;H7J?ED ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED


51. !L /JWKNGA-AJ?QQ QNPGLRCP QR?PRQ ? P?AC UGRF ?L ?AACJCP?RGML MD 4.50 m/s 2 . (?) 7F?R GQ FCP QNCCB 2.40 Q J?RCP? (@) 3ICRAF ? EP?NF MD FCP NMQGRGML TQ. RGKC DMP RFGQ NCPGMB. 52. ! UCJJ-RFPMUL @?JJ GQ A?SEFR GL ? UCJJ-N?BBCB KGRR. )D RFC BCACJCP?RGML 3 s) CJ?NQCQ MD RFC @?JJ GQ 2.1010 4 m/s 2 , ?LB 1.85 KQ (1 ms = 10 DPMK RFC RGKC RFC @?JJ DGPQR RMSAFCQ RFC KGRR SLRGJ GR QRMNQ, UF?R U?Q RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD RFC @?JJ? 53. ! @SJJCR GL ? ESL GQ ?AACJCP?RCB DPMK RFC DGPGLE AF?K@CP RM RFC CLB MD 5 RFC @?PPCJ ?R ?L ?TCP?EC P?RC MD 6.2010 m/s 2 DMP 8.1010 4 s . 7F?R GQ GRQ KSXXJC TCJMAGRW (RF?R GQ, GRQ DGL?J TCJMAGRW)? 54. (?) ! JGEFR-P?GJ AMKKSRCP RP?GL ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD 1.35 m/s 2 . (MU JMLE BMCQ GR R?IC RM PC?AF GRQ RMN QNCCB MD 80.0 IK/F, QR?PRGLE DPMK

82

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

PCQR? (@) 4FC Q?KC RP?GL MPBGL?PGJW BCACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD 1.65 m/s 2 . (MU JMLE BMCQ GR R?IC RM AMKC RM ? QRMN DPMK GRQ RMN QNCCB? (A) )L CKCPECLAGCQ RFC RP?GL A?L BCACJCP?RC KMPC P?NGBJW, AMKGLE RM PCQR DPMK 80.0 IK/F GL 8.30 Q. 7F?R GQ GRQ CKCPECLAW BCACJCP?RGML GL m/s 2 ? 55. 7FGJC CLRCPGLE ? DPCCU?W, ? A?P ?AACJCP?RCQ DPMK PCQR ?R ? P?RC MD 2.40 m/s 2 DMP 12.0 Q. (?) $P?U ? QICRAF MD RFC QGRS?RGML. (@) ,GQR RFC ILMULQ GL RFGQ NPM@JCK. (A) (MU D?P BMCQ RFC A?P RP?TCJ GL RFMQC 12.0 Q? 4M QMJTC RFGQ N?PR, DGPQR GBCLRGDW RFC SLILMUL, ?LB RFCL BGQASQQ FMU WMS AFMQC RFC ?NNPMNPG?RC COS?RGML RM QMJTC DMP GR. !DRCP AFMMQGLE RFC COS?RGML, QFMU WMSP QRCNQ GL QMJTGLE DMP RFC SLILMUL, AFCAI WMSP SLGRQ, ?LB BGQASQQ UFCRFCP RFC ?LQUCP GQ PC?QML?@JC. (B) 7F?R GQ RFC A?PtQ DGL?J TCJMAGRW? 3MJTC DMP RFGQ SLILMUL GL RFC Q?KC K?LLCP ?Q GL N?PR (A), QFMUGLE ?JJ QRCNQ CVNJGAGRJW. 56. !R RFC CLB MD ? P?AC, ? PSLLCP BCACJCP?RCQ DPMK ? TCJMAGRW MD 9.00 K/Q ?R ? P?RC MD 2.00 m/s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s , A?JASJ?RC RFC BGQR?LAC MTCP UFGAF RFC NSAI ?AACJCP?RCQ. 59. ! NMUCPDSJ KMRMPAWAJC A?L ?AACJCP?RC DPMK PCQR RM 26.8 K/Q (100 IK/ F) GL MLJW 3.90 Q. (?) 7F?R GQ GRQ ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML? (@) (MU D?P BMCQ GR RP?TCJ GL RF?R RGKC? 60. &PCGEFR RP?GLQ A?L NPMBSAC MLJW PCJ?RGTCJW QK?JJ ?AACJCP?RGMLQ ?LB BCACJCP?RGMLQ. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW MD ? DPCGEFR RP?GL RF?R ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD 0.0500 m/s 2 DMP 8.00 KGL, QR?PRGLE UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 4.00 K/Q? (@) )D RFC RP?GL A?L QJMU BMUL ?R ? P?RC MD 0.550 m/s 2 , FMU JMLE UGJJ GR R?IC RM AMKC RM ? QRMN DPMK RFGQ TCJMAGRW? (A) (MU D?P UGJJ GR RP?TCJ GL C?AF A?QC? 61. ! DGPCUMPIQ QFCJJ GQ ?AACJCP?RCB DPMK PCQR RM ? TCJMAGRW MD 65.0 K/Q MTCP ? BGQR?LAC MD 0.250 K. (?) (MU JMLE BGB RFC ?AACJCP?RGML J?QR? (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML. 62. ! QU?L ML ? J?IC ECRQ ?GP@MPLC @W DJ?NNGLE GRQ UGLEQ ?LB PSLLGLE ML RMN MD RFC U?RCP. (?) )D RFC QU?L KSQR PC?AF ? TCJMAGRW MD 6.00 K/Q RM R?IC MDD ?LB GR ?AACJCP?RCQ DPMK PCQR ?R ?L ?TCP?EC P?RC MD 0.350 m/s 2 , FMU D?P UGJJ GR RP?TCJ @CDMPC @CAMKGLE ?GP@MPLC? (@) (MU JMLE BMCQ RFGQ R?IC? 63. )HE<;II?ED7B AFFB?97J?ED: ! UMMBNCAICPtQ @P?GL GQ QNCAG?JJW NPMRCARCB DPMK J?PEC BCACJCP?RGMLQ @W RCLBML-JGIC ?RR?AFKCLRQ GLQGBC RFC QISJJ. 7FGJC NCAIGLE ML ? RPCC, RFC UMMBNCAICPtQ FC?B AMKCQ RM ? QRMN DPMK ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 0.600 K/Q GL ? BGQR?LAC MD MLJW 2.00 KK. (?) &GLB RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GL m/s 2 ?LB GL KSJRGNJCQ MD

UGRF DCU JGDC-RFPC?RCLGLE GLHSPGCQ. &MP RFCQC JSAIW NGJMRQ, RFC RPCC @P?LAFCQ ?LB QLMU BPGDRQ ML RFC EPMSLB ?JJMUCB RFCGP BCACJCP?RGML RM @C PCJ?RGTCJW QK?JJ. )D UC ?QQSKC RF?R ? NGJMRtQ QNCCB SNML GKN?AR U?Q 123 KNF (54 K/ Q), RFCL UF?R U?Q FGQ BCACJCP?RGML? !QQSKC RF?R RFC RPCCQ ?LB QLMU QRMNNCB FGK MTCP ? BGQR?LAC MD 3.0 K. 66. #MLQGBCP ? EPCW QOSGPPCJ D?JJGLE MSR MD ? RPCC RM RFC EPMSLB. (?) )D UC GELMPC ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GL RFGQ A?QC (MLJW DMP RFC Q?IC MD RFGQ NPM@JCK), BCRCPKGLC ? QOSGPPCJtQ TCJMAGRW HSQR @CDMPC FGRRGLE RFC EPMSLB, ?QQSKGLE GR DCJJ DPMK ? FCGEFR MD 3.0 K. (@) )D RFC QOSGPPCJ QRMNQ GL ? BGQR?LAC MD 2.0 AK RFPMSEF @CLBGLE GRQ JGK@Q, AMKN?PC GRQ BCACJCP?RGML UGRF RF?R MD RFC ?GPK?L GL RFC NPCTGMSQ NPM@JCK. 67. !L CVNPCQQ RP?GL N?QQCQ RFPMSEF ? QR?RGML. )R CLRCPQ UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 22.0 K/Q ?LB BCACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD 0.150 m/s 2 ?Q GR EMCQ RFPMSEF. 4FC QR?RGML GQ 210 K JMLE. (?) (MU JMLE GQ RFC LMQC MD RFC RP?GL GL RFC QR?RGML? (@) (MU D?QR GQ GR EMGLE UFCL RFC LMQC JC?TCQ RFC QR?RGML? (A) )D RFC RP?GL GQ 130 K JMLE, UFCL BMCQ RFC CLB MD RFC RP?GL JC?TC RFC QR?RGML? (B) 7F?R GQ RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC CLB MD RFC RP?GL ?Q GR JC?TCQ? 68. $P?EQRCPQ A?L ?ARS?JJW PC?AF ? RMN QNCCB MD 145 K/Q GL MLJW 4.45 QrAMLQGBCP?@JW JCQQ RGKC RF?L EGTCL GL EN7CFB; 2.10 ?LB EN7CFB; 2.11. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML DMP QSAF ? BP?EQRCP. (@) &GLB RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW MD RFGQ BP?EQRCP QR?PRGLE DPMK PCQR ?LB ?AACJCP?RGLE ?R RFC P?RC DMSLB GL (?) DMP 402 K (? OS?PRCP KGJC) UGRFMSR SQGLE ?LW GLDMPK?RGML ML RGKC. (A) 7FW GQ RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW EPC?RCP RF?L RF?R SQCB RM DGLB RFC ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML? H<AG: #MLQGBCP UFCRFCP RFC ?QQSKNRGML MD AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML GQ T?JGB DMP ? BP?EQRCP. )D LMR, BGQASQQ UFCRFCP RFC ?AACJCP?RGML UMSJB @C EPC?RCP ?R RFC @CEGLLGLE MP CLB MD RFC PSL ?LB UF?R CDDCAR RF?R UMSJB F?TC ML RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW. 69. ! @GAWAJC P?ACP QNPGLRQ ?R RFC CLB MD ? P?AC RM AJGLAF ? TGARMPW. 4FC P?ACP F?Q ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 11.5 K/Q ?LB ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R RFC P?RC MD 0.500 m/s 2 DMP 7.00 Q. (?) 7F?R GQ FGQ DGL?J TCJMAGRW? (@) 4FC P?ACP AMLRGLSCQ ?R RFGQ TCJMAGRW RM RFC DGLGQF JGLC. )D FC U?Q 300 K DPMK RFC DGLGQF JGLC UFCL FC QR?PRCB RM ?AACJCP?RC, FMU KSAF RGKC BGB FC Q?TC? (A) /LC MRFCP P?ACP U?Q 5.00 K ?FC?B UFCL RFC UGLLCP QR?PRCB RM ?AACJCP?RC, @SR FC U?Q SL?@JC RM ?AACJCP?RC, ?LB RP?TCJCB ?R 11.8 K/Q SLRGJ RFC DGLGQF JGLC. (MU D?P ?FC?B MD FGK (GL KCRCPQ ?LB GL QCAMLBQ) BGB RFC UGLLCP DGLGQF? 70. )L 1967, .CU :C?J?LBCP "SPR -SLPM QCR RFC UMPJB PCAMPB DMP ?L )LBG?L KMRMPAWAJC, ML RFC "MLLCTGJJC 3?JR &J?RQ GL 5R?F, MD 183.58 KG/F. 4FC MLCU?W AMSPQC U?Q 5.00 KG JMLE. !AACJCP?RGML P?RCQ ?PC MDRCL BCQAPG@CB @W RFC RGKC GR R?ICQ RM PC?AF 60.0 KG/F DPMK PCQR. )D RFGQ RGKC U?Q 4.00 Q, ?LB "SPR ?AACJCP?RCB ?R RFGQ P?RC SLRGJ FC PC?AFCB FGQ K?VGKSK QNCCB, FMU JMLE BGB GR R?IC "SPR RM AMKNJCRC RFC AMSPQC? 71. (?) ! UMPJB PCAMPB U?Q QCR DMP RFC KCLtQ 100-K B?QF GL RFC 2008 /JWKNGA '?KCQ GL "CGHGLE @W 5Q?GL "MJR MD *?K?GA?. "MJR uAM?QRCBv ?APMQQ RFC DGLGQF JGLC UGRF ? RGKC MD 9.69 Q. )D UC ?QQSKC RF?R "MJR ?AACJCP?RCB DMP 3.00 Q RM PC?AF FGQ K?VGKSK QNCCB, ?LB K?GLR?GLCB RF?R QNCCB DMP RFC PCQR MD RFC P?AC, A?JASJ?RC FGQ K?VGKSK QNCCB ?LB FGQ ?AACJCP?RGML. (@) $SPGLE RFC Q?KC /JWKNGAQ, "MJR ?JQM QCR RFC UMPJB PCAMPB GL RFC 200-K B?QF UGRF ? RGKC MD 19.30 Q. 5QGLE RFC Q?KC ?QQSKNRGMLQ ?Q DMP RFC 100-K B?QF, UF?R U?Q FGQ K?VGKSK QNCCB DMP RFGQ P?AC?

2.7 F7BB?D= (8@;9JI


!QQSKC ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC SLJCQQ MRFCPUGQC QR?RCB. 72. #?JASJ?RC RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB TCJMAGRW ?R RGKCQ MD (?) 0.500, (@) 1.00, (A) 1.50, ?LB (B) 2.00 Q DMP ? @?JJ RFPMUL QRP?GEFR SN UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 15.0 K/Q. 4?IC RFC NMGLR MD PCJC?QC RM @C y 0 = 0 . 73. #?JASJ?RC RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB TCJMAGRW ?R RGKCQ MD (?) 0.500, (@) 1.00, (A) 1.50, (B) 2.00, ?LB (C) 2.50 Q DMP ? PMAI RFPMUL QRP?GEFR BMUL UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 14.0 K/Q DPMK RFC 6CPP?X?LM .?PPMUQ "PGBEC GL .CU 9MPI #GRW. 4FC PM?BU?W MD RFGQ @PGBEC GQ 70.0 K ?@MTC RFC U?RCP. 74. ! @?QICR@?JJ PCDCPCC RMQQCQ RFC @?JJ QRP?GEFR SN DMP RFC QR?PRGLE RGN-MDD. !R UF?R TCJMAGRW KSQR ? @?QICR@?JJ NJ?WCP JC?TC RFC EPMSLB RM PGQC 1.25 K ?@MTC RFC DJMMP GL ?L ?RRCKNR RM ECR RFC @?JJ? 75. ! PCQASC FCJGAMNRCP GQ FMTCPGLE MTCP ? NCPQML UFMQC @M?R F?Q QSLI. /LC MD RFC PCQASCPQ RFPMUQ ? JGDC NPCQCPTCP QRP?GEFR BMUL RM RFC TGARGK UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 1.40 K/Q ?LB M@QCPTCQ RF?R GR R?ICQ 1.8 Q RM

2 g g = 9.80 m/s . (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC QRMNNGLE RGKC. (A) 4FC

RCLBMLQ AP?BJGLE RFC @P?GL QRPCRAF, K?IGLE GRQ QRMNNGLE BGQR?LAC 4.50 KK (EPC?RCP RF?L RFC FC?B ?LB, FCLAC, JCQQ BCACJCP?RGML MD RFC @P?GL). 7F?R GQ RFC @P?GLtQ BCACJCP?RGML, CVNPCQQCB GL KSJRGNJCQ MD g ? 64. !L SLU?PW DMMR@?JJ NJ?WCP AMJJGBCQ UGRF ? N?BBCB EM?JNMQR UFGJC PSLLGLE ?R ? TCJMAGRW MD 7.50 K/Q ?LB AMKCQ RM ? DSJJ QRMN ?DRCP AMKNPCQQGLE RFC N?BBGLE ?LB FGQ @MBW 0.350 K. (?) 7F?R GQ FGQ BCACJCP?RGML? (@) (MU JMLE BMCQ RFC AMJJGQGML J?QR? 65. )L 7MPJB 7?P )), RFCPC UCPC QCTCP?J PCNMPRCB A?QCQ MD ?GPKCL UFM HSKNCB DPMK RFCGP DJ?KGLE ?GPNJ?LCQ UGRF LM N?P?AFSRC RM CQA?NC ACPR?GL BC?RF. 3MKC DCJJ ?@MSR 20,000 DCCR (6000 K), ?LB QMKC MD RFCK QSPTGTCB,
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

83

PC?AF RFC U?RCP. (?) ,GQR RFC ILMULQ GL RFGQ NPM@JCK. (@) (MU FGEF ?@MTC RFC U?RCP U?Q RFC NPCQCPTCP PCJC?QCB? .MRC RF?R RFC BMULBP?DR MD RFC FCJGAMNRCP PCBSACQ RFC CDDCARQ MD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC ML RFC D?JJGLE JGDC NPCQCPTCP, QM RF?R ?L ?AACJCP?RGML COS?J RM RF?R MD EP?TGRW GQ PC?QML?@JC. 76. ! BMJNFGL GL ?L ?OS?RGA QFMU HSKNQ QRP?GEFR SN MSR MD RFC U?RCP ?R ? TCJMAGRW MD 13.0 K/Q. (?) ,GQR RFC ILMULQ GL RFGQ NPM@JCK. (@) (MU FGEF BMCQ FGQ @MBW PGQC ?@MTC RFC U?RCP? 4M QMJTC RFGQ N?PR, DGPQR LMRC RF?R RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW GQ LMU ? ILMUL ?LB GBCLRGDW GRQ T?JSC. 4FCL GBCLRGDW RFC SLILMUL, ?LB BGQASQQ FMU WMS AFMQC RFC ?NNPMNPG?RC COS?RGML RM QMJTC DMP GR. !DRCP AFMMQGLE RFC COS?RGML, QFMU WMSP QRCNQ GL QMJTGLE DMP RFC SLILMUL, AFCAIGLE SLGRQ, ?LB BGQASQQ UFCRFCP RFC ?LQUCP GQ PC?QML?@JC. (A) (MU JMLE GQ RFC BMJNFGL GL RFC ?GP? .CEJCAR ?LW CDDCARQ BSC RM FGQ QGXC MP MPGCLR?RGML. 77. ! QUGKKCP @MSLACQ QRP?GEFR SN DPMK ? BGTGLE @M?PB ?LB D?JJQ DCCR DGPQR GLRM ? NMMJ. 3FC QR?PRQ UGRF ? TCJMAGRW MD 4.00 K/Q, ?LB FCP R?ICMDD NMGLR GQ 1.80 K ?@MTC RFC NMMJ. (?) (MU JMLE ?PC FCP DCCR GL RFC ?GP? (@) 7F?R GQ FCP FGEFCQR NMGLR ?@MTC RFC @M?PB? (A) 7F?R GQ FCP TCJMAGRW UFCL FCP DCCR FGR RFC U?RCP? 78. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC FCGEFR MD ? AJGDD GD GR R?ICQ 2.35 Q DMP ? PMAI RM FGR RFC EPMSLB UFCL GR GQ RFPMUL QRP?GEFR SN DPMK RFC AJGDD UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 8.00 K/Q. (@) (MU JMLE UMSJB GR R?IC RM PC?AF RFC EPMSLB GD GR GQ RFPMUL QRP?GEFR BMUL UGRF RFC Q?KC QNCCB? 79. ! TCPW QRPMLE, @SR GLCNR, QFMR NSRRCP NSRQ RFC QFMR QRP?GEFR SN TCPRGA?JJW UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 11.0 K/Q. (MU JMLE BMCQ FC F?TC RM ECR MSR MD RFC U?W GD RFC QFMR U?Q PCJC?QCB ?R ? FCGEFR MD 2.20 K, ?LB FC GQ 1.80 K R?JJ? 80. 9MS RFPMU ? @?JJ QRP?GEFR SN UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 15.0 K/Q. )R N?QQCQ ? RPCC @P?LAF ML RFC U?W SN ?R ? FCGEFR MD 7.00 K. (MU KSAF ?BBGRGML?J RGKC UGJJ N?QQ @CDMPC RFC @?JJ N?QQCQ RFC RPCC @P?LAF ML RFC U?W @?AI BMUL? 81. ! I?LE?PMM A?L HSKN MTCP ?L M@HCAR 2.50 K FGEF. (?) #?JASJ?RC GRQ TCPRGA?J QNCCB UFCL GR JC?TCQ RFC EPMSLB. (@) (MU JMLE GQ GR GL RFC ?GP? 82. 3R?LBGLE ?R RFC @?QC MD MLC MD RFC AJGDDQ MD -R. !P?NGJCQ GL 6GARMPG?, !SQRP?JG?, ? FGICP FC?PQ ? PMAI @PC?I JMMQC DPMK ? FCGEFR MD 105 K. (C A?LtR QCC RFC PMAI PGEFR ?U?W @SR RFCL BMCQ, 1.50 Q J?RCP. (?) (MU D?P ?@MTC RFC FGICP GQ RFC PMAI UFCL FC A?L QCC GR? (@) (MU KSAF RGKC BMCQ FC F?TC RM KMTC @CDMPC RFC PMAI FGRQ FGQ FC?B? 83. !L M@HCAR GQ BPMNNCB DPMK ? FCGEFR MD 75.0 K ?@MTC EPMSLB JCTCJ. (?) $CRCPKGLC RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB BSPGLE RFC DGPQR QCAMLB. (@) $CRCPKGLC RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW ?R UFGAF RFC M@HCAR FGRQ RFC EPMSLB. (A) $CRCPKGLC RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB BSPGLE RFC J?QR QCAMLB MD KMRGML @CDMPC FGRRGLE RFC EPMSLB. 84. 4FCPC GQ ? 250-K-FGEF AJGDD ?R (?JD $MKC GL 9MQCKGRC .?RGML?J 0?PI GL #?JGDMPLG?. 3SNNMQC ? @MSJBCP @PC?IQ JMMQC DPMK RFC RMN MD RFGQ AJGDD. (?) (MU D?QR UGJJ GR @C EMGLE UFCL GR QRPGICQ RFC EPMSLB? (@) !QQSKGLE ? PC?ARGML RGKC MD 0.300 Q, FMU JMLE UGJJ ? RMSPGQR ?R RFC @MRRMK F?TC RM ECR MSR MD RFC U?W ?DRCP FC?PGLE RFC QMSLB MD RFC PMAI @PC?IGLE JMMQC (LCEJCARGLE RFC FCGEFR MD RFC RMSPGQR, UFGAF UMSJB @CAMKC LCEJGEG@JC ?LWU?W GD FGR)? 4FC QNCCB MD QMSLB GQ 335 K/Q ML RFGQ B?W. 85. ! @?JJ GQ RFPMUL QRP?GEFR SN. )R N?QQCQ ? 2.00-K-FGEF UGLBMU 7.50 K MDD RFC EPMSLB ML GRQ N?RF SN ?LB R?ICQ 1.30 Q RM EM N?QR RFC UGLBMU. 7F?R U?Q RFC @?JJtQ GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW? 86. 3SNNMQC WMS BPMN ? PMAI GLRM ? B?PI UCJJ ?LB, SQGLE NPCAGQGML COSGNKCLR, WMS KC?QSPC RFC RGKC DMP RFC QMSLB MD ? QNJ?QF RM PCRSPL. (?) .CEJCARGLE RFC RGKC PCOSGPCB DMP QMSLB RM RP?TCJ SN RFC UCJJ, A?JASJ?RC RFC BGQR?LAC RM RFC U?RCP GD RFC QMSLB PCRSPLQ GL 2.0000 Q. (@) .MU A?JASJ?RC RFC BGQR?LAC R?IGLE GLRM ?AAMSLR RFC RGKC DMP QMSLB RM RP?TCJ SN RFC UCJJ. 4FC QNCCB MD QMSLB GQ 332.00 K/Q GL RFGQ UCJJ. 87. ! QRCCJ @?JJ GQ BPMNNCB MLRM ? F?PB DJMMP DPMK ? FCGEFR MD 1.50 K ?LB PC@MSLBQ RM ? FCGEFR MD 1.45 K. (?) #?JASJ?RC GRQ TCJMAGRW HSQR @CDMPC GR QRPGICQ RFC DJMMP. (@) #?JASJ?RC GRQ TCJMAGRW HSQR ?DRCP GR JC?TCQ RFC DJMMP ML GRQ U?W @?AI SN. (A) #?JASJ?RC GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML BSPGLE AMLR?AR UGRF RFC DJMMP GD 5 s) . (B) (MU KSAF BGB RFC @?JJ RF?R AMLR?AR J?QRQ 0.0800 KQ (8.0010 AMKNPCQQ BSPGLE GRQ AMJJGQGML UGRF RFC DJMMP, ?QQSKGLE RFC DJMMP GQ ?@QMJSRCJW PGEGB? 88. ! AMGL GQ BPMNNCB DPMK ? FMR-?GP @?JJMML RF?R GQ 300 K ?@MTC RFC EPMSLB ?LB PGQGLE ?R 10.0 K/Q SNU?PB. &MP RFC AMGL, DGLB (?) RFC K?VGKSK

FCGEFR PC?AFCB, (@) GRQ NMQGRGML ?LB TCJMAGRW 4.00 Q ?DRCP @CGLE PCJC?QCB, ?LB (A) RFC RGKC @CDMPC GR FGRQ RFC EPMSLB. 89. ! QMDR RCLLGQ @?JJ GQ BPMNNCB MLRM ? F?PB DJMMP DPMK ? FCGEFR MD 1.50 K ?LB PC@MSLBQ RM ? FCGEFR MD 1.10 K. (?) #?JASJ?RC GRQ TCJMAGRW HSQR @CDMPC GR QRPGICQ RFC DJMMP. (@) #?JASJ?RC GRQ TCJMAGRW HSQR ?DRCP GR JC?TCQ RFC DJMMP ML GRQ U?W @?AI SN. (A) #?JASJ?RC GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML BSPGLE AMLR?AR UGRF RFC DJMMP GD 3 s) . (B) (MU KSAF BGB RFC @?JJ RF?R AMLR?AR J?QRQ 3.50 KQ (3.5010 AMKNPCQQ BSPGLE GRQ AMJJGQGML UGRF RFC DJMMP, ?QQSKGLE RFC DJMMP GQ ?@QMJSRCJW PGEGB?

2.8

H7F>?97B AD7BOI?I E< (D;-D?C;DI?ED7B &EJ?ED

.MRC: 4FCPC GQ ?JU?WQ SLACPR?GLRW GL LSK@CPQ R?ICL DPMK EP?NFQ. )D WMSP ?LQUCPQ BGDDCP DPMK CVNCARCB T?JSCQ, CV?KGLC RFCK RM QCC GD RFCW ?PC UGRFGL B?R? CVRP?ARGML SLACPR?GLRGCQ CQRGK?RCB @W WMS. 90. (?) "W R?IGLE RFC QJMNC MD RFC ASPTC GL F?=KH; 2.60, TCPGDW RF?R RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC HCR A?P GQ 115 K/Q ?R t = 20 s . (@) "W R?IGLE RFC QJMNC MD RFC ASPTC ?R ?LW NMGLR GL F?=KH; 2.61, TCPGDW RF?R RFC HCR A?PtQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ 5.0 m/s 2 .

F?=KH; 2.60

F?=KH; 2.61

91. 5QGLE ?NNPMVGK?RC T?JSCQ, A?JASJ?RC RFC QJMNC MD RFC ASPTC GL F?=KH; 2.62 RM TCPGDW RF?R RFC TCJMAGRW ?R t = 10.0 s GQ 0.208 K/Q. !QQSKC ?JJ T?JSCQ ?PC ILMUL RM 3 QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ.

F?=KH; 2.62

92. 5QGLE ?NNPMVGK?RC T?JSCQ, A?JASJ?RC RFC QJMNC MD RFC ASPTC GL F?=KH; 2.62 RM TCPGDW RF?R RFC TCJMAGRW ?R t = 30.0 s GQ 0.238 K/Q. !QQSKC ?JJ T?JSCQ ?PC ILMUL RM 3 QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ. ?AACJCP?RGML GQ 93. "W R?IGLE RFC QJMNC MD RFC ASPTC GL F?=KH; 2.63, TCPGDW RF?R RFC 3.2 m/s 2 ?R t = 10 s .

84

#(!04%2 2 Y +).%-!4)#3

96. ! EP?NF MD

v(t) GQ QFMUL DMP ? UMPJB-AJ?QQ RP?AI QNPGLRCP GL ? 100-K

P?AC. (3CC F?=KH; 2.67). (?) 7F?R GQ FGQ ?TCP?EC TCJMAGRW DMP RFC DGPQR 4 Q? (@) 7F?R GQ FGQ GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW ?R t = 5 s ? (A) 7F?R GQ FGQ ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML @CRUCCL 0 ?LB 4 Q? (B) 7F?R GQ FGQ RGKC DMP RFC P?AC?

F?=KH; 2.63

94. #MLQRPSAR RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR EP?NF DMP RFC QS@U?W QFSRRJC RP?GL ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 2.18(?). 9MSP EP?NF QFMSJB QFMU RFC NMQGRGML MD RFC RP?GL, GL IGJMKCRCPQ, DPMK R = 0 RM 20 Q. 9MS UGJJ LCCB RM SQC RFC GLDMPK?RGML ML ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB TCJMAGRW EGTCL GL RFC CV?KNJCQ DMP RFGQ DGESPC. 95. (?) 4?IC RFC QJMNC MD RFC ASPTC GL F?=KH; 2.64 RM DGLB RFC HMEECPtQ TCJMAGRW ?R t = 2.5 s . (@) 2CNC?R ?R 7.5 Q. 4FCQC T?JSCQ KSQR @C AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC EP?NF GL F?=KH; 2.65.
F?=KH; 2.67

97. F?=KH; 2.68 QFMUQ RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR EP?NF DMP ? N?PRGAJC DMP 5 Q. $P?U RFC AMPPCQNMLBGLE TCJMAGRW ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML EP?NFQ.

F?=KH; 2.64

F?=KH; 2.68

F?=KH; 2.65

F?=KH; 2.66 4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

85

47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 3.1 %TCPWB?W KMRGML RF?R UC CVNCPGCLAC GQ, RF?LIDSJJW, P?PCJW ?Q RMPRSMSQ ?Q ? PMJJCPAM?QRCP PGBC JGIC RFGQrRFC $P?EML +F?L GL 3N?GLtQ 5LGTCPQ?J 0MPR !TCLRSP? !KSQCKCLR 0?PI. (MUCTCP, KMQR KMRGML GQ GL ASPTCB, P?RFCP RF?L QRP?GEFR-JGLC, N?RFQ. -MRGML ?JMLE ? ASPTCB N?RF GQ RUM- MP RFPCC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML, ?LB A?L @C BCQAPG@CB GL ? QGKGJ?P D?QFGML RM MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML. (APCBGR: "MPGQ23/7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

,C?PLGLE /@HCARGTCQ
3.1. $?D;C7J?9I ?D -ME D?C;DI?EDI: AD "DJHE:K9J?ED 3.2. /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: H7F>?97B &;J>E:I 3.3. /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I 3.4. )HE@;9J?B; &EJ?ED 3.5. A::?J?ED E< /;BE9?J?;I

"DJHE:K9J?ED JE -ME-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I


4FC ?PA MD ? @?QICR@?JJ, RFC MP@GR MD ? Q?RCJJGRC, ? @GAWAJC PMSLBGLE ? ASPTC, ? QUGKKCP BGTGLE GLRM ? NMMJ, @JMMB ESQFGLE MSR MD ? UMSLB, ?LB ? NSNNW AF?QGLE GRQ R?GJ ?PC @SR ? DCU CV?KNJCQ MD KMRGMLQ ?JMLE ASPTCB N?RFQ. )L D?AR, KMQR KMRGMLQ GL L?RSPC DMJJMU ASPTCB N?RFQ P?RFCP RF?L QRP?GEFR JGLCQ. -MRGML ?JMLE ? ASPTCB N?RF ML ? DJ?R QSPD?AC MP ? NJ?LC (QSAF ?Q RF?R MD ? @?JJ ML ? NMMJ R?@JC MP ? QI?RCP ML ?L GAC PGLI) GQ RUM-BGKCLQGML?J, ?LB RFSQ BCQAPG@CB @W RUM-BGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ. -MRGML LMR AMLDGLCB RM ? NJ?LC, QSAF ?Q ? A?P DMJJMUGLE ? UGLBGLE KMSLR?GL PM?B, GQ BCQAPG@CB @W RFPCCBGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ. "MRF RUM- ?LB RFPCC-BGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ ?PC QGKNJC CVRCLQGMLQ MD RFC MLC-BGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ BCTCJMNCB DMP QRP?GEFRJGLC KMRGML GL RFC NPCTGMSQ AF?NRCP. 4FGQ QGKNJC CVRCLQGML UGJJ ?JJMU SQ RM ?NNJW NFWQGAQ RM K?LW KMPC QGRS?RGMLQ, ?LB GR UGJJ ?JQM WGCJB SLCVNCARCB GLQGEFRQ ?@MSR L?RSPC.

86

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3.1 $?D;C7J?9I ?D -ME D?C;DI?EDI: AD "DJHE:K9J?ED

F?=KH; 3.2 7?JICPQ ?LB BPGTCPQ GL ? AGRW JGIC .CU 9MPI ?PC P?PCJW ?@JC RM RP?TCJ GL QRP?GEFR JGLCQ RM PC?AF RFCGP BCQRGL?RGMLQ. )LQRC?B, RFCW KSQR DMJJMU PM?BQ ?LB QGBCU?JIQ, K?IGLE RUM-BGKCLQGML?J, XGEX?EECB N?RFQ. (APCBGR: -?PE?PCR 7. #?PPSRFCPQ)

4UM-$GKCLQGML?J -MRGML: 7?JIGLE GL ? #GRW


3SNNMQC WMS U?LR RM U?JI DPMK MLC NMGLR RM ?LMRFCP GL ? AGRW UGRF SLGDMPK QOS?PC @JMAIQ, ?Q NGARSPCB GL F?=KH; 3.3.

F?=KH; 3.3 ! NCBCQRPG?L U?JIQ ? RUM-BGKCLQGML?J N?RF @CRUCCL RUM NMGLRQ GL ? AGRW. )L RFGQ QACLC, ?JJ @JMAIQ ?PC QOS?PC ?LB ?PC RFC Q?KC QGXC.

4FC QRP?GEFR-JGLC N?RF RF?R ? FCJGAMNRCP KGEFR DJW GQ @JMAICB RM WMS ?Q ? NCBCQRPG?L, ?LB QM WMS ?PC DMPACB RM R?IC ? RUM-BGKCLQGML?J N?RF, QSAF ?Q RFC MLC QFMUL. 9MS U?JI 14 @JMAIQ GL ?JJ, 9 C?QR DMJJMUCB @W 5 LMPRF. 7F?R GQ RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC BGQR?LAC? !L MJB ?B?EC QR?RCQ RF?R RFC QFMPRCQR BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RUM NMGLRQ GQ ? QRP?GEFR JGLC. 4FC RUM JCEQ MD RFC RPGN ?LB RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC N?RF DMPK ? PGEFR RPG?LEJC, ?LB QM RFC 0WRF?EMPC?L RFCMPCK, a 2 + b 2 = c 2 , A?L @C SQCB RM DGLB RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC BGQR?LAC.

F?=KH; 3.4 4FC 0WRF?EMPC?L RFCMPCK PCJ?RCQ RFC JCLERF MD RFC JCEQ MD ? PGEFR RPG?LEJC, J?@CJCB

?LB

b , UGRF RFC FWNMRCLSQC, J?@CJCB c . 4FC PCJ?RGMLQFGN GQ EGTCL @W:

a +b =c

. 4FGQ A?L @C PCUPGRRCL, QMJTGLE DMP

c : c= a +b

4FC FWNMRCLSQC MD RFC RPG?LEJC GQ RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC N?RF, ?LB QM GL RFGQ A?QC GRQ JCLERF GL SLGRQ MD AGRW @JMAIQ GQ (9 blocks) 2+ (5 blocks) 2= 10.3 blocks , AMLQGBCP?@JW QFMPRCP RF?L RFC 14 @JMAIQ WMS U?JICB. (.MRC RF?R UC ?PC SQGLE RFPCC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ GL RFC ?LQUCP. !JRFMSEF GR ?NNC?PQ RF?R u9v ?LB u5v F?TC MLJW MLC QGELGDGA?LR BGEGR, RFCW ?PC BGQAPCRC LSK@CPQ. )L RFGQ A?QC u9 @JMAIQv GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q u9.0 MP 9.00 @JMAIQ.v 7C F?TC BCAGBCB RM SQC RFPCC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ GL RFC ?LQUCP GL MPBCP RM QFMU RFC PCQSJR KMPC NPCAGQCJW.)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

87

F?=KH; 3.5 4FC QRP?GEFR-JGLC N?RF DMJJMUCB @W ? FCJGAMNRCP @CRUCCL RFC RUM NMGLRQ GQ QFMPRCP RF?L RFC 14 @JMAIQ U?JICB @W RFC NCBCQRPG?L. !JJ @JMAIQ ?PC QOS?PC ?LB RFC Q?KC QGXC.

4FC D?AR RF?R RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC BGQR?LAC (10.3 @JMAIQ) GL F?=KH; 3.5 GQ JCQQ RF?L RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC U?JICB (14 @JMAIQ) GQ MLC CV?KNJC MD ? ECLCP?J AF?P?ARCPGQRGA MD TCARMPQ. (2CA?JJ RF?R L;9JEHI ?PC OS?LRGRGCQ RF?R F?TC @MRF K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML.) !Q DMP MLC-BGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ, UC SQC ?PPMUQ RM PCNPCQCLR TCARMPQ. 4FC JCLERF MD RFC ?PPMU GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC TCARMPtQ K?ELGRSBC. 4FC ?PPMUtQ JCLERF GQ GLBGA?RCB @W F?QF K?PIQ GL F?=KH; 3.3 ?LB F?=KH; 3.5. 4FC ?PPMU NMGLRQ GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC TCARMP. &MP RUM-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML, RFC N?RF MD ?L M@HCAR A?L @C PCNPCQCLRCB UGRF RFPCC TCARMPQ: MLC TCARMP QFMUQ RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC N?RF @CRUCCL RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J NMGLRQ MD RFC KMRGML, MLC TCARMP QFMUQ RFC FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC KMRGML, ?LB MLC TCARMP QFMUQ RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC KMRGML. 4FC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC KMRGML ?BB RMECRFCP RM EGTC RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC N?RF. &MP CV?KNJC, M@QCPTC RFC RFPCC TCARMPQ GL F?=KH; 3.5. 4FC DGPQR PCNPCQCLRQ ? 9-@JMAI BGQNJ?ACKCLR C?QR. 4FC QCAMLB PCNPCQCLRQ ? 5-@JMAI BGQNJ?ACKCLR LMPRF. 4FCQC TCARMPQ ?PC ?BBCB RM EGTC RFC RFGPB TCARMP, UGRF ? 10.3-@JMAI RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR. 4FC RFGPB TCARMP GQ RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC N?RF @CRUCCL RFC RUM NMGLRQ. .MRC RF?R GL RFGQ CV?KNJC, RFC TCARMPQ RF?R UC ?PC ?BBGLE ?PC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM C?AF MRFCP ?LB RFSQ DMPK ? PGEFR RPG?LEJC. 4FGQ KC?LQ RF?R UC A?L SQC RFC 0WRF?EMPC?L RFCMPCK RM A?JASJ?RC RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR. (.MRC RF?R UC A?LLMR SQC RFC 0WRF?EMPC?L RFCMPCK RM ?BB TCARMPQ RF?R ?PC LMR NCPNCLBGASJ?P. 7C UGJJ BCTCJMN RCAFLGOSCQ DMP ?BBGLE TCARMPQ F?TGLE ?LW BGPCARGML, LMR HSQR RFMQC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM MLC ?LMRFCP, GL /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: H7F>?97B &;J>E:I ?LB /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I.)

4FC )LBCNCLBCLAC MD 0CPNCLBGASJ?P -MRGMLQ


4FC NCPQML R?IGLE RFC N?RF QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.5 U?JIQ C?QR ?LB RFCL LMPRF (RUM NCPNCLBGASJ?P BGPCARGMLQ). (MU D?P FC MP QFC U?JIQ C?QR GQ MLJW ?DDCARCB @W FGQ MP FCP KMRGML C?QRU?PB. 3GKGJ?PJW, FMU D?P FC MP QFC U?JIQ LMPRF GQ MLJW ?DDCARCB @W FGQ MP FCP KMRGML LMPRFU?PB. )LBCNCLBCLAC MD -MRGML 4FC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD RUM-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML ?PC GLBCNCLBCLR MD C?AF MRFCP. !LW KMRGML GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML BMCQ LMR ?DDCAR KMRGML GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML, ?LB TGAC TCPQ?. 4FGQ GQ RPSC GL ? QGKNJC QACL?PGM JGIC RF?R MD U?JIGLE GL MLC BGPCARGML DGPQR, DMJJMUCB @W ?LMRFCP. )R GQ ?JQM RPSC MD KMPC AMKNJGA?RCB KMRGML GLTMJTGLE KMTCKCLR GL RUM BGPCARGMLQ ?R MLAC. &MP CV?KNJC, JCRtQ AMKN?PC RFC KMRGMLQ MD RUM @?QC@?JJQ. /LC @?QC@?JJ GQ BPMNNCB DPMK PCQR. !R RFC Q?KC GLQR?LR, ?LMRFCP GQ RFPMUL FMPGXMLR?JJW DPMK RFC Q?KC FCGEFR ?LB DMJJMUQ ? ASPTCB N?RF. ! QRPM@MQAMNC F?Q A?NRSPCB RFC NMQGRGMLQ MD RFC @?JJQ ?R DGVCB RGKC GLRCPT?JQ ?Q RFCW D?JJ.

F?=KH; 3.6 4FGQ QFMUQ RFC KMRGMLQ MD RUM GBCLRGA?J @?JJQrMLC D?JJQ DPMK PCQR, RFC MRFCP F?Q ?L GLGRG?J FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW. %?AF QS@QCOSCLR NMQGRGML GQ ?L COS?J RGKC GLRCPT?J. !PPMUQ PCNPCQCLR FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRGCQ ?R C?AF NMQGRGML. 4FC @?JJ ML RFC PGEFR F?Q ?L GLGRG?J FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW, UFGJC RFC @?JJ ML RFC JCDR F?Q LM FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW. $CQNGRC RFC BGDDCPCLAC GL FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRGCQ, RFC TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRGCQ ?LB NMQGRGMLQ ?PC GBCLRGA?J DMP @MRF @?JJQ. 4FGQ QFMUQ RF?R RFC TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J KMRGMLQ ?PC GLBCNCLBCLR.

)R GQ PCK?PI?@JC RF?R DMP C?AF DJ?QF MD RFC QRPM@C, RFC TCPRGA?J NMQGRGMLQ MD RFC RUM @?JJQ ?PC RFC Q?KC. 4FGQ QGKGJ?PGRW GKNJGCQ RF?R RFC TCPRGA?J KMRGML GQ GLBCNCLBCLR MD UFCRFCP MP LMR RFC @?JJ GQ KMTGLE FMPGXMLR?JJW. (!QQSKGLE LM ?GP PCQGQR?LAC, RFC TCPRGA?J KMRGML MD ? D?JJGLE M@HCAR GQ GLDJSCLACB @W EP?TGRW MLJW, ?LB LMR @W ?LW FMPGXMLR?J DMPACQ.) #?PCDSJ CV?KGL?RGML MD RFC @?JJ RFPMUL FMPGXMLR?JJW QFMUQ RF?R GR RP?TCJQ RFC Q?KC FMPGXMLR?J BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL DJ?QFCQ. 4FGQ GQ BSC RM RFC D?AR RF?R RFCPC ?PC LM ?BBGRGML?J DMPACQ ML RFC @?JJ GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML ?DRCP GR GQ RFPMUL. 4FGQ PCQSJR KC?LQ RF?R RFC FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW GQ AMLQR?LR, ?LB ?DDCARCB LCGRFCP @W TCPRGA?J KMRGML LMP @W EP?TGRW (UFGAF GQ TCPRGA?J). .MRC RF?R RFGQ A?QC GQ RPSC MLJW DMP GBC?J AMLBGRGMLQ. )L RFC PC?J UMPJB, ?GP PCQGQR?LAC UGJJ ?DDCAR RFC QNCCB MD RFC @?JJQ GL @MRF BGPCARGMLQ.

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

F?=KH; 3.7 %7:O8K= &EJ?ED 2D (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42104/1.4/B7:O8K=-CEJ?ED-2:6;D.@7H)

3.2 /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED:

H7F>?97B &;J>E:I

F?=KH; 3.8 $GQNJ?ACKCLR A?L @C BCRCPKGLCB EP?NFGA?JJW SQGLE ? QA?JC K?N, QSAF ?Q RFGQ MLC MD RFC (?U?GG?L )QJ?LBQ. ! HMSPLCW DPMK (?U?GtG RM -MJMI?tG F?Q ? LSK@CP MD JCEQ, MP HMSPLCW QCEKCLRQ. 4FCQC QCEKCLRQ A?L @C ?BBCB EP?NFGA?JJW UGRF ? PSJCP RM BCRCPKGLC RFC RMR?J RUM-BGKCLQGML?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD RFC HMSPLCW. (APCBGR: 53 'CMJMEGA?J 3SPTCW)

6CARMPQ GL 4UM $GKCLQGMLQ


! L;9JEH GQ ? OS?LRGRW RF?R F?Q K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML. $GQNJ?ACKCLR, TCJMAGRW, ?AACJCP?RGML, ?LB DMPAC, DMP CV?KNJC, ?PC ?JJ TCARMPQ. )L MLCBGKCLQGML?J, MP QRP?GEFR-JGLC, KMRGML, RFC BGPCARGML MD ? TCARMP A?L @C EGTCL QGKNJW @W ? NJSQ MP KGLSQ QGEL. )L RUM BGKCLQGMLQ (2-B), FMUCTCP, UC QNCAGDW RFC BGPCARGML MD ? TCARMP PCJ?RGTC RM QMKC PCDCPCLAC DP?KC (G.C., AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK), SQGLE ?L ?PPMU F?TGLE JCLERF NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC TCARMPtQ K?ELGRSBC ?LB NMGLRGLE GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC TCARMP. F?=KH; 3.9 QFMUQ QSAF ? :E4C;<64? E8CE8F8AG4G<BA B9 4 I86GBE, SQGLE ?Q ?L CV?KNJC RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR DMP RFC NCPQML U?JIGLE GL ? AGRW AMLQGBCPCB GL $?D;C7J?9I ?D -ME D?C;DI?EDI: AD "DJHE:K9J?ED. 7C QF?JJ SQC RFC LMR?RGML RF?R ? @MJBD?AC QWK@MJ, QSAF ?Q D , QR?LBQ DMP ? TCARMP. )RQ K?ELGRSBC GQ PCNPCQCLRCB @W RFC QWK@MJ GL GR?JGAQ, 6CARMPQ GL RFGQ 4CVR )L RFGQ RCVR, UC UGJJ PCNPCQCLR ? TCARMP UGRF ? @MJBD?AC T?PG?@JC. &MP CV?KNJC, UC UGJJ PCNPCQCLR RFC OS?LRGRW DMPAC UGRF RFC TCARMP @MRF K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML. 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC TCARMP UGJJ @C PCNPCQCLRCB @W ? T?PG?@JC GL GR?JGAQ, QSAF ?Q T?PG?@JC UGJJ @C EGTCL @W ?L ?LEJC

D , ?LB GRQ BGPCARGML @W .

F , UFGAF F?Q F , ?LB RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

89

F?=KH; 3.9 ! NCPQML U?JIQ 9 @JMAIQ C?QR ?LB 5 @JMAIQ LMPRF. 4FC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ 10.3 @JMAIQ ?R ?L ?LEJC

29.1

LMPRF MD C?QR.

F?=KH; 3.10 4M BCQAPG@C RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP DMP RFC NCPQML U?JIGLE GL ? AGRW AMLQGBCPCB GL F?=KH; 3.9 EP?NFGA?JJW, BP?U ?L ?PPMU RM PCNPCQCLR RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCARMP 5QGLE ? NPMRP?ARMP, BP?U ? JGLC ?R ?L ?LEJC

PCJ?RGTC RM RFC C?QR-UCQR ?VGQ. 4FC JCLERF

JGLC UGRF ? PSJCP. )L RFGQ CV?KNJC, RFC K?ELGRSBC

D.

MD RFC ?PPMU GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC TCARMPtQ K?ELGRSBC ?LB GQ KC?QSPCB ?JMLE RFC

MD RFC TCARMP GQ 10.3 SLGRQ, ?LB RFC BGPCARGML

GQ

29.1

LMPRF MD C?QR.

6CARMP !BBGRGML: (C?B-RM-4?GJ -CRFMB


4FC >;7:-JE-J7?B C;J>E: GQ ? EP?NFGA?J U?W RM ?BB TCARMPQ, BCQAPG@CB GL F?=KH; 3.11 @CJMU ?LB GL RFC QRCNQ DMJJMUGLE. 4FC J7?B MD RFC TCARMP GQ RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR MD RFC TCARMP, ?LB RFC >;7: (MP RGN) MD ? TCARMP GQ RFC DGL?J, NMGLRCB CLB MD RFC ?PPMU.

F?=KH; 3.11 !;7:-JE--7?B &;J>E:: 4FC FC?B-RM-R?GJ KCRFMB MD EP?NFGA?JJW ?BBGLE TCARMPQ GQ GJJSQRP?RCB DMP RFC RUM BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ MD RFC NCPQML U?JIGLE GL ? AGRW AMLQGBCPCB GL F?=KH; 3.9. (?) $P?U ? TCARMP PCNPCQCLRGLE RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR RM RFC C?QR. (@) $P?U ? TCARMP PCNPCQCLRGLE RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR RM RFC LMPRF. 4FC R?GJ MD RFGQ TCARMP QFMSJB MPGEGL?RC DPMK RFC FC?B MD RFC DGPQR, C?QR-NMGLRGLE TCARMP. (A) $P?U ? JGLC DPMK RFC R?GJ MD RFC C?QR-NMGLRGLE TCARMP RM RFC FC?B MD RFC LMPRF-NMGLRGLE TCARMP RM DMPK RFC QSK MP H;IKBJ7DJ L;9JEH D . 4FC JCLERF MD RFC ?PPMU (MP FMPGXMLR?J ?VGQ)

GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC TCARMPtQ K?ELGRSBC ?LB GQ KC?QSPCB RM @C 10.3 SLGRQ . )RQ BGPCARGML, BCQAPG@CB ?Q RFC ?LEJC UGRF PCQNCAR RM RFC C?QR

GQ KC?QSPCB UGRF ? NPMRP?ARMP RM @C

29.1 .

S4&0 1. DE4J 4A 4EEBJ GB E8CE8F8AG G;8 9<EFG I86GBE (9 5?B6>F GB G;8 84FG) HF<A: 4 EH?8E 4A7 CEBGE46GBE .

90

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F?=KH; 3.12

S4&0 2. .MU BP?U ?L ?PPMU RM PCNPCQCLR RFC QCAMLB TCARMP (5 @JMAIQ RM RFC LMPRF). '?468 G;8 G4<? B9 G;8 F86BA7 I86GBE 4G G;8 ;847 B9 G;8 9<EFG I86GBE.

F?=KH; 3.13

S4&0 3. 9 G;8E8 4E8 @BE8 G;4A GJB I86GBEF, 6BAG<AH8 G;<F CEB68FF 9BE 846; I86GBE GB 58 47787. %BG8 G;4G <A BHE 8K4@C?8, J8 ;4I8 BA?L GJB I86GBEF, FB J8 ;4I8 9<A<F;87 C?46<A: 4EEBJF G<C GB G4<?. S4&0 4. DE4J 4A 4EEBJ 9EB@ G;8 G4<? B9 G;8 9<EFG I86GBE GB G;8 ;847 B9 G;8 ?4FG I86GBE . 4FGQ GQ RFC H;IKBJ7DJ, MP RFC QSK, MD RFC MRFCP TCARMPQ.

F?=KH; 3.14

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

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

91

EN7CFB; 3.1 A::?D= /;9JEHI

H7F>?97BBO .I?D= J>; !;7:-JE--7?B &;J>E:: A 0EC7D -7A;I 7 07BA

5QC RFC EP?NFGA?J RCAFLGOSC DMP ?BBGLE TCARMPQ RM DGLB RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD ? NCPQML UFM U?JIQ RFC DMJJMUGLE RFPCC N?RFQ (BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ) ML ? DJ?R DGCJB. &GPQR, QFC U?JIQ 25.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML 49.0 LMPRF MD C?QR. 4FCL, QFC U?JIQ 23.0 K FC?BGLE 15.0 LMPRF MD C?QR. &GL?JJW, QFC RSPLQ ?LB U?JIQ 32.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML 68.0\ QMSRF MD C?QR. ,JH7J;=O 2CNPCQCLR C?AF BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCARMP EP?NFGA?JJW UGRF ?L ?PPMU, J?@CJGLE RFC DGPQR A , RFC QCAMLB B , ?LB RFC RFGPB C , K?IGLE RFC JCLERFQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC BGQR?LAC ?LB RFC BGPCARGMLQ ?Q QNCAGDGCB PCJ?RGTC RM ?L C?QR-UCQR JGLC. 4FC FC?B-RM-R?GJ KCRFMB MSRJGLCB ?@MTC UGJJ EGTC ? U?W RM BCRCPKGLC RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC PCQSJR?LR BGQNJ?ACKCLR, BCLMRCB R . ,EBKJ?ED (1) $P?U RFC RFPCC BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCARMPQ.

F?=KH; 3.15

(2) 0J?AC RFC TCARMPQ FC?B RM R?GJ PCR?GLGLE @MRF RFCGP GLGRG?J K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML.

F?=KH; 3.16

(3) $P?U RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP,

R.

F?=KH; 3.17

(4) 5QC ? PSJCP RM KC?QSPC RFC K?ELGRSBC MD R , ?LB ? NPMRP?ARMP RM KC?QSPC RFC BGPCARGML MD R . 7FGJC RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC TCARMP A?L @C QNCAGDGCB GL K?LW U?WQ, RFC C?QGCQR U?W GQ RM KC?QSPC RFC ?LEJC @CRUCCL RFC TCARMP ?LB RFC LC?PCQR FMPGXMLR?J MP TCPRGA?J ?VGQ. 3GLAC RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP GQ QMSRF MD RFC C?QRU?PB NMGLRGLE ?VGQ, UC DJGN RFC NPMRP?ARMP SNQGBC BMUL ?LB KC?QSPC RFC ?LEJC @CRUCCL RFC C?QRU?PB ?VGQ ?LB RFC TCARMP.

92

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 3.18

)L RFGQ A?QC, RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR D?I9KII?ED

?LB BGPCARGML, RFGQ TCARMP A?L @C CVNPCQQCB ?Q

R GQ QCCL RM F?TC ? K?ELGRSBC MD 50.0 K ?LB RM JGC GL ? BGPCARGML 7.0 QMSRF MD C?QR. "W SQGLE GRQ K?ELGRSBC R = 50.0 m ?LB = 7.0 QMSRF MD C?QR.

4FC FC?B-RM-R?GJ EP?NFGA?J KCRFMB MD TCARMP ?BBGRGML UMPIQ DMP ?LW LSK@CP MD TCARMPQ. )R GQ ?JQM GKNMPR?LR RM LMRC RF?R RFC PCQSJR?LR GQ GLBCNCLBCLR MD RFC MPBCP GL UFGAF RFC TCARMPQ ?PC ?BBCB. 4FCPCDMPC, UC AMSJB ?BB RFC TCARMPQ GL ?LW MPBCP ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 3.19 ?LB UC UGJJ QRGJJ ECR RFC Q?KC QMJSRGML.

F?=KH; 3.19

(CPC, UC QCC RF?R UFCL RFC Q?KC TCARMPQ ?PC ?BBCB GL ? BGDDCPCLR MPBCP, RFC PCQSJR GQ RFC Q?KC. 4FGQ AF?P?ARCPGQRGA GQ RPSC GL CTCPW A?QC ?LB GQ ?L GKNMPR?LR AF?P?ARCPGQRGA MD TCARMPQ. 6CARMP ?BBGRGML GQ 9ECCKJ7J?L;. 6CARMPQ A?L @C ?BBCB GL ?LW MPBCP.

A + B = B + A.
(4FGQ GQ RPSC DMP RFC ?BBGRGML MD MPBGL?PW LSK@CPQ ?Q UCJJrWMS ECR RFC Q?KC PCQSJR UFCRFCP WMS ?BB

(3.1)

2 + 3 MP 3 + 2 , DMP CV?KNJC).

6CARMP 3S@RP?ARGML
6CARMP QS@RP?ARGML GQ ? QRP?GEFRDMPU?PB CVRCLQGML MD TCARMP ?BBGRGML. 4M BCDGLC QS@RP?ARGML (Q?W UC U?LR RM QS@RP?AR KSQR DGPQR BCDGLC UF?R UC KC?L @W QS@RP?ARGML. 4FC A8:4G<I8 MD ? TCARMP

BGPCARGML. %QQCLRG?JJW, UC HSQR DJGN RFC TCARMP QM GR NMGLRQ GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML.

B DPMK A , UPGRRCL A B , UC B GQ BCDGLCB RM @C B ; RF?R GQ, EP?NFGA?JJW G;8 A8:4G<I8 B9 4AL I86GBE ;4F G;8 F4@8 @4:A<GH78 5HG G;8 BCCBF<G8 7<E86G<BA, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.20. )L MRFCP UMPBQ, B F?Q RFC Q?KC JCLERF ?Q B , @SR NMGLRQ GL RFC MNNMQGRC

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

93

F?=KH; 3.20 4FC LCE?RGTC MD ? TCARMP GQ HSQR ?LMRFCP TCARMP MD RFC Q?KC K?ELGRSBC @SR NMGLRGLE GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML. 3M @SR MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML.

GQ RFC LCE?RGTC MD

B ; GR F?Q RFC Q?KC JCLERF

4FC FH5GE46G<BA MD TCARMP B DPMK TCARMP A GQ RFCL QGKNJW BCDGLCB RM @C RFC ?BBGRGML MD LCE?RGTC TCARMP. 4FC MPBCP MD QS@RP?ARGML BMCQ LMR ?DDCAR RFC PCQSJRQ.

B RM A . .MRC RF?R TCARMP QS@RP?ARGML GQ RFC ?BBGRGML MD ?


(3.2)

A B = A + (B).
4FGQ GQ ?L?JMEMSQ RM RFC QS@RP?ARGML MD QA?J?PQ (UFCPC, DMP CV?KNJC, QS@RP?ARGML GQ K?BC. 7FCL TCARMPQ ?PC QS@RP?ARCB EP?NFGA?JJW, RFC RCAFLGOSCQ MSRJGLCB ?@MTC ?PC SQCB, ?Q RFC DMJJMUGLE CV?KNJC GJJSQRP?RCQ.

5 2 = 5 + (2) ). !E?GL, RFC PCQSJR GQ GLBCNCLBCLR MD RFC MPBCP GL UFGAF RFC

EN7CFB; 3.2 ,K8JH79J?D= /;9JEHI

H7F>?97BBO: A 0EC7D ,7?B?D= 7 BE7J 66.0 LMPRF MD C?QR DPMK

! UMK?L Q?GJGLE ? @M?R ?R LGEFR GQ DMJJMUGLE BGPCARGMLQ RM ? BMAI. 4FC GLQRPSARGMLQ PC?B RM DGPQR Q?GJ 27.5 K GL ? BGPCARGML

FCP ASPPCLR JMA?RGML, ?LB RFCL RP?TCJ 30.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML 112 LMPRF MD C?QR (MP 22.0 UCQR MD LMPRF). )D RFC UMK?L K?ICQ ? KGQR?IC ?LB RP?TCJQ GL RFC BCCBF<G8 BGPCARGML DMP RFC QCAMLB JCE MD RFC RPGN, UFCPC UGJJ QFC CLB SN? #MKN?PC RFGQ JMA?RGML UGRF RFC JMA?RGML MD RFC BMAI.

F?=KH; 3.21

,JH7J;=O

A , ?LB RFC QCAMLB JCE MD RFC RPGN UGRF ? TCARMP B . 4FC BMAI GQ JMA?RCB ?R ? JMA?RGML A + B . )D RFC UMK?L KGQR?ICLJW RP?TCJQ GL RFC BCCBF<G8 BGPCARGML DMP RFC QCAMLB JCE MD RFC HMSPLCW, QFC UGJJ RP?TCJ ? BGQR?LAC B (30.0 K) GL RFC BGPCARGML 180 112 = 68 QMSRF MD C?QR. 7C PCNPCQCLR RFGQ ?Q B , ?Q QFMUL @CJMU. 4FC TCARMP B F?Q RFC Q?KC K?ELGRSBC ?Q B @SR GQ GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML. 4FSQ, QFC UGJJ CLB SN ?R ? JMA?RGML A + (B) , MP A B .
7C A?L PCNPCQCLR RFC DGPQR JCE MD RFC RPGN UGRF ? TCARMP

F?=KH; 3.22

7C UGJJ NCPDMPK TCARMP ?BBGRGML RM AMKN?PC RFC JMA?RGML MD RFC BMAI,

A + (B) .

A + B , UGRF RFC JMA?RGML ?R UFGAF RFC UMK?L KGQR?ICLJW ?PPGTCQ,

94

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

,EBKJ?ED (1) 4M BCRCPKGLC RFC JMA?RGML ?R UFGAF RFC UMK?L ?PPGTCQ @W ?AAGBCLR, BP?U TCARMPQ (2) 0J?AC RFC TCARMPQ FC?B RM R?GJ. (3) $P?U RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP

A ?LB B .

R. R.

(4) 5QC ? PSJCP ?LB NPMRP?ARMP RM KC?QSPC RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD

F?=KH; 3.23

)L RFGQ A?QC,

R = 23.0 m ?LB = 7.5 QMSRF MD C?QR. A ?LB B . 7C M@R?GL RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP R ' :

(5) 4M BCRCPKGLC RFC JMA?RGML MD RFC BMAI, UC PCNC?R RFGQ KCRFMB RM ?BB TCARMPQ

F?=KH; 3.24

)L RFGQ A?QC

R = 52.9 m ?LB = 90.1 LMPRF MD C?QR.

7C A?L QCC RF?R RFC UMK?L UGJJ CLB SN ? QGELGDGA?LR BGQR?LAC DPMK RFC BMAI GD QFC RP?TCJQ GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML DMP RFC QCAMLB JCE MD RFC RPGN. D?I9KII?ED "CA?SQC QS@RP?ARGML MD ? TCARMP GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q ?BBGRGML MD ? TCARMP UGRF RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML, RFC EP?NFGA?J KCRFMB MD QS@RP?ARGLE TCARMPQ UMPIQ RFC Q?KC ?Q DMP ?BBGRGML.

-SJRGNJGA?RGML MD 6CARMPQ ?LB 3A?J?PQ


)D UC BCAGBCB RM U?JI RFPCC RGKCQ ?Q D?P ML RFC DGPQR JCE MD RFC RPGN AMLQGBCPCB GL RFC NPCACBGLE CV?KNJC, RFCL UC UMSJB U?JI GL ? BGPCARGML 66.0 LMPRF MD C?QR. 4FGQ GQ ?L CV?KNJC MD KSJRGNJWGLE ? TCARMP @W ? NMQGRGTC I97B7H. .MRGAC RF?R RFC K?ELGRSBC AF?LECQ, @SR RFC BGPCARGML QR?WQ RFC Q?KC.

3 27.5 m , MP 82.5 K,

)D RFC QA?J?P GQ LCE?RGTC, RFCL KSJRGNJWGLE ? TCARMP @W GR AF?LECQ RFC TCARMPtQ K?ELGRSBC ?LB EGTCQ RFC LCU TCARMP RFC BCCBF<G8 BGPCARGML. &MP CV?KNJC, GD WMS KSJRGNJW @W q2, RFC K?ELGRSBC BMS@JCQ @SR RFC BGPCARGML AF?LECQ. 7C A?L QSKK?PGXC RFCQC PSJCQ GL RFC DMJJMUGLE U?W: 7FCL TCARMP A GQ KSJRGNJGCB @W ? QA?J?P c , w RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC TCARMP @CAMKCQ RFC ?@QMJSRC T?JSC MD c w GD c GQ NMQGRGTC, RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC TCARMP BMCQ LMR AF?LEC, w GD c GQ LCE?RGTC, RFC BGPCARGML GQ PCTCPQCB.

A,

)L MSP A?QC, c = 3 ?LB A = 27.5 m . 6CARMPQ ?PC KSJRGNJGCB @W QA?J?PQ GL K?LW QGRS?RGMLQ. .MRC RF?R BGTGQGML GQ RFC GLTCPQC MD KSJRGNJGA?RGML. &MP CV?KNJC, BGTGBGLE @W 2 GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q KSJRGNJWGLE @W RFC T?JSC (1/2). 4FC PSJCQ DMP KSJRGNJGA?RGML MD TCARMPQ @W QA?J?PQ ?PC RFC Q?KC DMP BGTGQGML; QGKNJW RPC?R RFC BGTGQMP ?Q ? QA?J?P @CRUCCL 0 ?LB 1.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

95

2CQMJTGLE ? 6CARMP GLRM #MKNMLCLRQ


)L RFC CV?KNJCQ ?@MTC, UC F?TC @CCL ?BBGLE TCARMPQ RM BCRCPKGLC RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP. )L K?LW A?QCQ, FMUCTCP, UC UGJJ LCCB RM BM RFC MNNMQGRC. 7C UGJJ LCCB RM R?IC ? QGLEJC TCARMP ?LB DGLB UF?R MRFCP TCARMPQ ?BBCB RMECRFCP NPMBSAC GR. )L KMQR A?QCQ, RFGQ GLTMJTCQ BCRCPKGLGLE RFC NCPNCLBGASJ?P 9ECFED;DJI MD ? QGLEJC TCARMP, DMP CV?KNJC RFC K- 4A7 L-AMKNMLCLRQ, MP RFC LMPRF-QMSRF ?LB C?QR-UCQR AMKNMLCLRQ. &MP CV?KNJC, UC K?W ILMU RF?R RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD ? NCPQML U?JIGLE GL ? AGRW GQ 10.3 @JMAIQ GL ? BGPCARGML 29.0 LMPRF MD C?QR ?LB U?LR RM DGLB MSR FMU K?LW @JMAIQ C?QR ?LB LMPRF F?B RM @C U?JICB. 4FGQ KCRFMB GQ A?JJCB 9<A7<A: G;8 6B@CBA8AGF (BE C4EGF) MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GL RFC C?QR ?LB LMPRF BGPCARGMLQ, ?LB GR GQ RFC GLTCPQC MD RFC NPMACQQ DMJJMUCB RM DGLB RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR. )R GQ MLC CV?KNJC MD DGLBGLE RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD ? TCARMP. 4FCPC ?PC K?LW ?NNJGA?RGMLQ GL NFWQGAQ UFCPC RFGQ GQ ? SQCDSJ RFGLE RM BM. 7C UGJJ QCC RFGQ QMML GL )HE@;9J?B; &EJ?ED, ?LB KSAF KMPC UFCL UC AMTCP <EH9;I GL DOD7C?9I: ';MJEDXI %7MI E< &EJ?ED. -MQR MD RFCQC GLTMJTC DGLBGLE AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P ?VCQ (QSAF ?Q LMPRF ?LB C?QR), QM RF?R PGEFR RPG?LEJCQ ?PC GLTMJTCB. 4FC ?L?JWRGA?J RCAFLGOSCQ NPCQCLRCB GL /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I ?PC GBC?J DMP DGLBGLE TCARMP AMKNMLCLRQ. 0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: -?XC '?KC ,C?PL ?@MSR NMQGRGML, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML GL RFC "!PCL? MD 0?GL". 5QC RFC EPCCL ?PPMU RM KMTC RFC @?JJ. !BB KMPC U?JJQ RM RFC ?PCL? RM K?IC RFC E?KC KMPC BGDDGASJR. 4PW RM K?IC ? EM?J ?Q D?QR ?Q WMS A?L.

F?=KH; 3.25 &7P;

7C; (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42127/1.7/C7P;-=7C;6;D.@7H)

3.3 /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I


AD7BOJ?97B C;J>E:I MD TCARMP ?BBGRGML ?LB QS@RP?ARGML CKNJMW ECMKCRPW ?LB QGKNJC RPGEMLMKCRPW P?RFCP RF?L RFC PSJCP ?LB NPMRP?ARMP MD EP?NFGA?J KCRFMBQ. 0?PR MD RFC EP?NFGA?J RCAFLGOSC GQ PCR?GLCB, @CA?SQC TCARMPQ ?PC QRGJJ PCNPCQCLRCB @W ?PPMUQ DMP C?QW TGQS?JGX?RGML. (MUCTCP, ?L?JWRGA?J KCRFMBQ ?PC KMPC AMLAGQC, ?AASP?RC, ?LB NPCAGQC RF?L EP?NFGA?J KCRFMBQ, UFGAF ?PC JGKGRCB @W RFC ?AASP?AW UGRF UFGAF ? BP?UGLE A?L @C K?BC. !L?JWRGA?J KCRFMBQ ?PC JGKGRCB MLJW @W RFC ?AASP?AW ?LB NPCAGQGML UGRF UFGAF NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ ?PC ILMUL.

2CQMJTGLE ? 6CARMP GLRM 0CPNCLBGASJ?P #MKNMLCLRQ


!L?JWRGA?J RCAFLGOSCQ ?LB PGEFR RPG?LEJCQ EM F?LB-GL-F?LB GL NFWQGAQ @CA?SQC (?KMLE MRFCP RFGLEQ) KMRGMLQ ?JMLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P BGPCARGMLQ ?PC GLBCNCLBCLR. 7C TCPW MDRCL LCCB RM QCN?P?RC ? TCARMP GLRM NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ. &MP CV?KNJC, EGTCL ? TCARMP JGIC A GL F?=KH; 3.26, UC K?W UGQF RM DGLB UFGAF RUM NCPNCLBGASJ?P TCARMPQ,

A x ?LB A y , ?BB RM NPMBSAC GR.

F?=KH; 3.26 4FC TCARMP

A , UGRF GRQ R?GJ ?R RFC MPGEGL MD ?L K, L-AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK, GQ QFMUL RMECRFCP UGRF GRQ K- ?LB L-AMKNMLCLRQ, A x

?LB

A y . 4FCQC TCARMPQ DMPK ? PGEFR

RPG?LEJC. 4FC ?L?JWRGA?J PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ ?KMLE RFCQC TCARMPQ ?PC QSKK?PGXCB @CJMU.

A x ?LB A y ?PC BCDGLCB RM @C RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD A ?JMLE RFC K- ?LB L-?VCQ. 4FC RFPCC TCARMPQ A , A x , ?LB A y DMPK ? PGEFR RPG?LEJC: A x + A y = A.
(3.3)

.MRC RF?R RFGQ PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL TCARMP AMKNMLCLRQ ?LB RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP FMJBQ MLJW DMP TCARMP OS?LRGRGCQ (UFGAF GLAJSBC @MRF K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML). 4FC PCJ?RGMLQFGN BMCQ LMR ?NNJW DMP RFC K?ELGRSBCQ ?JMLC. &MP CV?KNJC, GD A x = 3 m C?QR, A y = 4 m LMPRF, ?LB A = 5 m LMPRF-C?QR, RFCL GR GQ RPSC RF?R RFC TCARMPQ

A x + A y = A . (MUCTCP, GR GQ ABG RPSC RF?R RFC QSK MD RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC TCARMPQ GQ ?JQM COS?J. 4F?R GQ, 3m+4m 5m
(3.4)

4FSQ,

96

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

Ax + Ay A
)D RFC TCARMP UC SQC RFC DMJJMUGLE PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ DMP ? PGEFR RPG?LEJC.

(3.5)

A GQ ILMUL, RFCL GRQ K?ELGRSBC A (GRQ JCLERF) ?LB GRQ ?LEJC (GRQ BGPCARGML) ?PC ILMUL. 4M DGLB A x ?LB A y , GRQ K- ?LB L-AMKNMLCLRQ, A x = A cos
(3.6)

?LB

A y = A sin .

(3.7)

F?=KH; 3.27 4FC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC TCARMP AMKNMLCLRQ RF?R

Ax

?LB

Ay

A?L @C PCJ?RCB RM RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP

?LB RFC ?LEJC

UGRF RPGEMLMKCRPGA GBCLRGRGCQ. (CPC UC QCC

A x = A cos

?LB

A y = A sin .

3SNNMQC, DMP CV?KNJC, RF?R A GQ RFC TCARMP PCNPCQCLRGLE RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD RFC NCPQML U?JIGLE GL ? AGRW AMLQGBCPCB GL $?D;C7J?9I ?D -ME D?C;DI?EDI: AD "DJHE:K9J?ED ?LB /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: H7F>?97B &;J>E:I.

F?=KH; 3.28 7C A?L SQC RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ CV?KNJC.

A x = A cos

?LB

A y = A sin

RM BCRCPKGLC RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR TCARMPQ GL RFGQ

4FCL

A = 10.3 @JMAIQ ?LB = 29.1 , QM RF?R


A y = A sin = 10.3 blockssin 29.1 = 5.0 blocks.
A x = A cos = 10.3 blocks cos 29.1 = 9.0 blocks

(3.8) (3.9)

#?JASJ?RGLE ? 2CQSJR?LR 6CARMP


)D RFC NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ BGPCARGML

A x ?LB A y MD ? TCARMP A ?PC ILMUL, RFCL A A?L ?JQM @C DMSLB ?L?JWRGA?JJW. 4M DGLB RFC K?ELGRSBC A ?LB A = A x2 + Ay2 = tan 1( A y / A x).
(3.10) (3.11)

MD ? TCARMP DPMK GRQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ A x ?LB A y , UC SQC RFC DMJJMUGLE PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ:

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

97

F?=KH; 3.29 4FC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP A?L @C BCRCPKGLCB MLAC RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ

Ax

?LB

Ay

F?TC @CCL BCRCPKGLCB.

.MRC RF?R RFC COS?RGML CV?KNJC, GD

2 A = A2 x + A y GQ HSQR RFC 0WRF?EMPC?L RFCMPCK PCJ?RGLE RFC JCEQ MD ? PGEFR RPG?LEJC RM RFC JCLERF MD RFC FWNMRCLSQC. &MP

A x ?LB A y ?PC 9 ?LB 5 @JMAIQ, PCQNCARGTCJW, RFCL A = 9 2 +5 2=10.3 @JMAIQ, ?E?GL AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC CV?KNJC MD RFC NCPQML = tan 1(5/9)=29.1 , ?Q @CDMPC.

U?JIGLE GL ? AGRW. &GL?JJW, RFC BGPCARGML GQ

$CRCPKGLGLE 6CARMPQ ?LB 6CARMP #MKNMLCLRQ UGRF !L?JWRGA?J -CRFMBQ %OS?RGMLQ ?LB

A x = A cos ?LB A y = A sin ?PC SQCB RM DGLB RFC NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ MD ? TCARMPrRF?R GQ, RM EM DPMK A ?LB RM A x

2 1 A y . %OS?RGMLQ A = A 2 x + A y ?LB = tan ( A y / A x) ?PC SQCB RM DGLB ? TCARMP DPMK GRQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQrRF?R GQ, RM EM DPMK

A x ?LB A y RM A ?LB . "MRF NPMACQQCQ ?PC APSAG?J RM ?L?JWRGA?J KCRFMBQ MD TCARMP ?BBGRGML ?LB QS@RP?ARGML. !BBGLE 6CARMPQ 5QGLE !L?JWRGA?J -CRFMBQ
4M QCC FMU RM ?BB TCARMPQ SQGLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ, AMLQGBCP F?=KH; 3.30, GL UFGAF RFC TCARMPQ PCQSJR?LR

R.

A ?LB B ?PC ?BBCB RM NPMBSAC RFC

F?=KH; 3.30 6CARMPQ BGPCARGML MD

R.

?LB

?PC RUM JCEQ MD ? U?JI, ?LB

GQ RFC PCQSJR?LR MP RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR. 9MS A?L SQC ?L?JWRGA?J KCRFMBQ RM BCRCPKGLC RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB

A ?LB B PCNPCQCLR RUM JCEQ MD ? U?JI (RUM BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ), RFCL R GQ RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR. 4FC NCPQML R?IGLE RFC U?JI CLBQ SN ?R RFC RGN MD R. 4FCPC ?PC K?LW U?WQ RM ?PPGTC ?R RFC Q?KC NMGLR. )L N?PRGASJ?P, RFC NCPQML AMSJB F?TC U?JICB DGPQR GL RFC K-BGPCARGML ?LB RFCL GL RFC L-BGPCARGML. 4FMQC N?RFQ ?PC RFC K- ?LB L-AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC PCQSJR?LR, R x ?LB R y . )D UC ILMU R x ?LB R y , UC A?L DGLB R ?LB SQGLE RFC COS?RGMLQ
)D

A = A x 2 + A y 2 ?LB = tan 1( A y / A x) . 7FCL WMS SQC RFC ?L?JWRGA?J KCRFMB MD TCARMP ?BBGRGML, WMS A?L BCRCPKGLC RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MP RFC
K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD ? TCARMP. S4&0 1. 78AG<9L G;8 K- 4A7 L-4K8F G;4G J<?? 58 HF87 <A G;8 CEB5?8@. +;8A, 9<A7 G;8 6B@CBA8AGF B9 846; I86GBE GB 58 47787 4?BA: G;8 6;BF8A C8EC8A7<6H?4E 4K8F. 5QC RFC COS?RGMLQ A x = A cos ?LB A y = A sin RM DGLB RFC AMKNMLCLRQ. )L F?=KH; 3.31, RFCQC AMKNMLCLRQ ?PC

Ax , Ay ,

B x , ?LB B y . 4FC ?LEJCQ RF?R TCARMPQ A ?LB B K?IC UGRF RFC K-?VGQ ?PC A ?LB B , PCQNCARGTCJW.

98

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 3.31 4M ?BB TCARMPQ GL RFC GK?EC.

?LB

B , DGPQR BCRCPKGLC RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD C?AF TCARMP. 4FCQC ?PC RFC BMRRCB TCARMPQ A x , A y , B x

?LB

By

QFMUL

S4&0 2. F<A7 G;8 6B@CBA8AGF B9 G;8 E8FH?G4AG 4?BA: 846; 4K<F 5L 477<A: G;8 6B@CBA8AGF B9 G;8 <A7<I<7H4? I86GBEF 4?BA: G;4G 4K<F. 4F?R GQ, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.32,

Rx = Ax + Bx
?LB

(3.12)

R y = A y + B y.

(3.13)

F?=KH; 3.32 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC TCARMPQ TCARMPQ

Ay

?LB

By

Ax

?LB

?BB RM EGTC RFC K?ELGRSBC

B x ?BB RM EGTC RFC K?ELGRSBC R x MD RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML. 3GKGJ?PJW, RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC R y MD RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML.

#MKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE RFC Q?KC ?VGQ, Q?W RFC K-?VGQ, ?PC TCARMPQ ?JMLE RFC Q?KC JGLC ?LB, RFSQ, A?L @C ?BBCB RM MLC ?LMRFCP JGIC MPBGL?PW LSK@CPQ. 4FC Q?KC GQ RPSC DMP AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE RFC L-?VGQ. (&MP CV?KNJC, ? 9-@JMAI C?QRU?PB U?JI AMSJB @C R?ICL GL RUM JCEQ, RFC DGPQR 3 @JMAIQ C?QR ?LB RFC QCAMLB 6 @JMAIQ C?QR, DMP ? RMR?J MD 9, @CA?SQC RFCW ?PC ?JMLE RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML.) 3M PCQMJTGLE TCARMPQ GLRM AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE AMKKML ?VCQ K?ICQ GR C?QGCP RM ?BB RFCK. .MU RF?R RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD R ?PC ILMUL, GRQ K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML A?L @C DMSLB. S4&0 3. +B :8G G;8 @4:A<GH78

R B9 G;8 E8FH?G4AG, HF8 G;8 'LG;4:BE84A G;8BE8@:


2 R = R2 x + R y.

(3.14)

S4&0 4. +B :8G G;8 7<E86G<BA B9 G;8 E8FH?G4AG:

= tan 1(R y / R x).


4FC DMJJMUGLE CV?KNJC GJJSQRP?RCQ RFGQ RCAFLGOSC DMP ?BBGLE TCARMPQ SQGLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ.

(3.15)

EN7CFB; 3.3 A::?D= /;9JEHI .I?D= AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I A RM RFC TCARMP B QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.33, SQGLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE RFC K- ?LB L-?VCQ. 4FC K- ?LB L-?VCQ ?PC ?JMLE RFC C?QRqUCQR ?LB LMPRFqQMSRF BGPCARGMLQ, PCQNCARGTCJW. 6CARMP A PCNPCQCLRQ RFC DGPQR JCE MD ? U?JI GL UFGAF ? NCPQML U?JIQ 53.0 m GL ? BGPCARGML 20.0 LMPRF MD C?QR. 6CARMP B PCNPCQCLRQ RFC QCAMLB JCE, ? BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD 34.0 m GL ? BGPCARGML 63.0 LMPRF MD C?QR.
!BB RFC TCARMP

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

99

F?=KH; 3.33 6CARMP

F?Q K?ELGRSBC

53.0 m

?LB BGPCARGML

20.0

LMPRF MD RFC K-?VGQ. 6CARMP

?VGQ. 9MS A?L SQC ?L?JWRGA?J KCRFMBQ RM BCRCPKGLC RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD

R.

F?Q K?ELGRSBC

34.0 m

?LB BGPCARGML

63.0

LMPRF MD RFC K-

,JH7J;=O 4FC AMKNMLCLRQ MD A ?LB B ?JMLE RFC K- ?LB L-?VCQ PCNPCQCLR U?JIGLE BSC C?QR ?LB BSC LMPRF RM ECR RM RFC Q?KC CLBGLE NMGLR. /LAC DMSLB, RFCW ?PC AMK@GLCB RM NPMBSAC RFC PCQSJR?LR. ,EBKJ?ED &MJJMUGLE RFC KCRFMB MSRJGLCB ?@MTC, UC DGPQR DGLB RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD

B = 34.0 m , ?LB B = 63.0 . 7C DGLB RFC K-AMKNMLCLRQ @W SQGLE A x = A cos , UFGAF EGTCQ A x = A cos A = (53.0 m)(cos 20.0) = (53.0 m)(0.940) = 49.8 m
?LB

A ?LB B ?JMLE RFC K- ?LB L-?VCQ. .MRC RF?R A = 53.0 m , A = 20.0 ,


(3.16)

B x = B cos B = (34.0 m)(cos 63.0) = (34.0 m)(0.454) = 15.4 m.


3GKGJ?PJW, RFC L-AMKNMLCLRQ ?PC DMSLB SQGLE

(3.17)

A y = A sin A : A y = A sin A = (53.0 m)(sin 20.0) = (53.0 m)(0.342) = 18.1 m


(3.18)

?LB

B y = B sin B = (34.0 m)(sin 63.0 ) = (34.0 m)(0.891) = 30.3 m.


4FC K- ?LB L-AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC PCQSJR?LR ?PC RFSQ

(3.19)

R x = A x + B x = 49.8 m + 15.4 m = 65.2 m


?LB

(3.20)

R y = A y + B y = 18.1 m+30.3 m = 48.4 m.


.MU UC A?L DGLB RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC PCQSJR?LR @W SQGLE RFC 0WRF?EMPC?L RFCMPCK:
2 2 2 R = R2 x + R y = (65.2) + (48.4) m

(3.21)

(3.22)

QM RF?R

R = 81.2 m.
&GL?JJW, UC DGLB RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC PCQSJR?LR:

(3.23)

= tan 1(R y / R x)=+tan 1(48.4 / 65.2).


4FSQ,

(3.24)

= tan 1(0.742) = 36.6 .

(3.25)

100

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 3.34 5QGLE ?L?JWRGA?J KCRFMBQ, UC QCC RF?R RFC K?ELGRSBC MD

GQ

81.2 m

?LB GRQ BGPCARGML GQ

36.6

LMPRF MD C?QR.

D?I9KII?ED 4FGQ CV?KNJC GJJSQRP?RCQ RFC ?BBGRGML MD TCARMPQ SQGLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ. 6CARMP QS@RP?ARGML SQGLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ GQ TCPW QGKGJ?PrGR GQ HSQR RFC ?BBGRGML MD ? LCE?RGTC TCARMP. 3S@RP?ARGML MD TCARMPQ GQ ?AAMKNJGQFCB @W RFC ?BBGRGML MD ? LCE?RGTC TCARMP. 4F?R GQ,

A B A + (B) . 4FSQ, G;8 @8G;B7 9BE G;8 FH5GE46G<BA B9 I86GBEF HF<A: C8EC8A7<6H?4E 6B@CBA8AGF <F <78AG<64? GB G;4G 9BE 477<G<BA. 4FC AMKNMLCLRQ MD B ?PC RFC LCE?RGTCQ MD RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD B . 4FC K- ?LB L-AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC PCQSJR?LR A B = R ?PC RFSQ
Rx = Ax + B x

(3.26)

?LB
Ry = Ay + B y

(3.27)

?LB RFC PCQR MD RFC KCRFMB MSRJGLCB ?@MTC GQ GBCLRGA?J RM RF?R DMP ?BBGRGML. (3CC F?=KH; 3.35.)

!L?JWXGLE TCARMPQ SQGLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ GQ TCPW SQCDSJ GL K?LW ?PC?Q MD NFWQGAQ, @CA?SQC NCPNCLBGASJ?P OS?LRGRGCQ ?PC MDRCL GLBCNCLBCLR MD MLC ?LMRFCP. 4FC LCVR KMBSJC, )HE@;9J?B; &EJ?ED, GQ MLC MD K?LW GL UFGAF SQGLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ FCJNQ K?IC RFC NGARSPC AJC?P ?LB QGKNJGDGCQ RFC NFWQGAQ.

F?=KH; 3.35 4FC QS@RP?ARGML MD RFC RUM TCARMPQ QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.30. 4FC AMKNMLCLRQ MD Q?KC ?Q RF?R DMP ?BBGRGML.

?PC RFC LCE?RGTCQ MD RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD

B . 4FC KCRFMB MD QS@RP?ARGML GQ RFC

0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: 6CARMP !BBGRGML ,C?PL FMU RM ?BB TCARMPQ. $P?E TCARMPQ MLRM ? EP?NF, AF?LEC RFCGP JCLERF ?LB ?LEJC, ?LB QSK RFCK RMECRFCP. 4FC K?ELGRSBC, ?LEJC, ?LB AMKNMLCLRQ MD C?AF TCARMP A?L @C BGQNJ?WCB GL QCTCP?J DMPK?RQ.

F?=KH; 3.36 /;9JEH A::?J?ED (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42128/1.10/L;9JEH-7::?J?ED6;D.@7H)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

101

3.4 )HE@;9J?B; &EJ?ED


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rRFSQ, RFCPC UGJJ @C LM ?AACJCP?RGML ?JMLE RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?VGQ UFCL ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC.) !Q GQ ASQRMK?PW, UC A?JJ RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?VGQ RFC K-?VGQ ?LB RFC TCPRGA?J ?VGQ RFC L-?VGQ. F?=KH; 3.37 GJJSQRP?RCQ RFC LMR?RGML DMP BGQNJ?ACKCLR, UFCPC s GQ BCDGLCB RM @C RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB x ?LB y ?PC GRQ AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J ?VCQ, PCQNCARGTCJW. 4FC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFCQC TCARMPQ ?PC F, K, ?LB L. (.MRC RF?R GL RFC J?QR QCARGML UC SQCB RFC LMR?RGML ?LB

A RM PCNPCQCLR ? TCARMP UGRF AMKNMLCLRQ A x A y . )D UC AMLRGLSCB RFGQ DMPK?R, UC UMSJB A?JJ BGQNJ?ACKCLR s UGRF AMKNMLCLRQ s x ?LB s y . (MUCTCP, RM QGKNJGDW RFC LMR?RGML, UC UGJJ QGKNJW x ?LB y .)

PCNPCQCLR RFC AMKNMLCLR TCARMPQ ?Q

/D AMSPQC, RM BCQAPG@C KMRGML UC KSQR BC?J UGRF TCJMAGRW ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML, ?Q UCJJ ?Q UGRF BGQNJ?ACKCLR. 7C KSQR DGLB RFCGP AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE RFC K?LB L-?VCQ, RMM. 7C UGJJ ?QQSKC ?JJ DMPACQ CVACNR EP?TGRW (QSAF ?Q ?GP PCQGQR?LAC ?LB DPGARGML, DMP CV?KNJC) ?PC LCEJGEG@JC. 4FC AMKNMLCLRQ MD ?AACJCP?RGML ?PC RFCL TCPW QGKNJC: a y = g = 9.80 m/s 2 . (.MRC RF?R RFGQ BCDGLGRGML ?QQSKCQ RF?R RFC SNU?PBQ BGPCARGML GQ BCDGLCB ?Q RFC NMQGRGTC BGPCARGML. )D WMS ?PP?LEC RFC AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK GLQRC?B QSAF RF?R RFC BMULU?PBQ BGPCARGML GQ NMQGRGTC, RFCL ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW R?ICQ ? NMQGRGTC T?JSC.) "CA?SQC EP?TGRW GQ TCPRGA?J, a x = 0 . "MRF ?AACJCP?RGMLQ ?PC AMLQR?LR, QM RFC IGLCK?RGA COS?RGMLQ A?L @C SQCB. 2CTGCU MD +GLCK?RGA %OS?RGMLQ (AMLQR?LR

a)

v2 = v2 0 + 2a( x x 0).

x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 2

-t x = x0 + v - = v0 + v v 2 v = v 0 + at

(3.28) (3.29) (3.30) (3.31) (3.32)

F?=KH; 3.37 4FC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ

s , ?LB GR K?ICQ ?L ?LEJC

MD ? QMAACP @?JJ ?R ? NMGLR ?JMLE GRQ N?RF. 4FC TCARMP

F?Q AMKNMLCLRQ

?LB

?JMLE RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J ?VCQ. )RQ K?ELGRSBC

UGRF RFC FMPGXMLR?J.

'GTCL RFCQC ?QQSKNRGMLQ, RFC DMJJMUGLE QRCNQ ?PC RFCL SQCB RM ?L?JWXC NPMHCARGJC KMRGML: S4&0 1. )8FB?I8 BE 5E84> G;8 @BG<BA <AGB ;BE<MBAG4? 4A7 I8EG<64? 6B@CBA8AGF 4?BA: G;8 K- 4A7 L-4K8F. 4FCQC ?VCQ ?PC NCPNCLBGASJ?P, QM A x = A cos ?LB A y = A sin ?PC SQCB. 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD BGQNJ?ACKCLR s ?JMLE RFCQC ?VCQ ?PC x ?LB y. 4FC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC TCJMAGRW

v ?PC v x = v cos ?LB v y = v sin , UFCPC v GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC TCJMAGRW ?LB GQ GRQ

BGPCARGML, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.38. )LGRG?J T?JSCQ ?PC BCLMRCB UGRF ? QS@QAPGNR 0, ?Q SQS?J. S4&0 2. +E84G G;8 @BG<BA 4F GJB <A78C8A78AG BA8-7<@8AF<BA4? @BG<BAF, BA8 ;BE<MBAG4? 4A7 G;8 BG;8E I8EG<64?. 4FC IGLCK?RGA COS?RGMLQ DMP FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J KMRGML R?IC RFC DMJJMUGLE DMPKQ:

Vertical Motion(assuming positive is up a y = g = 9.80m/s 2)

v x = v 0x = v x = velocity is a constant.

Horizontal Motion(a x = 0) x = x 0 + v xt

(3.33) (3.34) (3.35) (3.36)

102

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

y = y 0 + 1 (v 0y + v y)t 2 v y = v 0y gt
2 v2 y = v 0y 2g(y y 0).

(3.37) (3.38) (3.39) (3.40)

y = y 0 + v 0yt 1 gt 2 2

S4&0 3. *B?I8 9BE G;8 HA>ABJAF <A G;8 GJB F8C4E4G8 @BG<BAFUBA8 ;BE<MBAG4? 4A7 BA8 I8EG<64?. .MRC RF?R RFC MLJW AMKKML T?PG?@JC @CRUCCL RFC KMRGMLQ GQ RGKC t . 4FC NPM@JCK QMJTGLE NPMACBSPCQ FCPC ?PC RFC Q?KC ?Q DMP MLC-BGKCLQGML?J A?D;C7J?9I ?LB ?PC GJJSQRP?RCB GL RFC QMJTCB CV?KNJCQ @CJMU. S4&0 4. )86B@5<A8 G;8 GJB @BG<BAF GB 9<A7 G;8 GBG4? 7<FC?468@8AG

s 4A7 I8?B6<GL v . "CA?SQC RFC K - ?LB L -KMRGMLQ ?PC NCPNCLBGASJ?P, UC BCRCPKGLC


2 A = A2 x + A y ?LB

RFCQC TCARMPQ @W SQGLE RFC RCAFLGOSCQ MSRJGLCB GL RFC /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I ?LB CKNJMWGLE

= tan 1( A y / A x) GL RFC DMJJMUGLE DMPK, UFCPC GQ RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR s ?LB v GQ RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC TCJMAGRW v :
-EJ7B :?IFB79;C;DJ 7D: L;BE9?JO

s = x2 + y2 = tan 1(y / x)
2 v = v2 x + vy

(3.41) (3.42) (3.43) (3.44)

v = tan 1(v y / v x).

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

103

F?=KH; 3.38 (?) 7C ?L?JWXC RUM-BGKCLQGML?J NPMHCARGJC KMRGML @W @PC?IGLE GR GLRM RUM GLBCNCLBCLR MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGMLQ ?JMLE RFC TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J ?VCQ. (@) 4FC FMPGXMLR?J KMRGML GQ QGKNJC, @CA?SQC

ax = 0

?LB

vx

GQ RFSQ AMLQR?LR. (A) 4FC TCJMAGRW GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML @CEGLQ RM BCAPC?QC ?Q RFC M@HCAR PGQCQ; ?R GRQ FGEFCQR NMGLR, RFC

TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW GQ XCPM. !Q RFC M@HCAR D?JJQ RMU?PBQ RFC %?PRF ?E?GL, RFC TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW GLAPC?QCQ ?E?GL GL K?ELGRSBC @SR NMGLRQ GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML RM RFC GLGRG?J TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW. (B) 4FC K - ?LB L -KMRGMLQ ?PC PCAMK@GLCB RM EGTC RFC RMR?J TCJMAGRW ?R ?LW EGTCL NMGLR ML RFC RP?HCARMPW.

EN7CFB; 3.4 A F?H;MEHAI )HE@;9J?B; ENFBE:;I !?=> 7D: AM7O


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a x = 0 ?LB a y = g . 7C A?L RFCL BCDGLC x 0 ?LB y 0 RM @C XCPM ?LB QMJTC DMP RFC BCQGPCB OS?LRGRGCQ. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7)

y ?@MTC RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR. 4FC FGEFCQR NMGLR GL ?LW RP?HCARMPW, A?JJCB RFC ?NCV, GQ PC?AFCB UFCL v y = 0 . 3GLAC UC ILMU RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J TCJMAGRGCQ ?Q UCJJ ?Q RFC GLGRG?J NMQGRGML, UC SQC RFC DMJJMUGLE COS?RGML RM DGLB y :
"W uFCGEFRv UC KC?L RFC ?JRGRSBC MP TCPRGA?J NMQGRGML
2 v2 y = v 0y 2g(y y 0).

(3.45)

104

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 3.39 4FC RP?HCARMPW MD ? DGPCUMPIQ QFCJJ. 4FC DSQC GQ QCR RM CVNJMBC RFC QFCJJ ?R RFC FGEFCQR NMGLR GL GRQ RP?HCARMPW, UFGAF GQ DMSLB RM @C ?R ? FCGEFR MD 233 K ?LB 125 K ?U?W FMPGXMLR?JJW.

"CA?SQC

y 0 ?LB v y ?PC @MRF XCPM, RFC COS?RGML QGKNJGDGCQ RM 0 = v2 0y 2gy.


(3.46)

3MJTGLE DMP

y EGTCQ y= v2 0y . 2g
(3.47)

.MU UC KSQR DGLB 70.0 K/Q, ?LB

v 0y , RFC AMKNMLCLR MD RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW GL RFC L-BGPCARGML. )R GQ EGTCL @W v 0y = v 0 sin , UFCPC v 0y GQ RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD v 0y = v 0 sin 0 = (70.0 m/s)(sin 75) = 67.6 m/s.
(3.48)

0 = 75.0 GQ RFC GLGRG?J ?LEJC. 4FSQ,

?LB

y GQ y= (67.6 m/s) 2 , 2(9.80 m/s 2) y = 233m.


(3.49)

QM RF?R (3.50)

D?I9KII?ED <EH (7) .MRC RF?R @CA?SQC SN GQ NMQGRGTC, RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW GQ NMQGRGTC, ?Q GQ RFC K?VGKSK FCGEFR, @SR RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW GQ LCE?RGTC. .MRC ?JQM RF?R RFC K?VGKSK FCGEFR BCNCLBQ MLJW ML RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW, QM RF?R ?LW NPMHCARGJC UGRF ? 67.6 K/Q GLGRG?J TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD TCJMAGRW UGJJ PC?AF ? K?VGKSK FCGEFR MD 233 K (LCEJCARGLE ?GP PCQGQR?LAC). 4FC LSK@CPQ GL RFGQ CV?KNJC ?PC PC?QML?@JC DMP J?PEC DGPCUMPIQ BGQNJ?WQ, RFC QFCJJQ MD UFGAF BM PC?AF QSAF FCGEFRQ @CDMPC CVNJMBGLE. )L NP?ARGAC, ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LMR AMKNJCRCJW LCEJGEG@JC, ?LB QM RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW UMSJB F?TC RM @C QMKCUF?R J?PECP RF?L RF?R EGTCL RM PC?AF RFC Q?KC FCGEFR. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) !Q GL K?LW NFWQGAQ NPM@JCKQ, RFCPC GQ KMPC RF?L MLC U?W RM QMJTC DMP RFC RGKC RM RFC FGEFCQR NMGLR. )L RFGQ A?QC, RFC C?QGCQR KCRFMB GQ RM SQC

y = y 0 + 1 (v 0y + v y)t . "CA?SQC y 0 GQ XCPM, RFGQ COS?RGML PCBSACQ RM QGKNJW 2

y = 1 (v 0y + v y)t. 2
.MRC RF?R RFC DGL?J TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW,

(3.51)

v y , ?R RFC FGEFCQR NMGLR GQ XCPM. 4FSQ, t = 2y 2(233 m) = (v 0y + v y) (67.6 m/s)


(3.52)

= 6.90 s.
D?I9KII?ED <EH (8)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

105

4FGQ RGKC GQ ?JQM PC?QML?@JC DMP J?PEC DGPCUMPIQ. 7FCL WMS ?PC ?@JC RM QCC RFC J?SLAF MD DGPCUMPIQ, WMS UGJJ LMRGAC QCTCP?J QCAMLBQ N?QQ @CDMPC RFC QFCJJ CVNJMBCQ. (!LMRFCP U?W MD DGLBGLE RFC RGKC GQ @W SQGLE y = y 0 + v 0yt 1 gt 2 , ?LB QMJTGLE RFC OS?BP?RGA COS?RGML DMP t .) 2 ,EBKJ?ED <EH (9) "CA?SQC ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC,

a x = 0 ?LB RFC FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW GQ AMLQR?LR, ?Q BGQASQQCB ?@MTC. 4FC FMPGXMLR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW KSJRGNJGCB @W RGKC ?Q EGTCL @W x = x 0 + v xt , UFCPC x 0 GQ COS?J RM XCPM: x = v xt ,
(3.53)

UFCPC

v x GQ RFC K-AMKNMLCLR MD RFC TCJMAGRW, UFGAF GQ EGTCL @W v x = v 0 cos 0 . .MU, v x = v 0 cos 0 = (70.0 m/s)(cos 75.0) = 18.1 m/s.
(3.54)

4FC RGKC

t DMP @MRF KMRGMLQ GQ RFC Q?KC, ?LB QM x GQ x = (18.1 m/s)(6.90 s) = 125 m.


(3.55)

D?I9KII?ED <EH (9) 4FC FMPGXMLR?J KMRGML GQ ? AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW GL RFC ?@QCLAC MD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC. 4FC FMPGXMLR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR DMSLB FCPC AMSJB @C SQCDSJ GL ICCNGLE RFC DGPCUMPIQ DP?EKCLRQ DPMK D?JJGLE ML QNCAR?RMPQ. /LAC RFC QFCJJ CVNJMBCQ, ?GP PCQGQR?LAC F?Q ? K?HMP CDDCAR, ?LB K?LW DP?EKCLRQ UGJJ J?LB BGPCARJW @CJMU.

)L QMJTGLE N?PR (?) MD RFC NPCACBGLE CV?KNJC, RFC CVNPCQQGML UC DMSLB DMP RFC K?VGKSK FCGEFR

y GQ T?JGB DMP ?LW NPMHCARGJC KMRGML UFCPC ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC. #?JJ
(3.56)

y = h ; RFCL, h= v2 0y . 2g

4FGQ COS?RGML BCDGLCQ RFC @4K<@H@ ;8<:;G B9 4 CEB=86G<?8 ?LB BCNCLBQ MLJW ML RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW. $CDGLGLE ? #MMPBGL?RC 3WQRCK )R GQ GKNMPR?LR RM QCR SN ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UFCL ?L?JWXGLE NPMHCARGJC KMRGML. /LC N?PR MD BCDGLGLE RFC AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK GQ RM BCDGLC ?L MPGEGL DMP RFC x ?LB y NMQGRGMLQ. /DRCL, GR GQ AMLTCLGCLR RM AFMMQC RFC GLGRG?J NMQGRGML MD RFC M@HCAR ?Q RFC MPGEGL QSAF RF?R x 0 = 0 ?LB y 0 = 0 . )R GQ ?JQM GKNMPR?LR RM BCDGLC RFC NMQGRGTC ?LB LCE?RGTC BGPCARGMLQ GL RFC

x ?LB y BGPCARGMLQ. 4WNGA?JJW, UC BCDGLC RFC NMQGRGTC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML ?Q

SNU?PBQ, ?LB RFC NMQGRGTC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML GQ SQS?JJW RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC M@HCARtQ KMRGML. 7FCL RFGQ GQ RFC A?QC, RFC TCPRGA?J ?AACJCP?RGML,

g,

R?ICQ ? LCE?RGTC T?JSC (QGLAC GR GQ BGPCARCB BMULU?PBQ RMU?PBQ RFC %?PRF). (MUCTCP, GR GQ MAA?QGML?JJW SQCDSJ RM BCDGLC RFC AMMPBGL?RCQ BGDDCPCLRJW. &MP CV?KNJC, GD WMS ?PC ?L?JWXGLE RFC KMRGML MD ? @?JJ RFPMUL BMULU?PBQ DPMK RFC RMN MD ? AJGDD, GR K?W K?IC QCLQC RM BCDGLC RFC NMQGRGTC BGPCARGML BMULU?PBQ QGLAC RFC KMRGML MD RFC @?JJ GQ QMJCJW GL RFC BMULU?PBQ BGPCARGML. )D RFGQ GQ RFC A?QC, g R?ICQ ? NMQGRGTC T?JSC.

EN7CFB; 3.5 C7B9KB7J?D= )HE@;9J?B; &EJ?ED: !EJ +E9A )HE@;9J?B;


+GJ?SC? GL (?U?GG GQ RFC UMPJBtQ KMQR AMLRGLSMSQJW ?ARGTC TMJA?LM. 6CPW ?ARGTC TMJA?LMCQ AF?P?ARCPGQRGA?JJW CHCAR PCB-FMR PMAIQ ?LB J?T? P?RFCP RF?L QKMIC ?LB ?QF. 3SNNMQC ? J?PEC PMAI GQ CHCARCB DPMK RFC TMJA?LM UGRF ? QNCCB MD 25.0 K/Q ?LB ?R ?L ?LEJC 35.0 ?@MTC RFC FMPGXMLR?J, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.40. 4FC PMAI QRPGICQ RFC QGBC MD RFC TMJA?LM ?R ?L ?JRGRSBC 20.0 K JMUCP RF?L GRQ QR?PRGLE NMGLR. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC RGKC GR R?ICQ RFC PMAI RM DMJJMU RFGQ N?RF. (@) 7F?R ?PC RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC PMAItQ TCJMAGRW ?R GKN?AR?

F?=KH; 3.40 4FC RP?HCARMPW MD ? PMAI CHCARCB DPMK RFC +GJ?SC? TMJA?LM.

,JH7J;=O !E?GL, PCQMJTGLE RFGQ RUM-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML GLRM RUM GLBCNCLBCLR MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGMLQ UGJJ ?JJMU SQ RM QMJTC DMP RFC BCQGPCB OS?LRGRGCQ. 4FC RGKC ? NPMHCARGJC GQ GL RFC ?GP GQ EMTCPLCB @W GRQ TCPRGA?J KMRGML ?JMLC. 7C UGJJ QMJTC DMP t DGPQR. 7FGJC RFC PMAI GQ PGQGLE ?LB D?JJGLE TCPRGA?JJW, RFC

106

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

FMPGXMLR?J KMRGML AMLRGLSCQ ?R ? AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW. 4FGQ CV?KNJC ?QIQ DMP RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW. 4FSQ, RFC TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J PCQSJRQ UGJJ @C PCAMK@GLCB RM M@R?GL v ?LB v ?R RFC DGL?J RGKC t BCRCPKGLCB GL RFC DGPQR N?PR MD RFC CV?KNJC. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) 7FGJC RFC PMAI GQ GL RFC ?GP, GR PGQCQ ?LB RFCL D?JJQ RM ? DGL?J NMQGRGML 20.0 K JMUCP RF?L GRQ QR?PRGLE ?JRGRSBC. 7C A?L DGLB RFC RGKC DMP RFGQ @W SQGLE

y = y 0 + v 0yt 1 gt 2. 2
)D UC R?IC RFC GLGRG?J NMQGRGML RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW, DMSLB DPMK

(3.57)

y 0 RM @C XCPM, RFCL RFC DGL?J NMQGRGML GQ y = 20.0 m. .MU RFC GLGRG?J TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW GQ RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD v 0y = v 0 sin 0 = ( 25.0 m/s )( sin 35.0 ) = 14.3 m/s . 3S@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ WGCJBQ
2 2 20.0 m = (14.3 m/s)t 4.90 m/s t .

(3.58)

2C?PP?LEGLE RCPKQ EGTCQ ? OS?BP?RGA COS?RGML GL

t:
2 m/s 2 t (14.3 m/s)t (20.0 m) = 0.

4.90

(3.59)

4FGQ CVNPCQQGML GQ ? OS?BP?RGA COS?RGML MD RFC DMPK QMJSRGMLQ ?PC EGTCL @W RFC OS?BP?RGA DMPKSJ?:

at2 + bt + c = 0 , UFCPC RFC AMLQR?LRQ ?PC a = 4.90 , b = 14.3 , ?LB c = 20.0. )RQ
2 t = b b 4ac . 2a

(3.60)

4FGQ COS?RGML WGCJBQ RUM QMJSRGMLQ:

t = 3.96 ?LB t = 1.03 . ()R GQ JCDR ?Q ?L CVCPAGQC DMP RFC PC?BCP RM TCPGDW RFCQC QMJSRGMLQ.) 4FC RGKC GQ t = 3.96 s MP 1.03 s . 4FC LCE?RGTC T?JSC MD RGKC GKNJGCQ ?L CTCLR @CDMPC RFC QR?PR MD KMRGML, ?LB QM UC BGQA?PB GR. 4FSQ, t = 3.96 s.
(3.61)

D?I9KII?ED <EH (7) 4FC RGKC DMP NPMHCARGJC KMRGML GQ AMKNJCRCJW BCRCPKGLCB @W RFC TCPRGA?J KMRGML. 3M ?LW NPMHCARGJC RF?R F?Q ?L GLGRG?J TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW MD 14.3 K/Q ?LB J?LBQ 20.0 K @CJMU GRQ QR?PRGLE ?JRGRSBC UGJJ QNCLB 3.96 Q GL RFC ?GP. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) &PMK RFC GLDMPK?RGML LMU GL F?LB, UC A?L DGLB RFC DGL?J FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRGCQ

v x ?LB v y ?LB AMK@GLC RFCK RM DGLB RFC RMR?J TCJMAGRW

v ?LB RFC ?LEJC 0 GR K?ICQ UGRF RFC FMPGXMLR?J. /D AMSPQC, v x GQ AMLQR?LR QM UC A?L QMJTC DMP GR ?R ?LW FMPGXMLR?J JMA?RGML. )L RFGQ A?QC, UC AFMQC RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR QGLAC UC ILMU @MRF RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW ?LB GLGRG?J ?LEJC. 4FCPCDMPC: v x = v 0 cos 0 = (25.0 m/s)(cos 35) = 20.5 m/s.
4FC DGL?J TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW GQ EGTCL @W RFC DMJJMUGLE COS?RGML: (3.62)

v y = v 0y gt,
UFCPC

(3.63)

v 0y U?Q DMSLB GL N?PR (?) RM @C 14.3 m/s . 4FSQ, v y = 14.3 m/s (9.80 m/s 2)(3.96 s)
(3.64)

QM RF?R

v y = 24.5 m/s.
4M DGLB RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW

(3.65)

v UC AMK@GLC GRQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ, SQGLE RFC DMJJMUGLE COS?RGML:


2 2 2 v = v2 x + v y = (20.5 m/s) + ( 24.5 m/s) ,

(3.66)

UFGAF EGTCQ

v = 31.9 m/s.
4FC BGPCARGML

(3.67)

v GQ DMSLB DPMK RFC COS?RGML: v = tan 1(v y / v x)


(3.68)

QM RF?R

v = tan 1( 24.5 / 20.5) = tan 1( 1.19).


4FSQ,

(3.69)

v = 50.1 .

(3.70)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

107

D?I9KII?ED <EH (8) 4FC LCE?RGTC ?LEJC KC?LQ RF?R RFC TCJMAGRW GQ 50.1 @CJMU RFC FMPGXMLR?J. 4FGQ PCQSJR GQ AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC D?AR RF?R RFC DGL?J TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW GQ LCE?RGTC ?LB FCLAC BMULU?PBr?Q WMS UMSJB CVNCAR @CA?SQC RFC DGL?J ?JRGRSBC GQ 20.0 K JMUCP RF?L RFC GLGRG?J ?JRGRSBC. (3CC F?=KH; 3.40.)

/LC MD RFC KMQR GKNMPR?LR RFGLEQ GJJSQRP?RCB @W NPMHCARGJC KMRGML GQ RF?R TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J KMRGMLQ ?PC GLBCNCLBCLR MD C?AF MRFCP. '?JGJCM U?Q RFC DGPQR NCPQML RM DSJJW AMKNPCFCLB RFGQ AF?P?ARCPGQRGA. (C SQCB GR RM NPCBGAR RFC P?LEC MD ? NPMHCARGJC. /L JCTCJ EPMSLB, UC BCDGLC H7D=; RM @C RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGQR?LAC R RP?TCJCB @W ? NPMHCARGJC. '?JGJCM ?LB K?LW MRFCPQ UCPC GLRCPCQRCB GL RFC P?LEC MD NPMHCARGJCQ NPGK?PGJW DMP KGJGR?PW NSPNMQCQrQSAF ?Q ?GKGLE A?LLMLQ. (MUCTCP, GLTCQRGE?RGLE RFC P?LEC MD NPMHCARGJCQ A?L QFCB JGEFR ML MRFCP GLRCPCQRGLE NFCLMKCL?, QSAF ?Q RFC MP@GRQ MD Q?RCJJGRCQ ?PMSLB RFC %?PRF. ,CR SQ AMLQGBCP NPMHCARGJC P?LEC DSPRFCP.

F?=KH; 3.41 4P?HCARMPGCQ MD NPMHCARGJCQ ML JCTCJ EPMSLB. (?) 4FC EPC?RCP RFC GLGRG?J QNCCB RFC P?LEC MD ? NPMHCARGJC UGRF ? EGTCL GLGRG?J QNCCB. .MRC RF?R RFC P?LEC GQ RFC Q?KC DMP

15

v 0 , RFC EPC?RCP RFC P?LEC DMP ? EGTCL GLGRG?J ?LEJC. (@) 4FC CDDCAR MD GLGRG?J ?LEJC 0
?LB

ML

75 , ?JRFMSEF RFC K?VGKSK FCGEFRQ MD RFMQC N?RFQ ?PC BGDDCPCLR.

(MU BMCQ RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD ? NPMHCARGJC ?DDCAR GRQ P?LEC? /@TGMSQJW, RFC EPC?RCP RFC GLGRG?J QNCCB 3.41(?). 4FC GLGRG?J ?LEJC

0 ?JQM F?Q ? BP?K?RGA CDDCAR ML RFC P?LEC, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 3.41(@). &MP ? DGVCB GLGRG?J QNCCB, QSAF ?Q KGEFR @C

v 0 , RFC EPC?RCP RFC P?LEC, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH;

NPMBSACB @W ? A?LLML, RFC K?VGKSK P?LEC GQ M@R?GLCB UGRF AMLQGBCPCB, RFC K?VGKSK ?LEJC GQ ?NNPMVGK?RCJW P?LECrRFC QSK MD RFMQC ?LEJCQ GQ PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC GQ EGTCL @W

38 . )LRCPCQRGLEJW, DMP CTCPW GLGRG?J ?LEJC CVACNR 45 , RFCPC ?PC RUM ?LEJCQ RF?R EGTC RFC Q?KC 90 . 4FC P?LEC ?JQM BCNCLBQ ML RFC T?JSC MD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD EP?TGRW g . 4FC JSL?P ?QRPML?SR !J?L 3FCNFCPB U?Q ?@JC RM BPGTC ? EMJD @?JJ ? EPC?R BGQR?LAC ML RFC -MML @CA?SQC EP?TGRW GQ UC?ICP RFCPC. 4FC P?LEC R MD ? NPMHCARGJC ML ?8I8? :EBHA7 DMP UFGAF ?GP R=
UFCPC

0 = 45 . 4FGQ GQ RPSC MLJW DMP AMLBGRGMLQ LCEJCARGLE ?GP PCQGQR?LAC. )D ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ

v2 0 sin 2 0 , g

(3.71)

v 0 GQ RFC GLGRG?J QNCCB ?LB 0 GQ RFC GLGRG?J ?LEJC PCJ?RGTC RM RFC FMPGXMLR?J. 4FC NPMMD MD RFGQ COS?RGML GQ JCDR ?Q ?L CLB-MD-AF?NRCP NPM@JCK (FGLRQ ?PC EGTCL), @SR GR BMCQ DGR RFC K?HMP DC?RSPCQ MD NPMHCARGJC P?LEC ?Q BCQAPG@CB.
7FCL UC QNC?I MD RFC P?LEC MD ? NPMHCARGJC ML JCTCJ EPMSLB, UC ?QQSKC RF?R R GQ TCPW QK?JJ AMKN?PCB UGRF RFC AGPASKDCPCLAC MD RFC %?PRF. )D, FMUCTCP, RFC P?LEC GQ J?PEC, RFC %?PRF ASPTCQ ?U?W @CJMU RFC NPMHCARGJC ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML MD EP?TGRW AF?LECQ BGPCARGML ?JMLE RFC N?RF. 4FC P?LEC GQ J?PECP RF?L NPCBGARCB @W RFC P?LEC COS?RGML EGTCL ?@MTC @CA?SQC RFC NPMHCARGJC F?Q D?PRFCP RM D?JJ RF?L GR UMSJB ML JCTCJ EPMSLB. (3CC F?=KH; 3.42.) )D RFC GLGRG?J QNCCB GQ EPC?R CLMSEF, RFC NPMHCARGJC EMCQ GLRM MP@GR. 4FGQ GQ A?JJCB CQA?NC TCJMAGRW. 4FGQ NMQQG@GJGRW U?Q PCAMELGXCB ACLRSPGCQ @CDMPC GR AMSJB @C ?AAMKNJGQFCB. 7FCL ?L M@HCAR GQ GL MP@GR, RFC %?PRF ASPTCQ ?U?W DPMK SLBCPLC?RF RFC M@HCAR ?R RFC Q?KC P?RC ?Q GR D?JJQ. 4FC M@HCAR RFSQ D?JJQ AMLRGLSMSQJW @SR LCTCP FGRQ RFC QSPD?AC. 4FCQC ?LB MRFCP ?QNCARQ MD MP@GR?J KMRGML, QSAF ?Q RFC PMR?RGML MD RFC %?PRF, UGJJ @C AMTCPCB ?L?JWRGA?JJW ?LB GL EPC?RCP BCNRF J?RCP GL RFGQ RCVR. /LAC ?E?GL UC QCC RF?R RFGLIGLE ?@MSR MLC RMNGA, QSAF ?Q RFC P?LEC MD ? NPMHCARGJC, A?L JC?B SQ RM MRFCPQ, QSAF ?Q RFC %?PRF MP@GRQ. )L A::?J?ED E< /;BE9?J?;I, UC UGJJ CV?KGLC RFC ?BBGRGML MD TCJMAGRGCQ, UFGAF GQ ?LMRFCP GKNMPR?LR ?QNCAR MD RUM-BGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ ?LB UGJJ ?JQM WGCJB GLQGEFRQ @CWMLB RFC GKKCBG?RC RMNGA.

108

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

F?=KH; 3.42 0PMHCARGJC RM Q?RCJJGRC. )L C?AF A?QC QFMUL FCPC, ? NPMHCARGJC GQ J?SLAFCB DPMK ? TCPW FGEF RMUCP RM ?TMGB ?GP PCQGQR?LAC. 7GRF GLAPC?QGLE GLGRG?J QNCCB, RFC P?LEC GLAPC?QCQ ?LB @CAMKCQ JMLECP RF?L GR UMSJB @C ML JCTCJ EPMSLB @CA?SQC RFC %?PRF ASPTCQ ?U?W SLBCPLC?RF GRQ N?RF. 7GRF ? J?PEC CLMSEF GLGRG?J QNCCB, MP@GR GQ ?AFGCTCB.

0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: 0PMHCARGJC -MRGML "J?QR ? "SGAI MSR MD ? A?LLML! ,C?PL ?@MSR NPMHCARGJC KMRGML @W DGPGLE T?PGMSQ M@HCARQ. 3CR RFC ?LEJC, GLGRG?J QNCCB, ?LB K?QQ. !BB ?GP PCQGQR?LAC. -?IC ? E?KC MSR MD RFGQ QGKSJ?RGML @W RPWGLE RM FGR ? R?PECR.

F?=KH; 3.43 )HE@;9J?B; &EJ?ED (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42042/1.10/FHE@;9J?B;-CEJ?ED6;D.@7H)

3.5 A::?J?ED E< /;BE9?J?;I


2CJ?RGTC 6CJMAGRW
)D ? NCPQML PMUQ ? @M?R ?APMQQ ? P?NGBJW DJMUGLE PGTCP ?LB RPGCQ RM FC?B BGPCARJW DMP RFC MRFCP QFMPC, RFC @M?R GLQRC?B KMTCQ 7<4:BA4??L PCJ?RGTC RM RFC QFMPC, ?Q GL F?=KH; 3.44. 4FC @M?R BMCQ LMR KMTC GL RFC BGPCARGML GL UFGAF GR GQ NMGLRCB. 4FC PC?QML, MD AMSPQC, GQ RF?R RFC PGTCP A?PPGCQ RFC @M?R BMULQRPC?K. 3GKGJ?PJW, GD ? QK?JJ ?GPNJ?LC DJGCQ MTCPFC?B GL ? QRPMLE APMQQUGLB, WMS A?L QMKCRGKCQ QCC RF?R RFC NJ?LC GQ LMR KMTGLE GL RFC BGPCARGML GL UFGAF GR GQ NMGLRCB, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 3.45. 4FC NJ?LC GQ KMTGLE QRP?GEFR ?FC?B PCJ?RGTC RM RFC ?GP, @SR RFC KMTCKCLR MD RFC ?GP K?QQ PCJ?RGTC RM RFC EPMSLB A?PPGCQ GR QGBCU?WQ.

F?=KH; 3.44 ! @M?R RPWGLE RM FC?B QRP?GEFR ?APMQQ ? PGTCP UGJJ ?ARS?JJW KMTC BG?EML?JJW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC QFMPC ?Q QFMUL. )RQ RMR?J TCJMAGRW (QMJGB ?PPMU) PCJ?RGTC RM RFC QFMPC GQ RFC QSK MD GRQ TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC PGTCP NJSQ RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC PGTCP PCJ?RGTC RM RFC QFMPC.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

109

F?=KH; 3.45 !L ?GPNJ?LC FC?BGLE QRP?GEFR LMPRF GQ GLQRC?B A?PPGCB RM RFC UCQR ?LB QJMUCB BMUL @W UGLB. 4FC NJ?LC BMCQ LMR KMTC PCJ?RGTC RM RFC EPMSLB GL RFC BGPCARGML GR NMGLRQ; P?RFCP, GR KMTCQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MD GRQ RMR?J TCJMAGRW (QMJGB ?PPMU).

)L C?AF MD RFCQC QGRS?RGMLQ, ?L M@HCAR F?Q ? L;BE9?JO PCJ?RGTC RM ? KCBGSK (QSAF ?Q ? PGTCP) ?LB RF?R KCBGSK F?Q ? TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM ?L M@QCPTCP ML QMJGB EPMSLB. 4FC TCJMAGRW MD RFC M@HCAR E8?4G<I8 GB G;8 B5F8EI8E GQ RFC QSK MD RFCQC TCJMAGRW TCARMPQ, ?Q GLBGA?RCB GL F?=KH; 3.44 ?LB F?=KH; 3.45. 4FCQC QGRS?RGMLQ ?PC MLJW RUM MD K?LW GL UFGAF GR GQ SQCDSJ RM ?BB TCJMAGRGCQ. )L RFGQ KMBSJC, UC DGPQR PC-CV?KGLC FMU RM ?BB TCJMAGRGCQ ?LB RFCL AMLQGBCP ACPR?GL ?QNCARQ MD UF?R PCJ?RGTC TCJMAGRW KC?LQ. (MU BM UC ?BB TCJMAGRGCQ? 6CJMAGRW GQ ? TCARMP (GR F?Q @MRF K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML); RFC PSJCQ MD L;9JEH 7::?J?ED BGQASQQCB GL /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: H7F>?97B &;J>E:I ?LB /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I ?NNJW RM RFC ?BBGRGML MD TCJMAGRGCQ, HSQR ?Q RFCW BM DMP ?LW MRFCP TCARMPQ. )L MLC-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML, RFC ?BBGRGML MD TCJMAGRGCQ GQ QGKNJCrRFCW ?BB JGIC MPBGL?PW LSK@CPQ. &MP CV?KNJC, GD ? DGCJB FMAICW NJ?WCP GQ KMTGLE ?R 5 m/s QRP?GEFR RMU?PB RFC EM?J ?LB BPGTCQ RFC @?JJ GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML UGRF ? TCJMAGRW MD 30 m/s PCJ?RGTC RM FCP @MBW, RFCL RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC @?JJ GQ

35 m/s PCJ?RGTC RM RFC QR?RGML?PW, NPMDSQCJW QUC?RGLE EM?JICCNCP QR?LBGLE GL DPMLR MD RFC EM?J.

)L RUM-BGKCLQGML?J KMRGML, CGRFCP EP?NFGA?J MP ?L?JWRGA?J RCAFLGOSCQ A?L @C SQCB RM ?BB TCJMAGRGCQ. 7C UGJJ AMLACLRP?RC ML ?L?JWRGA?J RCAFLGOSCQ. 4FC DMJJMUGLE COS?RGMLQ EGTC RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ @CRUCCL RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD TCJMAGRW ( v ?LB ) ?LB GRQ AMKNMLCLRQ ( v x ?LB v y ) ?JMLE RFC K?LB L-?VCQ MD ?L ?NNPMNPG?RCJW AFMQCL AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK:

v x = v cos v y = v sin
2 v = v2 x + vy

(3.72) (3.73) (3.74) (3.75)

= tan 1(v y / v x).

F?=KH; 3.46 4FC TCJMAGRW,

v , MD ?L M@HCAR RP?TCJGLE ?R ?L ?LEJC

RM RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?VGQ GQ RFC QSK MD AMKNMLCLR TCARMPQ

vx

?LB

vy .

4FCQC COS?RGMLQ ?PC T?JGB DMP ?LW TCARMPQ ?LB ?PC ?B?NRCB QNCAGDGA?JJW DMP TCJMAGRW. 4FC DGPQR RUM COS?RGMLQ ?PC SQCB RM DGLB RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD ? TCJMAGRW UFCL GRQ K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML ?PC ILMUL. 4FC J?QR RUM ?PC SQCB RM DGLB RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD TCJMAGRW UFCL GRQ AMKNMLCLRQ ?PC ILMUL. 4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLR: 2CJ?RGTC 6CJMAGRW MD ? "M?R &GJJ ? @?RFRS@ F?JD-DSJJ MD U?RCP. 4?IC ? RMW @M?R MP QMKC MRFCP M@HCAR RF?R DJM?RQ GL U?RCP. 5LNJSE RFC BP?GL QM U?RCP QR?PRQ RM BP?GL. 4PW NSQFGLE RFC @M?R DPMK MLC QGBC MD RFC RS@ RM RFC MRFCP ?LB NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC DJMU MD U?RCP. 7FGAF U?W BM WMS LCCB RM NSQF RFC @M?R QM RF?R GR CLBQ SN GKKCBG?RCJW MNNMQGRC? #MKN?PC RFC BGPCARGMLQ MD RFC DJMU MD U?RCP, FC?BGLE MD RFC @M?R, ?LB ?ARS?J TCJMAGRW MD RFC @M?R.

110

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

EN7CFB; 3.6 A::?D= /;BE9?J?;I: A BE7J ED 7 +?L;H

F?=KH; 3.47 ! @M?R ?RRCKNRQ RM RP?TCJ QRP?GEFR ?APMQQ ? PGTCP ?R ? QNCCB 0.75 K/Q. 4FC ASPPCLR GL RFC PGTCP, FMUCTCP, DJMUQ ?R ? QNCCB MD 1.20 K/Q RM RFC PGEFR. 7F?R GQ RFC RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD RFC @M?R PCJ?RGTC RM RFC QFMPC?

2CDCP RM F?=KH; 3.47, UFGAF QFMUQ ? @M?R RPWGLE RM EM QRP?GEFR ?APMQQ RFC PGTCP. ,CR SQ A?JASJ?RC RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC @M?RtQ TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM ?L M@QCPTCP ML RFC QFMPC, v tot . 4FC TCJMAGRW MD RFC @M?R, v boat , GQ 0.75 K/Q GL RFC y -BGPCARGML PCJ?RGTC RM RFC PGTCP ?LB RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC PGTCP, ,JH7J;=O 7C QR?PR @W AFMMQGLE ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UGRF GRQ x -?VGQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC PGTCP, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.47. "CA?SQC RFC @M?R GQ BGPCARCB QRP?GEFR RMU?PB RFC MRFCP QFMPC, GRQ TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC U?RCP GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC y -?VGQ ?LB NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC PGTCP. 4FSQ, UC A?L ?BB RFC RUM TCJMAGRGCQ @W SQGLE RFC COS?RGMLQ ,EBKJ?ED 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC RMR?J TCJMAGRW GQ
2 v tot = v 2 x + v y, 2 1 v tot = v 2 x + v y ?LB = tan (v y / v x) BGPCARJW.

v river , GQ 1.20 K/Q RM RFC PGEFR.

(3.76)

UFCPC

v x = v river = 1.20 m/s


?LB

(3.77)

v y = v boat = 0.750 m/s.


4FSQ,

(3.78)

v tot = (1.20 m/s) 2 + (0.750 m/s) 2


WGCJBGLE

(3.79)

v tot = 1.42 m/s.


4FC BGPCARGML MD RFC RMR?J TCJMAGRW

(3.80)

GQ EGTCL @W: = tan 1(v y / v x) = tan 1(0.750 / 1.20).


(3.81)

4FGQ COS?RGML EGTCQ

= 32.0.
D?I9KII?ED "MRF RFC K?ELGRSBC

(3.82)

v ?LB RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC RMR?J TCJMAGRW ?PC AMLQGQRCLR UGRF F?=KH; 3.47. .MRC RF?R @CA?SQC RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC PGTCP GQ J?PEC AMKN?PCB UGRF RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC @M?R, GR GQ QUCNR P?NGBJW BMULQRPC?K. 4FGQ PCQSJR GQ CTGBCLACB @W RFC QK?JJ ?LEJC (MLJW 32.0 ) RFC RMR?J
TCJMAGRW F?Q PCJ?RGTC RM RFC PGTCP@?LI.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

111

EN7CFB; 3.7 C7B9KB7J?D= /;BE9?JO: 0?D: /;BE9?JO C7KI;I 7D A?HFB7D; JE DH?<J


#?JASJ?RC RFC UGLB TCJMAGRW DMP RFC QGRS?RGML QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.48. 4FC NJ?LC GQ ILMUL RM @C KMTGLE ?R 45.0 K/Q BSC LMPRF PCJ?RGTC RM RFC ?GP K?QQ, UFGJC GRQ TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC EPMSLB (GRQ RMR?J TCJMAGRW) GQ 38.0 K/Q GL ? BGPCARGML 20.0 UCQR MD LMPRF.

F?=KH; 3.48 !L ?GPNJ?LC GQ ILMUL RM @C FC?BGLE LMPRF ?R 45.0 K/Q, RFMSEF GRQ TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC EPMSLB GQ 38.0 K/Q ?R ?L ?LEJC UCQR MD LMPRF. 7F?R GQ RFC QNCCB ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC UGLB?

,JH7J;=O )L RFGQ NPM@JCK, QMKCUF?R BGDDCPCLR DPMK RFC NPCTGMSQ CV?KNJC, UC ILMU RFC RMR?J TCJMAGRW (RFC UGLB) ?LB

NCPNCLBGASJ?P, @SR GR GQ NMQQG@JC RM DGLB RFCGP AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE ? AMKKML QCR MD NCPNCLBGASJ?P ?VCQ. )D UC A?L DGLB RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD

v w , RFCL UC A?L AMK@GLC RFCK RM QMJTC DMP GRQ K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML. !Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.48, UC AFMMQC ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UGRF GRQ K-?VGQ BSC C?QR ?LB GRQ L-?VGQ BSC LMPRF (N?P?JJCJ RM v p ). (9MS K?W UGQF RM JMMI @?AI ?R RFC BGQASQQGML MD RFC ?BBGRGML MD TCARMPQ SQGLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ

v tot ?LB RF?R GR GQ RFC QSK MD RUM MRFCP TCJMAGRGCQ, v w v p (RFC NJ?LC PCJ?RGTC RM RFC ?GP K?QQ). 4FC OS?LRGRW v p GQ ILMUL, ?LB UC ?PC ?QICB RM DGLB v w . .MLC MD RFC TCJMAGRGCQ ?PC

GL /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I.) ,EBKJ?ED "CA?SQC

v tot GQ RFC TCARMP QSK MD RFC v w ?LB v p , GRQ K- ?LB L-AMKNMLCLRQ ?PC RFC QSKQ MD RFC K- ?LB L-AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC UGLB ?LB NJ?LC v px = 0 ?LB v py = v p . 4F?R GQ,
(3.83)

TCJMAGRGCQ. .MRC RF?R RFC NJ?LC MLJW F?Q TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD TCJMAGRW QM

v totx = v wx
?LB

v toty = v wx + v p.
7C A?L SQC RFC DGPQR MD RFCQC RUM COS?RGMLQ RM DGLB

(3.84)

v wx : v wx = v totx = v totcos 110.


(3.85)

"CA?SQC

v tot = 38.0 m / s ?LB cos 110 = 0.342 UC F?TC v wx = (38.0 m/s)(0.342)=13.0 m/s.
(3.86)

4FC KGLSQ QGEL GLBGA?RCQ KMRGML UCQR UFGAF GQ AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC BG?EP?K. .MU, RM DGLB

v wy UC LMRC RF?R v toty = v wx + v p


(3.87)

(CPC

v toty = v totsin 110 ; RFSQ, v wy = (38.0 m/s)(0.940) 45.0 m/s = 9.29 m/s.
(3.88)

4FGQ KGLSQ QGEL GLBGA?RCQ KMRGML QMSRF UFGAF GQ AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC BG?EP?K.

112

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

.MU RF?R RFC NCPNCLBGASJ?P AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC UGLB TCJMAGRW RFC K?ELGRSBC GQ

v wx ?LB v wy ?PC ILMUL, UC A?L DGLB RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD v w . &GPQR,
(3.89)

vw = =
QM RF?R

2 v2 wx + v wy

( 13.0 m/s) 2 + ( 9.29 m/s) 2 v w = 16.0 m/s.


(3.90)

4FC BGPCARGML GQ:

= tan 1(v wy / v wx) = tan 1( 9.29 / 13.0)


EGTGLE

(3.91)

= 35.6.
D?I9KII?ED

(3.92)

4FC UGLBtQ QNCCB ?LB BGPCARGML ?PC AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC QGELGDGA?LR CDDCAR RFC UGLB F?Q ML RFC RMR?J TCJMAGRW MD RFC NJ?LC, ?Q QCCL GL F?=KH; 3.48. "CA?SQC RFC NJ?LC GQ DGEFRGLE ? QRPMLE AMK@GL?RGML MD APMQQUGLB ?LB FC?B-UGLB, GR CLBQ SN UGRF ? RMR?J TCJMAGRW QGELGDGA?LRJW JCQQ RF?L GRQ TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC ?GP K?QQ ?Q UCJJ ?Q FC?BGLE GL ? BGDDCPCLR BGPCARGML.

.MRC RF?R GL @MRF MD RFC J?QR RUM CV?KNJCQ, UC UCPC ?@JC RM K?IC RFC K?RFCK?RGAQ C?QGCP @W AFMMQGLE ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UGRF MLC ?VGQ N?P?JJCJ RM MLC MD RFC TCJMAGRGCQ. 7C UGJJ PCNC?RCBJW DGLB RF?R AFMMQGLE ?L ?NNPMNPG?RC AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK K?ICQ NPM@JCK QMJTGLE C?QGCP. &MP CV?KNJC, GL NPMHCARGJC KMRGML UC ?JU?WQ SQC ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UGRF MLC ?VGQ N?P?JJCJ RM EP?TGRW.

2CJ?RGTC 6CJMAGRGCQ ?LB #J?QQGA?J 2CJ?RGTGRW


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q1955), RFC EPC?RCQR NFWQGAGQR MD RFC 20RF ACLRSPW. %GLQRCGL PCTMJSRGMLGXCB MSP TGCU MD L?RSPC UGRF FGQ @B78EA RFCMPW MD PCJ?RGTGRW, UFGAF UC QF?JJ QRSBW GL J?RCP AF?NRCPQ. 4FC PCJ?RGTC TCJMAGRGCQ GL RFGQ QCARGML ?PC ?ARS?JJW ?QNCARQ MD AJ?QQGA?J PCJ?RGTGRW, DGPQR BGQASQQCB AMPPCARJW @W '?JGJCM ?LB )Q??A .CURML. CB7II?97B H;B7J?L?JO GQ JGKGRCB RM QGRS?RGMLQ UFCPC QNCCBQ ?PC JCQQ RF?L ?@MSR 1% MD RFC QNCCB MD JGEFRrRF?R GQ, JCQQ RF?L 3,000 km/s . -MQR RFGLEQ UC CLAMSLRCP GL B?GJW JGDC KMTC QJMUCP RF?L RFGQ QNCCB. ,CR SQ AMLQGBCP ?L CV?KNJC MD UF?R RUM BGDDCPCLR M@QCPTCPQ QCC GL ? QGRS?RGML ?L?JWXCB JMLE ?EM @W '?JGJCM. 3SNNMQC ? Q?GJMP ?R RFC RMN MD ? K?QR ML ? KMTGLE QFGN BPMNQ FGQ @GLMASJ?PQ. 7FCPC UGJJ GR FGR RFC BCAI? 7GJJ GR FGR ?R RFC @?QC MD RFC K?QR, MP UGJJ GR FGR @CFGLB RFC K?QR @CA?SQC RFC QFGN GQ KMTGLE DMPU?PB? 4FC ?LQUCP GQ RF?R GD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC, RFC @GLMASJ?PQ UGJJ FGR ?R RFC @?QC MD RFC K?QR ?R ? NMGLR BGPCARJW @CJMU GRQ NMGLR MD PCJC?QC. .MU JCR SQ AMLQGBCP UF?R RUM BGDDCPCLR M@QCPTCPQ QCC UFCL RFC @GLMASJ?PQ BPMN. /LC M@QCPTCP GQ ML RFC QFGN ?LB RFC MRFCP ML QFMPC. 4FC @GLMASJ?PQ F?TC LM FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC M@QCPTCP ML RFC QFGN, ?LB QM FC QCCQ RFCK D?JJ QRP?GEFR BMUL RFC K?QR. (3CC F?=KH; 3.49.) 4M RFC M@QCPTCP ML QFMPC, RFC @GLMASJ?PQ ?LB RFC QFGN F?TC RFC F4@8 FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW, QM @MRF KMTC RFC Q?KC BGQR?LAC DMPU?PB UFGJC RFC @GLMASJ?PQ ?PC D?JJGLE. 4FGQ M@QCPTCP QCCQ RFC ASPTCB N?RF QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.49. !JRFMSEF RFC N?RFQ JMMI BGDDCPCLR RM RFC BGDDCPCLR M@QCPTCPQ, C?AF QCCQ RFC Q?KC PCQSJRrRFC @GLMASJ?PQ FGR ?R RFC @?QC MD RFC K?QR ?LB LMR @CFGLB GR. 4M ECR RFC AMPPCAR BCQAPGNRGML, GR GQ APSAG?J RM AMPPCARJW QNCAGDW RFC TCJMAGRGCQ PCJ?RGTC RM RFC M@QCPTCP.

F?=KH; 3.49 #J?QQGA?J PCJ?RGTGRW. 4FC Q?KC KMRGML ?Q TGCUCB @W RUM BGDDCPCLR M@QCPTCPQ. !L M@QCPTCP ML RFC KMTGLE QFGN QCCQ RFC @GLMASJ?PQ BPMNNCB DPMK RFC RMN MD GRQ K?QR D?JJ QRP?GEFR BMUL. !L M@QCPTCP ML QFMPC QCCQ RFC @GLMASJ?PQ R?IC RFC ASPTCB N?RF, KMTGLE DMPU?PB UGRF RFC QFGN. "MRF M@QCPTCPQ QCC RFC @GLMASJ?PQ QRPGIC RFC BCAI ?R RFC @?QC MD RFC K?QR. 4FC GLGRG?J FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW GQ BGDDCPCLR PCJ?RGTC RM RFC RUM M@QCPTCPQ. (4FC QFGN GQ QFMUL KMTGLE P?RFCP D?QR RM CKNF?QGXC RFC CDDCAR.)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

113

EN7CFB; 3.8 C7B9KB7J?D= +;B7J?L; /;BE9?JO: AD A?HB?D; )7II;D=;H DHEFI 7 CE?D


!L ?GPJGLC N?QQCLECP BPMNQ ? AMGL UFGJC RFC NJ?LC GQ KMTGLE ?R 260 K/Q. 7F?R GQ RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC AMGL UFCL GR QRPGICQ RFC DJMMP 1.50 K @CJMU GRQ NMGLR MD PCJC?QC: (?) -C?QSPCB PCJ?RGTC RM RFC NJ?LC? (@) -C?QSPCB PCJ?RGTC RM RFC %?PRF?

F?=KH; 3.50 4FC KMRGML MD ? AMGL BPMNNCB GLQGBC ?L ?GPNJ?LC ?Q TGCUCB @W RUM BGDDCPCLR M@QCPTCPQ. (?) !L M@QCPTCP GL RFC NJ?LC QCCQ RFC AMGL D?JJ QRP?GEFR BMUL. (@) !L M@QCPTCP ML RFC EPMSLB QCCQ RFC AMGL KMTC ?JKMQR FMPGXMLR?JJW.

,JH7J;=O "MRF NPM@JCKQ A?L @C QMJTCB UGRF RFC RCAFLGOSCQ DMP D?JJGLE M@HCARQ ?LB NPMHCARGJCQ. )L N?PR (?), RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD RFC AMGL GQ XCPM PCJ?RGTC RM RFC NJ?LC, QM RFC KMRGML GQ RF?R MD ? D?JJGLE M@HCAR (MLC-BGKCLQGML?J). )L N?PR (@), RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW GQ 260 K/Q FMPGXMLR?J PCJ?RGTC RM RFC %?PRF ?LB EP?TGRW GQ TCPRGA?J, QM RFGQ KMRGML GQ ? NPMHCARGJC KMRGML. )L @MRF N?PRQ, GR GQ @CQR RM SQC ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UGRF TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J ?VCQ. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) 5QGLE RFC EGTCL GLDMPK?RGML, UC LMRC RF?R RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW ?LB NMQGRGML ?PC XCPM, ?LB RFC DGL?J NMQGRGML GQ 1.50 K. 4FC DGL?J TCJMAGRW A?L @C DMSLB SQGLE RFC COS?RGML:

v y 2 = v 0y 2 2g(y y 0).
3S@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ GLRM RFC COS?RGML, UC ECR

(3.93)

v y 2 = 0 2 2(9.80 m/s 2)( 1.50 m 0 m) = 29.4 m 2 /s 2


WGCJBGLE

(3.94)

v y = 5.42 m/s.

(3.95)

7C ILMU RF?R RFC QOS?PC PMMR MD 29.4 F?Q RUM PMMRQ: 5.42 ?LB -5.42. 7C AFMMQC RFC LCE?RGTC PMMR @CA?SQC UC ILMU RF?R RFC TCJMAGRW GQ BGPCARCB BMULU?PBQ, ?LB UC F?TC BCDGLCB RFC NMQGRGTC BGPCARGML RM @C SNU?PBQ. 4FCPC GQ LM GLGRG?J FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC NJ?LC ?LB LM FMPGXMLR?J ?AACJCP?RGML, ?LB QM RFC KMRGML GQ QRP?GEFR BMUL PCJ?RGTC RM RFC NJ?LC. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) "CA?SQC RFC GLGRG?J TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW GQ XCPM PCJ?RGTC RM RFC EPMSLB ?LB TCPRGA?J KMRGML GQ GLBCNCLBCLR MD FMPGXMLR?J KMRGML, RFC DGL?J TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW DMP RFC AMGL PCJ?RGTC RM RFC EPMSLB GQ v y = 5.42 m/s , RFC Q?KC ?Q DMSLB GL N?PR (?). )L AMLRP?QR RM N?PR (?), RFCPC LMU GQ ? FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC TCJMAGRW. (MUCTCP, QGLAC RFCPC GQ LM FMPGXMLR?J ?AACJCP?RGML, RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRGCQ ?PC RFC Q?KC ?LB v x = 260 m/s . 4FC K- ?LB L-AMKNMLCLRQ MD TCJMAGRW A?L @C AMK@GLCB RM DGLB RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW:

v = v x 2 + v y 2.
4FSQ,

(3.96)

v = (260 m/s) 2 + ( 5.42 m/s) 2


WGCJBGLE

(3.97)

v = 260.06 m/s.

(3.98)

114

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

4FC BGPCARGML GQ EGTCL @W:

= tan 1(v y / v x) = tan 1( 5.42 / 260)


QM RF?R

(3.99)

= tan 1( 0.0208) = 1.19.


D?I9KII?ED

(3.100)

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0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: -MRGML GL 2$ 4PW RFC LCU ",?BW@SE -MRGML 2$" QGKSJ?RGML DMP RFC J?RCQR SNB?RCB TCPQGML. ,C?PL ?@MSR NMQGRGML, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML TCARMPQ. -MTC RFC @?JJ UGRF RFC KMSQC MP JCR RFC QGKSJ?RGML KMTC RFC @?JJ GL DMSP RWNCQ MD KMRGML (2 RWNCQ MD JGLC?P, QGKNJC F?PKMLGA, AGPAJC).

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4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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3.3 /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I


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A x = A cos B x = B cos A y = A sin

?LB

B y = B sin .
3RCN 2: !BB RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD C?AF TCARMP RM BCRCPKGLC RFC AMKNMLCLRQ

R x ?LB R y MD RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP, R :

Rx = Ax + Bx
?LB

R y = A y + B y. R , MD RFC PCQSJR?LR TCARMP R :


2 R = R2 x + R y.

3RCN 3: 5QC RFC 0WRF?EMPC?L RFCMPCK RM BCRCPKGLC RFC K?ELGRSBC,

3RCN 4: 5QC ? RPGEMLMKCRPGA GBCLRGRW RM BCRCPKGLC RFC BGPCARGML,

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, MD R :

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w 4M QMJTC NPMHCARGJC KMRGML NPM@JCKQ, NCPDMPK RFC DMJJMUGLE QRCNQ: 1. $CRCPKGLC ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK. 4FCL, PCQMJTC RFC NMQGRGML ?LB/MP TCJMAGRW MD RFC M@HCAR GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ. 4FC AMKNMLCLRQ MD NMQGRGML s ?PC EGTCL @W RFC OS?LRGRGCQ x ?LB y , ?LB RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC TCJMAGRW v ?PC EGTCL @W v x = v cos ?LB

v y = v sin , UFCPC v GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC TCJMAGRW ?LB GQ GRQ BGPCARGML.


2. !L?JWXC RFC KMRGML MD RFC NPMHCARGJC GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML SQGLE RFC DMJJMUGLE COS?RGMLQ:

v x = v 0x = v x = velocity is a constant.
3. !L?JWXC RFC KMRGML MD RFC NPMHCARGJC GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML SQGLE RFC DMJJMUGLE COS?RGMLQ:

Horizontal motion(a x = 0) x = x 0 + v xt

Vertical motion(Assuming positive direction is up; a y = g = 9.80 m/s 2) y = y 0 + 1 (v 0y + v y)t 2 v y = v 0y gt


2 v2 y = v 0y 2g(y y 0).

y = y 0 + v 0yt 1 gt 2 2

4. 2CAMK@GLC RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD JMA?RGML ?LB/MP TCJMAGRW SQGLE RFC DMJJMUGLE COS?RGMLQ: s = x2 + y2

= tan 1(y / x)
2 v = v2 x + vy

v = tan 1(v y / v x).


w 4FC K?VGKSK FCGEFR

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w 4FC K?VGKSK FMPGXMLR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB @W ? NPMHCARGJC GQ A?JJCB RFC H7D=;. 4FC P?LEC

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v2 0 sin 2 0 . g

w 6CJMAGRGCQ GL RUM BGKCLQGMLQ ?PC ?BBCB SQGLE RFC Q?KC ?L?JWRGA?J TCARMP RCAFLGOSCQ, UFGAF ?PC PCUPGRRCL ?Q

v x = v cos v y = v sin

2 v = v2 x + vy

= tan 1(v y / v x).


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CED9;FJK7B *K;IJ?EDI 3.2 /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: H7F>?97B &;J>E:I

1. 7FGAF MD RFC DMJJMUGLE GQ ? TCARMP: ? NCPQMLtQ FCGEFR, RFC ?JRGRSBC ML -R. %TCPCQR, RFC ?EC MD RFC %?PRF, RFC @MGJGLE NMGLR MD U?RCP, RFC AMQR MD RFGQ @MMI, RFC %?PRFtQ NMNSJ?RGML, RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD EP?TGRW? 2. 'GTC ? QNCAGDGA CV?KNJC MD ? TCARMP, QR?RGLE GRQ K?ELGRSBC, SLGRQ, ?LB BGPCARGML. 3. 7F?R BM TCARMPQ ?LB QA?J?PQ F?TC GL AMKKML? (MU BM RFCW BGDDCP? 4. 4UM A?KNCPQ GL ? L?RGML?J N?PI FGIC DPMK RFCGP A?@GL RM RFC Q?KC QNMR ML ? J?IC, C?AF R?IGLE ? BGDDCPCLR N?RF, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB @CJMU. 4FC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB ?JMLE 0?RF 1 GQ 7.5 IK, ?LB RF?R ?JMLE 0?RF 2 GQ 8.2 IK. 7F?R GQ RFC DGL?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD C?AF A?KNCP?

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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117

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F?=KH; 3.53

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3.3 /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I


9. 3SNNMQC WMS ?BB RUM TCARMPQ A ?LB B . 7F?R PCJ?RGTC BGPCARGML @CRUCCL RFCK NPMBSACQ RFC PCQSJR?LR UGRF RFC EPC?RCQR K?ELGRSBC? 7F?R GQ RFC K?VGKSK K?ELGRSBC? 7F?R PCJ?RGTC BGPCARGML @CRUCCL RFCK NPMBSACQ RFC PCQSJR?LR UGRF RFC QK?JJCQR K?ELGRSBC? 7F?R GQ RFC KGLGKSK K?ELGRSBC? 10. 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC MD ? LMLXCPM TCARMP RF?R F?Q ? AMKNMLCLR MD XCPM. 11. %VNJ?GL UFW ? TCARMP A?LLMR F?TC ? AMKNMLCLR EPC?RCP RF?L GRQ MUL K?ELGRSBC. 12. )D RFC TCARMPQ BGPCARGML MD

A?

A ?LB B ?PC NCPNCLBGASJ?P, UF?R GQ RFC AMKNMLCLR MD A ?JMLE RFC BGPCARGML MD B ? 7F?R GQ RFC AMKNMLCLR MD B ?JMLE RFC

3.4 )HE@;9J?B; &EJ?ED


13. !LQUCP RFC DMJJMUGLE OSCQRGMLQ DMP NPMHCARGJC KMRGML ML JCTCJ EPMSLB ?QQSKGLE LCEJGEG@JC ?GP PCQGQR?LAC (RFC GLGRG?J ?LEJC @CGLE LCGRFCP 0 LMP 90 ): (?) )Q RFC TCJMAGRW CTCP XCPM? (@) 7FCL GQ RFC TCJMAGRW ? KGLGKSK? ! K?VGKSK? (A) #?L RFC TCJMAGRW CTCP @C RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW ?R ? RGKC MRFCP RF?L ?R t = 0 ? (B) #?L RFC QNCCB CTCP @C RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC GLGRG?J QNCCB ?R ? RGKC MRFCP RF?L ?R t = 0 ? 14. !LQUCP RFC DMJJMUGLE OSCQRGMLQ DMP NPMHCARGJC KMRGML ML JCTCJ EPMSLB ?QQSKGLE LCEJGEG@JC ?GP PCQGQR?LAC (RFC GLGRG?J ?LEJC @CGLE LCGRFCP 0 LMP 90 ): (?) )Q RFC ?AACJCP?RGML CTCP XCPM? (@) )Q RFC ?AACJCP?RGML CTCP GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q ? AMKNMLCLR MD TCJMAGRW? (A) )Q RFC ?AACJCP?RGML CTCP MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML RM ? AMKNMLCLR MD TCJMAGRW? 15. &MP ? DGVCB GLGRG?J QNCCB, RFC P?LEC MD ? NPMHCARGJC GQ BCRCPKGLCB @W RFC ?LEJC ?R UFGAF GR GQ DGPCB. &MP ?JJ @SR RFC K?VGKSK, RFCPC ?PC RUM ?LEJCQ RF?R EGTC RFC Q?KC P?LEC. #MLQGBCPGLE D?ARMPQ RF?R KGEFR ?DDCAR RFC ?@GJGRW MD ?L ?PAFCP RM FGR ? R?PECR, QSAF ?Q UGLB, CVNJ?GL UFW RFC QK?JJCP ?LEJC (AJMQCP RM RFC FMPGXMLR?J) GQ NPCDCP?@JC. 7FCL UMSJB GR @C LCACQQ?PW DMP RFC ?PAFCP RM SQC RFC J?PECP ?LEJC? 7FW BMCQ RFC NSLRCP GL ? DMMR@?JJ E?KC SQC RFC FGEFCP RP?HCARMPW?

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16. $SPGLE ? JCARSPC BCKMLQRP?RGML, ? NPMDCQQMP NJ?ACQ RUM AMGLQ ML RFC CBEC MD ? R?@JC. 3FC RFCL DJGAIQ MLC MD RFC AMGLQ FMPGXMLR?JJW MDD RFC R?@JC, QGKSJR?LCMSQJW LSBEGLE RFC MRFCP MTCP RFC CBEC. $CQAPG@C RFC QS@QCOSCLR KMRGML MD RFC RUM AMGLQ, GL N?PRGASJ?P BGQASQQGLE UFCRFCP RFCW FGR RFC DJMMP ?R RFC Q?KC RGKC.

3.5 A::?J?ED E< /;BE9?J?;I


17. 7F?R DP?KC MP DP?KCQ MD PCDCPCLAC BM WMS GLQRGLARGTCJW SQC UFCL BPGTGLE ? A?P? 7FCL DJWGLE GL ? AMKKCPAG?J HCR ?GPNJ?LC? 18. ! @?QICR@?JJ NJ?WCP BPG@@JGLE BMUL RFC AMSPR SQS?JJW ICCNQ FGQ CWCQ DGVCB ML RFC NJ?WCPQ ?PMSLB FGK. (C GQ KMTGLE D?QR. 7FW BMCQLtR FC LCCB RM ICCN FGQ CWCQ ML RFC @?JJ? 19. )D QMKCMLC GQ PGBGLE GL RFC @?AI MD ? NGAISN RPSAI ?LB RFPMUQ ? QMDR@?JJ QRP?GEFR @?AIU?PB, GQ GR NMQQG@JC DMP RFC @?JJ RM D?JJ QRP?GEFR BMUL ?Q TGCUCB @W ? NCPQML QR?LBGLE ?R RFC QGBC MD RFC PM?B? 5LBCP UF?R AMLBGRGML UMSJB RFGQ MAASP? (MU UMSJB RFC KMRGML MD RFC @?JJ ?NNC?P RM RFC NCPQML UFM RFPCU GR? 20. 4FC F?R MD ? HMEECP PSLLGLE ?R AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW D?JJQ MDD RFC @?AI MD FGQ FC?B. $P?U ? QICRAF QFMUGLE RFC N?RF MD RFC F?R GL RFC HMEECPtQ DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC. $P?U GRQ N?RF ?Q TGCUCB @W ? QR?RGML?PW M@QCPTCP. 21. ! AJMB MD BGPR D?JJQ DPMK RFC @CB MD ? KMTGLE RPSAI. )R QRPGICQ RFC EPMSLB BGPCARJW @CJMU RFC CLB MD RFC RPSAI. 7F?R GQ RFC BGPCARGML MD GRQ TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC RPSAI HSQR @CDMPC GR FGRQ? )Q RFGQ RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC BGPCARGML MD GRQ TCJMAGRW PCJ?RGTC RM EPMSLB HSQR @CDMPC GR FGRQ? %VNJ?GL WMSP ?LQUCPQ.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

119

)HE8B;CI & EN;H9?I;I 3.2 /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: H7F>?97B &;J>E:I

.I; =H7F>?97B C;J>E:I JE IEBL; J>;I; FHE8B;CI. 2EK C7O 7IIKC; :7J7 J7A;D <HEC =H7F>I ?I 799KH7J; JE J>H;; :?=?JI. 22. &GLB RFC DMJJMUGLE DMP N?RF ! GL F?=KH; 3.54: (?) RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB, ?LB (@) RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF.

F?=KH; 3.56

27. 2CNC?R RFC NPM@JCK ?@MTC, @SR PCTCPQC RFC MPBCP MD RFC RUM JCEQ MD RFC U?JI; QFMU RF?R WMS ECR RFC Q?KC DGL?J PCQSJR. 4F?R GQ, WMS DGPQR U?JI JCE B , UFGAF GQ 20.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML CV?ARJW 40 QMSRF MD UCQR, ?LB RFCL JCE
F?=KH; 3.54 4FC T?PGMSQ JGLCQ PCNPCQCLR N?RFQ R?ICL @W BGDDCPCLR NCMNJC U?JIGLE GL ? AGRW. !JJ @JMAIQ ?PC 120 K ML ? QGBC.

(4FGQ NPM@JCK QFMUQ RF?R

A , UFGAF GQ 12.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML CV?ARJW 20 UCQR MD LMPRF. A + B = B + A .)

23. &GLB RFC DMJJMUGLE DMP N?RF " GL F?=KH; 3.54: (?) RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB, ?LB (@) RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. 24. &GLB RFC LMPRF ?LB C?QR AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DMP RFC FGICPQ QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.52. 25. 3SNNMQC WMS U?JI 18.0 K QRP?GEFR UCQR ?LB RFCL 25.0 K QRP?GEFR LMPRF. (MU D?P ?PC WMS DPMK WMSP QR?PRGLE NMGLR, ?LB UF?R GQ RFC AMKN?QQ BGPCARGML MD ? JGLC AMLLCARGLE WMSP QR?PRGLE NMGLR RM WMSP DGL?J NMQGRGML? ()D WMS PCNPCQCLR RFC RUM JCEQ MD RFC U?JI ?Q TCARMP BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ A ?LB

28. (?) 2CNC?R RFC NPM@JCK RUM NPM@JCKQ NPGMP, @SR DMP RFC QCAMLB JCE WMS U?JI 20.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML 40.0 LMPRF MD C?QR (UFGAF GQ COSGT?JCLR RM QS@RP?ARGLE B DPMK A rRF?R GQ, RM DGLBGLE R = A B ). (@) 2CNC?R RFC NPM@JCK RUM NPM@JCKQ NPGMP, @SR LMU WMS DGPQR U?JI 20.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML 40.0 QMSRF MD UCQR ?LB RFCL 12.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML 20.0 C?QR MD QMSRF (UFGAF GQ COSGT?JCLR RM QS@RP?ARGLE DGLBGLE

R = B - A = - R ). 3FMU RF?R RFGQ GQ RFC A?QC.

A DPMK B rRF?R GQ, RM

29. 3FMU RF?R RFC BE78E MD ?BBGRGML MD RFPCC TCARMPQ BMCQ LMR ?DDCAR RFCGP QSK. 3FMU RFGQ NPMNCPRW @W AFMMQGLE ?LW RFPCC TCARMPQ A , B , ?LB C , ?JJ F?TGLE BGDDCPCLR JCLERFQ ?LB BGPCARGMLQ. &GLB RFC QSK

B , ?Q GL F?=KH; 3.55, RFCL RFGQ NPM@JCK ?QIQ WMS RM DGLB RFCGP QSK R = A + B .)

A+B+C

RFCL DGLB RFCGP QSK UFCL ?BBCB GL ? BGDDCPCLR MPBCP ?LB QFMU RFC PCQSJR GQ RFC Q?KC. (4FCPC ?PC DGTC MRFCP MPBCPQ GL UFGAF A , B , ?LB C A?L @C ?BBCB; AFMMQC MLJW MLC.) 30. 3FMU RF?R RFC QSK MD RFC TCARMPQ BGQASQQCB GL EN7CFB; 3.2 EGTCQ RFC PCQSJR QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.24. 31. &GLB RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD TCJMAGRGCQ

v A ?LB v B GL F?=KH; 3.57

F?=KH; 3.55 4FC RUM BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ F?TGLE K?ELGRSBC

?LB BGPCARGML

A .

?LB

?BB RM EGTC ? RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR

26. 3SNNMQC WMS DGPQR U?JI 12.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML

RFCL 20.0 K GL ? BGPCARGML 40.0 QMSRF MD UCQR. (MU D?P ?PC WMS DPMK WMSP QR?PRGLE NMGLR, ?LB UF?R GQ RFC AMKN?QQ BGPCARGML MD ? JGLC AMLLCARGLE WMSP QR?PRGLE NMGLR RM WMSP DGL?J NMQGRGML? ()D WMS PCNPCQCLR RFC RUM JCEQ MD RFC U?JI ?Q TCARMP BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ A ?LB B , ?Q GL F?=KH; 3.56, RFCL RFGQ NPM@JCK DGLBQ RFCGP QSK

20 UCQR MD LMPRF ?LB

F?=KH; 3.57 4FC RUM TCJMAGRGCQ

vA

?LB

vB

?BB RM EGTC ? RMR?J

v tot .

R = A + B .)

32. &GLB RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD 33. &GLB RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD PMR?RCB

v tot ?JMLE RFC K- ?LB L-?VCQ GL F?=KH; 3.57. v tot ?JMLE ? QCR MD NCPNCLBGASJ?P ?VCQ

30 AMSLRCPAJMAIUGQC PCJ?RGTC RM RFMQC GL F?=KH; 3.57.

3.3 /;9JEH A::?J?ED 7D: ,K8JH79J?ED: AD7BOJ?97B &;J>E:I


34. &GLB RFC DMJJMUGLE DMP N?RF # GL F?=KH; 3.58: (?) RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB ?LB (@) RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. )L RFGQ N?PR MD RFC NPM@JCK, CVNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ MD RFC ?L?JWRGA?J KCRFMB MD TCARMP ?BBGRGML.

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#(!04%2 3 Y 47/-$)-%.3)/.!, +).%-!4)#3

Q?KC PCQSJRrRF?R GQ,

B + A = A + B .) $GQASQQ FMU R?IGLE ?LMRFCP

N?RF RM PC?AF RFC Q?KC NMGLR KGEFR FCJN RM MTCPAMKC ?L M@QR?AJC @JMAIGLE WMS MRFCP N?RF. 39. 9MS BPGTC 7.50 km GL ? QRP?GEFR JGLC GL ? BGPCARGML 15 C?QR MD LMPRF. (?) &GLB RFC BGQR?LACQ WMS UMSJB F?TC RM BPGTC QRP?GEFR C?QR ?LB RFCL QRP?GEFR LMPRF RM ?PPGTC ?R RFC Q?KC NMGLR. (4FGQ BCRCPKGL?RGML GQ COSGT?JCLR RM DGLB RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?JMLE RFC C?QR ?LB LMPRF BGPCARGMLQ.) (@) 3FMU RF?R WMS QRGJJ ?PPGTC ?R RFC Q?KC NMGLR GD RFC C?QR ?LB LMPRF JCEQ ?PC PCTCPQCB GL MPBCP.
F?=KH; 3.58 4FC T?PGMSQ JGLCQ PCNPCQCLR N?RFQ R?ICL @W BGDDCPCLR NCMNJC U?JIGLE GL ? AGRW. !JJ @JMAIQ ?PC 120 K ML ? QGBC.

40. $M EN;H9?I; 3.37 ?E?GL SQGLE ?L?JWRGA?J RCAFLGOSCQ ?LB AF?LEC RFC QCAMLB JCE MD RFC U?JI RM 25.0 m QRP?GEFR QMSRF. (4FGQ GQ COSGT?JCLR RM QS@RP?ARGLE ?E?GL, @SR LMU WMS DGPQR U?JI

35. &GLB RFC DMJJMUGLE DMP N?RF $ GL F?=KH; 3.58: (?) RFC RMR?J BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB ?LB (@) RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK QR?PR RM DGLGQF. )L RFGQ N?PR MD RFC NPM@JCK, CVNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ MD RFC ?L?JWRGA?J KCRFMB MD TCARMP ?BBGRGML. 36. &GLB RFC LMPRF ?LB C?QR AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK 3?L &P?LAGQAM RM 3?AP?KCLRM QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.59.

B DPMK A rRF?R GQ, DGLBGLE R = A B ) (@) 2CNC?R 25.0 m LMPRF ?LB RFCL 18.0 m C?QR. (4FGQ GQ COSGT?JCLR RM QS@RP?AR A DPMK B rRF?R GQ, RM DGLB A = B + C . )Q

RF?R AMLQGQRCLR UGRF WMSP PCQSJR?) 41. ! LCU J?LBMULCP F?Q ? RPG?LESJ?P NGCAC MD DJ?R J?LB QFC UGQFCQ RM DCLAC. 3R?PRGLE ?R RFC UCQR AMPLCP, QFC KC?QSPCQ RFC DGPQR QGBC RM @C 80.0 K JMLE ?LB RFC LCVR RM @C 105 K. 4FCQC QGBCQ ?PC PCNPCQCLRCB ?Q BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCARMPQ A DPMK B GL F?=KH; 3.61. 3FC RFCL AMPPCARJW A?JASJ?RCQ RFC JCLERF ?LB MPGCLR?RGML MD RFC RFGPB QGBC PCQSJR?

C . 7F?R GQ FCP

F?=KH; 3.61 F?=KH; 3.59

37. 3MJTC RFC DMJJMUGLE NPM@JCK SQGLE ?L?JWRGA?J RCAFLGOSCQ: 3SNNMQC WMS U?JI 18.0 K QRP?GEFR UCQR ?LB RFCL 25.0 K QRP?GEFR LMPRF. (MU D?P ?PC WMS DPMK WMSP QR?PRGLE NMGLR, ?LB UF?R GQ RFC AMKN?QQ BGPCARGML MD ? JGLC AMLLCARGLE WMSP QR?PRGLE NMGLR RM WMSP DGL?J NMQGRGML? ()D WMS PCNPCQCLR RFC RUM JCEQ MD RFC U?JI ?Q TCARMP BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ A ?LB B , ?Q GL F?=KH; 3.60, RFCL RFGQ NPM@JCK ?QIQ WMS RM DGLB RFCGP QSK

R = A + B .)

42. 9MS DJW 32.0 km GL ? QRP?GEFR JGLC GL QRGJJ ?GP GL RFC BGPCARGML 35.0 QMSRF MD UCQR. (?) &GLB RFC BGQR?LACQ WMS UMSJB F?TC RM DJW QRP?GEFR QMSRF ?LB RFCL QRP?GEFR UCQR RM ?PPGTC ?R RFC Q?KC NMGLR. (4FGQ BCRCPKGL?RGML GQ COSGT?JCLR RM DGLBGLE RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?JMLE RFC QMSRF ?LB UCQR BGPCARGMLQ.) (@) &GLB RFC BGQR?LACQ WMS UMSJB F?TC RM DJW DGPQR GL ? BGPCARGML 45.0 QMSRF MD UCQR ?LB RFCL GL ? BGPCARGML 45.0 UCQR MD LMPRF. 4FCQC ?PC RFC AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?JMLE ? BGDDCPCLR QCR MD ?VCQrMLC PMR?RCB 45 . 43. ! D?PKCP U?LRQ RM DCLAC MDD FGQ DMSP-QGBCB NJMR MD DJ?R J?LB. (C KC?QSPCQ RFC DGPQR RFPCC QGBCQ, QFMUL ?Q A, B, ?LB C GL F?=KH; 3.62, ?LB RFCL AMPPCARJW A?JASJ?RCQ RFC JCLERF ?LB MPGCLR?RGML MD RFC DMSPRF QGBC D . 7F?R GQ FGQ PCQSJR?

F?=KH; 3.60 4FC RUM BGQNJ?ACKCLRQ F?TGLE K?ELGRSBC

?LB BGPCARGML

A .

?LB

?BB RM EGTC ? RMR?J BGQNJ?ACKCLR

.MRC RF?R WMS A?L ?JQM QMJTC RFGQ EP?NFGA?JJW. $GQASQQ UFW RFC ?L?JWRGA?J RCAFLGOSC DMP QMJTGLE RFGQ NPM@JCK GQ NMRCLRG?JJW KMPC ?AASP?RC RF?L RFC EP?NFGA?J RCAFLGOSC. 38. 2CNC?R EN;H9?I; 3.37 SQGLE ?L?JWRGA?J RCAFLGOSCQ, @SR PCTCPQC RFC MPBCP MD RFC RUM JCEQ MD RFC U?JI ?LB QFMU RF?R WMS ECR RFC Q?KC DGL?J PCQSJR. (4FGQ NPM@JCK QFMUQ RF?R ?BBGLE RFCK GL PCTCPQC MPBCP EGTCQ RFC
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7 F?=KH; 3.62

44. )L ?L ?RRCKNR RM CQA?NC FGQ GQJ?LB, 'GJJGE?L @SGJBQ ? P?DR ?LB QCRQ RM QC?. 4FC UGLB QFGDRQ ? EPC?R BC?J BSPGLE RFC B?W, ?LB FC GQ @JMUL ?JMLE

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121

2.50 km 45.0 LMPRF MD UCQR; RFCL 4.70 km 60.0 QMSRF MD C?QR; RFCL 1.30 km 25.0 QMSRF MD UCQR; RFCL 5.10 km QRP?GEFR C?QR; RFCL 1.70 km 5.00 C?QR MD LMPRF; RFCL 7.20 km 55.0 QMSRF MD UCQR; ?LB DGL?JJW 2.80 km 10.0 LMPRF MD
RFC DMJJMUGLE QRP?GEFR JGLCQ: C?QR. 7F?R GQ FGQ DGL?J NMQGRGML PCJ?RGTC RM RFC GQJ?LB? 45. 3SNNMQC ? NGJMR DJGCQ RFCL DJGCQ

52. 6CPGDW RFC P?LECQ DMP RFC NPMHCARGJCQ GL F?=KH; 3.41(?) DMP ?LB RFC EGTCL GLGRG?J TCJMAGRGCQ.

= 45

53. 6CPGDW RFC P?LECQ QFMUL DMP RFC NPMHCARGJCQ GL F?=KH; 3.41(@) DMP ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 50 K/Q ?R RFC EGTCL GLGRG?J ?LEJCQ. 54. 4FC A?LLML ML ? @?RRJCQFGN A?L DGPC ? QFCJJ ? K?VGKSK BGQR?LAC MD 32.0 IK. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD RFC QFCJJ. (@) 7F?R K?VGKSK FCGEFR BMCQ GR PC?AF? (!R GRQ FGEFCQR, RFC QFCJJ GQ ?@MTC 60% MD RFC ?RKMQNFCPCr@SR ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LMR PC?JJW LCEJGEG@JC ?Q ?QQSKCB RM K?IC RFGQ NPM@JCK C?QGCP.) (A) 4FC MAC?L GQ LMR DJ?R, @CA?SQC RFC %?PRF GQ 3 ASPTCB. !QQSKC RF?R RFC P?BGSQ MD RFC %?PRF GQ 6.3710 km . (MU K?LW KCRCPQ JMUCP UGJJ GRQ QSPD?AC @C 32.0 IK DPMK RFC QFGN ?JMLE ? FMPGXMLR?J JGLC N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QSPD?AC ?R RFC QFGN? $MCQ WMSP ?LQUCP GKNJW RF?R CPPMP GLRPMBSACB @W RFC ?QQSKNRGML MD ? DJ?R %?PRF GL NPMHCARGJC KMRGML GQ QGELGDGA?LR FCPC? 55. !L ?PPMU GQ QFMR DPMK ? FCGEFR MD 1.5 K RMU?PB ? AJGDD MD FCGEFR GQ QFMR UGRF ? TCJMAGRW MD 30 K/Q ?R ?L ?LEJC MD 60 ?@MTC RFC FMPGXMLR?J. )R J?LBQ ML RFC RMN CBEC MD RFC AJGDD 4.0 Q J?RCP. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC FCGEFR MD RFC AJGDD? (@) 7F?R GQ RFC K?VGKSK FCGEFR PC?AFCB @W RFC ?PPMU ?JMLE GRQ RP?HCARMPW? (A) 7F?R GQ RFC ?PPMUtQ GKN?AR QNCCB HSQR @CDMPC FGRRGLE RFC AJGDD? 56. )L RFC QR?LBGLE @PM?B HSKN, MLC QOS?RQ ?LB RFCL NSQFCQ MDD UGRF RFC JCEQ RM QCC FMU D?P MLC A?L HSKN. 3SNNMQC RFC CVRCLQGML MD RFC JCEQ DPMK RFC APMSAF NMQGRGML GQ 0.600 K ?LB RFC ?AACJCP?RGML ?AFGCTCB DPMK RFGQ NMQGRGML GQ 1.25 RGKCQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW, g . (MU D?P A?L RFCW HSKN? 3R?RC WMSP ?QQSKNRGMLQ. ()LAPC?QCB P?LEC A?L @C ?AFGCTCB @W QUGLEGLE RFC ?PKQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC HSKN.)

40.0 km GL ? BGPCARGML 60 LMPRF MD C?QR ?LB 30.0 km GL ? BGPCARGML 15 LMPRF MD C?QR ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 3.63. &GLB FCP RMR?J BGQR?LAC R DPMK RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR ?LB RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC QRP?GEFR-JGLC N?RF RM RFC DGL?J NMQGRGML. $GQASQQ OS?JGR?RGTCJW FMU

RFGQ DJGEFR UMSJB @C ?JRCPCB @W ? UGLB DPMK RFC LMPRF ?LB FMU RFC CDDCAR MD RFC UGLB UMSJB BCNCLB ML @MRF UGLB QNCCB ?LB RFC QNCCB MD RFC NJ?LC PCJ?RGTC RM RFC ?GP K?QQ.

H . )R

F?=KH; 3.63

3.4 )HE@;9J?B; &EJ?ED


46. ! NPMHCARGJC GQ J?SLAFCB ?R EPMSLB JCTCJ UGRF ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 50.0 K/ Q ?R ?L ?LEJC MD 30.0 ?@MTC RFC FMPGXMLR?J. )R QRPGICQ ? R?PECR ?@MTC RFC EPMSLB 3.00 QCAMLBQ J?RCP. 7F?R ?PC RFC x ?LB y BGQR?LACQ DPMK UFCPC RFC NPMHCARGJC U?Q J?SLAFCB RM UFCPC GR J?LBQ? 47. ! @?JJ GQ IGAICB UGRF ?L GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD 16 K/Q GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML ?LB 12 K/Q GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML. (?) !R UF?R QNCCB BMCQ RFC @?JJ FGR RFC EPMSLB? (@) &MP FMU JMLE BMCQ RFC @?JJ PCK?GL GL RFC ?GP? (A)7F?R K?VGKSK FCGEFR GQ ?RR?GLCB @W RFC @?JJ? 48. ! @?JJ GQ RFPMUL FMPGXMLR?JJW DPMK RFC RMN MD ? 60.0-K @SGJBGLE ?LB J?LBQ 100.0 K DPMK RFC @?QC MD RFC @SGJBGLE. )ELMPC ?GP PCQGQR?LAC. (?) (MU JMLE GQ RFC @?JJ GL RFC ?GP? (@) 7F?R KSQR F?TC @CCL RFC GLGRG?J FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC TCJMAGRW? (A) 7F?R GQ RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC TCJMAGRW HSQR @CDMPC RFC @?JJ FGRQ RFC EPMSLB? (B) 7F?R GQ RFC TCJMAGRW (GLAJSBGLE @MRF RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ) MD RFC @?JJ HSQR @CDMPC GR FGRQ RFC EPMSLB? 49. (?) ! B?PCBCTGJ GQ ?RRCKNRGLE RM HSKN FGQ KMRMPAWAJC MTCP ? JGLC MD @SQCQ N?PICB CLB RM CLB @W BPGTGLE SN ? 32 P?KN ?R ? QNCCB MD

57. 4FC UMPJB JMLE HSKN PCAMPB GQ 8.95 K (-GIC 0MUCJJ, 53!, 1991). 4PC?RCB ?Q ? NPMHCARGJC, UF?R GQ RFC K?VGKSK P?LEC M@R?GL?@JC @W ? NCPQML GD FC F?Q ? R?IC-MDD QNCCB MD 9.5 K/Q? 3R?RC WMSP ?QQSKNRGMLQ. 58. 3CPTGLE ?R ? QNCCB MD 170 IK/F, ? RCLLGQ NJ?WCP FGRQ RFC @?JJ ?R ? FCGEFR MD 2.5 K ?LB ?L ?LEJC @CJMU RFC FMPGXMLR?J. 4FC QCPTGAC JGLC GQ

11.9 K DPMK RFC LCR, UFGAF GQ 0.91 K FGEF. 7F?R GQ RFC ?LEJC QSAF RF?R RFC @?JJ HSQR APMQQCQ RFC LCR? 7GJJ RFC @?JJ J?LB GL RFC QCPTGAC @MV, UFMQC MSR JGLC GQ 6.40 K DPMK RFC LCR? 59. ! DMMR@?JJ OS?PRCP@?AI GQ KMTGLE QRP?GEFR @?AIU?PB ?R ? QNCCB MD 200 K/Q UFCL FC RFPMUQ ? N?QQ RM ? NJ?WCP 18.0 K QRP?GEFR BMULDGCJB. (?) )D RFC @?JJ GQ RFPMUL ?R ?L ?LEJC MD 25 PCJ?RGTC RM RFC EPMSLB ?LB GQ A?SEFR ?R RFC Q?KC FCGEFR ?Q GR GQ PCJC?QCB, UF?R GQ GRQ GLGRG?J QNCCB PCJ?RGTC RM RFC EPMSLB? (@) (MU JMLE BMCQ GR R?IC RM ECR RM RFC PCACGTCP? (A) 7F?R GQ GRQ K?VGKSK FCGEFR ?@MTC GRQ NMGLR MD PCJC?QC? 60. 'SL QGEFRQ ?PC ?BHSQRCB RM ?GK FGEF RM AMKNCLQ?RC DMP RFC CDDCAR MD EP?TGRW, CDDCARGTCJW K?IGLE RFC ESL ?AASP?RC MLJW DMP ? QNCAGDGA P?LEC. (?) )D ? ESL GQ QGEFRCB RM FGR R?PECRQ RF?R ?PC ?R RFC Q?KC FCGEFR ?Q RFC ESL ?LB 100.0 K ?U?W, FMU JMU UGJJ RFC @SJJCR FGR GD ?GKCB BGPCARJW ?R ? R?PECR 150.0 K ?U?W? 4FC KSXXJC TCJMAGRW MD RFC @SJJCR GQ 275 K/Q. (@) $GQASQQ OS?JGR?RGTCJW FMU ? J?PECP KSXXJC TCJMAGRW UMSJB ?DDCAR RFGQ NPM@JCK ?LB UF?R UMSJB @C RFC CDDCAR MD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC. 61. !L C?EJC GQ DJWGLE FMPGXMLR?JJW ?R ? QNCCB MD 3.00 K/Q UFCL RFC DGQF GL FCP R?JMLQ UGEEJCQ JMMQC ?LB D?JJQ GLRM RFC J?IC 5.00 K @CJMU. #?JASJ?RC RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC DGQF PCJ?RGTC RM RFC U?RCP UFCL GR FGRQ RFC U?RCP. 62. !L MUJ GQ A?PPWGLE ? KMSQC RM RFC AFGAIQ GL GRQ LCQR. )RQ NMQGRGML ?R RF?R RGKC GQ 4.00 K UCQR ?LB 12.0 K ?@MTC RFC ACLRCP MD RFC 30.0 AK BG?KCRCP LCQR. 4FC MUJ GQ DJWGLE C?QR ?R 3.50 K/Q ?R ?L ?LEJC 30.0 @CJMU RFC FMPGXMLR?J UFCL GR ?AAGBCLR?JJW BPMNQ RFC KMSQC. )Q RFC MUJ JSAIW CLMSEF RM F?TC RFC KMSQC FGR RFC LCQR? 4M ?LQUCP RFGQ OSCQRGML, A?JASJ?RC RFC FMPGXMLR?J NMQGRGML MD RFC KMSQC UFCL GR F?Q D?JJCL 12.0 K. 63. 3SNNMQC ? QMAACP NJ?WCP IGAIQ RFC @?JJ DPMK ? BGQR?LAC 30 K RMU?PB RFC EM?J. &GLB RFC GLGRG?J QNCCB MD RFC @?JJ GD GR HSQR N?QQCQ MTCP RFC EM?J, 2.4 K ?@MTC RFC EPMSLB, EGTCL RFC GLGRG?J BGPCARGML RM @C 40 ?@MTC RFC FMPGXMLR?J. 64. #?L ? EM?JICCNCP ?R FCP/ FGQ EM?J IGAI ? QMAACP @?JJ GLRM RFC MNNMLCLRtQ EM?J UGRFMSR RFC @?JJ RMSAFGLE RFC EPMSLB? 4FC BGQR?LAC UGJJ @C ?@MSR 95 K. ! EM?JICCNCP A?L EGTC RFC @?JJ ? QNCCB MD 30 K/Q.

40.0 m/s (144 km/h) . (MU K?LW @SQCQ A?L FC AJC?P GD RFC RMN MD RFC

R?ICMDD P?KN GQ ?R RFC Q?KC FCGEFR ?Q RFC @SQ RMNQ ?LB RFC @SQCQ ?PC 20.0 K JMLE? (@) $GQASQQ UF?R WMSP ?LQUCP GKNJGCQ ?@MSR RFC K?PEGL MD CPPMP GL RFGQ ?ARrRF?R GQ, AMLQGBCP FMU KSAF EPC?RCP RFC P?LEC GQ RF?L RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGQR?LAC FC KSQR RP?TCJ RM KGQQ RFC CLB MD RFC J?QR @SQ. (.CEJCAR ?GP PCQGQR?LAC.) 50. !L ?PAFCP QFMMRQ ?L ?PPMU ?R ? 75.0 K BGQR?LR R?PECR; RFC @SJJtQ-CWC MD RFC R?PECR GQ ?R Q?KC FCGEFR ?Q RFC PCJC?QC FCGEFR MD RFC ?PPMU. (?) !R UF?R ?LEJC KSQR RFC ?PPMU @C PCJC?QCB RM FGR RFC @SJJtQ-CWC GD GRQ GLGRG?J QNCCB GQ 35.0 K/Q? )L RFGQ N?PR MD RFC NPM@JCK, CVNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GLTMJTCB GL QMJTGLE NPMHCARGJC KMRGML NPM@JCKQ. (@) 4FCPC GQ ? J?PEC RPCC F?JDU?W @CRUCCL RFC ?PAFCP ?LB RFC R?PECR UGRF ?L MTCPF?LEGLE FMPGXMLR?J @P?LAF 3.50 K ?@MTC RFC PCJC?QC FCGEFR MD RFC ?PPMU. 7GJJ RFC ?PPMU EM MTCP MP SLBCP RFC @P?LAF? 51. ! PSE@W NJ?WCP N?QQCQ RFC @?JJ 7.00 K ?APMQQ RFC DGCJB, UFCPC GR GQ A?SEFR ?R RFC Q?KC FCGEFR ?Q GR JCDR FGQ F?LB. (?) !R UF?R ?LEJC U?Q RFC @?JJ RFPMUL GD GRQ GLGRG?J QNCCB U?Q 12.0 K/Q, ?QQSKGLE RF?R RFC QK?JJCP MD RFC RUM NMQQG@JC ?LEJCQ U?Q SQCB? (@) 7F?R MRFCP ?LEJC EGTCQ RFC Q?KC P?LEC, ?LB UFW UMSJB GR LMR @C SQCB? (A) (MU JMLE BGB RFGQ N?QQ R?IC?

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'?JGJCM U?Q GLQRPSKCLR?J GL CQR?@JGQFGLE B5F8EI4G<BA ?Q RFC ?@QMJSRC BCRCPKGL?LR MD RPSRF, P?RFCP RF?L uJMEGA?Jv ?PESKCLR. '?JGJCMtQ SQC MD RFC RCJCQAMNC U?Q FGQ KMQR LMR?@JC ?AFGCTCKCLR GL BCKMLQRP?RGLE RFC GKNMPR?LAC MD M@QCPT?RGML. (C BGQAMTCPCB KMMLQ MP@GRGLE *SNGRCP ?LB K?BC MRFCP M@QCPT?RGMLQ RF?R UCPC GLAMLQGQRCLR UGRF ACPR?GL ?LAGCLR GBC?Q ?LB PCJGEGMSQ BMEK?. &MP RFGQ PC?QML, ?LB @CA?SQC MD RFC K?LLCP GL UFGAF FC BC?JR UGRF RFMQC GL ?SRFMPGRW, '?JGJCM U?Q RPGCB @W RFC )LOSGQGRGML ?LB NSLGQFCB. (C QNCLR RFC DGL?J WC?PQ MD FGQ JGDC SLBCP ? DMPK MD FMSQC ?PPCQR. "CA?SQC MRFCPQ @CDMPC '?JGJCM F?B ?JQM K?BC BGQAMTCPGCQ @W B5F8EI<A: RFC L?RSPC MD RFC SLGTCPQC, ?LB @CA?SQC PCNC?RCB M@QCPT?RGMLQ TCPGDGCB RFMQC MD '?JGJCM, FGQ UMPI AMSJB LMR @C QSNNPCQQCB MP BCLGCB. !DRCP FGQ BC?RF, FGQ UMPI U?Q TCPGDGCB @W MRFCPQ, ?LB FGQ GBC?Q UCPC CTCLRS?JJW ?AACNRCB @W RFC AFSPAF ?LB QAGCLRGDGA AMKKSLGRGCQ. '?JGJCM ?JQM AMLRPG@SRCB RM RFC DMPK?RGML MD UF?R GQ LMU A?JJCB .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U MD KMRGML. .CURML K?BC SQC MD RFC UMPI MD FGQ NPCBCACQQMPQ, UFGAF CL?@JCB FGK RM BCTCJMN J?UQ MD KMRGML, BGQAMTCP RFC J?U MD EP?TGRW, GLTCLR A?JASJSQ, ?LB K?IC EPC?R AMLRPG@SRGMLQ RM RFC RFCMPGCQ MD JGEFR ?LB AMJMP. )R GQ ?K?XGLE RF?R K?LW MD RFCQC BCTCJMNKCLRQ UCPC K?BC UGRF .CURML UMPIGLE ?JMLC, UGRFMSR RFC @CLCDGR MD RFC SQS?J GLRCP?ARGMLQ RF?R R?IC NJ?AC ?KMLE QAGCLRGQRQ RMB?W. )R U?Q LMR SLRGJ RFC ?BTCLR MD KMBCPL NFWQGAQ C?PJW GL RFC 20RF ACLRSPW RF?R GR U?Q BGQAMTCPCB RF?R .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML NPMBSAC ? EMMB ?NNPMVGK?RGML RM KMRGML MLJW UFCL RFC M@HCARQ ?PC KMTGLE ?R QNCCBQ KSAF, KSAF JCQQ RF?L RFC QNCCB MD JGEFR ?LB UFCL RFMQC M@HCARQ ?PC J?PECP RF?L 9 RFC QGXC MD KMQR KMJCASJCQ (?@MSR 10 m GL BG?KCRCP). 4FCQC AMLQRP?GLRQ BCDGLC RFC PC?JK MD AJ?QQGA?J KCAF?LGAQ, ?Q BGQASQQCB GL "DJHE:K9J?ED JE J>; '7JKH; E< ,9?;D9; 7D: )>OI?9I. !R RFC @CEGLLGLE MD RFC 20RF ACLRSPW, !J@CPR %GLQRCGL (1879q1955) BCTCJMNCB RFC RFCMPW MD PCJ?RGTGRW ?LB, ?JMLE UGRF K?LW MRFCP QAGCLRGQRQ, BCTCJMNCB OS?LRSK RFCMPW. 4FGQ RFCMPW BMCQ LMR F?TC RFC AMLQRP?GLRQ NPCQCLR GL AJ?QQGA?J NFWQGAQ. !JJ MD RFC QGRS?RGMLQ UC AMLQGBCP GL RFGQ AF?NRCP, ?LB ?JJ RFMQC NPCACBGLE RFC GLRPMBSARGML MD PCJ?RGTGRW GL ,F;9?7B +;B7J?L?JO, ?PC GL RFC PC?JK MD AJ?QQGA?J NFWQGAQ. -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 0?QR ?LB 0PCQCLR 0FGJMQMNFW +;8 <@CBEG4A68 B9 B5F8EI4G<BA ?LB RFC AMLACNR MD 64HF8 4A7 89986G UCPC LMR ?JU?WQ QM CLRPCLAFCB GL FSK?L RFGLIGLE. 4FGQ PC?JGX?RGML U?Q ? N?PR MD RFC CTMJSRGML MD KMBCPL NFWQGAQ DPMK L?RSP?J NFGJMQMNFW. 4FC ?AFGCTCKCLRQ MD '?JGJCM, .CURML, %GLQRCGL, ?LB MRFCPQ UCPC ICW KGJCQRMLCQ GL RFC FGQRMPW MD QAGCLRGDGA RFMSEFR. -MQR MD RFC QAGCLRGDGA RFCMPGCQ RF?R ?PC BCQAPG@CB GL RFGQ @MMI BCQACLBCB DPMK RFC UMPI MD RFCQC QAGCLRGQRQ.

4.1 D;L;BEFC;DJ E< FEH9; CED9;FJ


DOD7C?9I GQ RFC QRSBW MD RFC DMPACQ RF?R A?SQC M@HCARQ ?LB QWQRCKQ RM KMTC. 4M SLBCPQR?LB RFGQ, UC LCCB ? UMPIGLE BCDGLGRGML MD DMPAC. /SP GLRSGRGTC BCDGLGRGML MD <EH9;rRF?R GQ, ? NSQF MP ? NSJJrGQ ? EMMB NJ?AC RM QR?PR. 7C ILMU RF?R ? NSQF MP NSJJ F?Q @MRF K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML (RFCPCDMPC, GR GQ ? TCARMP OS?LRGRW) ?LB A?L T?PW AMLQGBCP?@JW GL C?AF PCE?PB. &MP CV?KNJC, ? A?LLML CVCPRQ ? QRPMLE DMPAC ML ? A?LLML@?JJ RF?R GQ J?SLAFCB GLRM RFC ?GP. )L AMLRP?QR, %?PRF CVCPRQ MLJW ? RGLW BMULU?PB NSJJ ML ? DJC?. /SP CTCPWB?W CVNCPGCLACQ ?JQM EGTC SQ ? EMMB GBC? MD FMU KSJRGNJC DMPACQ ?BB. )D RUM NCMNJC NSQF GL BGDDCPCLR BGPCARGMLQ ML ? RFGPB NCPQML, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 4.3, UC KGEFR CVNCAR RFC RMR?J DMPAC RM @C GL RFC BGPCARGML QFMUL. 3GLAC DMPAC GQ ? TCARMP, GR ?BBQ HSQR JGIC MRFCP TCARMPQ, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 4.3(?) DMP RUM GAC QI?RCPQ. &MPACQ, JGIC MRFCP TCARMPQ, ?PC PCNPCQCLRCB @W ?PPMUQ ?LB A?L @C ?BBCB SQGLE RFC D?KGJG?P FC?B-RM-R?GJ KCRFMB MP @W RPGEMLMKCRPGA KCRFMBQ. 4FCQC GBC?Q UCPC BCTCJMNCB GL -ME-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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F?=KH; 4.3 0?PR (?) QFMUQ ?L MTCPFC?B TGCU MD RUM GAC QI?RCPQ NSQFGLE ML ? RFGPB. &MPACQ ?PC TCARMPQ ?LB ?BB JGIC MRFCP TCARMPQ, QM RFC RMR?J DMPAC ML RFC RFGPB QI?RCP GQ GL RFC BGPCARGML QFMUL. )L N?PR (@), UC QCC ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K PCNPCQCLRGLE RFC DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC RFGPB QI?RCP.

F?=KH; 4.3(@) GQ MSP DGPQR CV?KNJC MD ? <H;;-8E:O :?7=H7C, UFGAF GQ ? RCAFLGOSC SQCB RM GJJSQRP?RC ?JJ RFC ;NJ;HD7B <EH9;I ?ARGLE ML ? @MBW. 4FC @MBW GQ PCNPCQCLRCB @W ? QGLEJC GQMJ?RCB NMGLR (MP DPCC @MBW), ?LB MLJW RFMQC DMPACQ ?ARGLE BA RFC @MBW DPMK RFC MSRQGBC (CVRCPL?J DMPACQ) ?PC QFMUL. (4FCQC DMPACQ ?PC RFC MLJW MLCQ QFMUL, @CA?SQC MLJW CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC @MBW ?DDCAR GRQ KMRGML. 7C A?L GELMPC ?LW GLRCPL?J DMPACQ UGRFGL RFC @MBW.) &PCC-@MBW BG?EP?KQ ?PC TCPW SQCDSJ GL ?L?JWXGLE DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML ? QWQRCK ?LB ?PC CKNJMWCB CVRCLQGTCJW GL RFC QRSBW ?LB ?NNJGA?RGML MD .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML. ! KMPC OS?LRGR?RGTC BCDGLGRGML MD DMPAC A?L @C @?QCB ML QMKC QR?LB?PB DMPAC, HSQR ?Q BGQR?LAC GQ KC?QSPCB GL SLGRQ PCJ?RGTC RM ? QR?LB?PB BGQR?LAC. /LC NMQQG@GJGRW GQ RM QRPCRAF ? QNPGLE ? ACPR?GL DGVCB BGQR?LAC, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 4.4, ?LB SQC RFC DMPAC GR CVCPRQ RM NSJJ GRQCJD @?AI RM GRQ PCJ?VCB QF?NCrA?JJCB ? E8FGBE<A: 9BE68r?Q ? QR?LB?PB. 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD ?JJ MRFCP DMPACQ A?L @C QR?RCB ?Q KSJRGNJCQ MD RFGQ QR?LB?PB SLGR MD DMPAC. -?LW MRFCP NMQQG@GJGRGCQ CVGQR DMP QR?LB?PB DMPACQ. (/LC RF?R UC UGJJ CLAMSLRCP GL &7=D;J?IC GQ RFC K?ELCRGA DMPAC @CRUCCL RUM UGPCQ A?PPWGLE CJCARPGA ASPPCLR.) 3MKC ?JRCPL?RGTC BCDGLGRGMLQ MD DMPAC UGJJ @C EGTCL J?RCP GL RFGQ AF?NRCP.

F?=KH; 4.4 4FC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W ? QRPCRAFCB QNPGLE A?L @C SQCB ?Q ? QR?LB?PB SLGR MD DMPAC. (?) 4FGQ QNPGLE F?Q ? JCLERF

x UFCL SLBGQRMPRCB. (@) 7FCL QRPCRAFCB ? BGQR?LAC x , RFC QNPGLE CVCPRQ ? PCQRMPGLE DMPAC, F restore , UFGAF GQ PCNPMBSAG@JC. (A) ! QNPGLE QA?JC GQ MLC BCTGAC RF?R SQCQ ? QNPGLE RM KC?QSPC DMPAC. 4FC DMPAC F restore GQ CVCPRCB ML UF?RCTCP GQ ?RR?AFCB RM RFC FMMI. (CPC F restore F?Q ? K?ELGRSBC MD 6 SLGRQ GL RFC DMPAC QR?LB?PB @CGLE CKNJMWCB.
4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLR: &MPAC 3R?LB?PBQ 4M GLTCQRGE?RC DMPAC QR?LB?PBQ ?LB A?SQC ?LB CDDCAR, ECR RUM GBCLRGA?J PS@@CP @?LBQ. (?LE MLC PS@@CP @?LB TCPRGA?JJW ML ? FMMI. &GLB ? QK?JJ FMSQCFMJB GRCK RF?R AMSJB @C ?RR?AFCB RM RFC PS@@CP @?LB SQGLE ? N?NCP AJGN, ?LB SQC RFGQ GRCK ?Q ? UCGEFR RM GLTCQRGE?RC RFC QRPCRAF MD RFC PS@@CP @?LB. -C?QSPC RFC ?KMSLR MD QRPCRAF NPMBSACB GL RFC PS@@CP @?LB UGRF MLC, RUM, ?LB DMSP MD RFCQC (GBCLRGA?J) GRCKQ QSQNCLBCB DPMK RFC PS@@CP @?LB. 7F?R GQ RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL RFC LSK@CP MD GRCKQ ?LB RFC ?KMSLR MD QRPCRAF? (MU J?PEC ? QRPCRAF UMSJB WMS CVNCAR DMP RFC Q?KC LSK@CP MD GRCKQ QSQNCLBCB DPMK RUM PS@@CP @?LBQ? 7F?R F?NNCLQ RM RFC ?KMSLR MD QRPCRAF MD RFC PS@@CP @?LB (UGRF RFC UCGEFRQ ?RR?AFCB) GD RFC UCGEFRQ ?PC ?JQM NSQFCB RM RFC QGBC UGRF ? NCLAGJ?

4.2 ';MJEDXI F?HIJ %7M E< &EJ?ED: "D;HJ?7


%VNCPGCLAC QSEECQRQ RF?R ?L M@HCAR ?R PCQR UGJJ PCK?GL ?R PCQR GD JCDR ?JMLC, ?LB RF?R ?L M@HCAR GL KMRGML RCLBQ RM QJMU BMUL ?LB QRMN SLJCQQ QMKC CDDMPR GQ K?BC RM ICCN GR KMTGLE. 7F?R ';MJEDXI <?HIJ B7M E< CEJ?ED QR?RCQ, FMUCTCP, GQ RFC DMJJMUGLE: .CURMLtQ &GPQR ,?U MD -MRGML ! @MBW ?R PCQR PCK?GLQ ?R PCQR, MP, GD GL KMRGML, PCK?GLQ GL KMRGML ?R ? AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW SLJCQQ ?ARCB ML @W ? LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC. .MRC RFC PCNC?RCB SQC MD RFC TCP@ uPCK?GLQ.v 7C A?L RFGLI MD RFGQ J?U ?Q NPCQCPTGLE RFC QR?RSQ OSM MD KMRGML. 2?RFCP RF?L AMLRP?BGARGLE MSP CVNCPGCLAC, ';MJEDXI <?HIJ B7M E< CEJ?ED QR?RCQ RF?R RFCPC KSQR @C ? 64HF8 (UFGAF GQ ? LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC) 9BE G;8E8 GB 58 4AL 6;4A:8 <A I8?B6<GL (8<G;8E 4 6;4A:8 <A @4:A<GH78 BE 7<E86G<BA). 7C UGJJ BCDGLC A8G 8KG8EA4? 9BE68 GL RFC LCVR QCARGML. !L M@HCAR QJGBGLE ?APMQQ ? R?@JC MP DJMMP QJMUQ BMUL BSC RM RFC LCR DMPAC MD DPGARGML ?ARGLE ML RFC M@HCAR. )D DPGARGML BGQ?NNC?PCB, UMSJB RFC M@HCAR QRGJJ QJMU BMUL? 4FC GBC? MD A?SQC ?LB CDDCAR GQ APSAG?J GL ?AASP?RCJW BCQAPG@GLE UF?R F?NNCLQ GL T?PGMSQ QGRS?RGMLQ. &MP CV?KNJC, AMLQGBCP UF?R F?NNCLQ RM ?L M@HCAR QJGBGLE ?JMLE ? PMSEF FMPGXMLR?J QSPD?AC. 4FC M@HCAR OSGAIJW EPGLBQ RM ? F?JR. )D UC QNP?W RFC QSPD?AC UGRF R?JASK NMUBCP RM K?IC RFC QSPD?AC QKMMRFCP,

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RFC M@HCAR QJGBCQ D?PRFCP. )D UC K?IC RFC QSPD?AC CTCL QKMMRFCP @W PS@@GLE JS@PGA?RGLE MGJ ML GR, RFC M@HCAR QJGBCQ D?PRFCP WCR. %VRP?NMJ?RGLE RM ? DPGARGMLJCQQ QSPD?AC, UC A?L GK?EGLC RFC M@HCAR QJGBGLE GL ? QRP?GEFR JGLC GLBCDGLGRCJW. &PGARGML GQ RFSQ RFC 64HF8 MD RFC QJMUGLE (AMLQGQRCLR UGRF .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U). 4FC M@HCAR UMSJB LMR QJMU BMUL ?R ?JJ GD DPGARGML UCPC AMKNJCRCJW CJGKGL?RCB. #MLQGBCP ?L ?GP FMAICW R?@JC. 7FCL RFC ?GP GQ RSPLCB MDD, RFC NSAI QJGBCQ MLJW ? QFMPR BGQR?LAC @CDMPC DPGARGML QJMUQ GR RM ? QRMN. (MUCTCP, UFCL RFC ?GP GQ RSPLCB ML, GR APC?RCQ ? LC?PJW DPGARGMLJCQQ QSPD?AC, ?LB RFC NSAI EJGBCQ JMLE BGQR?LACQ UGRFMSR QJMUGLE BMUL. !BBGRGML?JJW, GD UC ILMU CLMSEF ?@MSR RFC DPGARGML, UC A?L ?AASP?RCJW NPCBGAR FMU OSGAIJW RFC M@HCAR UGJJ QJMU BMUL. &PGARGML GQ ?L CVRCPL?J DMPAC. .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U GQ AMKNJCRCJW ECLCP?J ?LB A?L @C ?NNJGCB RM ?LWRFGLE DPMK ?L M@HCAR QJGBGLE ML ? R?@JC RM ? Q?RCJJGRC GL MP@GR RM @JMMB NSKNCB DPMK RFC FC?PR. %VNCPGKCLRQ F?TC RFMPMSEFJW TCPGDGCB RF?R ?LW AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW (QNCCB MP BGPCARGML) KSQR @C A?SQCB @W ?L CVRCPL?J DMPAC. 4FC GBC? MD :8A8E4??L 4CC?<645?8 BE HA<I8EF4? ?4JF GQ GKNMPR?LR LMR MLJW FCPCrGR GQ ? @?QGA DC?RSPC MD ?JJ J?UQ MD NFWQGAQ. )BCLRGDWGLE RFCQC J?UQ GQ JGIC PCAMELGXGLE N?RRCPLQ GL L?RSPC DPMK UFGAF DSPRFCP N?RRCPLQ A?L @C BGQAMTCPCB. 4FC ECLGSQ MD '?JGJCM, UFM DGPQR BCTCJMNCB RFC GBC? DMP RFC DGPQR J?U, ?LB .CURML, UFM AJ?PGDGCB GR, U?Q RM ?QI RFC DSLB?KCLR?J OSCQRGML, u7F?R GQ RFC A?SQC?v 4FGLIGLE GL RCPKQ MD A?SQC ?LB CDDCAR GQ ? UMPJBTGCU DSLB?KCLR?JJW BGDDCPCLR DPMK RFC RWNGA?J ?LAGCLR 'PCCI ?NNPM?AF UFCL OSCQRGMLQ QSAF ?Q u7FW BMCQ ? RGECP F?TC QRPGNCQ?v UMSJB F?TC @CCL ?LQUCPCB GL !PGQRMRCJG?L D?QFGML, u4F?R GQ RFC L?RSPC MD RFC @C?QR.v 4PSC NCPF?NQ, @SR LMR ? SQCDSJ GLQGEFR.

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C>;9A 2EKH .D:;HIJ7D:?D=


7FGAF F?Q KMPC K?QQ: ? IGJMEP?K MD AMRRML @?JJQ MP ? IGJMEP?K MD EMJB? ,EBKJ?ED 4FCW ?PC COS?J. ! IGJMEP?K MD MLC QS@QR?LAC GQ COS?J GL K?QQ RM ? IGJMEP?K MD ?LMRFCP QS@QR?LAC. 4FC OS?LRGRGCQ RF?R KGEFR BGDDCP @CRUCCL RFCK ?PC TMJSKC ?LB BCLQGRW.

4.3 ';MJEDXI ,;9ED: %7M E< &EJ?ED: CED9;FJ E< 7 ,OIJ;C


';MJEDXI I;9ED: B7M E< CEJ?ED GQ AJMQCJW PCJ?RCB RM .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U MD KMRGML. )R K?RFCK?RGA?JJW QR?RCQ RFC A?SQC ?LB CDDCAR PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL DMPAC ?LB AF?LECQ GL KMRGML. .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML GQ KMPC OS?LRGR?RGTC ?LB GQ SQCB CVRCLQGTCJW RM A?JASJ?RC UF?R F?NNCLQ GL QGRS?RGMLQ GLTMJTGLE ? DMPAC. "CDMPC UC A?L UPGRC BMUL .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U ?Q ? QGKNJC COS?RGML EGTGLE RFC CV?AR PCJ?RGMLQFGN MD DMPAC, K?QQ, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML, UC LCCB RM QF?PNCL QMKC GBC?Q RF?R F?TC ?JPC?BW @CCL KCLRGMLCB. &GPQR, UF?R BM UC KC?L @W ? AF?LEC GL KMRGML? 4FC ?LQUCP GQ RF?R ? AF?LEC GL KMRGML GQ COSGT?JCLR RM ? AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW. ! AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW KC?LQ, @W BCDGLGRGML, RF?R RFCPC GQ ?L 799;B;H7J?ED. .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U Q?WQ RF?R ? LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC A?SQCQ ? AF?LEC GL KMRGML; RFSQ, UC QCC RF?R ? A8G 8KG8EA4? 9BE68 64HF8F 4668?8E4G<BA. !LMRFCP OSCQRGML GKKCBG?RCJW ?PGQCQ. 7F?R BM UC KC?L @W ?L CVRCPL?J DMPAC? !L GLRSGRGTC LMRGML MD CVRCPL?J GQ AMPPCARr?L ;NJ;HD7B <EH9; ?ARQ DPMK MSRQGBC RFC IOIJ;C MD GLRCPCQR. &MP CV?KNJC, GL F?=KH; 4.5(?) RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR GQ RFC U?EML NJSQ RFC AFGJB GL GR. 4FC RUM DMPACQ CVCPRCB @W RFC MRFCP AFGJBPCL ?PC CVRCPL?J DMPACQ. !L GLRCPL?J DMPAC ?ARQ @CRUCCL CJCKCLRQ MD RFC QWQRCK. !E?GL JMMIGLE ?R F?=KH; 4.5(?), RFC DMPAC RFC AFGJB GL RFC U?EML CVCPRQ RM F?LE MLRM RFC U?EML GQ ?L GLRCPL?J DMPAC @CRUCCL CJCKCLRQ MD RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR. /LJW CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?DDCAR RFC KMRGML MD ? QWQRCK, ?AAMPBGLE RM .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U. (4FC GLRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARS?JJW A?LACJ, ?Q UC QF?JJ QCC GL RFC LCVR QCARGML.) 0BH @HFG 789<A8 G;8 5BHA74E<8F B9 G;8 FLFG8@ 589BE8 LBH 64A 78G8E@<A8 J;<6; 9BE68F 4E8 8KG8EA4?. 3MKCRGKCQ RFC QWQRCK GQ M@TGMSQ, UFCPC?Q MRFCP RGKCQ GBCLRGDWGLE RFC @MSLB?PGCQ MD ? QWQRCK GQ KMPC QS@RJC. 4FC AMLACNR MD ? QWQRCK GQ DSLB?KCLR?J RM K?LW ?PC?Q MD NFWQGAQ, ?Q GQ RFC AMPPCAR ?NNJGA?RGML MD .CURMLtQ J?UQ. 4FGQ AMLACNR UGJJ @C PCTGQGRCB K?LW RGKCQ ML MSP HMSPLCW RFPMSEF NFWQGAQ.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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129

F?=KH; 4.5 $GDDCPCLR DMPACQ CVCPRCB ML RFC Q?KC K?QQ NPMBSAC BGDDCPCLR ?AACJCP?RGMLQ. (?) 4UM AFGJBPCL NSQF ? U?EML UGRF ? AFGJB GL GR. !PPMUQ PCNPCQCLRGLE ?JJ CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?PC QFMUL. 4FC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR GQ RFC U?EML ?LB GRQ PGBCP. 4FC UCGEFR ?QQSKCB RM A?LACJ. 4FC TCARMP

MD RFC QWQRCK ?LB RFC QSNNMPR MD RFC EPMSLB

?PC ?JQM QFMUL DMP AMKNJCRCLCQQ ?LB ?PC

PCNPCQCLRQ RFC DPGARGML ?ARGLE ML RFC U?EML, ?LB GR ?ARQ RM RFC JCDR, MNNMQGLE RFC KMRGML MD RFC U?EML. (@) !JJ MD RFC CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML

RFC QWQRCK ?BB RMECRFCP RM NPMBSAC ? LCR DMPAC, ? J?PECP ?AACJCP?RGML ( a

F net . 4FC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K QFMUQ ?JJ MD RFC DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR. 4FC BMR PCNPCQCLRQ RFC ACLRCP MD K?QQ

MD RFC QWQRCK. %?AF DMPAC TCARMP CVRCLBQ DPMK RFGQ BMR. "CA?SQC RFCPC ?PC RUM DMPACQ ?ARGLE RM RFC PGEFR, UC BP?U RFC TCARMPQ AMJJGLC?PJW. (A) ! J?PECP LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC NPMBSACQ

> a ) UFCL ?L ?BSJR NSQFCQ RFC AFGJB.

.MU, GR QCCKQ PC?QML?@JC RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML QFMSJB @C BGPCARJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM ?LB GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC LCR (RMR?J) CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML ? QWQRCK. 4FGQ ?QQSKNRGML F?Q @CCL TCPGDGCB CVNCPGKCLR?JJW ?LB GQ GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 4.5. )L N?PR (?), ? QK?JJCP DMPAC A?SQCQ ? QK?JJCP ?AACJCP?RGML RF?L RFC J?PECP DMPAC GJJSQRP?RCB GL N?PR (A). &MP AMKNJCRCLCQQ, RFC TCPRGA?J DMPACQ ?PC ?JQM QFMUL; RFCW ?PC ?QQSKCB RM A?LACJ QGLAC RFCPC GQ LM ?AACJCP?RGML GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML. 4FC TCPRGA?J DMPACQ ?PC RFC UCGEFR w ?LB RFC QSNNMPR MD RFC EPMSLB N , ?LB RFC FMPGXMLR?J DMPAC f PCNPCQCLRQ RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML. 4FCQC UGJJ @C BGQASQQCB GL KMPC BCR?GJ GL J?RCP QCARGMLQ. &MP LMU, UC UGJJ BCDGLC <H?9J?ED ?Q ? DMPAC RF?R MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML N?QR C?AF MRFCP MD M@HCARQ RF?R ?PC RMSAFGLE. F?=KH; 4.5(@) QFMUQ FMU TCARMPQ PCNPCQCLRGLE RFC CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?BB RMECRFCP RM NPMBSAC ? LCR DMPAC, F net . 4M M@R?GL ?L COS?RGML DMP .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U, UC DGPQR UPGRC RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN MD ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?Q RFC NPMNMPRGML?JGRW

a F net ,
UFCPC RFC QWK@MJ

(4.1)

KC?LQ uNPMNMPRGML?J RM,v ?LB F net GQ RFC D;J ;NJ;HD7B <EH9;. (4FC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ RFC TCARMP QSK MD ?JJ CVRCPL?J DMPACQ

?LB A?L @C BCRCPKGLCB EP?NFGA?JJW, SQGLE RFC FC?B-RM-R?GJ KCRFMB, MP ?L?JWRGA?JJW, SQGLE AMKNMLCLRQ. 4FC RCAFLGOSCQ ?PC RFC Q?KC ?Q DMP RFC ?BBGRGML MD MRFCP TCARMPQ, ?LB ?PC AMTCPCB GL -ME-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I.) 4FGQ NPMNMPRGML?JGRW QR?RCQ UF?R UC F?TC Q?GB GL UMPBQr4668?8E4G<BA <F 7<E86G?L CEBCBEG<BA4? GB G;8 A8G 8KG8EA4? 9BE68. /LAC RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR GQ AFMQCL, GR GQ GKNMPR?LR RM GBCLRGDW RFC CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?LB GELMPC RFC GLRCPL?J MLCQ. )R GQ ? RPCKCLBMSQ QGKNJGDGA?RGML LMR RM F?TC RM AMLQGBCP RFC LSKCPMSQ GLRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE @CRUCCL M@HCARQ UGRFGL RFC QWQRCK, QSAF ?Q KSQASJ?P DMPACQ UGRFGL RFC AFGJBt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

1 am

(4.2)

UFCPC m GQ RFC K?QQ MD RFC QWQRCK. %VNCPGKCLRQ F?TC QFMUL RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML GQ CV?ARJW GLTCPQCJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM K?QQ, HSQR ?Q GR GQ CV?ARJW JGLC?PJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC.

130

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

F?=KH; 4.6 4FC Q?KC DMPAC CVCPRCB ML QWQRCKQ MD BGDDCPCLR K?QQCQ NPMBSACQ BGDDCPCLR ?AACJCP?RGMLQ. (?) ! @?QICR@?JJ NJ?WCP NSQFCQ ML ? @?QICR@?JJ RM K?IC ? N?QQ. (4FC CDDCAR MD EP?TGRW ML RFC @?JJ GQ GELMPCB.) (@) 4FC Q?KC NJ?WCP CVCPRQ ?L GBCLRGA?J DMPAC ML ? QR?JJCB 356 ?LB NPMBSACQ ? D?P QK?JJCP ?AACJCP?RGML (CTCL GD DPGARGML GQ LCEJGEG@JC). (A) 4FC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?KQ ?PC GBCLRGA?J, NCPKGRRGLE BGPCAR AMKN?PGQML MD RFC RUM QGRS?RGMLQ. ! QCPGCQ MD N?RRCPLQ DMP RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K UGJJ CKCPEC ?Q WMS BM KMPC NPM@JCKQ.

)R F?Q @CCL DMSLB RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ?L M@HCAR BCNCLBQ BA?L ML RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?LB RFC K?QQ MD RFC M@HCAR. #MK@GLGLE RFC RUM NPMNMPRGML?JGRGCQ HSQR EGTCL WGCJBQ .CURML'Q QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML. .CURMLtQ 3CAMLB ,?U MD -MRGML 4FC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? QWQRCK GQ BGPCARJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM ?LB GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC QWQRCK, ?LB GLTCPQCJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM GRQ K?QQ. )L COS?RGML DMPK, .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML GQ

F net a= m .
4FGQ GQ MDRCL UPGRRCL GL RFC KMPC D?KGJG?P DMPK

(4.3)

F net = ma.
7FCL MLJW RFC K?ELGRSBC MD DMPAC ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML ?PC AMLQGBCPCB, RFGQ COS?RGML GQ QGKNJW

(4.4)

F net = ma.

(4.5)

!JRFMSEF RFCQC J?QR RUM COS?RGMLQ ?PC PC?JJW RFC Q?KC, RFC DGPQR EGTCQ KMPC GLQGEFR GLRM UF?R .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U KC?LQ. 4FC J?U GQ ? 64HF8 4A7 89986G E8?4G<BAF;<C ?KMLE RFPCC OS?LRGRGCQ RF?R GQ LMR QGKNJW @?QCB ML RFCGP BCDGLGRGMLQ. 4FC T?JGBGRW MD RFC QCAMLB J?U GQ AMKNJCRCJW @?QCB ML CVNCPGKCLR?J TCPGDGA?RGML.

5LGRQ MD &MPAC F net = ma GQ SQCB RM BCDGLC RFC SLGRQ MD DMPAC GL RCPKQ MD RFC RFPCC @?QGA SLGRQ DMP K?QQ, JCLERF, ?LB RGKC. 4FC 3) SLGR MD DMPAC GQ A?JJCB RFC D;MJED
(?@@PCTG?RCB .) ?LB GQ RFC DMPAC LCCBCB RM ?AACJCP?RC ? 1-IE QWQRCK ?R RFC P?RC MD

1m/s 2 . 4F?R GQ, QGLAC F net = ma ,

1 N = 1 kg m/s 2.

(4.6)

7FGJC ?JKMQR RFC CLRGPC UMPJB SQCQ RFC LCURML DMP RFC SLGR MD DMPAC, GL RFC 5LGRCB 3R?RCQ RFC KMQR D?KGJG?P SLGR MD DMPAC GQ RFC NMSLB (J@), UFCPC 1 . = 0.225 J@.

7CGEFR ?LB RFC 'P?TGR?RGML?J &MPAC


7FCL ?L M@HCAR GQ BPMNNCB, GR ?AACJCP?RCQ RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP MD %?PRF. .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U QR?RCQ RF?R ? LCR DMPAC ML ?L M@HCAR GQ PCQNMLQG@JC DMP GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML. )D ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC, RFC LCR DMPAC ML ? D?JJGLE M@HCAR GQ RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC, AMKKMLJW A?JJCB GRQ M;?=>J w . 7CGEFR A?L @C BCLMRCB ?Q ? TCARMP w @CA?SQC GR F?Q ? BGPCARGML; 7BJA GQ, @W BCDGLGRGML, RFC BGPCARGML MD EP?TGRW, ?LB FCLAC UCGEFR GQ ? BMULU?PB DMPAC. 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD UCGEFR GQ BCLMRCB ?Q w . '?JGJCM U?Q GLQRPSKCLR?J GL QFMUGLE RF?R, GL RFC ?@QCLAC MD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC, ?JJ M@HCARQ D?JJ UGRF RFC Q?KC ?AACJCP?RGML g . 5QGLE '?JGJCMtQ PCQSJR ?LB .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U, UC A?L BCPGTC ?L COS?RGML DMP UCGEFR. #MLQGBCP ?L M@HCAR UGRF K?QQ .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U QR?RCQ RF?R RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML ?L M@HCAR GQ 3GLAC RFC M@HCAR CVNCPGCLACQ MLJW RFC BMULU?PB DMPAC MD EP?TGRW,

m D?JJGLE BMULU?PB RMU?PB %?PRF. )R CVNCPGCLACQ MLJW RFC BMULU?PB DMPAC MD EP?TGRW, UFGAF F?Q K?ELGRSBC w . F net = ma . F net = w . 7C ILMU RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ?L M@HCAR BSC RM EP?TGRW GQ g , MP

a = g . 3S@QRGRSRGLE RFCQC GLRM .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U EGTCQ


7CGEFR

4FGQ GQ RFC COS?RGML DMP J8<:;GrRFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC ML ? K?QQ

m: w = mg.
(4.7)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

131

3GLAC

g = 9.80 m/s 2 ML %?PRF, RFC UCGEFR MD ? 1.0 IE M@HCAR ML %?PRF GQ 9.8 ., ?Q UC QCC: w = mg = (1.0 kg)(9.80 m/s 2 ) = 9.8 N.
(4.8)

2CA?JJ RF?R

g A?L R?IC ? NMQGRGTC MP LCE?RGTC T?JSC, BCNCLBGLE ML RFC NMQGRGTC BGPCARGML GL RFC AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK. "C QSPC RM R?IC RFGQ GLRM

AMLQGBCP?RGML UFCL QMJTGLE NPM@JCKQ UGRF UCGEFR. 7FCL RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML ?L M@HCAR GQ GRQ UCGEFR, UC Q?W RF?R GR GQ GL <H;;-<7BB. 4F?R GQ, RFC MLJW DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC M@HCAR GQ RFC DMPAC MD EP?TGRW. )L RFC PC?J UMPJB, UFCL M@HCARQ D?JJ BMULU?PB RMU?PB %?PRF, RFCW ?PC LCTCP RPSJW GL DPCC-D?JJ @CA?SQC RFCPC GQ ?JU?WQ QMKC SNU?PB DMPAC DPMK RFC ?GP ?ARGLE ML RFC M@HCAR. 4FC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW

g T?PGCQ QJGEFRJW MTCP RFC QSPD?AC MD %?PRF, QM RF?R RFC UCGEFR MD ?L M@HCAR BCNCLBQ ML JMA?RGML ?LB GQ LMR ?L GLRPGLQGA

NPMNCPRW MD RFC M@HCAR. 7CGEFR T?PGCQ BP?K?RGA?JJW GD MLC JC?TCQ %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC. /L RFC -MML, DMP CV?KNJC, RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW GQ MLJW 1.67 m/s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uUCGEFRJCQQLCQQv ?LB uKGAPMEP?TGRW,v RFCW ?PC PC?JJW PCDCPPGLE RM RFC NFCLMKCLML UC A?JJ uDPCC-D?JJv GL NFWQGAQ. 7C QF?JJ SQC RFC ?@MTC BCDGLGRGML MD UCGEFR, ?LB UC UGJJ K?IC A?PCDSJ BGQRGLARGMLQ @CRUCCL DPCC-D?JJ ?LB ?ARS?J UCGEFRJCQQLCQQ. )R GQ GKNMPR?LR RM @C ?U?PC RF?R UCGEFR ?LB K?QQ ?PC TCPW BGDDCPCLR NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ, ?JRFMSEF RFCW ?PC AJMQCJW PCJ?RCB. -?QQ GQ RFC OS?LRGRW MD K?RRCP (FMU KSAF uQRSDDv) ?LB BMCQ LMR T?PW GL AJ?QQGA?J NFWQGAQ, UFCPC?Q UCGEFR GQ RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC ?LB BMCQ T?PW BCNCLBGLE ML EP?TGRW. )R GQ RCKNRGLE RM COS?RC RFC RUM, QGLAC KMQR MD MSP CV?KNJCQ R?IC NJ?AC ML %?PRF, UFCPC RFC UCGEFR MD ?L M@HCAR MLJW T?PGCQ ? JGRRJC UGRF RFC JMA?RGML MD RFC M@HCAR. &SPRFCPKMPC, RFC RCPKQ @4FF ?LB J8<:;G ?PC SQCB GLRCPAF?LEC?@JW GL CTCPWB?W J?LES?EC; DMP CV?KNJC, MSP KCBGA?J PCAMPBQ MDRCL QFMU MSP uUCGEFRv GL IGJMEP?KQ, @SR LCTCP GL RFC AMPPCAR SLGRQ MD LCURMLQ. #MKKML -GQAMLACNRGMLQ: -?QQ TQ. 7CGEFR -?QQ ?LB UCGEFR ?PC MDRCL SQCB GLRCPAF?LEC?@JW GL CTCPWB?W J?LES?EC. (MUCTCP, GL QAGCLAC, RFCQC RCPKQ ?PC BGQRGLARJW BGDDCPCLR DPMK MLC ?LMRFCP. -?QQ GQ ? KC?QSPC MD FMU KSAF K?RRCP GQ GL ?L M@HCAR. 4FC RWNGA?J KC?QSPC MD K?QQ GQ RFC IGJMEP?K (MP RFC uQJSEv GL %LEJGQF SLGRQ). 7CGEFR, ML RFC MRFCP F?LB, GQ ? KC?QSPC MD RFC DMPAC MD EP?TGRW ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR. 7CGEFR GQ COS?J RM RFC K?QQ MD ?L M@HCAR ( m ) KSJRGNJGCB @W RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW ( g ). ,GIC ?LW MRFCP DMPAC, UCGEFR GQ KC?QSPCB GL RCPKQ MD LCURMLQ (MP NMSLBQ GL %LEJGQF SLGRQ). !QQSKGLE RFC K?QQ MD ?L M@HCAR GQ ICNR GLR?AR, GR UGJJ PCK?GL RFC Q?KC, PCE?PBJCQQ MD GRQ JMA?RGML. (MUCTCP, @CA?SQC UCGEFR BCNCLBQ ML RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW, RFC UCGEFR MD ?L M@HCAR 64A 6;4A:8 UFCL RFC M@HCAR CLRCPQ GLRM ? PCEGML UGRF QRPMLECP MP UC?ICP EP?TGRW. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW ML RFC -MML GQ 1.67 m/s 2 (UFGAF GQ KSAF JCQQ RF?L RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW ML %?PRF, 9.80 m/s 2 ). )D WMS KC?QSPCB WMSP UCGEFR ML %?PRF ?LB RFCL KC?QSPCB WMSP UCGEFR ML RFC -MML, WMS UMSJB DGLB RF?R WMS uUCGEFv KSAF JCQQ, CTCL RFMSEF WMS BM LMR JMMI ?LW QIGLLGCP. 4FGQ GQ @CA?SQC RFC DMPAC MD EP?TGRW GQ UC?ICP ML RFC -MML. )L D?AR, UFCL NCMNJC Q?W RF?R RFCW ?PC uJMQGLE UCGEFR,v RFCW PC?JJW KC?L RF?R RFCW ?PC JMQGLE uK?QQv (UFGAF GL RSPL A?SQCQ RFCK RM UCGEF JCQQ). 4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLR: -?QQ ?LB 7CGEFR 7F?R BM @?RFPMMK QA?JCQ KC?QSPC? 7FCL WMS QR?LB ML ? @?RFPMMK QA?JC, UF?R F?NNCLQ RM RFC QA?JC? )R BCNPCQQCQ QJGEFRJW. 4FC QA?JC AMLR?GLQ QNPGLEQ RF?R AMKNPCQQ GL NPMNMPRGML RM WMSP UCGEFRrQGKGJ?P RM PS@@CP @?LBQ CVN?LBGLE UFCL NSJJCB. 4FC QNPGLEQ NPMTGBC ? KC?QSPC MD WMSP UCGEFR (DMP ?L M@HCAR UFGAF GQ LMR ?AACJCP?RGLE). 4FGQ GQ ? DMPAC GL LCURMLQ (MP NMSLBQ). )L KMQR AMSLRPGCQ, RFC KC?QSPCKCLR GQ BGTGBCB @W 9.80 RM EGTC ? PC?BGLE GL K?QQ SLGRQ MD IGJMEP?KQ. 4FC QA?JC KC?QSPCQ UCGEFR @SR GQ A?JG@P?RCB RM NPMTGBC GLDMPK?RGML ?@MSR K?QQ. 7FGJC QR?LBGLE ML ? @?RFPMMK QA?JC, NSQF BMUL ML ? R?@JC LCVR RM WMS. 7F?R F?NNCLQ RM RFC PC?BGLE? 7FW? 7MSJB WMSP QA?JC KC?QSPC RFC Q?KC uK?QQv ML %?PRF ?Q ML RFC -MML?

EN7CFB; 4.1 0>7J A99;B;H7J?ED C7D 7 );HIED )HE:K9; M>;D )KI>?D= 7 %7MD &EM;H?
3SNNMQC RF?R RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC (NSQF KGLSQ DPGARGML) CVCPRCB ML ? J?UL KMUCP GQ 51 . (?@MSR 11 J@) N?P?JJCJ RM RFC EPMSLB. 4FC K?QQ MD RFC KMUCP GQ 24 IE. 7F?R GQ GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML?

132

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

F?=KH; 4.7 4FC LCR DMPAC ML ? J?UL KMUCP GQ 51 . RM RFC PGEFR. !R UF?R P?RC BMCQ RFC J?UL KMUCP ?AACJCP?RC RM RFC PGEFR?

,JH7J;=O 3GLAC

F net ?LB m ?PC EGTCL, RFC ?AACJCP?RGML A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB BGPCARJW DPMK .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U ?Q QR?RCB GL F net = ma . F net a GQ a = m . %LRCPGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ EGTCQ a = 51 N 24 kg
(4.9)

,EBKJ?ED 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML

3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC SLGRQ

kg m/s 2 DMP . WGCJBQ a= 51 kg m/s 2 = 2.1 m/s 2. 24 kg


(4.10)

D?I9KII?ED 4FC BGPCARGML MD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RF?R MD RFC LCR DMPAC, UFGAF GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC EPMSLB. 4FCPC GQ LM GLDMPK?RGML EGTCL GL RFGQ CV?KNJC ?@MSR RFC GLBGTGBS?J CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC QWQRCK, @SR UC A?L Q?W QMKCRFGLE ?@MSR RFCGP PCJ?RGTC K?ELGRSBCQ. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W RFC NCPQML NSQFGLE RFC KMUCP KSQR @C EPC?RCP RF?L RFC DPGARGML MNNMQGLE RFC KMRGML (QGLAC UC ILMU RFC KMUCP KMTCQ DMPU?PB), ?LB RFC TCPRGA?J DMPACQ KSQR A?LACJ GD RFCPC GQ RM @C LM ?AACJCP?RGML GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML (RFC KMUCP GQ KMTGLE MLJW FMPGXMLR?JJW). 4FC ?AACJCP?RGML DMSLB GQ QK?JJ CLMSEF RM @C PC?QML?@JC DMP ? NCPQML NSQFGLE ? KMUCP. 3SAF ?L CDDMPR UMSJB LMR J?QR RMM JMLE @CA?SQC RFC NCPQMLtQ RMN QNCCB UMSJB QMML @C PC?AFCB.

EN7CFB; 4.2 0>7J +E9A;J ->HKIJ A99;B;H7J;I ->?I ,B;:?


0PGMP RM K?LLCB QN?AC DJGEFRQ, PMAICR QJCBQ UCPC SQCB RM RCQR ?GPAP?DR, KGQQGJC COSGNKCLR, ?LB NFWQGMJMEGA?J CDDCARQ ML FSK?L QS@HCARQ ?R FGEF QNCCBQ. 4FCW AMLQGQRCB MD ? NJ?RDMPK RF?R U?Q KMSLRCB ML MLC MP RUM P?GJQ ?LB NPMNCJJCB @W QCTCP?J PMAICRQ. #?JASJ?RC RFC K?ELGRSBC MD DMPAC CVCPRCB @W C?AF PMAICR, A?JJCB GRQ RFPSQR T , DMP RFC DMSP-PMAICR NPMNSJQGML QWQRCK QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.8. 4FC QJCBtQ GLGRG?J ?AACJCP?RGML GQ 49 m/s 2, RFC K?QQ MD RFC QWQRCK GQ 2100 IE, ?LB RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML MNNMQGLE RFC KMRGML GQ ILMUL RM @C 650 ..

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

133

F?=KH; 4.8 ! QJCB CVNCPGCLACQ ? PMAICR RFPSQR RF?R ?AACJCP?RCQ GR RM RFC PGEFR. %?AF PMAICR APC?RCQ ?L GBCLRGA?J RFPSQR FMPGXMLR?J ?AACJCP?RGML, RFC TCPRGA?J DMPACQ A?LACJ. 4FC EPMSLB CVCPRQ ?L SNU?PB DMPAC RF?L QA?JC.

w . 4FC QWQRCK FCPC GQ RFC QJCB, GRQ PMAICRQ, ?LB PGBCP, QM LMLC MD RFC DMPACQ 58GJ88A RFCQC M@HCARQ ?PC AMLQGBCPCB. 4FC ?PPMU PCNPCQCLRGLE DPGARGML ( f ) GQ BP?UL J?PECP

T . !Q GL MRFCP QGRS?RGMLQ UFCPC RFCPC GQ MLJW

ML RFC QWQRCK RF?R GQ COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML RM GRQ UCGEFR,

,JH7J;=O !JRFMSEF RFCPC ?PC DMPACQ ?ARGLE TCPRGA?JJW ?LB FMPGXMLR?JJW, UC ?QQSKC RFC TCPRGA?J DMPACQ A?LACJ QGLAC RFCPC GQ LM TCPRGA?J ?AACJCP?RGML. 4FGQ JC?TCQ SQ UGRF MLJW FMPGXMLR?J DMPACQ ?LB ? QGKNJCP MLC-BGKCLQGML?J NPM@JCK. $GPCARGMLQ ?PC GLBGA?RCB UGRF NJSQ MP KGLSQ QGELQ, UGRF PGEFR R?ICL ?Q RFC NMQGRGTC BGPCARGML. 3CC RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K GL RFC DGESPC. ,EBKJ?ED 3GLAC ?AACJCP?RGML, K?QQ, ?LB RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML ?PC EGTCL, UC QR?PR UGRF .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U ?LB JMMI DMP U?WQ RM DGLB RFC RFPSQR MD RFC CLEGLCQ. 3GLAC UC F?TC BCDGLCB RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC DMPAC ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML ?Q ?ARGLE uRM RFC PGEFR,v UC LCCB RM AMLQGBCP MLJW RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFCQC OS?LRGRGCQ GL RFC A?JASJ?RGMLQ. (CLAC UC @CEGL UGRF

F net = ma,

(4.11)

UFCPC F net GQ RFC LCR DMPAC ?JMLE RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML. 7C A?L QCC DPMK F?=KH; 4.8 RF?R RFC CLEGLC RFPSQRQ ?BB, UFGJC DPGARGML MNNMQCQ RFC RFPSQR. )L COS?RGML DMPK, RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ

F net = 4T f .
3S@QRGRSRGLE RFGQ GLRM .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U EGTCQ

(4.12)

F net = ma = 4T f .
5QGLE ? JGRRJC ?JEC@P?, UC QMJTC DMP RFC RMR?J RFPSQR 4+:

(4.13)

4T = ma + f .
3S@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ WGCJBQ

(4.14)

4T = ma + f = (2100 kg)(49 m/s 2 ) + 650 N.


3M RFC RMR?J RFPSQR GQ

(4.15)

4T = 1.010 5 N,
?LB RFC GLBGTGBS?J RFPSQRQ ?PC
5 T = 1.010 N = 2.510 4 N. 4

(4.16)

(4.17)

D?I9KII?ED 4FC LSK@CPQ ?PC OSGRC J?PEC, QM RFC PCQSJR KGEFR QSPNPGQC WMS. %VNCPGKCLRQ QSAF ?Q RFGQ UCPC NCPDMPKCB GL RFC C?PJW 1960Q RM RCQR RFC JGKGRQ MD FSK?L CLBSP?LAC ?LB RFC QCRSN BCQGELCB RM NPMRCAR FSK?L QS@HCARQ GL HCR DGEFRCP CKCPECLAW CHCARGMLQ. 3NCCBQ MD 1000 IK/F UCPC M@R?GLCB, UGRF ?AACJCP?RGMLQ MD 45 g 'Q. (2CA?JJ RF?R g , RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW, GQ 9.80 m/s 2 . 7FCL UC Q?W RF?R ?L ?AACJCP?RGML GQ 45 g 'Q, GR GQ

459.80 m/s 2 , UFGAF GQ ?NNPMVGK?RCJW 440 m/s 2 .) 7FGJC JGTGLE QS@HCARQ ?PC LMR SQCB ?LW KMPC, J?LB QNCCBQ MD 10,000 IK/F F?TC @CCL
M@R?GLCB UGRF PMAICR QJCBQ. )L RFGQ CV?KNJC, ?Q GL RFC NPCACBGLE MLC, RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR GQ M@TGMSQ. 7C UGJJ QCC GL J?RCP CV?KNJCQ RF?R AFMMQGLE RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR GQ APSAG?Jr?LB RFC AFMGAC GQ LMR ?JU?WQ M@TGMSQ.

134

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

.CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML GQ KMPC RF?L ? BCDGLGRGML; GR GQ ? PCJ?RGMLQFGN ?KMLE ?AACJCP?RGML, DMPAC, ?LB K?QQ. )R A?L FCJN SQ K?IC NPCBGARGMLQ. %?AF MD RFMQC NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ A?L @C BCDGLCB GLBCNCLBCLRJW, QM RFC QCAMLB J?U RCJJQ SQ QMKCRFGLE @?QGA ?LB SLGTCPQ?J ?@MSR L?RSPC. 4FC LCVR QCARGML GLRPMBSACQ RFC RFGPB ?LB DGL?J J?U MD KMRGML.

4.4 ';MJEDXI ->?H: %7M E< &EJ?ED: ,OCC;JHO ?D FEH9;I


4FCPC GQ ? N?QQ?EC GL RFC KSQGA?J $4A B9 ?4 $4A6;4 RF?R PCJ?RCQ RM .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U MD KMRGML. 3?LAFM, GL BCQAPG@GLE ? DGEFR UGRF FGQ UGDC RM $ML 1SGVMRC, Q?WQ, u/D AMSPQC ) FGR FCP @?AI, 9MSP 'P?AC, @SR QFCtQ ? JMR F?PBCP RF?L KC ?LB WMS ILMU UF?R RFCW Q?W, s7FCRFCP RFC QRMLC FGRQ RFC NGRAFCP MP RFC NGRAFCP FGRQ RFC QRMLC, GRtQ EMGLE RM @C @?B DMP RFC NGRAFCP.tv 4FGQ GQ CV?ARJW UF?R F?NNCLQ UFCLCTCP MLC @MBW CVCPRQ ? DMPAC ML ?LMRFCPrRFC DGPQR ?JQM CVNCPGCLACQ ? DMPAC (COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML). .SKCPMSQ AMKKML CVNCPGCLACQ, QSAF ?Q QRS@@GLE ? RMC MP RFPMUGLE ? @?JJ, AMLDGPK RFGQ. )R GQ NPCAGQCJW QR?RCB GL ';MJEDXI J>?H: B7M E< CEJ?ED. .CURMLtQ 4FGPB ,?U MD -MRGML 7FCLCTCP MLC @MBW CVCPRQ ? DMPAC ML ? QCAMLB @MBW, RFC DGPQR @MBW CVNCPGCLACQ ? DMPAC RF?R GQ COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML RM RFC DMPAC RF?R GR CVCPRQ. 4FGQ J?U PCNPCQCLRQ ? ACPR?GL FL@@8GEL <A A4GHE8: &MPACQ ?JU?WQ MAASP GL N?GPQ, ?LB MLC @MBW A?LLMR CVCPR ? DMPAC ML ?LMRFCP UGRFMSR CVNCPGCLAGLE ? DMPAC GRQCJD. 7C QMKCRGKCQ PCDCP RM RFGQ J?U JMMQCJW ?Q u?ARGML-PC?ARGML,v UFCPC RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB GQ RFC ?ARGML ?LB RFC DMPAC CVNCPGCLACB ?Q ? AMLQCOSCLAC GQ RFC PC?ARGML. .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U F?Q NP?ARGA?J SQCQ GL ?L?JWXGLE RFC MPGEGL MD DMPACQ ?LB SLBCPQR?LBGLE UFGAF DMPACQ ?PC CVRCPL?J RM ? QWQRCK. 7C A?L PC?BGJW QCC .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U ?R UMPI @W R?IGLE ? JMMI ?R FMU NCMNJC KMTC ?@MSR. #MLQGBCP ? QUGKKCP NSQFGLE MDD DPMK RFC QGBC MD ? NMMJ, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 4.9. 3FC NSQFCQ ?E?GLQR RFC NMMJ U?JJ UGRF FCP DCCR ?LB ?AACJCP?RCQ GL RFC BGPCARGML BCCBF<G8 RM RF?R MD FCP NSQF. 4FC U?JJ F?Q CVCPRCB ?L COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC DMPAC @?AI ML RFC QUGKKCP. 9MS KGEFR RFGLI RF?R RUM COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC DMPACQ UMSJB A?LACJ, @SR RFCW BM LMR 5864HF8 G;8L 46G BA 7<998E8AG FLFG8@F. )L RFGQ A?QC, RFCPC ?PC RUM QWQRCKQ RF?R UC AMSJB GLTCQRGE?RC: RFC QUGKKCP MP RFC U?JJ. )D UC QCJCAR RFC QUGKKCP RM @C RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR, ?Q GL RFC DGESPC, RFCL F wall on feet GQ ?L CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML RFGQ QWQRCK ?LB ?DDCARQ GRQ KMRGML. 4FC QUGKKCP KMTCQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MD

F wall on feet . )L AMLRP?QR, RFC DMPAC F feet on wall ?ARQ ML RFC U?JJ ?LB LMR ML MSP QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR. 4FSQ F feet on wall BMCQ LMR BGPCARJW

?DDCAR RFC KMRGML MD RFC QWQRCK ?LB BMCQ LMR A?LACJ

F wall on feet . .MRC RF?R RFC QUGKKCP NSQFCQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM RF?R GL UFGAF QFC UGQFCQ

RM KMTC. 4FC PC?ARGML RM FCP NSQF GQ RFSQ GL RFC BCQGPCB BGPCARGML.

F?=KH; 4.9 7FCL RFC QUGKKCP CVCPRQ ? DMPAC GQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM

F feet on wall . 4FGQ MNNMQGRGML MAASPQ @CA?SQC, GL ?AAMPB?LAC UGRF .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U MD KMRGML, RFC U?JJ CVCPRQ ? DMPAC F wall on feet F feet on wall

F feet on wall

ML RFC U?JJ, QFC ?AACJCP?RCQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM RF?R MD FCP NSQF. 4FGQ KC?LQ RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML FCP ML FCP,

COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC @SR GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM RFC MLC QFC CVCPRQ ML GR. 4FC JGLC ?PMSLB RFC QUGKKCP GLBGA?RCQ RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR. .MRC RF?R ?AR ML RFGQ QWQRCK (RFC QUGKKCP) ?LB, RFSQ, BMCQ LMR A?LACJ

BMCQ LMR

F wall on feet . 4FSQ RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K QFMUQ MLJW F wall on feet , w , RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC, ?LB BF , w
?LB

RFC @SMW?LR DMPAC MD RFC U?RCP QSNNMPRGLE RFC QUGKKCPtQ UCGEFR. 4FC TCPRGA?J DMPACQ

BF

A?LACJ QGLAC RFCPC GQ LM TCPRGA?J KMRGML.

/RFCP CV?KNJCQ MD .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U ?PC C?QW RM DGLB. !Q ? NPMDCQQMP N?ACQ GL DPMLR MD ? UFGRC@M?PB, QFC CVCPRQ ? DMPAC @?AIU?PB ML RFC DJMMP. 4FC DJMMP CVCPRQ ? PC?ARGML DMPAC DMPU?PB ML RFC NPMDCQQMP RF?R A?SQCQ FCP RM ?AACJCP?RC DMPU?PB. 3GKGJ?PJW, ? A?P ?AACJCP?RCQ @CA?SQC RFC EPMSLB NSQFCQ DMPU?PB ML RFC BPGTC UFCCJQ GL PC?ARGML RM RFC BPGTC UFCCJQ NSQFGLE @?AIU?PB ML RFC EPMSLB. 9MS A?L QCC CTGBCLAC MD RFC UFCCJQ NSQFGLE @?AIU?PB UFCL RGPCQ QNGL ML ? EP?TCJ PM?B ?LB RFPMU PMAIQ @?AIU?PB. )L ?LMRFCP CV?KNJC, PMAICRQ KMTC DMPU?PB @W CVNCJJGLE E?Q @?AIU?PB ?R FGEF TCJMAGRW. 4FGQ KC?LQ RFC PMAICR CVCPRQ ? J?PEC @?AIU?PB DMPAC ML RFC E?Q GL RFC PMAICR AMK@SQRGML AF?K@CP, ?LB RFC E?Q RFCPCDMPC CVCPRQ ? J?PEC PC?ARGML DMPAC DMPU?PB ML RFC PMAICR. 4FGQ PC?ARGML DMPAC GQ A?JJCB J>HKIJ. )R GQ ? AMKKML KGQAMLACNRGML RF?R PMAICRQ NPMNCJ RFCKQCJTCQ @W NSQFGLE ML RFC EPMSLB MP ML RFC ?GP @CFGLB RFCK. 4FCW ?ARS?JJW UMPI @CRRCP GL ? T?ASSK, UFCPC RFCW A?L KMPC PC?BGJW CVNCJ RFC CVF?SQR E?QCQ. (CJGAMNRCPQ QGKGJ?PJW APC?RC JGDR @W NSQFGLE ?GP BMUL, RFCPC@W CVNCPGCLAGLE ?L SNU?PB PC?ARGML DMPAC. "GPBQ ?LB ?GPNJ?LCQ ?JQM DJW @W CVCPRGLE DMPAC ML ?GP GL ? BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM RF?R MD UF?RCTCP DMPAC RFCW LCCB. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC UGLEQ MD ? @GPB DMPAC ?GP BMULU?PB ?LB @?AIU?PB GL MPBCP RM ECR JGDR ?LB KMTC DMPU?PB. !L MARMNSQ NPMNCJQ GRQCJD GL RFC U?RCP @W CHCARGLE U?RCP RFPMSEF ? DSLLCJ DPMK GRQ @MBW, QGKGJ?P RM ? HCR QIG. )L ? QGRS?RGML QGKGJ?P RM 3?LAFMtQ, NPMDCQQGML?J A?EC DGEFRCPQ CVNCPGCLAC PC?ARGML DMPACQ UFCL RFCW NSLAF, QMKCRGKCQ @PC?IGLE RFCGP F?LB @W FGRRGLE ?L MNNMLCLRtQ @MBW.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

135

EN7CFB; 4.3

;JJ?D= .F -E ,F;;:: C>EEI?D= J>; CEHH;9J ,OIJ;C

! NFWQGAQ NPMDCQQMP NSQFCQ ? A?PR MD BCKMLQRP?RGML COSGNKCLR RM ? JCARSPC F?JJ, ?Q QCCL GL F?=KH; 4.10. (CP K?QQ GQ 65.0 IE, RFC A?PRtQ GQ 12.0 IE, ?LB RFC COSGNKCLRtQ GQ 7.0 IE. #?JASJ?RC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML NPMBSACB UFCL RFC NPMDCQQMP CVCPRQ ? @?AIU?PB DMPAC MD 150 . ML RFC DJMMP. !JJ DMPACQ MNNMQGLE RFC KMRGML, QSAF ?Q DPGARGML ML RFC A?PRtQ UFCCJQ ?LB ?GP PCQGQR?LAC, RMR?J 24.0 ..

F?=KH; 4.10 ! NPMDCQQMP NSQFCQ ? A?PR MD BCKMLQRP?RGML COSGNKCLR. 4FC JCLERFQ MD RFC ?PPMUQ ?PC NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC DMPACQ (CVACNR DMP f , QGLAC GR GQ RMM QK?JJ RM BP?U RM QA?JC). $GDDCPCLR OSCQRGMLQ ?PC ?QICB GL C?AF CV?KNJC; RFSQ, RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR KSQR @C BCDGLCB BGDDCPCLRJW DMP C?AF. 3WQRCK 1 GQ ?NNPMNPG?RC DMP EN7CFB; 4.4, QGLAC GR ?QIQ DMP RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC CLRGPC EPMSN MD M@HCARQ. /LJW

F floor

?LB

?PC CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML 3WQRCK 1 ?JMLE RFC JGLC MD KMRGML. !JJ

MRFCP DMPACQ CGRFCP A?LACJ MP ?AR ML RFC MSRQGBC UMPJB. 3WQRCK 2 GQ AFMQCL DMP RFGQ CV?KNJC QM RF?R

F prof

UGJJ @C ?L CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?LB CLRCP GLRM .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U.

.MRC RF?R RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?KQ, UFGAF ?JJMU SQ RM ?NNJW .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U, T?PW UGRF RFC QWQRCK AFMQCL.

,JH7J;=O 3GLAC RFCW ?AACJCP?RC ?Q ? SLGR, UC BCDGLC RFC QWQRCK RM @C RFC NPMDCQQMP, A?PR, ?LB COSGNKCLR. 4FGQ GQ 3WQRCK 1 GL F?=KH; 4.10. 4FC NPMDCQQMP NSQFCQ @?AIU?PB UGRF ? DMPAC F foot MD 150 .. !AAMPBGLE RM .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U, RFC DJMMP CVCPRQ ? DMPU?PB PC?ARGML DMPAC F floor MD 150 . ML 3WQRCK 1. "CA?SQC ?JJ KMRGML GQ FMPGXMLR?J, UC A?L ?QQSKC RFCPC GQ LM LCR DMPAC GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML. 4FC NPM@JCK GQ RFCPCDMPC MLCBGKCLQGML?J ?JMLE RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML. !Q LMRCB, f MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML ?LB GQ RFSQ GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML MD F floor . .MRC RF?R UC BM LMR GLAJSBC RFC DMPACQ

F prof MP F cart @CA?SQC RFCQC ?PC GLRCPL?J DMPACQ, ?LB UC BM LMR GLAJSBC F foot @CA?SQC GR ?ARQ ML RFC DJMMP, LMR ML RFC

QWQRCK. 4FCPC ?PC LM MRFCP QGELGDGA?LR DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML 3WQRCK 1. )D RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC A?L @C DMSLB DPMK ?JJ RFGQ GLDMPK?RGML, UC A?L SQC .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U RM DGLB RFC ?AACJCP?RGML ?Q PCOSCQRCB. 3CC RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K GL RFC DGESPC. ,EBKJ?ED .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U GQ EGTCL @W

F net a= m .
4FC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML 3WQRCK 1 GQ BCBSACB DPMK F?=KH; 4.10 ?LB RFC BGQASQQGML ?@MTC RM @C

(4.18)

F net = F floor f = 150 N 24.0 N = 126 N.


4FC K?QQ MD 3WQRCK 1 GQ

(4.19)

m = (65.0 + 12.0 + 7.0) kg = 84 kg.


4FCQC T?JSCQ MD

(4.20)

F net ?LB m NPMBSAC ?L ?AACJCP?RGML MD F net a= m , a = 126 N = 1.5 m/s 2 . 84 kg


(4.21)

D?I9KII?ED .MLC MD RFC DMPACQ @CRUCCL AMKNMLCLRQ MD 3WQRCK 1, QSAF ?Q @CRUCCL RFC NPMDCQQMPtQ F?LBQ ?LB RFC A?PR, AMLRPG@SRC RM RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC @CA?SQC RFCW ?PC GLRCPL?J RM 3WQRCK 1. !LMRFCP U?W RM JMMI ?R RFGQ GQ RM LMRC RF?R DMPACQ @CRUCCL AMKNMLCLRQ MD ? QWQRCK A?LACJ @CA?SQC RFCW ?PC COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W RFC NPMDCQQMP ML RFC A?PR PCQSJRQ GL ?L COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC

136

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

DMPAC @?AI ML FCP. )L RFGQ A?QC @MRF DMPACQ ?AR ML RFC Q?KC QWQRCK ?LB, RFCPCDMPC, A?LACJ. 4FSQ GLRCPL?J DMPACQ (@CRUCCL AMKNMLCLRQ MD ? QWQRCK) A?LACJ. #FMMQGLE 3WQRCK 1 U?Q APSAG?J RM QMJTGLE RFGQ NPM@JCK.

EN7CFB; 4.4 FEH9; ED J>; C7HJWC>EEI?D= 7 ';M ,OIJ;C


#?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC RFC NPMDCQQMP CVCPRQ ML RFC A?PR GL F?=KH; 4.10 SQGLE B?R? DPMK RFC NPCTGMSQ CV?KNJC GD LCCBCB. ,JH7J;=O )D UC LMU BCDGLC RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR RM @C RFC A?PR NJSQ COSGNKCLR (3WQRCK 2 GL F?=KH; 4.10), RFCL RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML 3WQRCK 2 GQ RFC DMPAC RFC NPMDCQQMP CVCPRQ ML RFC A?PR KGLSQ DPGARGML. 4FC DMPAC QFC CVCPRQ ML RFC A?PR, F prof , GQ ?L CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML 3WQRCK 2. F prof U?Q GLRCPL?J RM 3WQRCK 1, @SR GR GQ CVRCPL?J RM 3WQRCK 2 ?LB UGJJ CLRCP .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U DMP 3WQRCK 2. ,EBKJ?ED .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U A?L @C SQCB RM DGLB

F prof . 3R?PRGLE UGRF F net a= m


(4.22)

?LB LMRGLE RF?R RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML 3WQRCK 2 GQ

F net = F prof f ,
UC QMJTC DMP

(4.23)

F prof , RFC BCQGPCB OS?LRGRW: F prof = F net + f .


(4.24)

4FC T?JSC MD

f GQ EGTCL, QM UC KSQR A?JASJ?RC LCR F net . 4F?R A?L @C BMLC QGLAC @MRF RFC ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB K?QQ MD 3WQRCK 2 ?PC ILMUL. 5QGLE F net = ma,
(4.25)

.CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U UC QCC RF?R

UFCPC RFC K?QQ MD 3WQRCK 2 GQ 19.0 IE ( m = 12.0 IE + 7.0 IE) ?LB GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML U?Q DMSLB RM @C 4FSQ,

a = 1.5 m/s 2 GL RFC NPCTGMSQ CV?KNJC.


(4.26) (4.27)

F net = ma, F net = (19.0 kg)(1.5 m/s 2 ) = 29 N.


.MU UC A?L DGLB RFC BCQGPCB DMPAC:

F prof = F net + f , F prof = 29 N+24.0 N = 53 N.


D?I9KII?ED

(4.28) (4.29)

)R GQ GLRCPCQRGLE RF?R RFGQ DMPAC GQ QGELGDGA?LRJW JCQQ RF?L RFC 150-. DMPAC RFC NPMDCQQMP CVCPRCB @?AIU?PB ML RFC DJMMP. .MR ?JJ MD RF?R 150-. DMPAC GQ RP?LQKGRRCB RM RFC A?PR; QMKC MD GR ?AACJCP?RCQ RFC NPMDCQQMP. 4FC AFMGAC MD ? QWQRCK GQ ?L GKNMPR?LR ?L?JWRGA?J QRCN @MRF GL QMJTGLE NPM@JCKQ ?LB GL RFMPMSEFJW SLBCPQR?LBGLE RFC NFWQGAQ MD RFC QGRS?RGML (UFGAF GQ LMR LCACQQ?PGJW RFC Q?KC RFGLE).

0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: 'P?TGRW &MPAC ,?@ 6GQS?JGXC RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC RF?R RUM M@HCARQ CVCPR ML C?AF MRFCP. #F?LEC NPMNCPRGCQ MD RFC M@HCARQ GL MPBCP RM QCC FMU GR AF?LECQ RFC EP?TGRW DMPAC.

F?=KH; 4.11

H7L?JO FEH9; %78 (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42074/1.4/=H7L?JO-<EH9;-B786;D.@7H)

4.5 'EHC7B, -;DI?ED, 7D: (J>;H EN7CFB;I E< FEH9;I


&MPACQ ?PC EGTCL K?LW L?KCQ, QSAF ?Q NSQF, NSJJ, RFPSQR, JGDR, UCGEFR, DPGARGML, ?LB RCLQGML. 4P?BGRGML?JJW, DMPACQ F?TC @CCL EPMSNCB GLRM QCTCP?J A?RCEMPGCQ ?LB EGTCL L?KCQ PCJ?RGLE RM RFCGP QMSPAC, FMU RFCW ?PC RP?LQKGRRCB, MP RFCGP CDDCARQ. 4FC KMQR GKNMPR?LR MD RFCQC A?RCEMPGCQ ?PC BGQASQQCB GL RFGQ QCARGML, RMECRFCP UGRF QMKC GLRCPCQRGLE ?NNJGA?RGMLQ. &SPRFCP CV?KNJCQ MD DMPACQ ?PC BGQASQQCB J?RCP GL RFGQ RCVR.
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

137

.MPK?J &MPAC
0;?=>J (?JQM A?JJCB DMPAC MD EP?TGRW) GQ ? NCPT?QGTC DMPAC RF?R ?ARQ ?R ?JJ RGKCQ ?LB KSQR @C AMSLRCP?ARCB RM ICCN ?L M@HCAR DPMK D?JJGLE. 9MS BCDGLGRCJW LMRGAC RF?R WMS KSQR QSNNMPR RFC UCGEFR MD ? FC?TW M@HCAR @W NSQFGLE SN ML GR UFCL WMS FMJB GR QR?RGML?PW, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 4.12(?). "SR FMU BM GL?LGK?RC M@HCARQ JGIC ? R?@JC QSNNMPR RFC UCGEFR MD ? K?QQ NJ?ACB ML RFCK, QSAF ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.12(@)? 7FCL RFC @?E MD BME DMMB GQ NJ?ACB ML RFC R?@JC, RFC R?@JC ?ARS?JJW Q?EQ QJGEFRJW SLBCP RFC JM?B. 4FGQ UMSJB @C LMRGAC?@JC GD RFC JM?B UCPC NJ?ACB ML ? A?PB R?@JC, @SR CTCL PGEGB M@HCARQ BCDMPK UFCL ? DMPAC GQ ?NNJGCB RM RFCK. 5LJCQQ RFC M@HCAR GQ BCDMPKCB @CWMLB GRQ JGKGR, GR UGJJ CVCPR ? PCQRMPGLE DMPAC KSAF JGIC ? BCDMPKCB QNPGLE (MP RP?KNMJGLC MP BGTGLE @M?PB). 4FC EPC?RCP RFC BCDMPK?RGML, RFC EPC?RCP RFC PCQRMPGLE DMPAC. 3M UFCL RFC JM?B GQ NJ?ACB ML RFC R?@JC, RFC R?@JC Q?EQ SLRGJ RFC PCQRMPGLE DMPAC @CAMKCQ ?Q J?PEC ?Q RFC UCGEFR MD RFC JM?B. !R RFGQ NMGLR RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML RFC JM?B GQ XCPM. 4F?R GQ RFC QGRS?RGML UFCL RFC JM?B GQ QR?RGML?PW ML RFC R?@JC. 4FC R?@JC Q?EQ OSGAIJW, ?LB RFC Q?E GQ QJGEFR QM UC BM LMR LMRGAC GR. "SR GR GQ QGKGJ?P RM RFC Q?EEGLE MD ? RP?KNMJGLC UFCL WMS AJGK@ MLRM GR.

F?=KH; 4.12 (?) 4FC NCPQML FMJBGLE RFC @?E MD BME DMMB KSQR QSNNJW ?L SNU?PB DMPAC

F hand

COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML RM RFC UCGEFR MD RFC DMMB

w . (@)

4FC A?PB R?@JC Q?EQ UFCL RFC BME DMMB GQ NJ?ACB ML GR, KSAF JGIC ? QRGDD RP?KNMJGLC. %J?QRGA PCQRMPGLE DMPACQ GL RFC R?@JC EPMU ?Q GR Q?EQ SLRGJ RFCW QSNNJW ? DMPAC K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML RM RFC UCGEFR MD RFC JM?B.

COS?J GL

7C KSQR AMLAJSBC RF?R UF?RCTCP QSNNMPRQ ? JM?B, @C GR ?LGK?RC MP LMR, KSQR QSNNJW ?L SNU?PB DMPAC COS?J RM RFC UCGEFR MD RFC JM?B, ?Q UC ?QQSKCB GL ? DCU MD RFC NPCTGMSQ CV?KNJCQ. )D RFC DMPAC QSNNMPRGLE ? JM?B GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QSPD?AC MD AMLR?AR @CRUCCL RFC JM?B ?LB GRQ QSNNMPR, RFGQ DMPAC GQ BCDGLCB RM @C ? DEHC7B <EH9; ?LB FCPC GQ EGTCL RFC QWK@MJ N . (4FGQ GQ LMR RFC SLGR DMP DMPAC ..) 4FC UMPB ABE@4? KC?LQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM ? QSPD?AC. 4FC LMPK?J DMPAC A?L @C JCQQ RF?L RFC M@HCARtQ UCGEFR GD RFC M@HCAR GQ ML ?L GLAJGLC, ?Q WMS UGJJ QCC GL RFC LCVR CV?KNJC. #MKKML -GQAMLACNRGML: .MPK?J &MPAC (.) TQ. .CURML (.) )L RFGQ QCARGML UC F?TC GLRPMBSACB RFC OS?LRGRW LMPK?J DMPAC, UFGAF GQ PCNPCQCLRCB @W RFC T?PG?@JC N . 4FGQ QFMSJB LMR @C AMLDSQCB UGRF RFC QWK@MJ DMP RFC LCURML, UFGAF GQ ?JQM PCNPCQCLRCB @W RFC JCRRCP .. 4FCQC QWK@MJQ ?PC N?PRGASJ?PJW GKNMPR?LR RM BGQRGLESGQF @CA?SQC RFC SLGRQ MD ? LMPK?J DMPAC ( N ) F?NNCL RM @C LCURMLQ (.). &MP CV?KNJC, RFC LMPK?J DMPAC N RF?R RFC DJMMP CVCPRQ ML ? AF?GP KGEFR @C N = 100 N . /LC GKNMPR?LR BGDDCPCLAC GQ RF?R LMPK?J DMPAC GQ ? TCARMP, UFGJC RFC LCURML GQ QGKNJW ? SLGR. "C A?PCDSJ LMR RM AMLDSQC RFCQC JCRRCPQ GL WMSP A?JASJ?RGMLQ! 9MS UGJJ CLAMSLRCP KMPC QGKGJ?PGRGCQ ?KMLE T?PG?@JCQ ?LB SLGRQ ?Q WMS NPMACCB GL NFWQGAQ. !LMRFCP CV?KNJC MD RFGQ GQ RFC OS?LRGRW UMPI ( W ) ?LB RFC SLGR U?RRQ (7).

EN7CFB; 4.5 0;?=>J ED 7D "D9B?D;, 7 -ME-D?C;DI?ED7B )HE8B;C


#MLQGBCP RFC QIGCP ML ? QJMNC QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.13. (CP K?QQ GLAJSBGLE COSGNKCLR GQ 60.0 IE. (?) 7F?R GQ FCP ?AACJCP?RGML GD DPGARGML GQ LCEJGEG@JC? (@) 7F?R GQ FCP ?AACJCP?RGML GD DPGARGML GQ ILMUL RM @C 45.0 .?

138

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

F?=KH; 4.13 3GLAC KMRGML ?LB DPGARGML ?PC N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC, GR GQ KMQR AMLTCLGCLR RM NPMHCAR ?JJ DMPACQ MLRM ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UFCPC MLC ?VGQ GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC ?LB RFC MRFCP GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P (?VCQ QFMUL RM JCDR MD QIGCP). L?KCJW

?LB

GQ COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC RM

GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC ?LB < GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC, @SR , QM RF?R RFCPC GQ LM KMRGML NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC, @SR

F?Q AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE @MRF ?VCQ,

GQ JCQQ RF?L

, QM RF?R RFCPC GQ ?

BMULQJMNC ?AACJCP?RGML (?JMLE RFC N?P?JJCJ ?VGQ).

,JH7J;=O 4FGQ GQ ? RUM-BGKCLQGML?J NPM@JCK, QGLAC RFC DMPACQ ML RFC QIGCP (RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR) ?PC LMR N?P?JJCJ. 4FC ?NNPM?AF UC F?TC SQCB GL RUMBGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ ?JQM UMPIQ TCPW UCJJ FCPC. #FMMQC ? AMLTCLGCLR AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK ?LB NPMHCAR RFC TCARMPQ MLRM GRQ ?VCQ, APC?RGLE GJB AMLLCARCB BA8-BGKCLQGML?J NPM@JCKQ RM QMJTC. 4FC KMQR AMLTCLGCLR AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK DMP KMRGML ML ?L GLAJGLC GQ MLC RF?R F?Q MLC AMMPBGL?RC N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC ?LB MLC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC. (2CKCK@CP RF?R KMRGMLQ ?JMLE KSRS?JJW NCPNCLBGASJ?P ?VCQ ?PC GLBCNCLBCLR.) 7C SQC RFC QWK@MJQ ?LB RM PCNPCQCLR NCPNCLBGASJ?P ?LB N?P?JJCJ, PCQNCARGTCJW. 4FGQ AFMGAC MD ?VCQ QGKNJGDGCQ RFGQ RWNC MD NPM@JCK, @CA?SQC RFCPC GQ LM KMRGML NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC ?LB @CA?SQC DPGARGML GQ ?JU?WQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QSPD?AC @CRUCCL RUM M@HCARQ. 4FC MLJW CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC QWQRCK ?PC RFC QIGCPtQ UCGEFR, DPGARGML, ?LB RFC QSNNMPR MD RFC QJMNC, PCQNCARGTCJW J?@CJCB w , f , ?LB N GL F?=KH; 4.13. N GQ ?JU?WQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC, ?LB f GQ N?P?JJCJ RM GR. "SR w GQ LMR GL RFC BGPCARGML MD CGRFCP ?VGQ, ?LB QM RFC DGPQR QRCN UC R?IC GQ RM NPMHCAR GR GLRM AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE RFC AFMQCL ?VCQ, BCDGLGLE w RM @C RFC AMKNMLCLR MD UCGEFR N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC ?LB w RFC AMKNMLCLR MD UCGEFR

NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC. /LAC RFGQ GQ BMLC, UC A?L AMLQGBCP RFC RUM QCN?P?RC NPM@JCKQ MD DMPACQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC ?LB DMPACQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC. ,EBKJ?ED 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC AMKNMLCLR MD RFC UCGEFR N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC GQ AMKNMLCLR MD RFC UCGEFR NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC GQ

w = w sin (25) = mg sin (25) , ?LB RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC

w = w cos (25) = mg cos (25) .

(?) .CEJCARGLE DPGARGML. 3GLAC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC, UC LCCB MLJW AMLQGBCP DMPACQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC. (&MPACQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC ?BB RM XCPM, QGLAC RFCPC GQ LM ?AACJCP?RGML GL RF?R BGPCARGML.) 4FC DMPACQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC ?PC RFC ?KMSLR MD RFC QIGCPtQ UCGEFR N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC w ?LB DPGARGML f . 5QGLE .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U, UGRF QS@QAPGNRQ RM BCLMRC OS?LRGRGCQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC,

a =
UFCPC

F net m

(4.30)

F net = w = mg sin (25) , ?QQSKGLE LM DPGARGML DMP RFGQ N?PR, QM RF?R a = F net mg sin (25) = g sin (25) m = m
(4.31) (4.32)

(9.80 m/s 2)(0.4226) = 4.14 m/s 2


GQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML.

(@) )LAJSBGLE DPGARGML. 7C LMU F?TC ? EGTCL T?JSC DMP DPGARGML, ?LB UC ILMU GRQ BGPCARGML GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC ?LB GR MNNMQCQ KMRGML @CRUCCL QSPD?ACQ GL AMLR?AR. 3M RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ LMU

F net = w f ,
?LB QS@QRGRSRGLE RFGQ GLRM .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U,

(4.33)

a =

F net m , EGTCQ

a =
7C QS@QRGRSRC ILMUL T?JSCQ RM M@R?GL

F net m

w f mg sin (25) f = . m m

(4.34)

a =
UFGAF WGCJBQ

(60.0 kg)(9.80 m/s 2)(0.4226) 45.0 N , 60.0 kg

(4.35)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

139

a = 3.39 m/s 2,
UFGAF GQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML N?P?JJCJ RM RFC GLAJGLC UFCL RFCPC GQ 45.0 . MD MNNMQGLE DPGARGML. D?I9KII?ED

(4.36)

3GLAC DPGARGML ?JU?WQ MNNMQCQ KMRGML @CRUCCL QSPD?ACQ, RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ QK?JJCP UFCL RFCPC GQ DPGARGML RF?L UFCL RFCPC GQ LMLC. )L D?AR, GR GQ ? ECLCP?J PCQSJR RF?R GD DPGARGML ML ?L GLAJGLC GQ LCEJGEG@JC, RFCL RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BMUL RFC GLAJGLC GQ a = g sin , E8:4E7?8FF B9 @4FF. 4FGQ GQ PCJ?RCB RM RFC NPCTGMSQJW BGQASQQCB D?AR RF?R ?JJ M@HCARQ D?JJ UGRF RFC Q?KC ?AACJCP?RGML GL RFC ?@QCLAC MD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC. 3GKGJ?PJW, ?JJ M@HCARQ, PCE?PBJCQQ MD K?QQ, QJGBC BMUL ? DPGARGMLJCQQ GLAJGLC UGRF RFC Q?KC ?AACJCP?RGML (GD RFC ?LEJC GQ RFC Q?KC).

2CQMJTGLE 7CGEFR GLRM #MKNMLCLRQ

F?=KH; 4.14 !L M@HCAR PCQRQ ML ?L GLAJGLC RF?R K?ICQ ?L ?LEJC o UGRF RFC FMPGXMLR?J.

7FCL ?L M@HCAR PCQRQ ML ?L GLAJGLC RF?R K?ICQ ?L ?LEJC UGRF RFC FMPGXMLR?J, RFC DMPAC MD EP?TGRW ?ARGLE ML RFC M@HCAR GQ BGTGBCB GLRM RUM AMKNMLCLRQ: ? DMPAC ?ARGLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC NJ?LC, w , ?LB ? DMPAC ?ARGLE N?P?JJCJ RM RFC NJ?LC, w . 4FC NCPNCLBGASJ?P DMPAC MD UCGEFR,

w , GQ RWNGA?JJW COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML RM RFC LMPK?J DMPAC, N . 4FC DMPAC ?ARGLE N?P?JJCJ RM RFC NJ?LC, w , A?SQCQ RFC
M@HCAR RM ?AACJCP?RC BMUL RFC GLAJGLC. 4FC DMPAC MD DPGARGML,

f , MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML MD RFC M@HCAR, QM GR ?ARQ SNU?PB ?JMLE RFC NJ?LC. RM RFC FMPGXMLR?J,
(4.37)

)R GQ GKNMPR?LR RM @C A?PCDSJ UFCL PCQMJTGLE RFC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR GLRM AMKNMLCLRQ. )D RFC ?LEJC MD RFC GLAJGLC GQ ?R ?L ?LEJC RFCL RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC UCGEFR AMKNMLCLRQ ?PC

w = w sin () = mg sin ()
?LB

w = w cos () = mg cos ().

(4.38)

)LQRC?B MD KCKMPGXGLE RFCQC COS?RGMLQ, GR GQ FCJNDSJ RM @C ?@JC RM BCRCPKGLC RFCK DPMK PC?QML. 4M BM RFGQ, BP?U RFC PGEFR RPG?LEJC DMPKCB @W RFC RFPCC UCGEFR TCARMPQ. .MRGAC RF?R RFC ?LEJC MD RFC GLAJGLC GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC ?LEJC DMPKCB @CRUCCL w ?LB w . +LMUGLE RFGQ NPMNCPRW, WMS A?L SQC RPGEMLMKCRPW RM BCRCPKGLC RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC UCGEFR AMKNMLCLRQ:

cos () = w w
4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLR: &MPAC 0?P?JJCJ

w w = w cos () = mg cos () w w = w sin () = mg sin ()

(4.39)

sin () =

(4.40)

4M GLTCQRGE?RC FMU ? DMPAC N?P?JJCJ RM ?L GLAJGLCB NJ?LC AF?LECQ, DGLB ? PS@@CP @?LB, QMKC M@HCARQ RM F?LE DPMK RFC CLB MD RFC PS@@CP @?LB, ?LB ? @M?PB WMS A?L NMQGRGML ?R BGDDCPCLR ?LEJCQ. (MU KSAF BMCQ RFC PS@@CP @?LB QRPCRAF UFCL WMS F?LE RFC M@HCAR DPMK RFC CLB MD RFC @M?PB? .MU NJ?AC RFC @M?PB ?R ?L ?LEJC QM RF?R RFC M@HCAR QJGBCQ MDD UFCL NJ?ACB ML RFC @M?PB. (MU KSAF BMCQ RFC PS@@CP @?LB CVRCLB GD GR GQ JGLCB SN N?P?JJCJ RM RFC @M?PB ?LB SQCB RM FMJB RFC M@HCAR QR?RGML?PW ML RFC @M?PB? 4PW RUM KMPC ?LEJCQ. 7F?R BMCQ RFGQ QFMU?

4CLQGML
! J;DI?ED GQ ? DMPAC ?JMLE RFC JCLERF MD ? KCBGSK, CQNCAG?JJW ? DMPAC A?PPGCB @W ? DJCVG@JC KCBGSK, QSAF ?Q ? PMNC MP A?@JC. 4FC UMPB uRCLQGML X AMKCQ DPMK ? ,?RGL UMPB KC?LGLE uRM QRPCRAF.v .MR AMGLAGBCLR?JJW, RFC DJCVG@JC AMPBQ RF?R A?PPW KSQAJC DMPACQ RM MRFCP N?PRQ MD RFC @MBW ?PC A?JJCB G8A7BAF. !LW DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP, QSAF ?Q ? QRPGLE, PMNC, AF?GL, UGPC, MP A?@JC, A?L CVCPR NSJJQ MLJW N?P?JJCJ RM GRQ JCLERF; RFSQ, ? DMPAC A?PPGCB @W ? DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP GQ ? RCLQGML UGRF BGPCARGML N?P?JJCJ RM RFC AMLLCARMP. )R GQ GKNMPR?LR RM SLBCPQR?LB RF?R RCLQGML GQ ? NSJJ GL ? AMLLCARMP. )L AMLRP?QR, AMLQGBCP RFC NFP?QC: u9MS A?LtR NSQF ? PMNC.v 4FC RCLQGML DMPAC NSJJQ MSRU?PB ?JMLE RFC RUM CLBQ MD ? PMNC. #MLQGBCP ? NCPQML FMJBGLE ? K?QQ ML ? PMNC ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.15.

140

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

F?=KH; 4.15 7FCL ? NCPDCARJW DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP (MLC PCOSGPGLE LM DMPAC RM @CLB GR) QSAF ?Q RFGQ PMNC RP?LQKGRQ ? DMPAC T , RF?R DMPAC KSQR @C N?P?JJCJ RM RFC JCLERF MD RFC PMNC, ?Q QFMUL. 4FC NSJJ QSAF ? DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP CVCPRQ GQ ? RCLQGML. .MRC RF?R RFC PMNC NSJJQ UGRF COS?J DMPAC @SR GL MNNMQGRC BGPCARGMLQ ML RFC F?LB ?LB RFC QSNNMPRCB K?QQ (LCEJCARGLE RFC UCGEFR MD RFC PMNC). 4FGQ GQ ?L CV?KNJC MD .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U. 4FC PMNC GQ RFC KCBGSK RF?R A?PPGCQ RFC COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC DMPACQ @CRUCCL RFC RUM M@HCARQ. 4FC RCLQGML ?LWUFCPC GL RFC PMNC @CRUCCL RFC F?LB ?LB RFC K?QQ GQ COS?J. /LAC WMS F?TC BCRCPKGLCB RFC RCLQGML GL MLC JMA?RGML, WMS F?TC BCRCPKGLCB RFC RCLQGML ?R ?JJ JMA?RGMLQ ?JMLE RFC PMNC.

4CLQGML GL RFC PMNC KSQR COS?J RFC UCGEFR MD RFC QSNNMPRCB K?QQ, ?Q UC A?L NPMTC SQGLE .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U. )D RFC 5.00-IE K?QQ GL RFC DGESPC GQ QR?RGML?PW, RFCL GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ XCPM, ?LB RFSQ F net = 0 . 4FC MLJW CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC K?QQ ?PC GRQ UCGEFR w ?LB RFC RCLQGML T QSNNJGCB @W RFC PMNC. 4FSQ,

F net = T w = 0,

(4.41)

UFCPC T ?LB w ?PC RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC RCLQGML ?LB UCGEFR ?LB RFCGP QGELQ GLBGA?RC BGPCARGML, UGRF SN @CGLE NMQGRGTC FCPC. 4FSQ, HSQR ?Q WMS UMSJB CVNCAR, RFC RCLQGML COS?JQ RFC UCGEFR MD RFC QSNNMPRCB K?QQ:

T = w = mg.
&MP ? 5.00-IE K?QQ, RFCL (LCEJCARGLE RFC K?QQ MD RFC PMNC) UC QCC RF?R

(4.42)

T = mg = (5.00 kg)(9.80 m/s 2 ) = 49.0 N.


)D UC ASR RFC PMNC ?LB GLQCPR ? QNPGLE, RFC QNPGLE UMSJB CVRCLB ? JCLERF AMPPCQNMLBGLE RM ? DMPAC MD 49.0 ., NPMTGBGLE ? BGPCAR M@QCPT?RGML ?LB KC?QSPC MD RFC RCLQGML DMPAC GL RFC PMNC.

(4.43)

&JCVG@JC AMLLCARMPQ ?PC MDRCL SQCB RM RP?LQKGR DMPACQ ?PMSLB AMPLCPQ, QSAF ?Q GL ? FMQNGR?J RP?ARGML QWQRCK, ? DGLECP HMGLR, MP ? @GAWAJC @P?IC A?@JC. )D RFCPC GQ LM DPGARGML, RFC RCLQGML GQ RP?LQKGRRCB SLBGKGLGQFCB. /LJW GRQ BGPCARGML AF?LECQ, ?LB GR GQ ?JU?WQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP. 4FGQ GQ GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 4.16 (?) ?LB (@).

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

141

F?=KH; 4.16 (?) 4CLBMLQ GL RFC DGLECP A?PPW DMPAC

DPMK RFC KSQAJCQ RM MRFCP N?PRQ MD RFC DGLECP, SQS?JJW AF?LEGLE RFC DMPACtQ BGPCARGML, @SR LMR GRQ K?ELGRSBC (RFC RCLBMLQ ?PC

PCJ?RGTCJW DPGARGML DPCC). (@) 4FC @P?IC A?@JC ML ? @GAWAJC A?PPGCQ RFC RCLQGML GQ AF?LECB.

DPMK RFC F?LBJC@?PQ RM RFC @P?IC KCAF?LGQK. !E?GL, RFC BGPCARGML @SR LMR RFC K?ELGRSBC MD

EN7CFB; 4.6 0>7J "I J>; -;DI?ED ?D 7 -?=>JHEF;?


#?JASJ?RC RFC RCLQGML GL RFC UGPC QSNNMPRGLE RFC 70.0-IE RGEFRPMNC U?JICP QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.17.

F?=KH; 4.17 4FC UCGEFR MD ? RGEFRPMNC U?JICP A?SQCQ ? UGPC RM Q?E @W 5.0 BCEPCCQ. 4FC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR FCPC GQ RFC NMGLR GL RFC UGPC ?R UFGAF RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP GQ QR?LBGLE.

,JH7J;=O !Q WMS A?L QCC GL RFC DGESPC, RFC UGPC GQ LMR NCPDCARJW FMPGXMLR?J (GR A?LLMR @C!), @SR GQ @CLR SLBCP RFC NCPQMLtQ UCGEFR. 4FSQ, RFC RCLQGML ML CGRFCP QGBC MD RFC NCPQML F?Q ?L SNU?PB AMKNMLCLR RF?R A?L QSNNMPR FGQ UCGEFR. !Q SQS?J, DMPACQ ?PC TCARMPQ PCNPCQCLRCB NGARMPG?JJW @W ?PPMUQ F?TGLE RFC Q?KC BGPCARGMLQ ?Q RFC DMPACQ ?LB JCLERFQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFCGP K?ELGRSBCQ. 4FC QWQRCK GQ RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP, ?LB RFC MLJW CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML FGK ?PC FGQ UCGEFR w ?LB RFC RUM RCLQGMLQ T L (JCDR RCLQGML) ?LB T R (PGEFR RCLQGML), ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB. )R GQ PC?QML?@JC RM LCEJCAR RFC UCGEFR MD RFC UGPC GRQCJD. 4FC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ XCPM QGLAC RFC QWQRCK GQ QR?RGML?PW. ! JGRRJC RPGEMLMKCRPW A?L LMU @C SQCB RM DGLB RFC RCLQGMLQ. /LC AMLAJSQGML GQ NMQQG@JC ?R RFC MSRQCRrUC A?L QCC DPMK N?PR (@) MD RFC DGESPC RF?R RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC RCLQGMLQ T L ?LB T R KSQR @C COS?J. 4FGQ GQ @CA?SQC RFCPC GQ LM FMPGXMLR?J ?AACJCP?RGML GL RFC PMNC, ?LB RFC MLJW DMPACQ ?ARGLE RM RFC JCDR ?LB PGEFR ?PC K?ELGRSBC MD RFMQC DMPACQ KSQR @C COS?J QM RF?R RFCW A?LACJ C?AF MRFCP MSR. 7FCLCTCP UC F?TC RUM-BGKCLQGML?J TCARMP NPM@JCKQ GL UFGAF LM RUM TCARMPQ ?PC N?P?JJCJ, RFC C?QGCQR KCRFMB MD QMJSRGML GQ RM NGAI ? AMLTCLGCLR AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK ?LB NPMHCAR RFC TCARMPQ MLRM GRQ ?VCQ. )L RFGQ A?QC RFC @CQR AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK F?Q MLC ?VGQ FMPGXMLR?J ?LB RFC MRFCP TCPRGA?J. 7C A?JJ RFC FMPGXMLR?J RFC x -?VGQ ?LB RFC TCPRGA?J RFC y -?VGQ. ,EBKJ?ED &GPQR, UC LCCB RM PCQMJTC RFC RCLQGML TCARMPQ GLRM RFCGP FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ. )R FCJNQ RM BP?U ? LCU DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K QFMUGLE ?JJ MD RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD C?AF DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC QWQRCK.

T L ?LB T R . 4FSQ, RFC

142

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

F?=KH; 4.18 7FCL RFC TCARMPQ ?PC NPMHCARCB MLRM TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J ?VCQ, RFCGP AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE RFMQC ?VCQ KSQR ?BB RM XCPM, QGLAC RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP GQ QR?RGML?PW. 4FC QK?JJ ?LEJC PCQSJRQ GL T @CGLE KSAF EPC?RCP RF?L w .

#MLQGBCP RFC FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC DMPACQ (BCLMRCB UGRF ? QS@QAPGNR

x ):
(4.44)

F netx = T Lx T Rx.
4FC LCR CVRCPL?J FMPGXMLR?J DMPAC

F netx = 0 , QGLAC RFC NCPQML GQ QR?RGML?PW. 4FSQ, F netx = 0 = T Lx T Rx T Lx = T Rx .


(4.45)

.MU, M@QCPTC F?=KH; 4.18. 9MS A?L SQC RPGEMLMKCRPW RM BCRCPKGLC RFC K?ELGRSBC MD

T L ?LB T R . .MRGAC RF?R:


(4.46)

T Lx TL T Lx = T L cos (5.0) T cos (5.0) = Rx TR T Rx = T R cos (5.0). cos (5.0) =


%OS?RGLE

T Lx ?LB T Rx : T L cos (5.0) = T R cos (5.0).


(4.47)

4FSQ,

TL = TR = T,
?Q NPCBGARCB. .MU, AMLQGBCPGLE RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ (BCLMRCB @W ? QS@QAPGNR .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U GKNJGCQ RF?R LCR

(4.48)

y ), UC A?L QMJTC DMP T . !E?GL, QGLAC RFC NCPQML GQ QR?RGML?PW,


(4.49)

F y = 0 . 4FSQ, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K GL F?=KH; 4.18, F nety = T Ly + T Ry w = 0.

/@QCPTGLE F?=KH; 4.18, UC A?L SQC RPGEMLMKCRPW RM BCRCPKGLC RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL ?L?JWQGQ GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML,

T Ly , T Ry , ?LB T . !Q UC BCRCPKGLCB DPMK RFC


(4.50)

TL = TR = T : T Ly TL T Ly = T L sin (5.0) = T sin (5.0) sin (5.0) = sin (5.0) =

T Ry TR T Ry = T R sin (5.0) = T sin (5.0).


.MU, UC A?L QS@QRGRSRC RFC T?JSCQ DMP

T Ly ?LB T Ry , GLRM RFC LCR DMPAC COS?RGML GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML: F nety F nety = T Ly + T Ry w = 0
(4.51)

= T sin (5.0) + T sin (5.0) w = 0

2 T sin (5.0) w = 0 2 T sin (5.0) = w


?LB

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

143

T=
QM RF?R

mg w = , 2 sin (5.0) 2 sin (5.0) (70.0 kg)(9.80 m/s 2) , 2(0.0872) T = 3900 N.

(4.52)

T=
?LB RFC RCLQGML GQ

(4.53)

(4.54)

D?I9KII?ED .MRC RF?R RFC TCPRGA?J RCLQGML GL RFC UGPC ?ARQ ?Q ? LMPK?J DMPAC RF?R QSNNMPRQ RFC UCGEFR MD RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP. 4FC RCLQGML GQ ?JKMQR QGV RGKCQ RFC 686-. UCGEFR MD RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP. 3GLAC RFC UGPC GQ LC?PJW FMPGXMLR?J, RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD GRQ RCLQGML GQ MLJW ? QK?JJ DP?ARGML MD RFC RCLQGML GL RFC UGPC. 4FC J?PEC FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLRQ ?PC GL MNNMQGRC BGPCARGMLQ ?LB A?LACJ, ?LB QM KMQR MD RFC RCLQGML GL RFC UGPC GQ LMR SQCB RM QSNNMPR RFC UCGEFR MD RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP.

)D UC UGQF RM 6E84G8 ? TCPW J?PEC RCLQGML, ?JJ UC F?TC RM BM GQ CVCPR ? DMPAC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM ? DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 4.19. !Q UC Q?U GL RFC J?QR CV?KNJC, RFC UCGEFR MD RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP ?ARCB ?Q ? DMPAC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC PMNC. 7C Q?U RF?R RFC RCLQGML GL RFC PMNCB PCJ?RCB RM RFC UCGEFR MD RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP GL RFC DMJJMUGLE U?W:

T=
7C A?L CVRCLB RFGQ CVNPCQQGML RM BCQAPG@C RFC RCLQGML

w . 2 sin () F . 2 sin ()

(4.55)

T APC?RCB UFCL ? NCPNCLBGASJ?P DMPAC ( F ) GQ CVCPRCB ?R RFC KGBBJC MD ? DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP: T=


(4.56)

.MRC RF?R

PCJ?RGTCJW QK?JJ UCGEFR MD ?LW DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP UGJJ A?SQC GR RM Q?E, QGLAC ?L GLDGLGRC RCLQGML UMSJB PCQSJR GD GR UCPC FMPGXMLR?J (G.C.,

GQ RFC ?LEJC @CRUCCL RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB RFC @CLR AMLLCARMP. )L RFGQ A?QC, T @CAMKCQ TCPW J?PEC ?Q ?NNPM?AFCQ XCPM. %TCL RFC = 0 ?LB sin = 0 ). (3CC F?=KH; 4.19.)

F?=KH; 4.19 7C A?L APC?RC ? TCPW J?PEC RCLQGML GL RFC AF?GL @W NSQFGLE ML GR NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM GRQ JCLERF, ?Q QFMUL. 3SNNMQC UC UGQF RM NSJJ ? A?P MSR MD RFC KSB UFCL LM RMU RPSAI GQ ?T?GJ?@JC. %?AF RGKC RFC A?P KMTCQ DMPU?PB, RFC AF?GL GQ RGEFRCLCB RM ICCN GR ?Q LC?PJW QRP?GEFR ?Q NMQQG@JC. 4FC RCLQGML GL RFC AF?GL GQ EGTCL @W QGLAC

T=

GQ QK?JJ,

F 2 sin ()

GQ TCPW J?PEC. 4FGQ QGRS?RGML GQ ?L?JMEMSQ RM RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.17, CVACNR RF?R RFC RCLQGMLQ QFMUL FCPC ?PC RFMQC RP?LQKGRRCB RM RFC

A?P ?LB RFC RPCC P?RFCP RF?L RFMQC ?ARGLE ?R RFC NMGLR UFCPC

GQ ?NNJGCB.

F?=KH; 4.20 5LJCQQ ?L GLDGLGRC RCLQGML GQ CVCPRCB, ?LW DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMPrQSAF ?Q RFC AF?GL ?R RFC @MRRMK MD RFC NGARSPCrUGJJ Q?E SLBCP GRQ MUL UCGEFR, EGTGLE ? AF?P?ARCPGQRGA ASPTC UFCL RFC UCGEFR GQ CTCLJW BGQRPG@SRCB ?JMLE RFC JCLERF. 3SQNCLQGML @PGBECQrQSAF ?Q RFC 'MJBCL '?RC "PGBEC QFMUL GL RFGQ GK?ECr?PC CQQCLRG?JJW TCPW FC?TW DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMPQ. 4FC UCGEFR MD RFC @PGBEC GQ CTCLJW BGQRPG@SRCB ?JMLE RFC JCLERF MD DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMPQ, SQS?JJW A?@JCQ, UFGAF R?IC ML RFC AF?P?ARCPGQRGA QF?NC. (APCBGR: ,C?DJCR, 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

144

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

%VRCLBCB 4MNGA: 2C?J &MPACQ ?LB )LCPRG?J &P?KCQ


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tQ LMPRFCPL FCKGQNFCPC, RFCL RM ?L M@QCPTCP ML %?PRF GR UGJJ ?NNC?P RM CVNCPGCLAC ? DMPAC RM RFC UCQR RF?R F?Q LM NFWQGA?J MPGEGL. /D AMSPQC, UF?R GQ F?NNCLGLE FCPC GQ RF?R %?PRF GQ PMR?RGLE RMU?PB RFC C?QR ?LB KMTCQ C?QR SLBCP RFC Q?RCJJGRC. )L %?PRFtQ DP?KC RFGQ JMMIQ JGIC ? UCQRU?PB DMPAC ML RFC Q?RCJJGRC, MP GR A?L @C GLRCPNPCRCB ?Q ? TGMJ?RGML MD .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U (RFC J?U MD GLCPRG?). !L ?D;HJ?7B <H7C; E< H;<;H;D9; GQ MLC GL UFGAF ?JJ DMPACQ ?PC PC?J ?LB, COSGT?JCLRJW, MLC GL UFGAF .CURMLtQ J?UQ F?TC RFC QGKNJC DMPKQ EGTCL GL RFGQ AF?NRCP. %?PRFtQ PMR?RGML GQ QJMU CLMSEF RF?R %?PRF GQ LC?PJW ?L GLCPRG?J DP?KC. 9MS MPBGL?PGJW KSQR NCPDMPK NPCAGQC CVNCPGKCLRQ RM M@QCPTC DGARGRGMSQ DMPACQ ?LB RFC QJGEFR BCN?PRSPCQ DPMK .CURMLtQ J?UQ, QSAF ?Q RFC CDDCAR HSQR BCQAPG@CB. /L RFC J?PEC QA?JC, QSAF ?Q DMP RFC PMR?RGML MD UC?RFCP QWQRCKQ ?LB MAC?L ASPPCLRQ, RFC CDDCARQ A?L @C C?QGJW M@QCPTCB. 4FC APSAG?J D?ARMP GL BCRCPKGLGLE UFCRFCP ? DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC GQ GLCPRG?J GQ UFCRFCP GR ?AACJCP?RCQ MP PMR?RCQ PCJ?RGTC RM ? ILMUL GLCPRG?J DP?KC. 5LJCQQ QR?RCB MRFCPUGQC, ?JJ NFCLMKCL? BGQASQQCB GL RFGQ RCVR ?PC AMLQGBCPCB GL GLCPRG?J DP?KCQ. !JJ RFC DMPACQ BGQASQQCB GL RFGQ QCARGML ?PC PC?J DMPACQ, @SR RFCPC ?PC ? LSK@CP MD MRFCP PC?J DMPACQ, QSAF ?Q JGDR ?LB RFPSQR, RF?R ?PC LMR BGQASQQCB GL RFGQ QCARGML. 4FCW ?PC KMPC QNCAG?JGXCB, ?LB GR GQ LMR LCACQQ?PW RM BGQASQQ CTCPW RWNC MD DMPAC. )R GQ L?RSP?J, FMUCTCP, RM ?QI UFCPC RFC @?QGA QGKNJGAGRW UC QCCI RM DGLB GL NFWQGAQ GQ GL RFC JMLE JGQR MD DMPACQ. !PC QMKC KMPC @?QGA RF?L MRFCPQ? !PC QMKC BGDDCPCLR K?LGDCQR?RGMLQ MD RFC Q?KC SLBCPJWGLE DMPAC? 4FC ?LQUCP RM @MRF OSCQRGMLQ GQ WCQ, ?Q UGJJ @C QCCL GL RFC LCVR (CVRCLBCB) QCARGML ?LB GL RFC RPC?RKCLR MD KMBCPL NFWQGAQ J?RCP GL RFC RCVR. 0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: &MPACQ GL 1 $GKCLQGML %VNJMPC RFC DMPACQ ?R UMPI UFCL WMS RPW RM NSQF ? DGJGLE A?@GLCR. #PC?RC ?L ?NNJGCB DMPAC ?LB QCC RFC PCQSJRGLE DPGARGML DMPAC ?LB RMR?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC A?@GLCR. #F?PRQ QFMU RFC DMPACQ, NMQGRGML, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML TQ. RGKC. 6GCU ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K MD ?JJ RFC DMPACQ (GLAJSBGLE EP?TGR?RGML?J ?LB LMPK?J DMPACQ).

F?=KH; 4.21 FEH9;I ?D 1 D?C;DI?ED (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42075/1.6/<EH9;I-1:6;D.@7H)

4.6 )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= ,JH7J;=?;I


3SAACQQ GL NPM@JCK QMJTGLE GQ M@TGMSQJW LCACQQ?PW RM SLBCPQR?LB ?LB ?NNJW NFWQGA?J NPGLAGNJCQ, LMR RM KCLRGML RFC KMPC GKKCBG?RC LCCB MD N?QQGLE CV?KQ. 4FC @?QGAQ MD NPM@JCK QMJTGLE, NPCQCLRCB C?PJGCP GL RFGQ RCVR, ?PC DMJJMUCB FCPC, @SR QNCAGDGA QRP?RCEGCQ SQCDSJ GL ?NNJWGLE .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML ?PC CKNF?QGXCB. 4FCQC RCAFLGOSCQ ?JQM PCGLDMPAC AMLACNRQ RF?R ?PC SQCDSJ GL K?LW MRFCP ?PC?Q MD NFWQGAQ. -?LW NPM@JCK-QMJTGLE QRP?RCEGCQ ?PC QR?RCB MSRPGEFR GL RFC UMPICB CV?KNJCQ, ?LB QM RFC DMJJMUGLE RCAFLGOSCQ QFMSJB PCGLDMPAC QIGJJQ WMS F?TC ?JPC?BW @CESL RM BCTCJMN.

0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RP?RCEW DMP .CURMLtQ ,?UQ MD -MRGML


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

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

145

F?=KH; 4.22 (?) ! QICRAF MD 4?PX?L F?LEGLE DPMK ? TGLC. (@) !PPMUQ ?PC SQCB RM PCNPCQCLR ?JJ DMPACQ. RFC TGLC, ?LB

T FT

GQ RFC RCLQGML GL RFC TGLC ?@MTC 4?PX?L,

FT

GQ RFC DMPAC FC CVCPRQ ML

GQ FGQ UCGEFR. !JJ MRFCP DMPACQ, QSAF ?Q RFC LSBEC MD ? @PCCXC, ?PC ?QQSKCB LCEJGEG@JC. (A) 3SNNMQC UC ?PC EGTCL RFC ?NC K?LtQ K?QQ ?LB ?QICB RM DGLB RFC GQ LM JMLECP QFMUL, @CA?SQC GR GQ LMR ? DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC QWQRCK MD

RCLQGML GL RFC TGLC. 7C RFCL BCDGLC RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR ?Q QFMUL ?LB BP?U ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K. GLRCPCQR; P?RFCP,

FT

?ARQ ML RFC MSRQGBC UMPJB. (B) 3FMUGLE MLJW RFC ?PPMUQ, RFC FC?B-RM-R?GJ KCRFMB MD ?BBGRGML GQ SQCB. )R GQ ?NN?PCLR RF?R

T = - w , GD 4?PX?L GQ QR?RGML?PW.

3RCN 2. )BCLRGDW UF?R LCCBQ RM @C BCRCPKGLCB ?LB UF?R GQ ILMUL MP A?L @C GLDCPPCB DPMK RFC NPM@JCK ?Q QR?RCB. 4F?R GQ, K?IC ? JGQR MD ILMULQ ?LB SLILMULQ. +;8A 64E89H??L 78G8E@<A8 G;8 FLFG8@ B9 <AG8E8FG. 4FGQ BCAGQGML GQ ? APSAG?J QRCN, QGLAC .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U GLTMJTCQ MLJW CVRCPL?J DMPACQ. /LAC RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR F?Q @CCL GBCLRGDGCB, GR @CAMKCQ NMQQG@JC RM BCRCPKGLC UFGAF DMPACQ ?PC CVRCPL?J ?LB UFGAF ?PC GLRCPL?J, ? LCACQQ?PW QRCN RM CKNJMW .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U. (3CC F?=KH; 4.22(A).) .CURMLt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rRF?R GQ, GD ?JJ DMPACQ ?PC N?P?JJCJrRFCL RFCW ?BB JGIC QA?J?PQ. )D RFC NPM@JCK GQ RUM-BGKCLQGML?J, RFCL GR KSQR @C @PMICL BMUL GLRM ? N?GP MD MLC-BGKCLQGML?J NPM@JCKQ. 4FGQ GQ BMLC @W NPMHCARGLE RFC DMPAC TCARMPQ MLRM ? QCR MD ?VCQ AFMQCL DMP AMLTCLGCLAC. !Q QCCL GL NPCTGMSQ CV?KNJCQ, RFC AFMGAC MD ?VCQ A?L QGKNJGDW RFC NPM@JCK. &MP CV?KNJC, UFCL ?L GLAJGLC GQ GLTMJTCB, ? QCR MD ?VCQ UGRF MLC ?VGQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC GLAJGLC ?LB MLC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM GR GQ KMQR AMLTCLGCLR. )R GQ ?JKMQR ?JU?WQ AMLTCLGCLR RM K?IC MLC ?VGQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC BGPCARGML MD KMRGML, GD RFGQ GQ ILMUL. !NNJWGLE .CURMLtQ 3CAMLB ,?U "CDMPC WMS UPGRC LCR DMPAC COS?RGMLQ, GR GQ APGRGA?J RM BCRCPKGLC UFCRFCP RFC QWQRCK GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE GL ? N?PRGASJ?P BGPCARGML. )D RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ XCPM GL ? N?PRGASJ?P BGPCARGML, RFCL RFC LCR DMPAC GQ XCPM GL RF?R BGPCARGML. 3GKGJ?PJW, GD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ LMLXCPM GL ? N?PRGASJ?P BGPCARGML, RFCL RFC LCR DMPAC GQ BCQAPG@CB @W RFC COS?RGML: F net = ma . &MP CV?KNJC, GD RFC QWQRCK GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML, @SR GR GQ LMR ?AACJCP?RGLE GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML, RFCL WMS UGJJ F?TC RFC DMJJMUGLE AMLAJSQGMLQ:

F net x = ma, F net y = 0.


9MS UGJJ LCCB RFGQ GLDMPK?RGML GL MPBCP RM BCRCPKGLC SLILMUL DMPACQ ?ARGLE GL ? QWQRCK.

(4.57) (4.58)

3RCN 4. !Q ?JU?WQ, 6;86> G;8 FB?HG<BA GB F88 J;8G;8E <G <F E84FBA45?8. )L QMKC A?QCQ, RFGQ GQ M@TGMSQ. &MP CV?KNJC, GR GQ PC?QML?@JC RM DGLB RF?R DPGARGML A?SQCQ ?L M@HCAR RM QJGBC BMUL ?L GLAJGLC KMPC QJMUJW RF?L UFCL LM DPGARGML CVGQRQ. )L NP?ARGAC, GLRSGRGML BCTCJMNQ EP?BS?JJW RFPMSEF NPM@JCK QMJTGLE,

146

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

?LB UGRF CVNCPGCLAC GR @CAMKCQ NPMEPCQQGTCJW C?QGCP RM HSBEC UFCRFCP ?L ?LQUCP GQ PC?QML?@JC. !LMRFCP U?W RM AFCAI WMSP QMJSRGML GQ RM AFCAI RFC SLGRQ. )D WMS ?PC QMJTGLE DMP DMPAC ?LB CLB SN UGRF SLGRQ MD K/Q, RFCL WMS F?TC K?BC ? KGQR?IC.

4.7 FKHJ>;H AFFB?97J?EDI E< ';MJEDXI %7MI E< &EJ?ED


4FCPC ?PC K?LW GLRCPCQRGLE ?NNJGA?RGMLQ MD .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML, ? DCU KMPC MD UFGAF ?PC NPCQCLRCB GL RFGQ QCARGML. 4FCQC QCPTC ?JQM RM GJJSQRP?RC QMKC DSPRFCP QS@RJCRGCQ MD NFWQGAQ ?LB RM FCJN @SGJB NPM@JCK-QMJTGLE QIGJJQ.

EN7CFB; 4.7 DH7= FEH9; ED 7 B7H=;


3SNNMQC RUM RSE@M?RQ NSQF ML ? @?PEC ?R BGDDCPCLR ?LEJCQ, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.23. 4FC DGPQR RSE@M?R CVCPRQ ? DMPAC MD 5 BGPCARGML, ?LB RFC QCAMLB RSE@M?R CVCPRQ ? DMPAC MD 3.610 N GL RFC L-BGPCARGML.

2.710 5 N GL RFC K-

F?=KH; 4.23 (?) ! TGCU DPMK ?@MTC MD RUM RSE@M?RQ NSQFGLE ML ? @?PEC. (@) 4FC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K DMP RFC QFGN AMLR?GLQ MLJW DMPACQ ?ARGLE GL RFC NJ?LC MD RFC U?RCP. )R MKGRQ RFC RUM TCPRGA?J DMPACQrRFC UCGEFR MD RFC @?PEC ?LB RFC @SMW?LR DMPAC MD RFC U?RCP QSNNMPRGLE GR A?LACJ ?LB ?PC LMR QFMUL. 3GLAC RFC ?NNJGCB DMPACQ ?PC NCPNCLBGASJ?P, RFC K- ?LB L-?VCQ ?PC GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q QGLAC DPGARGML GQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM

Fx

?LB

F y . 4FC NPM@JCK OSGAIJW @CAMKCQ ? MLC-BGKCLQGML?J NPM@JCK ?JMLE RFC BGPCARGML MD F app ,

F app .

)D RFC K?QQ MD RFC @?PEC GQ

5.010 6 kg ?LB GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ M@QCPTCB RM @C 7.510 2 m/s 2 GL RFC BGPCARGML QFMUL, UF?R GQ RFC BP?E DMPAC

MD RFC U?RCP ML RFC @?PEC PCQGQRGLE RFC KMRGML? (.MRC: BP?E DMPAC GQ ? DPGARGML?J DMPAC CVCPRCB @W DJSGBQ, QSAF ?Q ?GP MP U?RCP. 4FC BP?E DMPAC MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML MD RFC M@HCAR.) ,JH7J;=O 4FC BGPCARGMLQ ?LB K?ELGRSBCQ MD ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB RFC ?NNJGCB DMPACQ ?PC EGTCL GL F?=KH; 4.23(7). 7C UGJJ BCDGLC RFC RMR?J DMPAC MD RFC RSE@M?RQ ML RFC @?PEC ?Q F app QM RF?R:

F app =F x + F y
3GLAC RFC @?PEC GQ DJ?R @MRRMKCB, RFC BP?E MD RFC U?RCP

(4.59)

F D UGJJ @C GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM F app , ?Q QFMUL GL RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K GL

F?=KH; 4.23(@). 4FC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR FCPC GQ RFC @?PEC, QGLAC RFC DMPACQ ML <G ?PC EGTCL ?Q UCJJ ?Q GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML. /SP QRP?RCEW GQ RM DGLB RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC LCR ?NNJGCB DMPAC F app , ?LB RFCL ?NNJW .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U RM QMJTC DMP RFC BP?E DMPAC F D . ,EBKJ?ED 3GLAC

F x ?LB F y ?PC NCPNCLBGASJ?P, RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD F app ?PC C?QGJW DMSLB. &GPQR, RFC PCQSJR?LR K?ELGRSBC GQ EGTCL @W RFC F app = F app =
2 F2 x + Fy

0WRF?EMPC?L RFCMPCK: (4.60)

(2.710 5 N) 2 + (3.610 5 N) 2 = 4.510 5 N. = tan 1

4FC ?LEJC GQ EGTCL @W

5 = tan 1 3.610 5 N = 53, 2.710 N

F y F x

(4.61)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

147

UFGAF UC ILMU, @CA?SQC MD .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U, GQ RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC ?AACJCP?RGML. QJMU BMUL RFC ?AACJCP?RGML. 4FCPCDMPC, RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q NPM@JCK GQ LMU MLC-BGKCLQGML?J. &PMK F?=KH; 4.23(8), UC A?L QCC RF?R

F app , @SR GRQ K?ELGRSBC GQ QJGEFRJW JCQQ RF?L F app . 4FC

F D GQ GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML MD F app , QGLAC GR ?ARQ RM

F net = F app F D.
"SR .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U QR?RCQ RF?R

(4.62)

F net = ma.
4FSQ,

(4.63)

F app F D = ma.
4FGQ A?L @C QMJTCB DMP RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BP?E DMPAC MD RFC U?RCP

(4.64)

F D GL RCPKQ MD ILMUL OS?LRGRGCQ:


(4.65)

F D = F app ma.
3S@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ EGTCQ

F D = (4.510 5 N) (5.010 6 kg)(7.510 2 m/s 2 ) = 7.510 4 N.


4FC BGPCARGML MD D?I9KII?ED 4FC LSK@CPQ SQCB GL RFGQ CV?KNJC ?PC PC?QML?@JC DMP ? KMBCP?RCJW J?PEC @?PEC. )R GQ ACPR?GLJW BGDDGASJR RM M@R?GL J?PECP ?AACJCP?RGMLQ UGRF RSE@M?RQ, ?LB QK?JJ QNCCBQ ?PC BCQGP?@JC RM ?TMGB PSLLGLE RFC @?PEC GLRM RFC BMAIQ. $P?E GQ PCJ?RGTCJW QK?JJ DMP ? UCJJ-BCQGELCB FSJJ ?R JMU QNCCBQ, AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC ?LQUCP RM RFGQ CV?KNJC, UFCPC F D GQ JCQQ RF?L 1/600RF MD RFC UCGEFR MD RFC QFGN.

(4.66)

F D F?Q ?JPC?BW @CCL BCRCPKGLCB RM @C GL RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RM F app , MP ?R ?L ?LEJC MD 53 QMSRF MD UCQR.

)L RFC C?PJGCP CV?KNJC MD ? RGEFRPMNC U?JICP UC LMRCB RF?R RFC RCLQGMLQ GL UGPCQ QSNNMPRGLE ? K?QQ UCPC COS?J MLJW @CA?SQC RFC ?LEJCQ ML CGRFCP QGBC UCPC COS?J. #MLQGBCP RFC DMJJMUGLE CV?KNJC, UFCPC RFC ?LEJCQ ?PC LMR COS?J; QJGEFRJW KMPC RPGEMLMKCRPW GQ GLTMJTCB.

EN7CFB; 4.8 D?<<;H;DJ -;DI?EDI 7J D?<<;H;DJ AD=B;I


#MLQGBCP RFC RP?DDGA JGEFR (K?QQ 15.0 IE) QSQNCLBCB DPMK RUM UGPCQ ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.24. &GLB RFC RCLQGML GL C?AF UGPC, LCEJCARGLE RFC K?QQCQ MD RFC UGPCQ.

148

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

F?=KH; 4.24 ! RP?DDGA JGEFR GQ QSQNCLBCB DPMK RUM UGPCQ. (@) 3MKC MD RFC DMPACQ GLTMJTCB. (A) /LJW DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC QWQRCK ?PC QFMUL FCPC. 4FC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K DMP RFC RP?DDGA JGEFR GQ ?JQM QFMUL. (B) 4FC DMPACQ NPMHCARCB MLRM TCPRGA?J (L) ?LB FMPGXMLR?J (K) ?VCQ. 4FC FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC RCLQGMLQ KSQR A?LACJ, ?LB RFC QSK MD RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC RCLQGMLQ KSQR COS?J RFC UCGEFR MD RFC RP?DDGA JGEFR. (C) 4FC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K QFMUQ RFC TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC RP?DDGA JGEFR.

,JH7J;=O 4FC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR GQ RFC RP?DDGA JGEFR, ?LB GRQ DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K GQ QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.24(A). 4FC RFPCC DMPACQ GLTMJTCB ?PC LMR N?P?JJCJ, ?LB QM RFCW KSQR @C NPMHCARCB MLRM ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK. 4FC KMQR AMLTCLGCLR AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK F?Q MLC ?VGQ TCPRGA?J ?LB MLC FMPGXMLR?J, ?LB RFC TCARMP NPMHCARGMLQ ML GR ?PC QFMUL GL N?PR (B) MD RFC DGESPC. 4FCPC ?PC RUM SLILMULQ GL RFGQ NPM@JCK ( T 1 ?LB T 2 ), QM RUM COS?RGMLQ ?PC LCCBCB RM DGLB RFCK. 4FCQC RUM COS?RGMLQ AMKC DPMK ?NNJWGLE .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U ?JMLE RFC TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J ?VCQ, LMRGLE RF?R RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ XCPM ?JMLE C?AF ?VGQ @CA?SQC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ XCPM. ,EBKJ?ED &GPQR AMLQGBCP RFC FMPGXMLR?J MP K-?VGQ:

F netx = T 2x T 1x = 0.
4FSQ, ?Q WMS KGEFR CVNCAR,

(4.67)

T 1 x = T 2 x.
4FGQ EGTCQ SQ RFC DMJJMUGLE PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL

(4.68)

T 1 ?LB T 2 : T 1 cos (30) = T 2 cos (45).


(4.69)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

149

4FSQ,

T 2 = (1.225)T 1.
.MRC RF?R

(4.70)

T 1 ?LB T 2 ?PC LMR COS?J GL RFGQ A?QC, @CA?SQC RFC ?LEJCQ ML CGRFCP QGBC ?PC LMR COS?J. )R GQ PC?QML?@JC RF?R T 2 CLBQ SN @CGLE T 1 , @CA?SQC GR GQ CVCPRCB KMPC TCPRGA?JJW RF?L T 1 .

EPC?RCP RF?L

.MU AMLQGBCP RFC DMPAC AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE RFC TCPRGA?J MP L-?VGQ:

F net y = T 1y + T 2y w = 0.
4FGQ GKNJGCQ

(4.71)

T 1y + T 2y = w.
3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC CVNPCQQGMLQ DMP RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ EGTCQ

(4.72)

T 1 sin (30) + T 2 sin (45) = w.


4FCPC ?PC RUM SLILMULQ GL RFGQ COS?RGML, @SR QS@QRGRSRGLE RFC CVNPCQQGML DMP

(4.73)

T 2 GL RCPKQ MD T 1 PCBSACQ RFGQ RM MLC COS?RGML UGRF MLC SLILMUL:


(4.74)

T 1(0.500) + (1.225T 1)(0.707) = w = mg,


UFGAF WGCJBQ

(1.366)T 1 = (15.0 kg)(9.80 m/s 2).


3MJTGLE RFGQ J?QR COS?RGML EGTCQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD

(4.75)

T 1 RM @C T 1 = 108 N.
(4.76)

&GL?JJW, RFC K?ELGRSBC MD

T 2 GQ BCRCPKGLCB SQGLE RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL RFCK, T 2 = 1.225 T 1 , DMSLB ?@MTC. 4FSQ UC M@R?GL T 2 = 132 N.
(4.77)

D?I9KII?ED "MRF RCLQGMLQ UMSJB @C J?PECP GD @MRF UGPCQ UCPC KMPC FMPGXMLR?J, ?LB RFCW UGJJ @C COS?J GD ?LB MLJW GD RFC ?LEJCQ ML CGRFCP QGBC ?PC RFC Q?KC (?Q RFCW UCPC GL RFC C?PJGCP CV?KNJC MD ? RGEFRPMNC U?JICP).

4FC @?RFPMMK QA?JC GQ ?L CVACJJCLR CV?KNJC MD ? LMPK?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML ? @MBW. )R NPMTGBCQ ? OS?LRGR?RGTC PC?BGLE MD FMU KSAF GR KSQR NSQF SNU?PB RM QSNNMPR RFC UCGEFR MD ?L M@HCAR. "SR A?L WMS NPCBGAR UF?R WMS UMSJB QCC ML RFC BG?J MD ? @?RFPMMK QA?JC GD WMS QRMMB ML GR BSPGLE ?L CJCT?RMP PGBC? 7GJJ WMS QCC ? T?JSC EPC?RCP RF?L WMSP UCGEFR UFCL RFC CJCT?RMP QR?PRQ SN? 7F?R ?@MSR UFCL RFC CJCT?RMP KMTCQ SNU?PB ?R ? AMLQR?LR QNCCB: UGJJ RFC QA?JC QRGJJ PC?B KMPC RF?L WMSP UCGEFR ?R PCQR? #MLQGBCP RFC DMJJMUGLE CV?KNJC.

EN7CFB; 4.9 0>7J DE;I J>; B7J>HEEC ,97B; +;7: ?D 7D EB;L7JEH?


F?=KH; 4.25 QFMUQ ? 75.0-IE K?L (UCGEFR MD ?@MSR 165 J@) QR?LBGLE ML ? @?RFPMMK QA?JC GL ?L CJCT?RMP. #?JASJ?RC RFC QA?JC PC?BGLE: (?) GD RFC CJCT?RMP ?AACJCP?RCQ SNU?PB ?R ? P?RC MD 1.20 m/s 2 , ?LB (@) GD RFC CJCT?RMP KMTCQ SNU?PB ?R ? AMLQR?LR QNCCB MD 1 K/Q.

150

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

F?=KH; 4.25 (?) 4FC T?PGMSQ DMPACQ ?ARGLE UFCL ? NCPQML QR?LBQ ML ? @?RFPMMK QA?JC GL ?L CJCT?RMP. 4FC ?PPMUQ ?PC ?NNPMVGK?RCJW AMPPCAR DMP UFCL RFC CJCT?RMP GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE SNU?PBr@PMICL ?PPMUQ PCNPCQCLR DMPACQ RMM J?PEC RM @C BP?UL RM QA?JC. RFC UCGEFR MD RFC QA?JC,

we

GQ RFC UCGEFR MD RFC CJCT?RMP,

Fs

GQ RFC RCLQGML GL RFC QSNNMPRGLE A?@JC,

GQ RFC DMPAC MD RFC QA?JC ML RFC NCPQML,

Fp

GQ RFC UCGEFR MD RFC NCPQML,

GQ RFC DMPAC MD RFC NCPQML ML RFC QA?JC,

QA?JC ML RFC DJMMP MD RFC CJCT?RMP, ?LB QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQRrRFC NCPQML.

Ft

ws

GQ

GQ RFC DMPAC MD RFC

GQ RFC DMPAC MD RFC DJMMP SNU?PB ML RFC QA?JC. (@) 4FC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K QFMUQ MLJW RFC CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC BCQGEL?RCB

,JH7J;=O )D RFC QA?JC GQ ?AASP?RC, GRQ PC?BGLE UGJJ COS?J

F p , RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC DMPAC RFC NCPQML CVCPRQ BMULU?PB ML GR. F?=KH; 4.25(?) QFMUQ RFC

LSKCPMSQ DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC CJCT?RMP, QA?JC, ?LB NCPQML. )R K?ICQ RFGQ MLC-BGKCLQGML?J NPM@JCK JMMI KSAF KMPC DMPKGB?@JC RF?L GD RFC NCPQML GQ AFMQCL RM @C RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR ?LB ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K GQ BP?UL ?Q GL F?=KH; 4.25(@). !L?JWQGQ MD RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K SQGLE .CURMLtQ J?UQ A?L NPMBSAC ?LQUCPQ RM @MRF N?PRQ (?) ?LB (@) MD RFGQ CV?KNJC, ?Q UCJJ ?Q QMKC MRFCP OSCQRGMLQ RF?R KGEFR ?PGQC. 4FC MLJW DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC NCPQML ?PC FGQ UCGEFR w ?LB RFC SNU?PB DMPAC MD RFC QA?JC F s . !AAMPBGLE RM .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U F p ?LB F s ?PC COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML, QM RF?R UC LCCB RM DGLB J?U,

F s GL MPBCP RM DGLB UF?R RFC QA?JC PC?BQ. 7C A?L BM RFGQ, ?Q SQS?J, @W ?NNJWGLE .CURMLtQ QCAMLB F net = ma.
(4.78)

&PMK RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K UC QCC RF?R

F net = F s w , QM RF?R F s w = ma.


(4.79)

3MJTGLE DMP

F s EGTCQ ?L COS?RGML UGRF MLJW MLC SLILMUL: F s = ma + w,


(4.80)

MP, @CA?SQC

w = mg , QGKNJW F s = ma + mg.
(4.81)

.M ?QQSKNRGMLQ UCPC K?BC ?@MSR RFC ?AACJCP?RGML, ?LB QM RFGQ QMJSRGML QFMSJB @C T?JGB DMP ? T?PGCRW MD ?AACJCP?RGMLQ GL ?BBGRGML RM RFC MLCQ GL RFGQ CVCPAGQC. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) )L RFGQ N?PR MD RFC NPM@JCK,

a = 1.20 m/s 2 , QM RF?R F s = (75.0 kg)(1.20 m/s 2 ) + (75.0 kg)(9.80 m/s 2),
(4.82)

WGCJBGLE

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

151

F s = 825 N.
D?I9KII?ED <EH (7)

(4.83)

4FGQ GQ ?@MSR 185 J@. 7F?R UMSJB RFC QA?JC F?TC PC?B GD FC UCPC QR?RGML?PW? 3GLAC FGQ ?AACJCP?RGML UMSJB @C XCPM, RFC DMPAC MD RFC QA?JC UMSJB @C COS?J RM FGQ UCGEFR:

F net = ma = 0 = F s w F s = w = mg Fs Fs

(4.84)

= (75.0 kg)(9.80 m/s 2) = 735 N.

3M, RFC QA?JC PC?BGLE GL RFC CJCT?RMP GQ EPC?RCP RF?L FGQ 735-. (165 J@) UCGEFR. 4FGQ KC?LQ RF?R RFC QA?JC GQ NSQFGLE SN ML RFC NCPQML UGRF ? DMPAC EPC?RCP RF?L FGQ UCGEFR, ?Q GR KSQR GL MPBCP RM ?AACJCP?RC FGK SNU?PB. #JC?PJW, RFC EPC?RCP RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC CJCT?RMP, RFC EPC?RCP RFC QA?JC PC?BGLE, AMLQGQRCLR UGRF UF?R WMS DCCJ GL P?NGBJW ?AACJCP?RGLE TCPQSQ QJMUJW ?AACJCP?RGLE CJCT?RMPQ. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) .MU, UF?R F?NNCLQ UFCL RFC CJCT?RMP PC?AFCQ ? AMLQR?LR SNU?PB TCJMAGRW? 7GJJ RFC QA?JC QRGJJ PC?B KMPC RF?L FGQ UCGEFR? &MP ?LW AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRWrSN, BMUL, MP QR?RGML?PWr?AACJCP?RGML GQ XCPM @CA?SQC 4FSQ,

a = v , ?LB v = 0 . t

F s = ma + mg = 0 + mg.
.MU

(4.85)

F s = (75.0 kg)(9.80 m/s 2),


UFGAF EGTCQ

(4.86)

F s = 735 N.
D?I9KII?ED <EH (8)

(4.87)

4FC QA?JC PC?BGLE GQ 735 ., UFGAF COS?JQ RFC NCPQMLtQ UCGEFR. 4FGQ UGJJ @C RFC A?QC UFCLCTCP RFC CJCT?RMP F?Q ? AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRWrKMTGLE SN, KMTGLE BMUL, MP QR?RGML?PW. 4FC QMJSRGML RM RFC NPCTGMSQ CV?KNJC ?JQM ?NNJGCQ RM ?L CJCT?RMP ?AACJCP?RGLE BMULU?PB, ?Q KCLRGMLCB. 7FCL ?L CJCT?RMP ?AACJCP?RCQ BMULU?PB, a GQ LCE?RGTC, ?LB RFC QA?JC PC?BGLE GQ ?8FF RF?L RFC UCGEFR MD RFC NCPQML, SLRGJ ? AMLQR?LR BMULU?PB TCJMAGRW GQ PC?AFCB, ?R UFGAF RGKC RFC QA?JC PC?BGLE ?E?GL @CAMKCQ COS?J RM RFC NCPQMLtQ UCGEFR. )D RFC CJCT?RMP GQ GL DPCC-D?JJ ?LB ?AACJCP?RGLE BMULU?PB ?R g , RFCL RFC QA?JC PC?BGLE UGJJ @C XCPM ?LB RFC NCPQML UGJJ 4CC84E RM @C UCGEFRJCQQ.

)LRCEP?RGLE #MLACNRQ: .CURMLtQ ,?UQ MD -MRGML ?LB +GLCK?RGAQ


0FWQGAQ GQ KMQR GLRCPCQRGLE ?LB KMQR NMUCPDSJ UFCL ?NNJGCB RM ECLCP?J QGRS?RGMLQ RF?R GLTMJTC KMPC RF?L ? L?PPMU QCR MD NFWQGA?J NPGLAGNJCQ. .CURMLt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

EN7CFB; 4.10 0>7J FEH9; &KIJ 7 ,E99;H )B7O;H EN;HJ JE +;79> -EF ,F;;:?
! QMAACP NJ?WCP QR?PRQ DPMK PCQR ?LB ?AACJCP?RCQ DMPU?PB, PC?AFGLE ? TCJMAGRW MD 8.00 K/Q GL 2.50 Q. (?) 7F?R U?Q FGQ ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML? (@) 7F?R ?TCP?EC DMPAC BGB FC CVCPR @?AIU?PB ML RFC EPMSLB RM ?AFGCTC RFGQ ?AACJCP?RGML? 4FC NJ?WCPt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

152

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

7C ?PC EGTCL RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J TCJMAGRGCQ (XCPM ?LB 8.00 K/Q DMPU?PB); RFSQ, RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW GQ CJ?NQCB RGKC, ?LB QM

t = 2.50 s . 4FC SLILMUL GQ ?AACJCP?RGML, UFGAF A?L @C DMSLB DPMK GRQ BCDGLGRGML: a = v . t

v = 8.00 m/s . 7C ?PC EGTCL RFC


(4.88)

3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ WGCJBQ

a = 8.00 m/s 2.50 s = 3.20 m/s 2.


D?I9KII?ED <EH (7) 4FGQ GQ ?L ?RR?GL?@JC ?AACJCP?RGML DMP ?L ?RFJCRC GL EMMB AMLBGRGML. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (8)

(4.89)

(CPC UC ?PC ?QICB RM DGLB RFC ?TCP?EC DMPAC RFC NJ?WCP CVCPRQ @?AIU?PB RM ?AFGCTC RFGQ DMPU?PB ?AACJCP?RGML. .CEJCARGLE ?GP PCQGQR?LAC, RFGQ UMSJB @C COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC RM RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML RFC NJ?WCP, QGLAC RFGQ DMPAC A?SQCQ FGQ ?AACJCP?RGML. 3GLAC UC LMU ILMU RFC NJ?WCPtQ ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB ?PC EGTCL FGQ K?QQ, UC A?L SQC .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U RM DGLB RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB. 4F?R GQ,

F net = ma.
3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ MD

(4.90)

m ?LB a EGTCQ F net = (70.0 kg)(3.20 m/s 2) = 224 N.


(4.91)

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

4.8 ENJ;D:;: -EF?9: ->; FEKH B7I?9 FEH9;IWAD "DJHE:K9J?ED


/LC MD RFC KMQR PCK?PI?@JC QGKNJGDGA?RGMLQ GL NFWQGAQ GQ RF?R MLJW DMSP BGQRGLAR DMPACQ ?AAMSLR DMP ?JJ ILMUL NFCLMKCL?. )L D?AR, LC?PJW ?JJ MD RFC DMPACQ UC CVNCPGCLAC BGPCARJW ?PC BSC RM MLJW MLC @?QGA DMPAC, A?JJCB RFC CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPAC. (4FC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC GQ RFC MLJW DMPAC UC CVNCPGCLAC BGPCARJW RF?R GQ LMR CJCARPMK?ELCRGA.) 4FGQ GQ ? RPCKCLBMSQ QGKNJGDGA?RGML MD RFC KWPG?B MD 4CC4E8AG?L BGDDCPCLR DMPACQ UC A?L JGQR, MLJW ? DCU MD UFGAF UCPC BGQASQQCB GL RFC NPCTGMSQ QCARGML. !Q UC UGJJ QCC, RFC @?QGA DMPACQ ?PC ?JJ RFMSEFR RM ?AR RFPMSEF RFC CVAF?LEC MD KGAPMQAMNGA A?PPGCP N?PRGAJCQ, ?LB RFC AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ MD RFC @?QGA DMPACQ ?PC BCRCPKGLCB @W RFC RWNCQ MD N?PRGAJCQ CVAF?LECB. !ARGML ?R ? BGQR?LAC, QSAF ?Q RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC MD %?PRF ML RFC -MML, GQ CVNJ?GLCB @W RFC CVGQRCLAC MD ? <EH9; <?;B: P?RFCP RF?L @W uNFWQGA?J AMLR?AR.v 4FC 9BHE 54F<6 9BE68F ?PC RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC, RFC CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPAC, RFC UC?I LSAJC?P DMPAC, ?LB RFC QRPMLE LSAJC?P DMPAC. 4FCGP NPMNCPRGCQ ?PC QSKK?PGXCB GL -78B; 4.1. 3GLAC RFC UC?I ?LB QRPMLE LSAJC?P DMPACQ ?AR MTCP ?L CVRPCKCJW QFMPR P?LEC, RFC QGXC MD ? LSAJCSQ MP JCQQ, UC BM LMR CVNCPGCLAC RFCK BGPCARJW, ?JRFMSEF RFCW ?PC APSAG?J RM RFC TCPW QRPSARSPC MD K?RRCP. 4FCQC DMPACQ BCRCPKGLC UFGAF LSAJCG ?PC QR?@JC ?LB UFGAF BCA?W, ?LB RFCW ?PC RFC @?QGQ MD RFC PCJC?QC MD CLCPEW GL ACPR?GL LSAJC?P PC?ARGMLQ. .SAJC?P DMPACQ BCRCPKGLC LMR MLJW RFC QR?@GJGRW MD LSAJCG, @SR ?JQM RFC PCJ?RGTC ?@SLB?LAC MD CJCKCLRQ GL L?RSPC. 4FC NPMNCPRGCQ MD RFC LSAJCSQ MD ?L ?RMK BCRCPKGLC RFC LSK@CP MD CJCARPMLQ GR F?Q ?LB, RFSQ, GLBGPCARJW BCRCPKGLC RFC AFCKGQRPW MD RFC ?RMK. -MPC UGJJ @C Q?GB MD ?JJ MD RFCQC RMNGAQ GL J?RCP AF?NRCPQ. #MLACNR #MLLCARGMLQ: 4FC &MSP "?QGA &MPACQ 4FC DMSP @?QGA DMPACQ UGJJ @C CLAMSLRCPCB GL KMPC BCR?GJ ?Q WMS NPMEPCQQ RFPMSEF RFC RCVR. 4FC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC GQ BCDGLCB GL .D?<EHC C?H9KB7H &EJ?ED 7D: H7L?J7J?ED, CJCARPGA DMPAC GL EB;9JH?9 C>7H=; 7D: EB;9JH?9 F?;B:, K?ELCRGA DMPAC GL &7=D;J?IC, ?LB LSAJC?P DMPACQ GL +7:?E79J?L?JO 7D: 'K9B;7H )>OI?9I. /L ? K?APMQAMNGA QA?JC, CJCARPMK?ELCRGQK ?LB EP?TGRW ?PC RFC @?QGQ DMP ?JJ DMPACQ. 4FC LSAJC?P DMPACQ ?PC TGR?J RM RFC QS@QRPSARSPC MD K?RRCP, @SR RFCW ?PC LMR BGPCARJW CVNCPGCLACB ML RFC K?APMQAMNGA QA?JC. 4?@JC 4.1 0PMNCPRGCQ MD RFC &MSP "?QGA &MPACQ;1= FEH9; 'P?TGR?RGML?J %JCARPMK?ELCRGA 7C?I LSAJC?P 3RPMLE LSAJC?P AFFHEN?C7J; +;B7J?L; ,JH;D=J>I +7D=; AJJH79J?ED/+;FKBI?ED ?RRP?ARGTC MLJW ?RRP?ARGTC ?LB PCNSJQGTC C7HH?;H )7HJ?9B; 'P?TGRML 0FMRML

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F?=KH; 4.26 4FC CJCARPGA DMPAC DGCJB @CRUCCL ? NMQGRGTCJW AF?PECB N?PRGAJC ?LB ? LCE?RGTCJW AF?PECB N?PRGAJC. 7FCL ? NMQGRGTC RCQR AF?PEC GQ NJ?ACB GL RFC DGCJB, RFC AF?PEC UGJJ CVNCPGCLAC ? DMPAC GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC DMPAC DGCJB JGLCQ.

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

154

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F?=KH; 4.27 4FC CVAF?LEC MD K?QQCQ PCQSJRGLE GL PCNSJQGTC DMPACQ. (?) 4FC NCPQML RFPMUGLE RFC @?QICR@?JJ CVCPRQ ? DMPAC PC?ARGML DMPAC

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4FGQ GBC? MD N?PRGAJC CVAF?LEC BCCNCLQ P?RFCP RF?L AMLRP?BGARQ DGCJB AMLACNRQ. )R GQ KMPC Q?RGQDWGLE NFGJMQMNFGA?JJW RM RFGLI MD QMKCRFGLE NFWQGA?J ?ARS?JJW KMTGLE @CRUCCL M@HCARQ ?ARGLE ?R ? BGQR?LAC. -78B; 4.1 JGQRQ RFC CVAF?LEC MP 97HH?;H F7HJ?9B;I, @MRF M@QCPTCB ?LB NPMNMQCB, RF?R A?PPW RFC DMSP DMPACQ. "SR RFC PC?J DPSGR MD RFC N?PRGAJC-CVAF?LEC NPMNMQ?J GQ RF?R QC?PAFCQ DMP 9SI?U?tQ NPMNMQCB N?PRGAJC DMSLB GR 4A7 ? LSK@CP MD MRFCPQ RF?R UCPC AMKNJCRCJW SLCVNCARCB, QRGKSJ?RGLE WCR KMPC PCQC?PAF. !JJ MD RFGQ PCQC?PAF CTCLRS?JJW JCB RM RFC NPMNMQ?J MD OS?PIQ ?Q RFC SLBCPJWGLE QS@QRPSARSPC MD K?RRCP, UFGAF GQ ? @?QGA RCLCR MD '54Q. )D QSAACQQDSJ, RFCQC RFCMPGCQ UGJJ CVNJ?GL LMR MLJW DMPACQ, @SR ?JQM RFC QRPSARSPC MD K?RRCP GRQCJD. 9CR NFWQGAQ GQ ?L CVNCPGKCLR?J QAGCLAC, QM RFC RCQR MD RFCQC RFCMPGCQ KSQR JGC GL RFC BMK?GL MD RFC PC?J UMPJB. !Q MD RFGQ UPGRGLE, QAGCLRGQRQ ?R RFC #%2. J?@MP?RMPW GL 3UGRXCPJ?LB ?PC QR?PRGLE RM RCQR RFCQC RFCMPGCQ SQGLE RFC UMPJBt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#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

155

%GLQRCGL NPCBGARCB RFC CVGQRCLAC MD RFCQC U?TCQ ?Q N?PR MD FGQ ECLCP?J RFCMPW MD PCJ?RGTGRW. 'P?TGR?RGML?J U?TCQ ?PC APC?RCB BSPGLE RFC AMJJGQGML MD K?QQGTC QR?PQ, GL @J?AI FMJCQ, MP GL QSNCPLMT? CVNJMQGMLQrJGIC QFMAI U?TCQ. 4FCQC EP?TGR?RGML?J U?TCQ UGJJ RP?TCJ RFPMSEF QN?AC DPMK QSAF QGRCQ KSAF JGIC ? NC@@JC BPMNNCB GLRM ? NMLB QCLBQ MSR PGNNJCQrCVACNR RFCQC U?TCQ KMTC ?R RFC QNCCB MD JGEFR. ! BCRCARMP ?NN?P?RSQ F?Q @CCL @SGJR GL RFC 5.3., AMLQGQRGLE MD RUM J?PEC GLQR?JJ?RGMLQ LC?PJW 3000 IK ?N?PRrMLC GL 7?QFGLERML QR?RC ?LB MLC GL ,MSGQG?L?! 4FC D?AGJGRW GQ A?JJCB RFC ,?QCP )LRCPDCPMKCRCP 'P?TGR?RGML?J-7?TC /@QCPT?RMPW (,)'/). %?AF GLQR?JJ?RGML GQ BCQGELCB RM SQC MNRGA?J J?QCPQ RM CV?KGLC ?LW QJGEFR QFGDR GL RFC PCJ?RGTC NMQGRGMLQ MD RUM K?QQCQ BSC RM RFC CDDCAR MD EP?TGRW U?TCQ. 4FC RUM QGRCQ ?JJMU QGKSJR?LCMSQ KC?QSPCKCLRQ MD RFCQC QK?JJ CDDCARQ RM @C QCN?P?RCB DPMK MRFCP L?RSP?J NFCLMKCL?, QSAF ?Q C?PRFOS?ICQ. )LGRG?J MNCP?RGML MD RFC BCRCARMPQ @CE?L GL 2002, ?LB UMPI GQ NPMACCBGLE ML GLAPC?QGLE RFCGP QCLQGRGTGRW. 3GKGJ?P GLQR?JJ?RGMLQ F?TC @CCL @SGJR GL )R?JW (6)2'/), 'CPK?LW ('%/600), ?LB *?N?L (4!-!300) RM NPMTGBC ? UMPJBUGBC LCRUMPI MD EP?TGR?RGML?J U?TC BCRCARMPQ. )LRCPL?RGML?J AMJJ?@MP?RGML GL RFGQ ?PC? GQ KMTGLE GLRM QN?AC UGRF RFC HMGLR %5/53 NPMHCAR ,)3! (,?QCP )LRCPDCPMKCRCP 3N?AC !LRCLL?). %?PRFOS?ICQ ?LB MRFCP %?PRFJW LMGQCQ UGJJ @C LM NPM@JCK DMP RFCQC KMLGRMPGLE QN?ACAP?DR. ,)3! UGJJ AMKNJCKCLR ,)'/ @W JMMIGLE ?R KSAF KMPC K?QQGTC @J?AI FMJCQ RFPMSEF RFC M@QCPT?RGML MD EP?TGR?RGML?J-U?TC QMSPACQ CKGRRGLE KSAF J?PECP U?TCJCLERFQ. 4FPCC Q?RCJJGRCQ UGJJ @C NJ?ACB GL QN?AC ?@MTC %?PRF GL ?L COSGJ?RCP?J RPG?LEJC (UGRF 5,000,000-IK QGBCQ) (F?=KH; 4.29). 4FC QWQRCK UGJJ KC?QSPC RFC PCJ?RGTC NMQGRGMLQ MD C?AF Q?RCJJGRC RM BCRCAR N?QQGLE EP?TGR?RGML?J U?TCQ. !AASP?AW RM UGRFGL 10% MD RFC QGXC MD ?L ?RMK UGJJ @C LCCBCB RM BCRCAR ?LW U?TCQ. 4FC J?SLAF MD RFGQ NPMHCAR KGEFR @C ?Q C?PJW ?Q 2018. W V@ FHE8 # G& J<?? G8?? HF FB@8G;<A: 45BHG G;8 HA<I8EF8 G;4G J8 7<7AVG >ABJ 589BE8. +;8 ;<FGBEL B9 F6<8A68 G8??F HF G;4G 4AL G<@8 LBH :B J;8E8 LBH ;4I8AVG 588A 589BE8, LBH HFH4??L 9<A7 FB@8G;<A: G;4G E84??L F;4>8F G;8 F6<8AG<9<6 C4E47<:@F B9 G;8 74L. .;8G;8E :E4I<G4G<BA4? J4I8 4FGEBC;LF<6F J<?? 7B G;4G, BA?L G<@8 J<?? G8??.X r$?TGB 2CGRXC, ,)'/ )LNSR /NRGAQ -?L?ECP, 5LGTCPQGRW MD &JMPGB?

F?=KH; 4.29 3N?AC-@?QCB DSRSPC CVNCPGKCLRQ DMP RFC KC?QSPCKCLR MD EP?TGR?RGML?J U?TCQ. 3FMUL FCPC GQ ? BP?UGLE MD ,)3!tQ MP@GR. %?AF Q?RCJJGRC MD ,)3! UGJJ AMLQGQR MD ? J?QCP QMSPAC ?LB ? K?QQ. 4FC J?QCPQ UGJJ RP?LQKGR ? QGEL?J RM KC?QSPC RFC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL C?AF Q?RCJJGRCtQ RCQR K?QQ. 4FC PCJ?RGTC KMRGML MD RFCQC K?QQCQ UGJJ NPMTGBC GLDMPK?RGML ?@MSR N?QQGLE EP?TGR?RGML?J U?TCQ. (APCBGR: .!3!)

4FC GBC?Q NPCQCLRCB GL RFGQ QCARGML ?PC @SR ? EJGKNQC GLRM RMNGAQ MD KMBCPL NFWQGAQ RF?R UGJJ @C AMTCPCB GL KSAF EPC?RCP BCNRF GL J?RCP AF?NRCPQ.

BEII7HO
799;B;H7J?ED: RFC P?RC ?R UFGAF ?L M@HCARtQ TCJMAGRW AF?LECQ MTCP ? NCPGMB MD RGKC 97HH?;H F7HJ?9B;: ? DSLB?KCLR?J N?PRGAJC MD L?RSPC RF?R GQ QSPPMSLBCB @W ? AF?P?ARCPGQRGA DMPAC DGCJB; NFMRMLQ ?PC A?PPGCP N?PRGAJCQ MD RFC CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPAC :OD7C?9I: RFC QRSBW MD FMU DMPACQ ?DDCAR RFC KMRGML MD M@HCARQ ?LB QWQRCKQ ;NJ;HD7B <EH9;: ? DMPAC ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR MP QWQRCK RF?R MPGEGL?RCQ MSRQGBC MD RFC M@HCAR MP QWQRCK <EH9; <?;B:: ? PCEGML GL UFGAF ? RCQR N?PRGAJC UGJJ CVNCPGCLAC ? DMPAC <EH9;: ? NSQF MP NSJJ ML ?L M@HCAR UGRF ? QNCAGDGA K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML; A?L @C PCNPCQCLRCB @W TCARMPQ; A?L @C CVNPCQQCB ?Q ? KSJRGNJC MD ? QR?LB?PB DMPAC <H;;-8E:O :?7=H7C: ? QICRAF QFMUGLE ?JJ MD RFC CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR MP QWQRCK; RFC QWQRCK GQ PCNPCQCLRCB @W ? BMR, ?LB RFC DMPACQ ?PC PCNPCQCLRCB @W TCARMPQ CVRCLBGLE MSRU?PB DPMK RFC BMR <H;;-<7BB: ? QGRS?RGML GL UFGAF RFC MLJW DMPAC ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR GQ RFC DMPAC BSC RM EP?TGRW <H?9J?ED: ? DMPAC N?QR C?AF MRFCP MD M@HCARQ RF?R ?PC RMSAFGLE; CV?KNJCQ GLAJSBC PMSEF QSPD?ACQ ?LB ?GP PCQGQR?LAC ?D;HJ?7: RFC RCLBCLAW MD ?L M@HCAR RM PCK?GL ?R PCQR MP PCK?GL GL KMRGML ?D;HJ?7B <H7C; E< H;<;H;D9;: ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK RF?R GQ LMR ?AACJCP?RGLE; ?JJ DMPACQ ?ARGLE GL ?L GLCPRG?J DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC ?PC PC?J DMPACQ, ?Q MNNMQCB RM DGARGRGMSQ DMPACQ RF?R ?PC M@QCPTCB BSC RM ?L ?AACJCP?RGLE DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC B7M E< ?D;HJ?7: QCC .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U MD KMRGML C7II: RFC OS?LRGRW MD K?RRCP GL ? QS@QR?LAC; KC?QSPCB GL IGJMEP?KQ

156

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

';MJEDXI <?HIJ B7M E< CEJ?ED: ? @MBW ?R PCQR PCK?GLQ ?R PCQR, MP, GD GL KMRGML, PCK?GLQ GL KMRGML ?R ? AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW SLJCQQ ?ARCB ML @W ? LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC; ?JQM ILMUL ?Q RFC J?U MD GLCPRG? ';MJEDXI I;9ED: B7M E< CEJ?ED: RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC M@HCAR,

F net a , ?LB GLTCPQCJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC K?QQ; BCDGLCB K?RFCK?RGA?JJW ?Q a = m

F net ML ?L M@HCAR UGRF K?QQ m GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM ?LB GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC

';MJEDXI J>?H: B7M E< CEJ?ED: UFCLCTCP MLC @MBW CVCPRQ ? DMPAC ML ? QCAMLB @MBW, RFC DGPQR @MBW CVNCPGCLACQ ? DMPAC RF?R GQ COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML RM RFC DMPAC RF?R RFC DGPQR @MBW CVCPRQ D;J ;NJ;HD7B <EH9;: RFC TCARMP QSK MD ?JJ CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR MP QWQRCK; A?SQCQ ? K?QQ RM ?AACJCP?RC DEHC7B <EH9;: RFC DMPAC RF?R ? QSPD?AC ?NNJGCQ RM ?L M@HCAR RM QSNNMPR RFC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR; ?ARQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QSPD?AC ML UFGAF RFC M@HCAR PCQRQ IOIJ;C: BCDGLCB @W RFC @MSLB?PGCQ MD ?L M@HCAR MP AMJJCARGML MD M@HCARQ @CGLE M@QCPTCB; ?JJ DMPACQ MPGEGL?RGLE DPMK MSRQGBC MD RFC QWQRCK ?PC AMLQGBCPCB CVRCPL?J DMPACQ J;DI?ED: RFC NSJJGLE DMPAC RF?R ?ARQ ?JMLE ? KCBGSK, CQNCAG?JJW ? QRPCRAFCB DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP, QSAF ?Q ? PMNC MP A?@JC; UFCL ? PMNC QSNNMPRQ RFC UCGEFR MD ?L M@HCAR, RFC DMPAC ML RFC M@HCAR BSC RM RFC PMNC GQ A?JJCB ? RCLQGML DMPAC J>HKIJ: ? PC?ARGML DMPAC RF?R NSQFCQ ? @MBW DMPU?PB GL PCQNMLQC RM ? @?AIU?PB DMPAC; PMAICRQ, ?GPNJ?LCQ, ?LB A?PQ ?PC NSQFCB DMPU?PB @W ? RFPSQR PC?ARGML DMPAC M;?=>J: RFC DMPAC

w BSC RM EP?TGRW ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR MD K?QQ m ; BCDGLCB K?RFCK?RGA?JJW ?Q: w = mg , UFCPC g GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML

MD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW

,;9J?ED ,KCC7HO 4.1 D;L;BEFC;DJ E< FEH9; CED9;FJ


w DOD7C?9I GQ RFC QRSBW MD FMU DMPACQ ?DDCAR RFC KMRGML MD M@HCARQ. w FEH9; GQ ? NSQF MP NSJJ RF?R A?L @C BCDGLCB GL RCPKQ MD T?PGMSQ QR?LB?PBQ, ?LB GR GQ ? TCARMP F?TGLE @MRF K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML. w ENJ;HD7B <EH9;I ?PC ?LW MSRQGBC DMPACQ RF?R ?AR ML ? @MBW. ! <H;;-8E:O :?7=H7C GQ ? BP?UGLE MD ?JJ CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML ? @MBW.

4.2 ';MJEDXI F?HIJ %7M E< &EJ?ED: "D;HJ?7


w ';MJEDXI <?HIJ B7M E< CEJ?ED QR?RCQ RF?R ? @MBW ?R PCQR PCK?GLQ ?R PCQR, MP, GD GL KMRGML, PCK?GLQ GL KMRGML ?R ? AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW SLJCQQ ?ARCB ML @W ? LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC. 4FGQ GQ ?JQM ILMUL ?Q RFC B7M E< ?D;HJ?7. w "D;HJ?7 GQ RFC RCLBCLAW MD ?L M@HCAR RM PCK?GL ?R PCQR MP PCK?GL GL KMRGML. )LCPRG? GQ PCJ?RCB RM ?L M@HCARtQ K?QQ. w &7II GQ RFC OS?LRGRW MD K?RRCP GL ? QS@QR?LAC.

4.3 ';MJEDXI ,;9ED: %7M E< &EJ?ED: CED9;FJ E< 7 ,OIJ;C w !AACJCP?RGML, a , GQ BCDGLCB ?Q ? AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW, KC?LGLE ? AF?LEC GL GRQ K?ELGRSBC MP BGPCARGML, MP @MRF.
w !L CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ MLC ?ARGLE ML ? QWQRCK DPMK MSRQGBC RFC QWQRCK, ?Q MNNMQCB RM GLRCPL?J DMPACQ, UFGAF ?AR @CRUCCL AMKNMLCLRQ UGRFGL RFC QWQRCK. w .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML QR?RCQ RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? QWQRCK GQ BGPCARJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM ?LB GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC QWQRCK, ?LB GLTCPQCJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM GRQ K?QQ.

F net a= m . w 4FGQ GQ MDRCL UPGRRCL GL RFC KMPC D?KGJG?P DMPK: F net = ma . w 4FC UCGEFR w MD ?L M@HCAR GQ BCDGLCB ?Q RFC DMPAC MD EP?TGRW ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR MD K?QQ m . 4FC M@HCAR CVNCPGCLACQ ?L ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW g : w = mg.
w )L COS?RGML DMPK, .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML GQ w )D RFC MLJW DMPAC ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR GQ BSC RM EP?TGRW, RFC M@HCAR GQ GL DPCC D?JJ. w &PGARGML GQ ? DMPAC RF?R MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML N?QR C?AF MRFCP MD M@HCARQ RF?R ?PC RMSAFGLE.

4.4 ';MJEDXI ->?H: %7M E< &EJ?ED: ,OCC;JHO ?D FEH9;I


w ';MJEDXI J>?H: B7M E< CEJ?ED PCNPCQCLRQ ? @?QGA QWKKCRPW GL L?RSPC. )R QR?RCQ: 7FCLCTCP MLC @MBW CVCPRQ ? DMPAC ML ? QCAMLB @MBW, RFC DGPQR @MBW CVNCPGCLACQ ? DMPAC RF?R GQ COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML RM RFC DMPAC RF?R RFC DGPQR @MBW CVCPRQ. w ! J>HKIJ GQ ? PC?ARGML DMPAC RF?R NSQFCQ ? @MBW DMPU?PB GL PCQNMLQC RM ? @?AIU?PB DMPAC. 2MAICRQ, ?GPNJ?LCQ, ?LB A?PQ ?PC NSQFCB DMPU?PB @W ? RFPSQR PC?ARGML DMPAC.

4.5 'EHC7B, -;DI?ED, 7D: (J>;H EN7CFB;I E< FEH9;I


w 7FCL M@HCARQ PCQR ML ? QSPD?AC, RFC QSPD?AC ?NNJGCQ ? DMPAC RM RFC M@HCAR RF?R QSNNMPRQ RFC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR. 4FGQ QSNNMPRGLE DMPAC ?ARQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM ?LB ?U?W DPMK RFC QSPD?AC. )R GQ A?JJCB ? LMPK?J DMPAC, N . w 7FCL M@HCARQ PCQR ML ? LML-?AACJCP?RGLE FMPGXMLR?J QSPD?AC, RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC LMPK?J DMPAC GQ COS?J RM RFC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR:

N = mg.

w 7FCL M@HCARQ PCQR ML ?L GLAJGLCB NJ?LC RF?R K?ICQ ?L ?LEJC UGRF RFC FMPGXMLR?J QSPD?AC, RFC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR A?L @C PCQMJTCB GLRM AMKNMLCLRQ RF?R ?AR NCPNCLBGASJ?P ( w ) ?LB N?P?JJCJ ( w ) RM RFC QSPD?AC MD RFC NJ?LC. 4FCQC AMKNMLCLRQ A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB SQGLE:

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 4 Y $9.!-)#3: &/2#% !.$ .%74/.'3 ,!73 /& -/4)/.

157

w = w sin () = mg sin () w = w cos () = mg cos ().


w 4FC NSJJGLE DMPAC RF?R ?ARQ ?JMLE ? QRPCRAFCB DJCVG@JC AMLLCARMP, QSAF ?Q ? PMNC MP A?@JC, GQ A?JJCB RCLQGML, MD ?L M@HCAR RF?R GQ ?R PCQR, RFC RCLQGML GL RFC PMNC GQ COS?J RM RFC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR:

T . 7FCL ? PMNC QSNNMPRQ RFC UCGEFR

T = mg.

w )L ?LW GLCPRG?J DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC (MLC RF?R GQ LMR ?AACJCP?RCB MP PMR?RCB), .CURMLtQ J?UQ F?TC RFC QGKNJC DMPKQ EGTCL GL RFGQ AF?NRCP ?LB ?JJ DMPACQ ?PC PC?J DMPACQ F?TGLE ? NFWQGA?J MPGEGL.

4.6 )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= ,JH7J;=?;I


w 4M QMJTC NPM@JCKQ GLTMJTGLE .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML, DMJJMU RFC NPMACBSPC BCQAPG@CB: 1. $P?U ? QICRAF MD RFC NPM@JCK. 2. )BCLRGDW ILMUL ?LB SLILMUL OS?LRGRGCQ, ?LB GBCLRGDW RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR. $P?U ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K, UFGAF GQ ? QICRAF QFMUGLE ?JJ MD RFC DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR. 4FC M@HCAR GQ PCNPCQCLRCB @W ? BMR, ?LB RFC DMPACQ ?PC PCNPCQCLRCB @W TCARMPQ CVRCLBGLE GL BGDDCPCLR BGPCARGMLQ DPMK RFC BMR. )D TCARMPQ ?AR GL BGPCARGMLQ RF?R ?PC LMR FMPGXMLR?J MP TCPRGA?J, PCQMJTC RFC TCARMPQ GLRM FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ ?LB BP?U RFCK ML RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K. 3. 7PGRC .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J BGPCARGMLQ ?LB ?BB RFC DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC M@HCAR. )D RFC M@HCAR BMCQ LMR ?AACJCP?RC GL ? N?PRGASJ?P BGPCARGML (DMP CV?KNJC, RFC x -BGPCARGML) RFCL F net x = 0 . )D RFC M@HCAR BMCQ ?AACJCP?RC GL RF?R BGPCARGML,

F net x = ma . 4. #FCAI WMSP ?LQUCP. )Q RFC ?LQUCP PC?QML?@JC? !PC RFC SLGRQ AMPPCAR?

4.7 FKHJ>;H AFFB?97J?EDI E< ';MJEDXI %7MI E< &EJ?ED


w .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML A?L @C ?NNJGCB GL LSKCPMSQ QGRS?RGMLQ RM QMJTC NPM@JCKQ MD KMRGML. w 3MKC NPM@JCKQ UGJJ AMLR?GL KSJRGNJC DMPAC TCARMPQ ?ARGLE GL BGDDCPCLR BGPCARGMLQ ML ?L M@HCAR. "C QSPC RM BP?U BG?EP?KQ, PCQMJTC ?JJ DMPAC TCARMPQ GLRM FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ, ?LB BP?U ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K. !JU?WQ ?L?JWXC RFC BGPCARGML GL UFGAF ?L M@HCAR ?AACJCP?RCQ QM RF?R WMS A?L BCRCPKGLC UFCRFCP F net = ma MP F net = 0 . w 4FC LMPK?J DMPAC ML ?L M@HCAR GQ LMR ?JU?WQ COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC RM RFC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR. )D ?L M@HCAR GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE, RFC LMPK?J DMPAC UGJJ @C JCQQ RF?L MP EPC?RCP RF?L RFC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR. !JQM, GD RFC M@HCAR GQ ML ?L GLAJGLCB NJ?LC, RFC LMPK?J DMPAC UGJJ ?JU?WQ @C JCQQ RF?L RFC DSJJ UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR. w 3MKC NPM@JCKQ UGJJ AMLR?GL T?PGMSQ NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ, QSAF ?Q DMPACQ, ?AACJCP?RGML, TCJMAGRW, MP NMQGRGML. 9MS A?L ?NNJW AMLACNRQ DPMK IGLCK?RGAQ ?LB BWL?KGAQ GL MPBCP RM QMJTC RFCQC NPM@JCKQ MD KMRGML.

4.8 ENJ;D:;: -EF?9: ->; FEKH B7I?9 FEH9;IWAD "DJHE:K9J?ED


w 4FC T?PGMSQ RWNCQ MD DMPACQ RF?R ?PC A?RCEMPGXCB DMP SQC GL K?LW ?NNJGA?RGMLQ ?PC ?JJ K?LGDCQR?RGMLQ MD RFC 9BHE 54F<6 9BE68F GL L?RSPC. w 4FC NPMNCPRGCQ MD RFCQC DMPACQ ?PC QSKK?PGXCB GL -78B; 4.1. w %TCPWRFGLE UC CVNCPGCLAC BGPCARJW UGRFMSR QCLQGRGTC GLQRPSKCLRQ GQ BSC RM CGRFCP CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPACQ MP EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPACQ. 4FC LSAJC?P DMPACQ ?PC PCQNMLQG@JC DMP RFC QS@KGAPMQAMNGA QRPSARSPC MD K?RRCP, @SR RFCW ?PC LMR BGPCARJW QCLQCB @CA?SQC MD RFCGP QFMPR P?LECQ. !RRCKNRQ ?PC @CGLE K?BC RM QFMU ?JJ DMSP DMPACQ ?PC BGDDCPCLR K?LGDCQR?RGMLQ MD ? QGLEJC SLGDGCB DMPAC. w ! DMPAC DGCJB QSPPMSLBQ ?L M@HCAR APC?RGLE ? DMPAC ?LB GQ RFC A?PPGCP MD RF?R DMPAC.

CED9;FJK7B *K;IJ?EDI 4.1 D;L;BEFC;DJ E< FEH9; CED9;FJ


1. 0PMNMQC ? DMPAC QR?LB?PB BGDDCPCLR DPMK RFC CV?KNJC MD ? QRPCRAFCB QNPGLE BGQASQQCB GL RFC RCVR. 9MSP QR?LB?PB KSQR @C A?N?@JC MD NPMBSAGLE RFC Q?KC DMPAC PCNC?RCBJW. 2. 7F?R NPMNCPRGCQ BM DMPACQ F?TC RF?R ?JJMU SQ RM AJ?QQGDW RFCK ?Q TCARMPQ?

4.2 ';MJEDXI F?HIJ %7M E< &EJ?ED: "D;HJ?7


3. (MU ?PC GLCPRG? ?LB K?QQ PCJ?RCB? 4. 7F?R GQ RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL UCGEFR ?LB K?QQ? 7FGAF GQ ?L GLRPGLQGA, SLAF?LEGLE NPMNCPRW MD ? @MBW?

4.3 ';MJEDXI ,;9ED: %7M E< &EJ?ED: CED9;FJ E< 7 ,OIJ;C


5. 7FGAF QR?RCKCLR GQ AMPPCAR? (?) .CR DMPAC A?SQCQ KMRGML. (@) .CR DMPAC A?SQCQ AF?LEC GL KMRGML. %VNJ?GL WMSP ?LQUCP ?LB EGTC ?L CV?KNJC. 6. 7FW A?L UC LCEJCAR DMPACQ QSAF ?Q RFMQC FMJBGLE ? @MBW RMECRFCP UFCL UC ?NNJW .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML? 7. %VNJ?GL FMU RFC AFMGAC MD RFC uQWQRCK MD GLRCPCQRv ?DDCARQ UFGAF DMPACQ KSQR @C AMLQGBCPCB UFCL ?NNJWGLE .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML. 8. $CQAPG@C ? QGRS?RGML GL UFGAF RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML ? QWQRCK GQ LMR XCPM, WCR GRQ QNCCB PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR. 9. ! QWQRCK A?L F?TC ? LMLXCPM TCJMAGRW UFGJC RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML GR <F XCPM. $CQAPG@C QSAF ? QGRS?RGML. 10. ! PMAI GQ RFPMUL QRP?GEFR SN. 7F?R GQ RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC PMAI UFCL GR GQ ?R RFC RMN MD GRQ RP?HCARMPW? 11. (?) 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC MD BGDDCPCLR LCR CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC Q?KC QWQRCK RM NPMBSAC BGDDCPCLR ?AACJCP?RGMLQ. (@) 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC MD RFC Q?KC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML QWQRCKQ MD BGDDCPCLR K?QQCQ, NPMBSAGLE BGDDCPCLR ?AACJCP?RGMLQ. (A) 7F?R J?U ?AASP?RCJW BCQAPG@CQ @MRF CDDCARQ? 3R?RC GR GL UMPBQ ?LB ?Q ?L COS?RGML. 12. )D RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? QWQRCK GQ XCPM, ?PC LM CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML GR? 7F?R ?@MSR GLRCPL?J DMPACQ? %VNJ?GL WMSP ?LQUCPQ. 13. )D ? AMLQR?LR, LMLXCPM DMPAC GQ ?NNJGCB RM ?L M@HCAR, UF?R A?L WMS Q?W ?@MSR RFC TCJMAGRW ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC M@HCAR?

158

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14. 4FC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC ML RFC @?QICR@?JJ GL F?=KH; 4.6 GQ GELMPCB. 7FCL EP?TGRW <F R?ICL GLRM ?AAMSLR, UF?R GQ RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML RFC @?QICR@?JJr?@MTC FMPGXMLR?J, @CJMU FMPGXMLR?J, MP QRGJJ FMPGXMLR?J?

4.4 ';MJEDXI ->?H: %7M E< &EJ?ED: ,OCC;JHO ?D FEH9;I


15. 7FCL WMS R?IC MDD GL ? HCR ?GPAP?DR, RFCPC GQ ? QCLQ?RGML MD @CGLE NSQFCB @?AI GLRM RFC QC?R. %VNJ?GL UFW WMS KMTC @?AIU?PB GL RFC QC?RrGQ RFCPC PC?JJW ? DMPAC @?AIU?PB ML WMS? (4FC Q?KC PC?QMLGLE CVNJ?GLQ UFGNJ?QF GLHSPGCQ, GL UFGAF RFC FC?B GQ ?NN?PCLRJW RFPMUL @?AIU?PB.) 16. ! BCTGAC SQCB QGLAC RFC 1940Q RM KC?QSPC RFC IGAI MP PCAMGJ MD RFC @MBW BSC RM FC?PR @C?RQ GQ RFC u@?JJGQRMA?PBGMEP?NF.v 7F?R NFWQGAQ NPGLAGNJC(Q) ?PC GLTMJTCB FCPC RM KC?QSPC RFC DMPAC MD A?PBG?A AMLRP?ARGML? (MU KGEFR UC AMLQRPSAR QSAF ? BCTGAC? 17. $CQAPG@C ? QGRS?RGML GL UFGAF MLC QWQRCK CVCPRQ ? DMPAC ML ?LMRFCP ?LB, ?Q ? AMLQCOSCLAC, CVNCPGCLACQ ? DMPAC RF?R GQ COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML. 7FGAF MD .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML ?NNJW? 18. 7FW BMCQ ?L MPBGL?PW PGDJC PCAMGJ (IGAI @?AIU?PB) UFCL DGPCB? 4FC @?PPCJ MD ? PCAMGJJCQQ PGDJC GQ MNCL ?R @MRF CLBQ. $CQAPG@C FMU .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U ?NNJGCQ UFCL MLC GQ DGPCB. #?L WMS Q?DCJW QR?LB AJMQC @CFGLB MLC UFCL GR GQ DGPCB? 19. !L !KCPGA?L DMMR@?JJ JGLCK?L PC?QMLQ RF?R GR GQ QCLQCJCQQ RM RPW RM MSR-NSQF RFC MNNMQGLE NJ?WCP, QGLAC LM K?RRCP FMU F?PB FC NSQFCQ FC UGJJ CVNCPGCLAC ?L COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC DMPAC DPMK RFC MRFCP NJ?WCP. 5QC .CURMLtQ J?UQ ?LB BP?U ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K MD ?L ?NNPMNPG?RC QWQRCK RM CVNJ?GL FMU FC A?L QRGJJ MSR-NSQF RFC MNNMQGRGML GD FC GQ QRPMLE CLMSEF. 20. .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U MD KMRGML RCJJQ SQ RF?R DMPACQ ?JU?WQ MAASP GL N?GPQ MD COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC K?ELGRSBC. %VNJ?GL FMU RFC AFMGAC MD RFC uQWQRCK MD GLRCPCQRv ?DDCARQ UFCRFCP MLC QSAF N?GP MD DMPACQ A?LACJQ.

4.5 'EHC7B, -;DI?ED, 7D: (J>;H EN7CFB;I E< FEH9;I


21. )D ? JCE GQ QSQNCLBCB @W ? RP?ARGML QCRSN ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.30, UF?R GQ RFC RCLQGML GL RFC PMNC?

F?=KH; 4.30 ! JCE GQ QSQNCLBCB @W ? RP?ARGML QWQRCK GL UFGAF UGPCQ ?PC SQCB RM RP?LQKGR DMPACQ. &PGARGMLJCQQ NSJJCWQ AF?LEC RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC DMPAC + UGRFMSR AF?LEGLE GRQ K?ELGRSBC.

22. )L ? RP?ARGML QCRSN DMP ? @PMICL @MLC, UGRF NSJJCWQ ?LB PMNC ?T?GJ?@JC, FMU KGEFR UC @C ?@JC RM GLAPC?QC RFC DMPAC ?JMLE RFC DCKSP SQGLE RFC Q?KC UCGEFR? (3CC F?=KH; 4.30.) (.MRC RF?R RFC DCKSP GQ RFC QFGL @MLC QFMUL GL RFGQ GK?EC.)

4.7 FKHJ>;H AFFB?97J?EDI E< ';MJEDXI %7MI E< &EJ?ED


23. 4M QGKSJ?RC RFC ?NN?PCLR UCGEFRJCQQLCQQ MD QN?AC MP@GR, ?QRPML?SRQ ?PC RP?GLCB GL RFC FMJB MD ? A?PEM ?GPAP?DR RF?R GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE BMULU?PB ?R

g.

7FW UGJJ RFCW ?NNC?P RM @C UCGEFRJCQQ, ?Q KC?QSPCB @W QR?LBGLE ML ? @?RFPMMK QA?JC, GL RFGQ ?AACJCP?RCB DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC? )Q RFCPC ?LW BGDDCPCLAC @CRUCCL RFCGP ?NN?PCLR UCGEFRJCQQLCQQ GL MP@GR ?LB GL RFC ?GPAP?DR? 24. ! A?PRMML QFMUQ RFC RMSNCC AMKGLE MDD RFC FC?B MD ?L CJCT?RMP N?QQCLECP UFCL RFC CJCT?RMP P?NGBJW QRMNQ BSPGLE ?L SNU?PB PGBC. #?L RFGQ PC?JJW F?NNCL UGRFMSR RFC NCPQML @CGLE RGCB RM RFC DJMMP MD RFC CJCT?RMP? %VNJ?GL WMSP ?LQUCP.

4.8 ENJ;D:;: -EF?9: ->; FEKH B7I?9 FEH9;IWAD "DJHE:K9J?ED


25. %VNJ?GL, GL RCPKQ MD RFC NPMNCPRGCQ MD RFC DMSP @?QGA DMPACQ, UFW NCMNJC LMRGAC RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFCGP @MBGCQ GD GR GQ QSAF ? AMKN?P?RGTCJW UC?I DMPAC. 26. 7F?R GQ RFC BMKGL?LR DMPAC @CRUCCL ?QRPMLMKGA?J M@HCARQ? 7FW ?PC RFC MRFCP RFPCC @?QGA DMPACQ JCQQ QGELGDGA?LR MTCP RFCQC TCPW J?PEC BGQR?LACQ? 27. 'GTC ? BCR?GJCB CV?KNJC MD FMU RFC CVAF?LEC MD ? N?PRGAJC A?L PCQSJR GL ?L 4GGE46G<I8 DMPAC. (&MP CV?KNJC, AMLQGBCP MLC AFGJB NSJJGLE ? RMW MSR MD RFC F?LBQ MD ?LMRFCP.)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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159

)HE8B;CI & EN;H9?I;I 4.3 ';MJEDXI ,;9ED: %7M E< &EJ?ED: CED9;FJ E< 7 ,OIJ;C
2EK C7O 7IIKC; :7J7 J7A;D <HEC ?BBKIJH7J?EDI ?I 799KH7J; JE J>H;; :?=?JI. 28. ! 63.0-IE QNPGLRCP QR?PRQ ? P?AC UGRF ?L ?AACJCP?RGML MD 7F?R GQ RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML FGK?

DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K, GLAJSBGLE ?JJ DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC QWQRCK. (A) #?JASJ?RC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML. (B) 7F?R UMSJB RFC ?AACJCP?RGML @C GD DPGARGML UCPC 15.0 .? 37. ! NMUCPDSJ KMRMPAWAJC A?L NPMBSAC ?L ?AACJCP?RGML MD 3.50 m/s 2 UFGJC RP?TCJGLE ?R 90.0 IK/F. !R RF?R QNCCB RFC DMPACQ PCQGQRGLE KMRGML, GLAJSBGLE DPGARGML ?LB ?GP PCQGQR?LAC, RMR?J 400 .. (!GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ ?L?JMEMSQ RM ?GP DPGARGML. )R ?JU?WQ MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML MD ?L M@HCAR.) 7F?R DMPAC BMCQ RFC KMRMPAWAJC CVCPR @?AIU?PB ML RFC EPMSLB RM NPMBSAC GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GD RFC K?QQ MD RFC KMRMPAWAJC UGRF PGBCP GQ 245 IE? 38. 4FC PMAICR QJCB QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.33 ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD 49.0 m/s 2 . )RQ N?QQCLECP F?Q ? K?QQ MD 75.0 IE. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC DMPAC RFC QC?R CVCPRQ ?E?GLQR FGQ @MBW. #MKN?PC RFGQ UGRF FGQ UCGEFR @W SQGLE ? P?RGM. (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC BGPCARGML ?LB K?ELGRSBC MD RFC RMR?J DMPAC RFC QC?R CVCPRQ ?E?GLQR FGQ @MBW.

4.20 m/s 2 .

29. )D RFC QNPGLRCP DPMK RFC NPCTGMSQ NPM@JCK ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R RF?R P?RC DMP 20 K, ?LB RFCL K?GLR?GLQ RF?R TCJMAGRW DMP RFC PCK?GLBCP MD RFC 100-K B?QF, UF?R UGJJ @C FGQ RGKC DMP RFC P?AC? 30. ! AJC?LCP NSQFCQ ? 4.50-IE J?SLBPW A?PR GL QSAF ? U?W RF?R RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML GR GQ 60.0 .. #?JASJ?RC GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML. 31. 3GLAC ?QRPML?SRQ GL MP@GR ?PC ?NN?PCLRJW UCGEFRJCQQ, ? AJCTCP KCRFMB MD KC?QSPGLE RFCGP K?QQCQ GQ LCCBCB RM KMLGRMP RFCGP K?QQ E?GLQ MP JMQQCQ RM ?BHSQR BGCRQ. /LC U?W RM BM RFGQ GQ RM CVCPR ? ILMUL DMPAC ML ?L ?QRPML?SR ?LB KC?QSPC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML NPMBSACB. 3SNNMQC ? LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC MD 50.0 . GQ CVCPRCB ?LB RFC ?QRPML?SRtQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ KC?QSPCB RM @C 0.893 m/s 2 . (?) #?JASJ?RC FCP K?QQ. (@) "W CVCPRGLE ? DMPAC ML RFC ?QRPML?SR, RFC TCFGAJC GL UFGAF RFCW MP@GR CVNCPGCLACQ ?L COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC DMPAC. $GQASQQ FMU RFGQ UMSJB ?DDCAR RFC KC?QSPCKCLR MD RFC ?QRPML?SRtQ ?AACJCP?RGML. 0PMNMQC ? KCRFMB GL UFGAF PCAMGJ MD RFC TCFGAJC GQ ?TMGBCB. 32. )L F?=KH; 4.7, RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML RFC 24-IE KMUCP GQ QR?RCB RM @C 51 .. )D RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML MNNMQGLE RFC KMRGML GQ 24 ., UF?R DMPAC F (GL LCURMLQ) GQ RFC NCPQML CVCPRGLE ML RFC KMUCP? 3SNNMQC RFC KMUCP GQ KMTGLE ?R 1.5 K/Q UFCL RFC DMPAC F GQ PCKMTCB. (MU D?P UGJJ RFC KMUCP EM @CDMPC QRMNNGLE? 33. 4FC Q?KC PMAICR QJCB BP?UL GL F?=KH; 4.31 GQ BCACJCP?RCB ?R ? P?RC MD 196 m/s 2 . 7F?R DMPAC GQ LCACQQ?PW RM NPMBSAC RFGQ BCACJCP?RGML? !QQSKC RF?R RFC PMAICRQ ?PC MDD. 4FC K?QQ MD RFC QWQRCK GQ 2100 IE.

F?=KH; 4.33

39. 2CNC?R RFC NPCTGMSQ NPM@JCK DMP RFC QGRS?RGML GL UFGAF RFC PMAICR QJCB BCACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD 201 m/s 2 . )L RFGQ NPM@JCK, RFC DMPACQ ?PC CVCPRCB @W RFC QC?R ?LB PCQRP?GLGLE @CJRQ. 40. 4FC UCGEFR MD ?L ?QRPML?SR NJSQ FGQ QN?AC QSGR ML RFC -MML GQ MLJW 250 .. (MU KSAF BM RFCW UCGEF ML %?PRF? 7F?R GQ RFC K?QQ ML RFC -MML? /L %?PRF? 41. 3SNNMQC RFC K?QQ MD ? DSJJW JM?BCB KMBSJC GL UFGAF ?QRPML?SRQ R?IC MDD DPMK RFC -MML GQ 10,000 IE. 4FC RFPSQR MD GRQ CLEGLCQ GQ 30,000 .. (?) #?JASJ?RC GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML GL ? TCPRGA?J R?ICMDD DPMK RFC -MML. (@) #MSJB GR JGDR MDD DPMK %?PRF? )D LMR, UFW LMR? )D GR AMSJB, A?JASJ?RC GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML.

4.4 ';MJEDXI ->?H: %7M E< &EJ?ED: ,OCC;JHO ?D FEH9;I


42. 7F?R LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ CVCPRCB ML ? 1100-IE ?PRGJJCPW QFCJJ DGPCB DPMK ? @?RRJCQFGN GD RFC QFCJJ GQ ?AACJCP?RCB ?R 2.4010 4 m/s 2 ? 7F?R DMPAC GQ CVCPRCB ML RFC QFGN @W RFC ?PRGJJCPW QFCJJ? 43. ! @P?TC @SR GL?BCOS?RC PSE@W NJ?WCP GQ @CGLE NSQFCB @?AIU?PB @W ?L MNNMQGLE NJ?WCP UFM GQ CVCPRGLE ? DMPAC MD 800 . ML FGK. 4FC K?QQ MD RFC JMQGLE NJ?WCP NJSQ COSGNKCLR GQ 90.0 IE, ?LB FC GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE ?R 1.20 m/s 2 @?AIU?PB. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC JMQGLE NJ?WCPtQ DCCR ?LB RFC EP?QQ? (@) 7F?R DMPAC BMCQ RFC UGLLGLE NJ?WCP CVCPR ML RFC EPMSLB RM KMTC DMPU?PB GD FGQ K?QQ NJSQ COSGNKCLR GQ 110 IE? (A) $P?U ? QICRAF MD RFC QGRS?RGML QFMUGLE RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR SQCB RM QMJTC C?AF N?PR. &MP RFGQ QGRS?RGML, BP?U ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K ?LB UPGRC RFC LCR DMPAC COS?RGML.

F?=KH; 4.31

34. (?) )D RFC PMAICR QJCB QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.32 QR?PRQ UGRF MLJW MLC PMAICR @SPLGLE, UF?R GQ GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML? !QQSKC RF?R RFC K?QQ MD RFC QWQRCK GQ 2100 IE, ?LB RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML MNNMQGLE RFC KMRGML GQ ILMUL RM @C 650 .. (@) 7FW GQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML LMR MLC-DMSPRF MD UF?R GR GQ UGRF ?JJ PMAICRQ @SPLGLE?

4.5 'EHC7B, -;DI?ED, 7D: (J>;H EN7CFB;I E< FEH9;I


44. 4UM RC?KQ MD LGLC KCK@CPQ C?AF CLE?EC GL ? RSE MD U?P. %?AF MD RFC DGPQR RC?KtQ KCK@CPQ F?Q ?L ?TCP?EC K?QQ MD 68 IE ?LB CVCPRQ ?L ?TCP?EC DMPAC MD 1350 . FMPGXMLR?JJW. %?AF MD RFC QCAMLB RC?KtQ KCK@CPQ F?Q ?L ?TCP?EC K?QQ MD 73 IE ?LB CVCPRQ ?L ?TCP?EC DMPAC MD 1365 . FMPGXMLR?JJW. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC RUM RC?KQ? (@) 7F?R GQ RFC RCLQGML GL RFC QCARGML MD PMNC @CRUCCL RFC RC?KQ? 45. 7F?R DMPAC BMCQ ? RP?KNMJGLC F?TC RM ?NNJW RM ? 45.0-IE EWKL?QR RM ?AACJCP?RC FCP QRP?GEFR SN ?R 7.50 m/s 2 ? .MRC RF?R RFC ?LQUCP GQ GLBCNCLBCLR MD RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC EWKL?QRrQFC A?L @C KMTGLE CGRFCP SN MP BMUL, MP @C QR?RGML?PW. 46. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC RCLQGML GL ? TCPRGA?J QRP?LB MD QNGBCP UC@ GD ? QNGBCP 5 MD K?QQ 8.0010 kg F?LEQ KMRGMLJCQQ ML GR. (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC RCLQGML GL ? FMPGXMLR?J QRP?LB MD QNGBCP UC@ GD RFC Q?KC QNGBCP QGRQ KMRGMLJCQQ GL RFC KGBBJC MD GR KSAF JGIC RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP GL F?=KH;

F?=KH; 4.32

35. 7F?R GQ RFC BCACJCP?RGML MD RFC PMAICR QJCB GD GR AMKCQ RM PCQR GL 1.1 Q DPMK ? QNCCB MD 1000 IK/F? (3SAF BCACJCP?RGML A?SQCB MLC RCQR QS@HCAR RM @J?AI MSR ?LB F?TC RCKNMP?PW @JGLBLCQQ.) 36. 3SNNMQC RUM AFGJBPCL NSQF FMPGXMLR?JJW, @SR GL CV?ARJW MNNMQGRC BGPCARGMLQ, ML ? RFGPB AFGJB GL ? U?EML. 4FC DGPQR AFGJB CVCPRQ ? DMPAC MD 75.0 ., RFC QCAMLB ? DMPAC MD 90.0 ., DPGARGML GQ 12.0 ., ?LB RFC K?QQ MD RFC RFGPB AFGJB NJSQ U?EML GQ 23.0 IE. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR GD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC AFGJB GL RFC U?EML GQ RM @C A?JASJ?RCB? (@) $P?U ?

160

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4.17. 4FC QRP?LB Q?EQ ?R ?L ?LEJC MD 12 @CJMU RFC FMPGXMLR?J. #MKN?PC RFGQ UGRF RFC RCLQGML GL RFC TCPRGA?J QRP?LB (DGLB RFCGP P?RGM). 47. 3SNNMQC ? 60.0-IE EWKL?QR AJGK@Q ? PMNC. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC RCLQGML GL RFC PMNC GD FC AJGK@Q ?R ? AMLQR?LR QNCCB? (@) 7F?R GQ RFC RCLQGML GL RFC PMNC GD FC ?AACJCP?RCQ SNU?PB ?R ? P?RC MD 1.50 m/s 2 ? 48. 3FMU RF?R, ?Q QR?RCB GL RFC RCVR, ? DMPAC

.CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML. &MP RFGQ QGRS?RGML, BP?U ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K ?LB UPGRC RFC LCR DMPAC COS?RGML. 52. #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC ? 70.0-IE FGEF HSKNCP KSQR CVCPR ML RFC EPMSLB RM NPMBSAC ?L SNU?PB ?AACJCP?RGML 4.00 RGKCQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW. %VNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GL RFC 0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RP?RCEW DMP .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML. 53. 7FCL J?LBGLE ?DRCP ? QNCAR?ASJ?P QMKCPQ?SJR, ? 40.0-IE EWKL?QR BCACJCP?RCQ @W NSQFGLE QRP?GEFR BMUL ML RFC K?R. #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC QFC KSQR CVCPR GD FCP BCACJCP?RGML GQ 7.00 RGKCQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW. %VNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GL RFC 0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RP?RCEW DMP .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML. 54. ! DPCGEFR RP?GL AMLQGQRQ MD RUM UGRF ?TCP?EC K?QQCQ MD

F CVCPRCB ML ? DJCVG@JC

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T=

F . 2 sin ()

49. #MLQGBCP RFC @?@W @CGLE UCGEFCB GL F?=KH; 4.34. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC K?QQ MD RFC AFGJB ?LB @?QICR GD ? QA?JC PC?BGLE MD 55 . GQ M@QCPTCB? (@) 7F?R GQ RFC RCLQGML T 1 GL RFC AMPB ?RR?AFGLE RFC @?@W RM RFC QA?JC? (A) 7F?R GQ RFC RCLQGML

8.0010 4 -kg CLEGLCQ ?LB 45 A?PQ

5.5010 4 kg . (?) 7F?R DMPAC KSQR C?AF

T 2 GL RFC AMPB ?RR?AFGLE RFC QA?JC RM RFC ACGJGLE, GD

RFC QA?JC F?Q ? K?QQ MD 0.500 IE? (B) $P?U ? QICRAF MD RFC QGRS?RGML GLBGA?RGLE RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR SQCB RM QMJTC C?AF N?PR. 4FC K?QQCQ MD RFC AMPBQ ?PC LCEJGEG@JC.

CLEGLC CVCPR @?AIU?PB ML RFC RP?AI RM ?AACJCP?RC RFC RP?GL ?R ? P?RC MD 5.0010 2 m/s 2 GD RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML GQ 7.5010 5 N , ?QQSKGLE RFC CLEGLCQ CVCPR GBCLRGA?J DMPACQ? 4FGQ GQ LMR ? J?PEC DPGARGML?J DMPAC DMP QSAF ? K?QQGTC QWQRCK. 2MJJGLE DPGARGML DMP RP?GLQ GQ QK?JJ, ?LB AMLQCOSCLRJW RP?GLQ ?PC TCPW CLCPEW-CDDGAGCLR RP?LQNMPR?RGML QWQRCKQ. (@) 7F?R GQ RFC DMPAC GL RFC AMSNJGLE @CRUCCL RFC 37RF ?LB 38RF A?PQ (RFGQ GQ RFC DMPAC C?AF CVCPRQ ML RFC MRFCP), ?QQSKGLE ?JJ A?PQ F?TC RFC Q?KC K?QQ ?LB RF?R DPGARGML GQ CTCLJW BGQRPG@SRCB ?KMLE ?JJ MD RFC A?PQ ?LB CLEGLCQ? 55. #MKKCPAG?J ?GPNJ?LCQ ?PC QMKCRGKCQ NSQFCB MSR MD RFC N?QQCLECP JM?BGLE ?PC? @W ? RP?ARMP. (?) !L 1800-IE RP?ARMP CVCPRQ ? DMPAC MD 1.7510 4 N @?AIU?PB ML RFC N?TCKCLR, ?LB RFC QWQRCK CVNCPGCLACQ DMPACQ PCQGQRGLE KMRGML RF?R RMR?J 2400 .. )D RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ 0.150 m/s 2 , UF?R GQ RFC K?QQ MD RFC ?GPNJ?LC? (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W RFC RP?ARMP ML RFC ?GPNJ?LC, ?QQSKGLE 2200 . MD RFC DPGARGML GQ CVNCPGCLACB @W RFC ?GPNJ?LC. (A) $P?U RUM QICRAFCQ QFMUGLE RFC QWQRCKQ MD GLRCPCQR SQCB RM QMJTC C?AF N?PR, GLAJSBGLE RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?KQ DMP C?AF. 56. ! 1100-IE A?P NSJJQ ? @M?R ML ? RP?GJCP. (?) 7F?R RMR?J DMPAC PCQGQRQ RFC KMRGML MD RFC A?P, @M?R, ?LB RP?GJCP, GD RFC A?P CVCPRQ ? 1900-. DMPAC ML RFC PM?B ?LB NPMBSACQ ?L ?AACJCP?RGML MD 0.550 m/s 2 ? 4FC K?QQ MD RFC @M?R NJSQ RP?GJCP GQ 700 IE. (@) 7F?R GQ RFC DMPAC GL RFC FGRAF @CRUCCL RFC A?P ?LB RFC RP?GJCP GD 80% MD RFC PCQGQRGLE DMPACQ ?PC CVNCPGCLACB @W RFC @M?R ?LB RP?GJCP? 57. (?) &GLB RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC DMPACQ RFC RMR?J DMPAC

F tot QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.35. 4FGQ K?W @C BMLC CGRFCP

F 1 ?LB F 2 RF?R ?BB RM EGTC

EP?NFGA?JJW MP @W SQGLE RPGEMLMKCRPW. (@) 3FMU EP?NFGA?JJW RF?R RFC Q?KC RMR?J DMPAC GQ M@R?GLCB GLBCNCLBCLR MD RFC MPBCP MD ?BBGRGML MD F 1 ?LB

F 2 . (A) &GLB RFC BGPCARGML ?LB K?ELGRSBC MD QMKC MRFCP N?GP MD TCARMPQ

RF?R ?BB RM EGTC

F tot . $P?U RFCQC RM QA?JC ML RFC Q?KC BP?UGLE SQCB GL

N?PR (@) MP ? QGKGJ?P NGARSPC.

F?=KH; 4.34 ! @?@W GQ UCGEFCB SQGLE ? QNPGLE QA?JC.

4.6 )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= ,JH7J;=?;I


50. !

5.0010 5-kg PMAICR GQ ?AACJCP?RGLE QRP?GEFR SN. )RQ CLEGLCQ

6 7 NPMBSAC 1.25010 N MD RFPSQR, ?LB ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ 4.5010 N . 7F?R GQ RFC PMAICRtQ ?AACJCP?RGML? %VNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GL RFC 0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RP?RCEW DMP .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML.

F?=KH; 4.35

58. 4UM AFGJBPCL NSJJ ? RFGPB AFGJB ML ? QLMU Q?SACP QJCB CVCPRGLE DMPACQ F 1 ?LB F 2 ?Q QFMUL DPMK ?@MTC GL F?=KH; 4.36. &GLB RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC 49.00-IE QJCB ?LB AFGJB QWQRCK. .MRC RF?R RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC DPGARGML?J DMPAC GQ SLQNCAGDGCB; GR UGJJ @C GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML MD RFC QSK MD F 1 ?LB F 2 .

51. 4FC UFCCJQ MD ? KGBQGXC A?P CVCPR ? DMPAC MD 2100 . @?AIU?PB ML RFC PM?B RM ?AACJCP?RC RFC A?P GL RFC DMPU?PB BGPCARGML. )D RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML GLAJSBGLE ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ 250 . ?LB RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC A?P GQ 1.80 m/s 2 , UF?R GQ RFC K?QQ MD RFC A?P NJSQ GRQ MAASN?LRQ? %VNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GL RFC 0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RP?RCEW DMP

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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161

F?=KH; 4.36 !L MTCPFC?B TGCU MD RFC FMPGXMLR?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML ? AFGJBtQ QLMU Q?SACP QJCB.

59. 3SNNMQC WMSP A?P U?Q KGPCB BCCNJW GL RFC KSB ?LB WMS U?LRCB RM SQC RFC KCRFMB GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 4.37 RM NSJJ GR MSR. (?) 7F?R DMPAC UMSJB WMS F?TC RM CVCPR NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC ACLRCP MD RFC PMNC RM NPMBSAC ? DMPAC MD 12,000 . ML RFC A?P GD RFC ?LEJC GQ 2.00\? )L RFGQ N?PR, CVNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GL RFC 0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RP?RCEW DMP .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML. (@) 2C?J PMNCQ QRPCRAF SLBCP QSAF DMPACQ. 7F?R DMPAC UMSJB @C CVCPRCB ML RFC A?P GD RFC ?LEJC GLAPC?QCQ RM 7.00\ ?LB WMS QRGJJ ?NNJW RFC DMPAC DMSLB GL N?PR (?) RM GRQ ACLRCP?

F?=KH; 4.37

60. 7F?R DMPAC GQ CVCPRCB ML RFC RMMRF GL F?=KH; 4.38 GD RFC RCLQGML GL RFC UGPC GQ 25.0 .? .MRC RF?R RFC DMPAC ?NNJGCB RM RFC RMMRF GQ QK?JJCP RF?L RFC RCLQGML GL RFC UGPC, @SR RFGQ GQ LCACQQGR?RCB @W NP?ARGA?J AMLQGBCP?RGMLQ MD FMU DMPAC A?L @C ?NNJGCB GL RFC KMSRF. %VNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU QRCNQ GL RFC 0PM@JCK-3MJTGLE 3RP?RCEW DMP .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML.

F?=KH; 4.39 3SNCPFCPM ?LB 4PSQRW 3GBCIGAI F?LE KMRGMLJCQQ ML ? PMNC ?Q RFCW RPW RM DGESPC MSR UF?R RM BM LCVR. 7GJJ RFC RCLQGML @C RFC Q?KC CTCPWUFCPC GL RFC PMNC?

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m/s 2 GQ NPMBSACB. (@) 7F?R GQ SLPC?QML?@JC ?@MSR RFC PCQSJR? (A) 7FGAF NPCKGQC GQ SLPC?QML?@JC, ?LB UFW GQ GR SLPC?QML?@JC? 66. .DH;7IED78B; +;IKBJI (?) 7F?R GQ RFC GLGRG?J ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? PMAICR 6 RF?R F?Q ? K?QQ MD 1.5010 kg ?R R?ICMDD, RFC CLEGLCQ MD UFGAF
6 NPMBSAC ? RFPSQR MD 2.0010 N ? $M LMR LCEJCAR EP?TGRW. (@) 7F?R GQ SLPC?QML?@JC ?@MSR RFC PCQSJR? (4FGQ PCQSJR F?Q @CCL SLGLRCLRGML?JJW ?AFGCTCB @W QCTCP?J PC?J PMAICRQ.) (A) 7FGAF NPCKGQC GQ SLPC?QML?@JC, MP UFGAF NPCKGQCQ ?PC GLAMLQGQRCLR? (9MS K?W DGLB GR SQCDSJ RM AMKN?PC RFGQ NPM@JCK RM RFC PMAICR NPM@JCK C?PJGCP GL RFGQ QCARGML.)

F?=KH; 4.38 "P?ACQ ?PC SQCB RM ?NNJW DMPACQ RM RCCRF RM PC?JGEL RFCK. 3FMUL GL RFGQ DGESPC ?PC RFC RCLQGMLQ ?NNJGCB @W RFC UGPC RM RFC NPMRPSBGLE RMMRF. 4FC RMR?J DMPAC ?NNJGCB RM RFC RMMRF @W RFC UGPC,

F app , NMGLRQ QRP?GEFR RMU?PB RFC @?AI MD RFC KMSRF.

61. F?=KH; 4.39 QFMUQ 3SNCPFCPM ?LB 4PSQRW 3GBCIGAI F?LEGLE KMRGMLJCQQ DPMK ? PMNC. 3SNCPFCPMtQ K?QQ GQ 90.0 IE, UFGJC 4PSQRW 3GBCIGAItQ GQ 55.0 IE, ?LB RFC K?QQ MD RFC PMNC GQ LCEJGEG@JC. (?) $P?U ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K MD RFC QGRS?RGML QFMUGLE ?JJ DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML 3SNCPFCPM, 4PSQRW 3GBCIGAI, ?LB RFC PMNC. (@) &GLB RFC RCLQGML GL RFC PMNC ?@MTC 3SNCPFCPM. (A) &GLB RFC RCLQGML GL RFC PMNC @CRUCCL 3SNCPFCPM ?LB 4PSQRW 3GBCIGAI. )LBGA?RC ML WMSP DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR SQCB RM QMJTC C?AF N?PR.

162

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4.7 FKHJ>;H AFFB?97J?EDI E< ';MJEDXI %7MI E< &EJ?ED


5 67. ! DJC? HSKNQ @W CVCPRGLE ? DMPAC MD 1.2010 N QRP?GEFR BMUL ML RFC EPMSLB. ! @PCCXC @JMUGLE ML RFC DJC? N?P?JJCJ RM RFC EPMSLB CVCPRQ ? 6 DMPAC MD 0.50010 N ML RFC DJC?. &GLB RFC BGPCARGML ?LB K?ELGRSBC 7 MD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC DJC? GD GRQ K?QQ GQ 6.0010 kg . $M LMR

CVCPRCB RM QJMU FGK GD FC U?Q KMTGLE FMPGXMLR?JJW? (4FC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC GQ @?J?LACB @W RFC @SMW?LR DMPAC MD RFC U?RCP.) 71. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI 7FCL QR?PRGLE ? DMMR P?AC, ? 70.0-IE QNPGLRCP CVCPRQ ?L ?TCP?EC DMPAC MD 650 . @?AIU?PB ML RFC EPMSLB DMP 0.800 Q. (?) 7F?R GQ FGQ DGL?J QNCCB? (@) (MU D?P BMCQ FC RP?TCJ? 72. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI ! J?PEC PMAICR F?Q ? K?QQ MD

2.0010 6 kg ?R

LCEJCAR RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC. 68. 4UM KSQAJCQ GL RFC @?AI MD RFC JCE NSJJ SNU?PB ML RFC !AFGJJCQ RCLBML, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.40. (4FCQC KSQAJCQ ?PC A?JJCB RFC KCBG?J ?LB J?RCP?J FC?BQ MD RFC E?QRPMALCKGSQ KSQAJC.) &GLB RFC K?ELGRSBC ?LB BGPCARGML MD RFC RMR?J DMPAC ML RFC !AFGJJCQ RCLBML. 7F?R RWNC MD KMTCKCLR AMSJB @C A?SQCB @W RFGQ DMPAC?

7 R?ICMDD, ?LB GRQ CLEGLCQ NPMBSAC ? RFPSQR MD 3.5010 N . (?) &GLB GRQ GLGRG?J ?AACJCP?RGML GD GR R?ICQ MDD TCPRGA?JJW. (@) (MU JMLE BMCQ GR R?IC RM PC?AF ? TCJMAGRW MD 120 IK/F QRP?GEFR SN, ?QQSKGLE AMLQR?LR K?QQ ?LB RFPSQR? (A) )L PC?JGRW, RFC K?QQ MD ? PMAICR BCAPC?QCQ QGELGDGA?LRJW ?Q GRQ DSCJ GQ AMLQSKCB. $CQAPG@C OS?JGR?RGTCJW FMU RFGQ ?DDCARQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB RGKC DMP RFGQ KMRGML.

73. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI ! @?QICR@?JJ NJ?WCP HSKNQ QRP?GEFR SN DMP ? @?JJ. 4M BM RFGQ, FC JMUCPQ FGQ @MBW 0.300 K ?LB RFCL ?AACJCP?RCQ RFPMSEF RFGQ BGQR?LAC @W DMPACDSJJW QRP?GEFRCLGLE FGQ JCEQ. 4FGQ NJ?WCP JC?TCQ RFC DJMMP UGRF ? TCPRGA?J TCJMAGRW QSDDGAGCLR RM A?PPW FGK 0.900 K ?@MTC RFC DJMMP. (?) #?JASJ?RC FGQ TCJMAGRW UFCL FC JC?TCQ RFC DJMMP. (@) #?JASJ?RC FGQ ?AACJCP?RGML UFGJC FC GQ QRP?GEFRCLGLE FGQ JCEQ. (C EMCQ DPMK XCPM RM RFC TCJMAGRW DMSLB GL N?PR (?) GL ? BGQR?LAC MD 0.300 K. (A) #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC FC CVCPRQ ML RFC DJMMP RM BM RFGQ, EGTCL RF?R FGQ K?QQ GQ 110 IE. 74. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI ! 2.50-IE DGPCUMPIQ QFCJJ GQ DGPCB QRP?GEFR SN DPMK ? KMPR?P ?LB PC?AFCQ ? FCGEFR MD 110 K. (?) .CEJCARGLE ?GP PCQGQR?LAC (? NMMP ?QQSKNRGML, @SR UC UGJJ K?IC GR DMP RFGQ CV?KNJC), A?JASJ?RC RFC QFCJJtQ TCJMAGRW UFCL GR JC?TCQ RFC KMPR?P. (@) 4FC KMPR?P GRQCJD GQ ? RS@C 0.450 K JMLE. #?JASJ?RC RFC ?TCP?EC ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC QFCJJ GL RFC RS@C ?Q GR EMCQ DPMK XCPM RM RFC TCJMAGRW DMSLB GL (?). (A) 7F?R GQ RFC ?TCP?EC DMPAC ML RFC QFCJJ GL RFC KMPR?P? %VNPCQQ WMSP ?LQUCP GL LCURMLQ ?LB ?Q ? P?RGM RM RFC UCGEFR MD RFC QFCJJ. 75. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI 2CNC?R EN;H9?I; 4.74 DMP ? QFCJJ DGPCB ?R ?L ?LEJC 10.0 DPMK RFC TCPRGA?J. 76. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI !L CJCT?RMP DGJJCB UGRF N?QQCLECPQ F?Q ? K?QQ MD 1700 IE. (?) 4FC CJCT?RMP ?AACJCP?RCQ SNU?PB DPMK PCQR ?R ? P?RC MD 1.20 m/s 2 DMP 1.50 Q. #?JASJ?RC RFC RCLQGML GL RFC A?@JC QSNNMPRGLE RFC CJCT?RMP. (@) 4FC CJCT?RMP AMLRGLSCQ SNU?PB ?R AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW DMP 8.50 Q. 7F?R GQ RFC RCLQGML GL RFC A?@JC BSPGLE RFGQ RGKC? (A) 4FC CJCT?RMP BCACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD 0.600 m/s 2 DMP 3.00 Q. 7F?R GQ RFC RCLQGML GL RFC A?@JC BSPGLE BCACJCP?RGML? (B) (MU FGEF F?Q RFC CJCT?RMP KMTCB ?@MTC GRQ MPGEGL?J QR?PRGLE NMGLR, ?LB UF?R GQ GRQ DGL?J TCJMAGRW? 77. .DH;7IED78B; +;IKBJI (?) 7F?R GQ RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW MD ? A?P MPGEGL?JJW RP?TCJGLE ?R 50.0 IK/F RF?R BCACJCP?RCQ ?R ? P?RC MD 0.400 m/s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

F?=KH; 4.40 !AFGJJCQ RCLBML

69. ! 76.0-IE NCPQML GQ @CGLE NSJJCB ?U?W DPMK ? @SPLGLE @SGJBGLE ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 4.41. #?JASJ?RC RFC RCLQGML GL RFC RUM PMNCQ GD RFC NCPQML GQ KMKCLR?PGJW KMRGMLJCQQ. )LAJSBC ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K GL WMSP QMJSRGML.

4.8 ENJ;D:;: -EF?9: ->; FEKH B7I?9 FEH9;IWAD "DJHE:K9J?ED


79. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC QRPCLERF MD RFC UC?I LSAJC?P DMPAC PCJ?RGTC RM RFC QRPMLE LSAJC?P DMPAC? (@) 7F?R GQ RFC QRPCLERF MD RFC UC?I LSAJC?P DMPAC PCJ?RGTC RM RFC CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPAC? 3GLAC RFC UC?I LSAJC?P DMPAC ?ARQ ?R MLJW TCPW QFMPR BGQR?LACQ, QSAF ?Q GLQGBC LSAJCG, UFCPC RFC QRPMLE ?LB CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPACQ ?JQM ?AR, GR KGEFR QCCK QSPNPGQGLE RF?R UC F?TC ?LW ILMUJCBEC MD GR ?R ?JJ. 7C F?TC QSAF ILMUJCBEC @CA?SQC RFC UC?I LSAJC?P DMPAC GQ PCQNMLQG@JC DMP @CR? BCA?W, ? RWNC MD LSAJC?P BCA?W LMR CVNJ?GLCB @W MRFCP DMPACQ.
LCCBCB RM FMJB QRC?BW RFC NCPQML @CGLE PCQASCB DPMK RFC

F?=KH; 4.41 4FC DMPAC

T2

DGPC GQ JCQQ RF?L FCP UCGEFR ?LB JCQQ RF?L RFC DMPAC

T1

GL RFC MRFCP PMNC, QGLAC RFC

KMPC TCPRGA?J PMNC QSNNMPRQ ? EPC?RCP N?PR MD FCP UCGEFR (? TCPRGA?J DMPAC).

70. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI ! 35.0-IE BMJNFGL BCACJCP?RCQ DPMK 12.0 RM 7.50 K/Q GL 2.30 Q RM HMGL ?LMRFCP BMJNFGL GL NJ?W. 7F?R ?TCP?EC DMPAC U?Q
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

80. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC P?RGM MD RFC QRPCLERF MD RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC RM RF?R MD RFC QRPMLE LSAJC?P DMPAC? (@) 7F?R GQ RFC P?RGM MD RFC QRPCLERF MD RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC RM RF?R MD RFC UC?I LSAJC?P DMPAC? (A) 7F?R GQ RFC P?RGM MD RFC QRPCLERF MD RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC RM RF?R MD RFC CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPAC? 7F?R BM WMSP ?LQUCPQ GKNJW ?@MSR RFC GLDJSCLAC MD RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC ML ?RMKGA LSAJCG?

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163

81. 7F?R GQ RFC P?RGM MD RFC QRPCLERF MD RFC QRPMLE LSAJC?P DMPAC RM RF?R MD RFC CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPAC? "?QCB ML RFGQ P?RGM, WMS KGEFR CVNCAR RF?R RFC QRPMLE DMPAC BMKGL?RCQ RFC LSAJCSQ, UFGAF GQ RPSC DMP QK?JJ LSAJCG. ,?PEC LSAJCG, FMUCTCP, F?TC QGXCQ EPC?RCP RF?L RFC P?LEC MD RFC QRPMLE LSAJC?P DMPAC. !R RFCQC QGXCQ, RFC CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPAC @CEGLQ RM ?DDCAR LSAJC?P QR?@GJGRW. 4FCQC D?ARQ UGJJ @C SQCB RM CVNJ?GL LSAJC?P DSQGML ?LB DGQQGML J?RCP GL RFGQ RCVR.

164

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166

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5.1 FH?9J?ED
FH?9J?ED GQ ? DMPAC RF?R GQ ?PMSLB SQ ?JJ RFC RGKC RF?R MNNMQCQ PCJ?RGTC KMRGML @CRUCCL QWQRCKQ GL AMLR?AR @SR ?JQM ?JJMUQ SQ RM KMTC (UFGAF WMS F?TC BGQAMTCPCB GD WMS F?TC CTCP RPGCB RM U?JI ML GAC). 7FGJC ? AMKKML DMPAC, RFC @CF?TGMP MD DPGARGML GQ ?ARS?JJW TCPW AMKNJGA?RCB ?LB GQ QRGJJ LMR AMKNJCRCJW SLBCPQRMMB. 7C F?TC RM PCJW FC?TGJW ML M@QCPT?RGMLQ DMP UF?RCTCP SLBCPQR?LBGLEQ UC A?L E?GL. (MUCTCP, UC A?L QRGJJ BC?J UGRF GRQ KMPC CJCKCLR?PW ECLCP?J AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ ?LB SLBCPQR?LB RFC AGPASKQR?LACQ GL UFGAF GR @CF?TCQ. &PGARGML &PGARGML GQ ? DMPAC RF?R MNNMQCQ PCJ?RGTC KMRGML @CRUCCL QWQRCKQ GL AMLR?AR. /LC MD RFC QGKNJCP AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ MD DPGARGML GQ RF?R GR GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC AMLR?AR QSPD?AC @CRUCCL QWQRCKQ ?LB ?JU?WQ GL ? BGPCARGML RF?R MNNMQCQ KMRGML MP ?RRCKNRCB KMRGML MD RFC QWQRCKQ PCJ?RGTC RM C?AF MRFCP. )D RUM QWQRCKQ ?PC GL AMLR?AR ?LB KMTGLE PCJ?RGTC RM MLC ?LMRFCP, RFCL RFC DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFCK GQ A?JJCB A?D;J?9 <H?9J?ED. &MP CV?KNJC, DPGARGML QJMUQ ? FMAICW NSAI QJGBGLE ML GAC. "SR UFCL M@HCARQ ?PC QR?RGML?PW, IJ7J?9 <H?9J?ED A?L ?AR @CRUCCL RFCK; RFC QR?RGA DPGARGML GQ SQS?JJW EPC?RCP RF?L RFC IGLCRGA DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC M@HCARQ. +GLCRGA &PGARGML )D RUM QWQRCKQ ?PC GL AMLR?AR ?LB KMTGLE PCJ?RGTC RM MLC ?LMRFCP, RFCL RFC DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFCK GQ A?JJCB IGLCRGA DPGARGML. )K?EGLC, DMP CV?KNJC, RPWGLE RM QJGBC ? FC?TW AP?RC ?APMQQ ? AMLAPCRC DJMMPrWMS K?W NSQF F?PBCP ?LB F?PBCP ML RFC AP?RC ?LB LMR KMTC GR ?R ?JJ. 4FGQ KC?LQ RF?R RFC QR?RGA DPGARGML PCQNMLBQ RM UF?R WMS BMrGR GLAPC?QCQ RM @C COS?J RM ?LB GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML MD WMSP NSQF. "SR GD WMS DGL?JJW NSQF F?PB CLMSEF, RFC AP?RC QCCKQ RM QJGN QSBBCLJW ?LB QR?PRQ RM KMTC. /LAC GL KMRGML GR GQ C?QGCP RM ICCN GR GL KMRGML RF?L GR U?Q RM ECR GR QR?PRCB, GLBGA?RGLE RF?R RFC IGLCRGA DPGARGML DMPAC GQ JCQQ RF?L RFC QR?RGA DPGARGML DMPAC. )D WMS ?BB K?QQ RM RFC AP?RC, Q?W @W NJ?AGLE ? @MV ML RMN MD GR, WMS LCCB RM NSQF CTCL F?PBCP RM ECR GR QR?PRCB ?LB ?JQM RM ICCN GR KMTGLE. &SPRFCPKMPC, GD WMS MGJCB RFC AMLAPCRC WMS UMSJB DGLB GR RM @C C?QGCP RM ECR RFC AP?RC QR?PRCB ?LB ICCN GR EMGLE (?Q WMS KGEFR CVNCAR). F?=KH; 5.2 GQ ? APSBC NGARMPG?J PCNPCQCLR?RGML MD FMU DPGARGML MAASPQ ?R RFC GLRCPD?AC @CRUCCL RUM M@HCARQ. #JMQC-SN GLQNCARGML MD RFCQC QSPD?ACQ QFMUQ RFCK RM @C PMSEF. 3M UFCL WMS NSQF RM ECR ?L M@HCAR KMTGLE (GL RFGQ A?QC, ? AP?RC), WMS KSQR P?GQC RFC M@HCAR SLRGJ GR A?L QIGN ?JMLE UGRF HSQR RFC RGNQ MD RFC QSPD?AC FGRRGLE, @PC?I MDD RFC NMGLRQ, MP BM @MRF. ! AMLQGBCP?@JC DMPAC A?L @C PCQGQRCB @W DPGARGML UGRF LM ?NN?PCLR KMRGML. 4FC F?PBCP RFC QSPD?ACQ ?PC NSQFCB RMECRFCP (QSAF ?Q GD ?LMRFCP @MV GQ NJ?ACB ML RFC AP?RC), RFC KMPC DMPAC GQ LCCBCB RM KMTC RFCK. 0?PR MD RFC DPGARGML GQ BSC RM ?BFCQGTC DMPACQ @CRUCCL RFC QSPD?AC KMJCASJCQ MD RFC RUM M@HCARQ, UFGAF CVNJ?GL RFC BCNCLBCLAC MD DPGARGML ML RFC L?RSPC MD RFC QS@QR?LACQ. !BFCQGML T?PGCQ UGRF QS@QR?LACQ GL AMLR?AR ?LB GQ ? AMKNJGA?RCB ?QNCAR MD QSPD?AC NFWQGAQ. /LAC ?L M@HCAR GQ KMTGLE, RFCPC ?PC DCUCP NMGLRQ MD AMLR?AR (DCUCP KMJCASJCQ ?BFCPGLE), QM JCQQ DMPAC GQ PCOSGPCB RM ICCN RFC M@HCAR KMTGLE. !R QK?JJ @SR LMLXCPM QNCCBQ, DPGARGML GQ LC?PJW GLBCNCLBCLR MD QNCCB.

F?=KH; 5.2 &PGARGML?J DMPACQ, QSAF ?Q

, ?JU?WQ MNNMQC KMRGML MP ?RRCKNRCB KMRGML @CRUCCL M@HCARQ GL AMLR?AR. &PGARGML ?PGQCQ GL N?PR @CA?SQC MD RFC PMSEFLCQQ MD RFC

QSPD?ACQ GL AMLR?AR, ?Q QCCL GL RFC CVN?LBCB TGCU. )L MPBCP DMP RFC M@HCAR RM KMTC, GR KSQR PGQC RM UFCPC RFC NC?IQ A?L QIGN ?JMLE RFC @MRRMK QSPD?AC. 4FSQ ? DMPAC GQ PCOSGPCB HSQR RM QCR RFC M@HCAR GL KMRGML. 3MKC MD RFC NC?IQ UGJJ @C @PMICL MDD, ?JQM PCOSGPGLE ? DMPAC RM K?GLR?GL KMRGML. -SAF MD RFC DPGARGML GQ ?ARS?JJW BSC RM ?RRP?ARGTC DMPACQ @CRUCCL KMJCASJCQ K?IGLE SN RFC RUM M@HCARQ, QM RF?R CTCL NCPDCARJW QKMMRF QSPD?ACQ ?PC LMR DPGARGML-DPCC. 3SAF ?BFCQGTC DMPACQ ?JQM BCNCLB ML RFC QS@QR?LACQ RFC QSPD?ACQ ?PC K?BC MD, CVNJ?GLGLE, DMP CV?KNJC, UFW PS@@CP-QMJCB QFMCQ QJGN JCQQ RF?L RFMQC UGRF JC?RFCP QMJCQ.

4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC DPGARGML?J DMPAC F?Q RUM DMPKQ: MLC DMP QR?RGA QGRS?RGMLQ (QR?RGA DPGARGML), RFC MRFCP DMP UFCL RFCPC GQ KMRGML (IGLCRGA DPGARGML). 7FCL RFCPC GQ LM KMRGML @CRUCCL RFC M@HCARQ, RFC C7=D?JK:; E< IJ7J?9 <H?9J?ED

f s GQ
(5.1)

f s sN ,
UFCPC

s GQ RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD QR?RGA DPGARGML ?LB N GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC LMPK?J DMPAC (RFC DMPAC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QSPD?AC).

-?ELGRSBC MD 3R?RGA &PGARGML -?ELGRSBC MD QR?RGA DPGARGML

f s GQ f s sN ,
(5.2)

UFCPC

s GQ RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD QR?RGA DPGARGML ?LB N GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC LMPK?J DMPAC.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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167

4FC QWK@MJ

KC?LQ ?8FF G;4A BE 8DH4? GB, GKNJWGLE RF?R QR?RGA DPGARGML A?L F?TC ? KGLGKSK ?LB ? K?VGKSK T?JSC MD s N . 3R?RGA DPGARGML GQ ?

PCQNMLQGTC DMPAC RF?R GLAPC?QCQ RM @C COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC RM UF?RCTCP DMPAC GQ CVCPRCB, SN RM GRQ K?VGKSK JGKGR. /LAC RFC ?NNJGCB DMPAC CVACCBQ f s(max) , RFC M@HCAR UGJJ KMTC. 4FSQ

f s(max) = sN .
/LAC ?L M@HCAR GQ KMTGLE, RFC C7=D?JK:; E< A?D;J?9 <H?9J?ED

(5.3)

f k GQ EGTCL @W f k = kN ,
(5.4)

UFCPC

k GQ RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML. ! QWQRCK GL UFGAF f k = kN GQ BCQAPG@CB ?Q ? QWQRCK GL UFGAF 9E<6G<BA 58;4I8F F<@C?L.

-?ELGRSBC MD +GLCRGA &PGARGML 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML

f k GQ EGTCL @W f k = kN ,
(5.5)

UFCPC

k GQ RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML. GL -78B; 5.1 ?PC QR?RCB RM MLJW MLC MP,

!Q QCCL GL -78B; 5.1, RFC AMCDDGAGCLRQ MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML ?PC JCQQ RF?L RFCGP QR?RGA AMSLRCPN?PRQ. 4F?R T?JSCQ MD

?R KMQR, RUM BGEGRQ GQ ?L GLBGA?RGML MD RFC ?NNPMVGK?RC BCQAPGNRGML MD DPGARGML EGTCL @W RFC ?@MTC RUM COS?RGMLQ. 4?@JC 5.1 #MCDDGAGCLRQ MD 3R?RGA ?LB +GLCRGA &PGARGML ,OIJ;C 2S@@CP ML BPW AMLAPCRC 2S@@CP ML UCR AMLAPCRC 7MMB ML UMMB 7?VCB UMMB ML UCR QLMU -CR?J ML UMMB 3RCCJ ML QRCCJ (BPW) 3RCCJ ML QRCCJ (MGJCB) 4CDJML ML QRCCJ "MLC JS@PGA?RCB @W QWLMTG?J DJSGB 3FMCQ ML UMMB 3FMCQ ML GAC )AC ML GAC 3RCCJ ML GAC ,J7J?9 <H?9J?ED s 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.14 0.5 0.6 0.05 0.04 0.016 0.9 0.1 0.1 0.4 $?D;J?9 <H?9J?ED k 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.03 0.04 0.015 0.7 0.05 0.03 0.02

4FC COS?RGMLQ EGTCL C?PJGCP GLAJSBC RFC BCNCLBCLAC MD DPGARGML ML K?RCPG?JQ ?LB RFC LMPK?J DMPAC. 4FC BGPCARGML MD DPGARGML GQ ?JU?WQ MNNMQGRC RF?R MD KMRGML, N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QSPD?AC @CRUCCL M@HCARQ, ?LB NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC LMPK?J DMPAC. &MP CV?KNJC, GD RFC AP?RC WMS RPW RM NSQF (UGRF ? DMPAC N?P?JJCJ RM RFC DJMMP) F?Q ? K?QQ MD 100 IE, RFCL RFC LMPK?J DMPAC UMSJB @C COS?J RM GRQ UCGEFR, W = mg = (100 kg)(9.80 m/s 2) = 980 N , NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC DJMMP. )D RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD QR?RGA DPGARGML GQ 0.45, WMS UMSJB F?TC RM CVCPR ? DMPAC N?P?JJCJ RM RFC DJMMP EPC?RCP RF?L f s(max) = sN = (0.45)(980 N) = 440 N RM KMTC RFC AP?RC. /LAC RFCPC GQ KMRGML, DPGARGML GQ JCQQ ?LB RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML KGEFR @C 0.30, QM RF?R ? DMPAC MD MLJW 290 . ( f k = kN = (0.30)(980 N) = 290 N ) UMSJB ICCN GR KMTGLE ?R ? AMLQR?LR QNCCB. )D RFC DJMMP GQ JS@PGA?RCB, @MRF AMCDDGAGCLRQ ?PC AMLQGBCP?@JW JCQQ RF?L RFCW UMSJB @C UGRFMSR JS@PGA?RGML. #MCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML GQ ? SLGR JCQQ OS?LRGRW UGRF ? K?ELGRSBC SQS?JJW @CRUCCL 0 ?LB 1.0. 4FC AMCDDGAGCLR MD RFC DPGARGML BCNCLBQ ML RFC RUM QSPD?ACQ RF?R ?PC GL AMLR?AR. 4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLR &GLB ? QK?JJ NJ?QRGA M@HCAR (QSAF ?Q ? DMMB AMLR?GLCP) ?LB QJGBC GR ML ? IGRAFCL R?@JC @W EGTGLE GR ? ECLRJC R?N. .MU QNP?W U?RCP ML RFC R?@JC, QGKSJ?RGLE ? JGEFR QFMUCP MD P?GL. 7F?R F?NNCLQ LMU UFCL WMS EGTC RFC M@HCAR RFC Q?KC-QGXCB R?N? .MU ?BB ? DCU BPMNQ MD (TCECR?@JC MP MJGTC) MGJ ML RFC QSPD?AC MD RFC U?RCP ?LB EGTC RFC Q?KC R?N. 7F?R F?NNCLQ LMU? 4FGQ J?RRCP QGRS?RGML GQ N?PRGASJ?PJW GKNMPR?LR DMP BPGTCPQ RM LMRC, CQNCAG?JJW ?DRCP ? JGEFR P?GL QFMUCP. 7FW? -?LW NCMNJC F?TC CVNCPGCLACB RFC QJGNNCPGLCQQ MD U?JIGLE ML GAC. (MUCTCP, K?LW N?PRQ MD RFC @MBW, CQNCAG?JJW RFC HMGLRQ, F?TC KSAF QK?JJCP AMCDDGAGCLRQ MD DPGARGMLrMDRCL RFPCC MP DMSP RGKCQ JCQQ RF?L GAC. ! HMGLR GQ DMPKCB @W RFC CLBQ MD RUM @MLCQ, UFGAF ?PC AMLLCARCB @W RFGAI RGQQSCQ. 4FC ILCC HMGLR GQ DMPKCB @W RFC JMUCP JCE @MLC (RFC RG@G?) ?LB RFC RFGEF@MLC (RFC DCKSP). 4FC FGN GQ ? @?JJ (?R RFC CLB MD RFC DCKSP) ?LB QMAICR (N?PR MD RFC NCJTGQ) HMGLR. 4FC CLBQ MD RFC @MLCQ GL RFC HMGLR ?PC AMTCPCB @W A?PRGJ?EC, UFGAF NPMTGBCQ ? QKMMRF, ?JKMQR EJ?QQW QSPD?AC. 4FC HMGLRQ ?JQM NPMBSAC ?

168

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DJSGB (QWLMTG?J DJSGB) RF?R PCBSACQ DPGARGML ?LB UC?P. ! B?K?ECB MP ?PRFPGRGA HMGLR A?L @C PCNJ?ACB @W ?L ?PRGDGAG?J HMGLR (F?=KH; 5.3). 4FCQC PCNJ?ACKCLRQ A?L @C K?BC MD KCR?JQ (QR?GLJCQQ QRCCJ MP RGR?LGSK) MP NJ?QRGA (NMJWCRFWJCLC), ?JQM UGRF TCPW QK?JJ AMCDDGAGCLRQ MD DPGARGML.

F?=KH; 5.3 !PRGDGAG?J ILCC PCNJ?ACKCLR GQ ? NPMACBSPC RF?R F?Q @CCL NCPDMPKCB DMP KMPC RF?L 20 WC?PQ. )L RFGQ DGESPC, UC QCC RFC NMQR-MN V P?WQ MD RFC PGEFR ILCC HMGLR PCNJ?ACKCLR. (APCBGR: -GIC "?GPB, &JGAIP)

/RFCP L?RSP?J JS@PGA?LRQ GLAJSBC Q?JGT? NPMBSACB GL MSP KMSRFQ RM ?GB GL RFC QU?JJMUGLE NPMACQQ, ?LB RFC QJGNNCPW KSASQ DMSLB @CRUCCL MPE?LQ GL RFC @MBW, ?JJMUGLE RFCK RM KMTC DPCCJW N?QR C?AF MRFCP BSPGLE FC?PR@C?RQ, BSPGLE @PC?RFGLE, ?LB UFCL ? NCPQML KMTCQ. !PRGDGAG?J JS@PGA?LRQ ?PC ?JQM AMKKML GL FMQNGR?JQ ?LB BMARMPtQ AJGLGAQ. &MP CV?KNJC, UFCL SJRP?QMLGA GK?EGLE GQ A?PPGCB MSR, ? ECJ GQ SQCB RM JS@PGA?RC RFC QSPD?AC @CRUCCL RFC RP?LQBSACP ?LB RFC QIGLrRFCPC@W PCBSAGLE RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC RUM QSPD?ACQ. 4FGQ ?JJMUQ RFC RP?LQBSACP RM KMTCP DPCCJW MTCP RFC QIGL.

EN7CFB; 5.1 ,A??D= EN;H9?I;


! QIGCP UGRF ? K?QQ MD 62 IE GQ QJGBGLE BMUL ? QLMUW QJMNC. &GLB RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML DMP RFC QIGCP GD DPGARGML GQ ILMUL RM @C 45.0 .. ,JH7J;=O 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML U?Q EGTCL GL RM @C 45.0 .. +GLCRGA DPGARGML GQ PCJ?RCB RM RFC LMPK?J DMPAC N ?Q f k = kN ; RFSQ, RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML A?L @C DMSLB GD UC A?L DGLB RFC LMPK?J DMPAC MD RFC QIGCP ML ? QJMNC. 4FC LMPK?J DMPAC GQ ?JU?WQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QSPD?AC, ?LB QGLAC RFCPC GQ LM KMRGML NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QSPD?AC, RFC LMPK?J DMPAC QFMSJB COS?J RFC AMKNMLCLR MD RFC QIGCPtQ UCGEFR NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC. (3CC RFC QIGCP ?LB DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K GL F?=KH; 5.4.)

F?=KH; 5.4 4FC KMRGML MD RFC QIGCP ?LB DPGARGML ?PC N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC ?LB QM GR GQ KMQR AMLTCLGCLR RM NPMHCAR ?JJ DMPACQ MLRM ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UFCPC MLC ?VGQ GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC QJMNC ?LB RFC MRFCP GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P (?VCQ QFMUL RM JCDR MD QIGCP). QJMNC, @SR

(RFC QIGCPtQ UCGEFR) F?Q AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE @MRF ?VCQ, L?KCJW

RFC QJMNC. (MUCTCP,

GQ JCQQ RF?L

W //

N (RFC LMPK?J DMPAC) GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QJMNC, ?LB f (RFC DPGARGML) GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC w ?LB W // . N GQ COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC RM w , QM RFCPC GQ LM KMRGML NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM

GL K?ELGRSBC, QM RFCPC GQ ?AACJCP?RGML BMUL RFC QJMNC (?JMLE RFC K-?VGQ).

4F?R GQ,

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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169

N = w = w cos 25 = mg cos 25.


3S@QRGRSRGLE RFGQ GLRM MSP CVNPCQQGML DMP IGLCRGA DPGARGML, UC ECR

(5.6)

f k = kmg cos 25,


UFGAF A?L LMU @C QMJTCB DMP RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML ,EBKJ?ED 3MJTGLE DMP

(5.7)

k .

k EGTCQ k = fk = N fk w cos 25 = fk mg cos 25.


(5.9) (5.8)

3S@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ ML RFC PGEFR-F?LB QGBC MD RFC COS?RGML,

k =
D?I9KII?ED

45.0 N = 0.082. (62 kg)(9.80 m/s 2)(0.906)

4FGQ PCQSJR GQ ? JGRRJC QK?JJCP RF?L RFC AMCDDGAGCLR JGQRCB GL -78B; 5.1 DMP U?VCB UMMB ML QLMU, @SR GR GQ QRGJJ PC?QML?@JC QGLAC T?JSCQ MD RFC AMCDDGAGCLRQ MD DPGARGML A?L T?PW EPC?RJW. )L QGRS?RGMLQ JGIC RFGQ, UFCPC ?L M@HCAR MD K?QQ m QJGBCQ BMUL ? QJMNC RF?R K?ICQ ?L ?LEJC UGRF RFC

FMPGXMLR?J, DPGARGML GQ EGTCL @W f k = kmg cos . !JJ M@HCARQ UGJJ QJGBC BMUL ? QJMNC UGRF AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML SLBCP RFCQC AGPASKQR?LACQ. 0PMMD MD RFGQ GQ JCDR DMP RFGQ AF?NRCPtQ 0PM@JCKQ ?LB %VCPAGQCQ.

4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLR !L M@HCAR UGJJ QJGBC BMUL ?L GLAJGLCB NJ?LC ?R ? AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW GD RFC LCR DMPAC ML RFC M@HCAR GQ XCPM. 7C A?L SQC RFGQ D?AR RM KC?QSPC RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML @CRUCCL RUM M@HCARQ. !Q QFMUL GL EN7CFB; 5.1, RFC IGLCRGA DPGARGML ML ? QJMNC f k = kmg cos . 4FC AMKNMLCLR MD RFC UCGEFR BMUL RFC QJMNC GQ COS?J RM F?TC COS?J K?ELGRSBC, RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ XCPM. 7PGRGLE RFCQC MSR:

mg sin (QCC RFC DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K GL F?=KH; 5.4). 4FCQC DMPACQ ?AR GL MNNMQGRC BGPCARGMLQ, QM UFCL RFCW f k = Fg x
(5.10) (5.11)

k mg cos = mg sin .
3MJTGLE DMP

k , UC DGLB RF?R k = mg sin = tan . mg cos


(5.12)

0SR ? AMGL ML ? @MMI ?LB RGJR GR SLRGJ RFC AMGL QJGBCQ ?R ? AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW BMUL RFC @MMI. 9MS KGEFR LCCB RM R?N RFC @MMI JGEFRJW RM ECR RFC AMGL RM KMTC. -C?QSPC RFC ?LEJC MD RGJR PCJ?RGTC RM RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB DGLB k . .MRC RF?R RFC AMGL UGJJ LMR QR?PR RM QJGBC ?R ?JJ SLRGJ ?L ?LEJC EPC?RCP RF?L GQ ?RR?GLCB, QGLAC RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD QR?RGA DPGARGML GQ J?PECP RF?L RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML. $GQASQQ FMU RFGQ K?W ?DDCAR RFC T?JSC DMP GRQ SLACPR?GLRW. 7C F?TC BGQASQQCB RF?R UFCL ?L M@HCAR PCQRQ ML ? FMPGXMLR?J QSPD?AC, RFCPC GQ ? LMPK?J DMPAC QSNNMPRGLE GR COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC RM GRQ UCGEFR. &SPRFCPKMPC, QGKNJC DPGARGML GQ ?JU?WQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC LMPK?J DMPAC. -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 3S@KGAPMQAMNGA %VNJ?L?RGMLQ MD &PGARGML 4FC QGKNJCP ?QNCARQ MD DPGARGML BC?JR UGRF QM D?P ?PC GRQ K?APMQAMNGA (J?PEC-QA?JC) AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ. 'PC?R QRPGBCQ F?TC @CCL K?BC GL RFC ?RMKGAQA?JC CVNJ?L?RGML MD DPGARGML BSPGLE RFC N?QR QCTCP?J BCA?BCQ. 2CQC?PAFCPQ ?PC DGLBGLE RF?R RFC ?RMKGA L?RSPC MD DPGARGML QCCKQ RM F?TC QCTCP?J DSLB?KCLR?J AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ. 4FCQC AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ LMR MLJW CVNJ?GL QMKC MD RFC QGKNJCP ?QNCARQ MD DPGARGMLrRFCW ?JQM FMJB RFC NMRCLRG?J DMP RFC BCTCJMNKCLR MD LC?PJW DPGARGML-DPCC CLTGPMLKCLRQ RF?R AMSJB Q?TC FSLBPCBQ MD @GJJGMLQ MD BMJJ?PQ GL CLCPEW UFGAF GQ ASPPCLRJW @CGLE AMLTCPRCB (SLLCACQQ?PGJW) RM FC?R.

k ?LB

F?=KH; 5.5 GJJSQRP?RCQ MLC K?APMQAMNGA AF?P?ARCPGQRGA MD DPGARGML RF?R GQ CVNJ?GLCB @W KGAPMQAMNGA (QK?JJ-QA?JC) PCQC?PAF. 7C F?TC LMRCB RF?R DPGARGML GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC LMPK?J DMPAC, @SR LMR RM RFC ?PC? GL AMLR?AR, ? QMKCUF?R AMSLRCPGLRSGRGTC LMRGML. 7FCL RUM PMSEF QSPD?ACQ ?PC GL AMLR?AR, RFC ?ARS?J AMLR?AR ?PC? GQ ? RGLW DP?ARGML MD RFC RMR?J ?PC? QGLAC MLJW FGEF QNMRQ RMSAF. 7FCL ? EPC?RCP LMPK?J DMPAC GQ CVCPRCB, RFC ?ARS?J AMLR?AR ?PC? GLAPC?QCQ, ?LB GR GQ DMSLB RF?R RFC DPGARGML GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFGQ ?PC?.

170

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F?=KH; 5.5 4UM PMSEF QSPD?ACQ GL AMLR?AR F?TC ? KSAF QK?JJCP ?PC? MD ?ARS?J AMLR?AR RF?L RFCGP RMR?J ?PC?. 7FCL RFCPC GQ ? EPC?RCP LMPK?J DMPAC ?Q ? PCQSJR MD ? EPC?RCP ?NNJGCB DMPAC, RFC ?PC? MD ?ARS?J AMLR?AR GLAPC?QCQ ?Q BMCQ DPGARGML.

"SR RFC ?RMKGA-QA?JC TGCU NPMKGQCQ RM CVNJ?GL D?P KMPC RF?L RFC QGKNJCP DC?RSPCQ MD DPGARGML. 4FC KCAF?LGQK DMP FMU FC?R GQ ECLCP?RCB GQ LMU @CGLE BCRCPKGLCB. )L MRFCP UMPBQ, UFW BM QSPD?ACQ ECR U?PKCP UFCL PS@@CB? %QQCLRG?JJW, ?RMKQ ?PC JGLICB UGRF MLC ?LMRFCP RM DMPK J?RRGACQ. 7FCL QSPD?ACQ PS@, RFC QSPD?AC ?RMKQ ?BFCPC ?LB A?SQC ?RMKGA J?RRGACQ RM TG@P?RCrCQQCLRG?JJW APC?RGLE QMSLB U?TCQ RF?R NCLCRP?RC RFC K?RCPG?J. 4FC QMSLB U?TCQ BGKGLGQF UGRF BGQR?LAC ?LB RFCGP CLCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB GLRM FC?R. #FCKGA?J PC?ARGMLQ RF?R ?PC PCJ?RCB RM DPGARGML?J UC?P A?L ?JQM MAASP @CRUCCL ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ ML RFC QSPD?ACQ. F?=KH; 5.6 QFMUQ FMU RFC RGN MD ? NPM@C BP?UL ?APMQQ ?LMRFCP K?RCPG?J GQ BCDMPKCB @W ?RMKGA-QA?JC DPGARGML. 4FC DMPAC LCCBCB RM BP?E RFC RGN A?L @C KC?QSPCB ?LB GQ DMSLB RM @C PCJ?RCB RM QFC?P QRPCQQ, UFGAF UGJJ @C BGQASQQCB J?RCP GL RFGQ AF?NRCP. 4FC T?PG?RGML GL QFC?P QRPCQQ GQ PCK?PI?@JC (KMPC RF?L ? D?ARMP MD 10 12 ) ?LB BGDDGASJR RM NPCBGAR RFCMPCRGA?JJW, @SR QFC?P QRPCQQ GQ WGCJBGLE ? DSLB?KCLR?J SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD ? J?PEC-QA?JC NFCLMKCLML ILMUL QGLAC ?LAGCLR RGKCQrDPGARGML.

F?=KH; 5.6 4FC RGN MD ? NPM@C GQ BCDMPKCB QGBCU?WQ @W DPGARGML?J DMPAC ?Q RFC NPM@C GQ BP?EECB ?APMQQ ? QSPD?AC. -C?QSPCKCLRQ MD FMU RFC DMPAC T?PGCQ DMP BGDDCPCLR K?RCPG?JQ ?PC WGCJBGLE DSLB?KCLR?J GLQGEFRQ GLRM RFC ?RMKGA L?RSPC MD DPGARGML.

0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: &MPACQ ?LB -MRGML %VNJMPC RFC DMPACQ ?R UMPI UFCL WMS RPW RM NSQF ? DGJGLE A?@GLCR. #PC?RC ?L ?NNJGCB DMPAC ?LB QCC RFC PCQSJRGLE DPGARGML DMPAC ?LB RMR?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC A?@GLCR. #F?PRQ QFMU RFC DMPACQ, NMQGRGML, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML TQ. RGKC. $P?U ? DPCC-@MBW BG?EP?K MD ?JJ RFC DMPACQ (GLAJSBGLE EP?TGR?RGML?J ?LB LMPK?J DMPACQ).

F?=KH; 5.7 FEH9;I 7D: &EJ?ED (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42139/1.5/<EH9;I-7D:-CEJ?ED6;D.@7H)

5.2 DH7= FEH9;I


!LMRFCP GLRCPCQRGLE DMPAC GL CTCPWB?W JGDC GQ RFC DMPAC MD BP?E ML ?L M@HCAR UFCL GR GQ KMTGLE GL ? DJSGB (CGRFCP ? E?Q MP ? JGOSGB). 9MS DCCJ RFC BP?E DMPAC UFCL WMS KMTC WMSP F?LB RFPMSEF U?RCP. 9MS KGEFR ?JQM DCCJ GR GD WMS KMTC WMSP F?LB BSPGLE ? QRPMLE UGLB. 4FC D?QRCP WMS KMTC WMSP F?LB, RFC F?PBCP GR GQ RM KMTC. 9MS DCCJ ? QK?JJCP BP?E DMPAC UFCL WMS RGJR WMSP F?LB QM MLJW RFC QGBC EMCQ RFPMSEF RFC ?GPrWMS F?TC BCAPC?QCB RFC ?PC? MD WMSP F?LB RF?R D?ACQ RFC BGPCARGML MD KMRGML. ,GIC DPGARGML, RFC :H7= <EH9; ?JU?WQ MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML MD ?L M@HCAR. 5LJGIC QGKNJC DPGARGML, RFC BP?E DMPAC GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM QMKC DSLARGML MD RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC M@HCAR GL RF?R DJSGB. 4FGQ DSLARGML?JGRW GQ AMKNJGA?RCB ?LB BCNCLBQ SNML RFC QF?NC MD RFC M@HCAR, GRQ QGXC, GRQ TCJMAGRW, ?LB RFC DJSGB GR GQ GL. &MP KMQR J?PEC M@HCARQ QSAF ?Q @GAWAJGQRQ, A?PQ, ?LB @?QC@?JJQ LMR KMTGLE RMM QJMUJW, RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BP?E

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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171

DMPAC

F D GQ DMSLB RM @C NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC QOS?PC MD RFC QNCCB MD RFC M@HCAR. 7C A?L UPGRC RFGQ PCJ?RGMLQFGN K?RFCK?RGA?JJW ?Q F D v 2 . 7FCL F D = 1 C Av 2, 2
(5.13)

R?IGLE GLRM ?AAMSLR MRFCP D?ARMPQ, RFGQ PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CAMKCQ

UFCPC

C GQ RFC BP?E AMCDDGAGCLR, A GQ RFC ?PC? MD RFC M@HCAR D?AGLE RFC DJSGB, ?LB GQ RFC BCLQGRW MD RFC DJSGB. (2CA?JJ RF?R BCLQGRW GQ K?QQ NCP SLGR F D = bv 2 , UFCPC b GQ ? AMLQR?LR COSGT?JCLR RM 0.5CA . 7C F?TC QCR

TMJSKC.) 4FGQ COS?RGML A?L ?JQM @C UPGRRCL GL ? KMPC ECLCP?JGXCB D?QFGML ?Q

RFC CVNMLCLR n DMP RFCQC COS?RGMLQ ?Q 2 @CA?SQC, UFCL ?L M@HCAR GQ KMTGLE ?R FGEF TCJMAGRW RFPMSEF ?GP, RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BP?E DMPAC GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC QOS?PC MD RFC QNCCB. !Q UC QF?JJ QCC GL ? DCU N?ECQ ML DJSGB BWL?KGAQ, DMP QK?JJ N?PRGAJCQ KMTGLE ?R JMU QNCCBQ GL ? DJSGB, RFC CVNMLCLR n GQ COS?J RM 1. $P?E &MPAC $P?E DMPAC

F D GQ DMSLB RM @C NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC QOS?PC MD RFC QNCCB MD RFC M@HCAR. -?RFCK?RGA?JJW F D = 1 CAv 2, 2 FD v2
(5.14) (5.15)

UFCPC

C GQ RFC BP?E AMCDDGAGCLR, A GQ RFC ?PC? MD RFC M@HCAR D?AGLE RFC DJSGB, ?LB GQ RFC BCLQGRW MD RFC DJSGB.

!RFJCRCQ ?Q UCJJ ?Q A?P BCQGELCPQ QCCI RM PCBSAC RFC BP?E DMPAC RM JMUCP RFCGP P?AC RGKCQ. (3CC F?=KH; 5.8). u!CPMBWL?KGAv QF?NGLE MD ?L ?SRMKM@GJC A?L PCBSAC RFC BP?E DMPAC ?LB QM GLAPC?QC ? A?PtQ E?Q KGJC?EC.

F?=KH; 5.8 &PMK P?AGLE A?PQ RM @M@QJCB P?ACPQ, ?CPMBWL?KGA QF?NGLE GQ APSAG?J RM ?AFGCTGLE RMN QNCCBQ. "M@QJCBQ ?PC BCQGELCB DMP QNCCB. 4FCW ?PC QF?NCB JGIC ? @SJJCR UGRF R?NCPCB DGLQ. (APCBGR: 5.3. !PKW, TG? 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

4FC T?JSC MD RFC BP?E AMCDDGAGCLR,

C , GQ BCRCPKGLCB CKNGPGA?JJW, SQS?JJW UGRF RFC SQC MD ? UGLB RSLLCJ. (3CC F?=KH; 5.9).

F?=KH; 5.9 .!3! PCQC?PAFCPQ RCQR ? KMBCJ NJ?LC GL ? UGLB RSLLCJ. (APCBGR: .!3!/!KCQ)

4FC BP?E AMCDDGAGCLR A?L BCNCLB SNML TCJMAGRW, @SR UC UGJJ ?QQSKC RF?R GR GQ ? AMLQR?LR FCPC. -78B; 5.2 JGQRQ QMKC RWNGA?J BP?E AMCDDGAGCLRQ DMP ? T?PGCRW MD M@HCARQ. .MRGAC RF?R RFC BP?E AMCDDGAGCLR GQ ? BGKCLQGMLJCQQ OS?LRGRW. !R FGEFU?W QNCCBQ, MTCP 50% MD RFC NMUCP MD ? A?P GQ SQCB RM MTCPAMKC ?GP BP?E. 4FC KMQR DSCJ-CDDGAGCLR APSGQGLE QNCCB GQ ?@MSR 70q80 IK/F (?@MSR 45q50 KG/F). &MP RFGQ PC?QML, BSPGLE RFC 1970Q MGJ APGQGQ GL RFC 5LGRCB 3R?RCQ, K?VGKSK QNCCBQ ML FGEFU?WQ UCPC QCR ?R ?@MSR 90 IK/F (55 KG/F).

172

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4?@JC 5.2 $P?E #MCDDGAGCLR 6?JSCQ -OF?97B L7BK;I E< :H7= 9E;<<?9?;DJ C . (8@;9J !GPDMGJ 4MWMR? #?KPW &MPB &MASQ (MLB? #GTGA &CPP?PG 4CQR?PMQQ? $MBEC 2?K NGAISN 3NFCPC (SKKCP (2 356 3IWBGTCP (DCCR DGPQR) "GAWAJC #GPASJ?P DJ?R NJ?RC C 0.05 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.37 0.43 0.45 0.64 0.70 0.90 1.12

3IWBGTCP (FMPGXMLR?J) 1.0

3S@QR?LRG?J PCQC?PAF GQ SLBCP U?W GL RFC QNMPRGLE UMPJB RM KGLGKGXC BP?E. 4FC BGKNJCQ ML EMJD @?JJQ ?PC @CGLE PCBCQGELCB ?Q ?PC RFC AJMRFCQ RF?R ?RFJCRCQ UC?P. "GAWAJC P?ACPQ ?LB QMKC QUGKKCPQ ?LB PSLLCPQ UC?P DSJJ @MBWQSGRQ. !SQRP?JG?L #?RFW &PCCK?L UMPC ? DSJJ @MBW QSGR GL RFC 2000 3WBLCW /JWKNGAQ, ?LB UML RFC EMJB KCB?J DMP RFC 400 K P?AC. -?LW QUGKKCPQ GL RFC 2008 "CGHGLE /JWKNGAQ UMPC (3NCCBM) @MBW QSGRQ; GR KGEFR F?TC K?BC ? BGDDCPCLAC GL @PC?IGLE K?LW UMPJB PCAMPBQ (3CC F?=KH; 5.10). -MQR CJGRC QUGKKCPQ (?LB AWAJGQRQ) QF?TC RFCGP @MBW F?GP. 3SAF GLLMT?RGMLQ A?L F?TC RFC CDDCAR MD QJGAGLE ?U?W KGJJGQCAMLBQ GL ? P?AC, QMKCRGKCQ K?IGLE RFC BGDDCPCLAC @CRUCCL ? EMJB ?LB ? QGJTCP KCB?J. /LC AMLQCOSCLAC GQ RF?R A?PCDSJ ?LB NPCAGQC ESGBCJGLCQ KSQR @C AMLRGLSMSQJW BCTCJMNCB RM K?GLR?GL RFC GLRCEPGRW MD RFC QNMPR.

F?=KH; 5.10 "MBW QSGRQ, QSAF ?Q RFGQ ,:2 2?ACP 3SGR, F?TC @CCL APCBGRCB UGRF K?LW UMPJB PCAMPBQ ?DRCP RFCGP PCJC?QC GL 2008. 3KMMRFCP uQIGLv ?LB KMPC AMKNPCQQGML DMPACQ ML ? QUGKKCPtQ @MBW NPMTGBC ?R JC?QR 10% JCQQ BP?E. (APCBGR: .!3!/+?RFW "?PLQRMPDD)

3MKC GLRCPCQRGLE QGRS?RGMLQ AMLLCARCB RM .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MAASP UFCL AMLQGBCPGLE RFC CDDCARQ MD BP?E DMPACQ SNML ? KMTGLE M@HCAR. &MP GLQR?LAC, AMLQGBCP ? QIWBGTCP D?JJGLE RFPMSEF ?GP SLBCP RFC GLDJSCLAC MD EP?TGRW. 4FC RUM DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML FGK ?PC RFC DMPAC MD EP?TGRW ?LB RFC BP?E DMPAC (GELMPGLE RFC @SMW?LR DMPAC). 4FC BMULU?PB DMPAC MD EP?TGRW PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR PCE?PBJCQQ MD RFC TCJMAGRW ?R UFGAF RFC NCPQML GQ KMTGLE. (MUCTCP, ?Q RFC NCPQMLtQ TCJMAGRW GLAPC?QCQ, RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BP?E DMPAC GLAPC?QCQ SLRGJ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BP?E DMPAC GQ COS?J RM RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC, RFSQ NPMBSAGLE ? LCR DMPAC MD XCPM. ! XCPM LCR DMPAC KC?LQ RF?R RFCPC GQ LM ?AACJCP?RGML, ?Q EGTCL @W .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U. !R RFGQ NMGLR, RFC NCPQMLtQ TCJMAGRW PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR ?LB UC Q?W RF?R RFC NCPQML F?Q PC?AFCB FGQ G8E@<A4? I8?B6<GL ( v t ). 3GLAC F D GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC QNCCB, ? FC?TGCP QIWBGTCP KSQR EM D?QRCP DMP !R RFC RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW,

F D RM COS?J FGQ UCGEFR. ,CRtQ QCC FMU RFGQ UMPIQ MSR KMPC OS?LRGR?RGTCJW. F net = mg F D = ma = 0.

(5.16)

4FSQ,

mg = F D.
5QGLE RFC COS?RGML DMP BP?E DMPAC, UC F?TC

(5.17)

mg = 1 CAv 2. 2
3MJTGLE DMP RFC TCJMAGRW, UC M@R?GL

(5.18)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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173

v=
!QQSKC RFC BCLQGRW MD ?GP GQ

2mg . CA

(5.19)

= 1.21 kg/m 3 . ! 75-IE QIWBGTCP BCQACLBGLE FC?B DGPQR UGJJ F?TC ?L ?PC? ?NNPMVGK?RCJW A = 0.18 m 2 ?LB ? BP?E AMCDDGAGCLR MD ?NNPMVGK?RCJW C = 0.70 . 7C DGLB RF?R v = 2(75 kg)(9.80 m/s 2) (1.21 kg/m 3)(0.70)(0.18 m 2) = 98 m/s = 350 km/h.
(5.20)

4FGQ KC?LQ ? QIWBGTCP UGRF ? K?QQ MD 75 IE ?AFGCTCQ ? K?VGKSK RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW MD ?@MSR 350 IK/F UFGJC RP?TCJGLE GL ? NGIC (FC?B DGPQR) NMQGRGML, KGLGKGXGLE RFC ?PC? ?LB FGQ BP?E. )L ? QNPC?B-C?EJC NMQGRGML, RF?R RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW K?W BCAPC?QC RM ?@MSR 200 IK/F ?Q RFC ?PC? GLAPC?QCQ. 4FGQ RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW @CAMKCQ KSAF QK?JJCP ?DRCP RFC N?P?AFSRC MNCLQ. 4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLR 4FGQ GLRCPCQRGLE ?ARGTGRW CV?KGLCQ RFC CDDCAR MD UCGEFR SNML RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW. '?RFCP RMECRFCP QMKC LCQRCB AMDDCC DGJRCPQ. ,C?TGLE RFCK GL RFCGP MPGEGL?J QF?NC, KC?QSPC RFC RGKC GR R?ICQ DMP MLC, RUM, RFPCC, DMSP, ?LB DGTC LCQRCB DGJRCPQ RM D?JJ RM RFC DJMMP DPMK RFC Q?KC FCGEFR (PMSEFJW 2 K). (.MRC RF?R, BSC RM RFC U?W RFC DGJRCPQ ?PC LCQRCB, BP?E GQ AMLQR?LR ?LB MLJW K?QQ T?PGCQ.) 4FCW M@R?GL RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW OSGRC OSGAIJW, QM DGLB RFGQ TCJMAGRW ?Q ? DSLARGML MD K?QQ. 0JMR RFC RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW v TCPQSQ K?QQ. !JQM NJMR v 2 TCPQSQ K?QQ. 7FGAF MD RFCQC PCJ?RGMLQFGNQ GQ KMPC JGLC?P? 7F?R A?L WMS AMLAJSBC DPMK RFCQC EP?NFQ?

EN7CFB; 5.2 A -;HC?D7B /;BE9?JO


&GLB RFC RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW MD ?L 85-IE QIWBGTCP D?JJGLE GL ? QNPC?B-C?EJC NMQGRGML. ,JH7J;=O !R RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW, BP?E DMPAC, UC DGLB

mg = 1 CAv 2 . 2

F net = 0 . 4FSQ RFC BP?E DMPAC ML RFC QIWBGTCP KSQR COS?J RFC DMPAC MD EP?TGRW (RFC NCPQMLtQ UCGEFR). 5QGLE RFC COS?RGML MD v t A?L @C UPGRRCL ?Q vt = 2mg . CA
(5.21)

4FSQ RFC RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW

,EBKJ?ED !JJ OS?LRGRGCQ ?PC ILMUL CVACNR RFC NCPQMLtQ NPMHCARCB ?PC?. 4FGQ GQ ?L ?BSJR (82 IE) D?JJGLE QNPC?B C?EJC. 7C A?L CQRGK?RC RFC DPMLR?J ?PC? ?Q

A = (2 m)(0.35 m) = 0.70 m 2.
5QGLE MSP COS?RGML DMP

(5.22)

v t , UC DGLB RF?R vt = 2(85 kg)(9.80 m/s 2) (1.21 kg/m 3)(1.0)(0.70 m 2) = 44 m/s.


(5.23)

D?I9KII?ED 4FGQ PCQSJR GQ AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC T?JSC DMP

v t KCLRGMLCB C?PJGCP. 4FC 75-IE QIWBGTCP EMGLE DCCR DGPQR F?B ? v = 98 m / s . (C UCGEFCB JCQQ @SR

F?B ? QK?JJCP DPMLR?J ?PC? ?LB QM ? QK?JJCP BP?E BSC RM RFC ?GP.

4FC QGXC MD RFC M@HCAR RF?R GQ D?JJGLE RFPMSEF ?GP NPCQCLRQ ?LMRFCP GLRCPCQRGLE ?NNJGA?RGML MD ?GP BP?E. )D WMS D?JJ DPMK ? 5-K FGEF @P?LAF MD ? RPCC, WMS UGJJ JGICJW ECR FSPRrNMQQG@JW DP?ARSPGLE ? @MLC. (MUCTCP, ? QK?JJ QOSGPPCJ BMCQ RFGQ ?JJ RFC RGKC, UGRFMSR ECRRGLE FSPR. 9MS BMLtR PC?AF ? RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW GL QSAF ? QFMPR BGQR?LAC, @SR RFC QOSGPPCJ BMCQ. 4FC DMJJMUGLE GLRCPCQRGLE OSMRC ML ?LGK?J QGXC ?LB RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW GQ DPMK ? 1928 CQQ?W @W ? "PGRGQF @GMJMEGQR, *.".3. (?JB?LC, RGRJCB u/L "CGLE RFC 2GEFR 3GXC.v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

174

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F s = 6rv,
UFCPC

(5.24)

r GQ RFC P?BGSQ MD RFC M@HCAR, GQ RFC TGQAMQGRW MD RFC DJSGB, ?LB v GQ RFC M@HCARtQ TCJMAGRW.

3RMICQt ,?U

F s = 6rv,

(5.25)

UFCPC

r GQ RFC P?BGSQ MD RFC M@HCAR, GQ RFC TGQAMQGRW MD RFC DJSGB, ?LB v GQ RFC M@HCARtQ TCJMAGRW.

'MMB CV?KNJCQ MD RFGQ J?U ?PC NPMTGBCB @W KGAPMMPE?LGQKQ, NMJJCL, ?LB BSQR N?PRGAJCQ. "CA?SQC C?AF MD RFCQC M@HCARQ GQ QM QK?JJ, UC DGLB RF?R K?LW MD RFCQC M@HCARQ RP?TCJ SL?GBCB MLJW ?R ? AMLQR?LR (RCPKGL?J) TCJMAGRW. 4CPKGL?J TCJMAGRGCQ DMP @?ARCPG? (QGXC ?@MSR 1 m ) A?L @C ?@MSR 2 m/s . 4M KMTC ?R ? EPC?RCP QNCCB, K?LW @?ARCPG? QUGK SQGLE DJ?ECJJ? (MPE?LCJJCQ QF?NCB JGIC JGRRJC R?GJQ) RF?R ?PC NMUCPCB @W JGRRJC KMRMPQ CK@CBBCB GL RFC ACJJ. 3CBGKCLR GL ? J?IC A?L KMTC ?R ? EPC?RCP RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW (?@MSR 5 m/s ), QM GR A?L R?IC B?WQ RM PC?AF RFC @MRRMK MD RFC J?IC ?DRCP @CGLE BCNMQGRCB ML RFC QSPD?AC. )D UC AMKN?PC ?LGK?JQ JGTGLE ML J?LB UGRF RFMQC GL U?RCP, WMS A?L QCC FMU BP?E F?Q GLDJSCLACB CTMJSRGML. &GQFCQ, BMJNFGLQ, ?LB CTCL K?QQGTC UF?JCQ ?PC QRPC?KJGLCB GL QF?NC RM PCBSAC BP?E DMPACQ. "GPBQ ?PC QRPC?KJGLCB ?LB KGEP?RMPW QNCAGCQ RF?R DJW J?PEC BGQR?LACQ MDRCL F?TC N?PRGASJ?P DC?RSPCQ QSAF ?Q JMLE LCAIQ. &JMAIQ MD @GPBQ DJW GL RFC QF?NC MD ? QNC?P FC?B ?Q RFC DJMAI DMPKQ ? QRPC?KJGLCB N?RRCPL (QCC F?=KH; 5.11). )L FSK?LQ, MLC GKNMPR?LR CV?KNJC MD QRPC?KJGLGLE GQ RFC QF?NC MD QNCPK, UFGAF LCCB RM @C CDDGAGCLR GL RFCGP SQC MD CLCPEW.

F?=KH; 5.11 'CCQC DJW GL ? 6 DMPK?RGML BSPGLE RFCGP JMLE KGEP?RMPW RP?TCJQ. 4FGQ QF?NC PCBSACQ BP?E ?LB CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML DMP GLBGTGBS?J @GPBQ, ?LB ?JQM ?JJMUQ RFCK ? @CRRCP U?W RM AMKKSLGA?RC. (APCBGR: *SJM, 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

'?JGJCMtQ %VNCPGKCLR '?JGJCM GQ Q?GB RM F?TC BPMNNCB RUM M@HCARQ MD BGDDCPCLR K?QQCQ DPMK RFC 4MUCP MD 0GQ?. (C KC?QSPCB FMU JMLE GR RMMI C?AF RM PC?AF RFC EPMSLB. 3GLAC QRMNU?RAFCQ UCPCLt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

F?=KH; 5.12 &7II;I & ,FH?D=I (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42080/1.7/C7II-IFH?D=-B786;D.@7H)

5.3 EB7IJ?9?JO: ,JH;II 7D: ,JH7?D


7C LMU KMTC DPMK AMLQGBCP?RGML MD DMPACQ RF?R ?DDCAR RFC KMRGML MD ?L M@HCAR (QSAF ?Q DPGARGML ?LB BP?E) RM RFMQC RF?R ?DDCAR ?L M@HCARtQ QF?NC. )D ? @SJJBMXCP NSQFCQ ? A?P GLRM ? U?JJ, RFC A?P UGJJ LMR KMTC @SR GR UGJJ LMRGAC?@JW AF?LEC QF?NC. ! AF?LEC GL QF?NC BSC RM RFC ?NNJGA?RGML MD ? DMPAC GQ ? :;<EHC7J?ED. %TCL TCPW QK?JJ DMPACQ ?PC ILMUL RM A?SQC QMKC BCDMPK?RGML. &MP QK?JJ BCDMPK?RGMLQ, RUM GKNMPR?LR AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ ?PC M@QCPTCB. &GPQR, RFC M@HCAR PCRSPLQ RM GRQ MPGEGL?J QF?NC UFCL RFC DMPAC GQ PCKMTCBrRF?R GQ, RFC BCDMPK?RGML GQ CJ?QRGA DMP QK?JJ BCDMPK?RGMLQ. 3CAMLB, RFC QGXC MD RFC BCDMPK?RGML GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC DMPACrRF?R GQ, DMP QK?JJ BCDMPK?RGMLQ, (MMICtQ J?U GQ M@CWCB. )L COS?RGML DMPK, !EEA;XI B7M GQ EGTCL @W

F = k L,

(5.26)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

175

L GQ RFC ?KMSLR MD BCDMPK?RGML (RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF, DMP CV?KNJC) NPMBSACB @W RFC DMPAC F , ?LB k GQ ? NPMNMPRGML?JGRW AMLQR?LR RF?R BCNCLBQ ML RFC QF?NC ?LB AMKNMQGRGML MD RFC M@HCAR ?LB RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC DMPAC. .MRC RF?R RFGQ DMPAC GQ ? DSLARGML MD RFC BCDMPK?RGML L rGR GQ LMR
UFCPC AMLQR?LR ?Q ? IGLCRGA DPGARGML DMPAC GQ. 2C?PP?LEGLE RFGQ RM

L = F k

(5.27)

K?ICQ GR AJC?P RF?R RFC BCDMPK?RGML GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC ?NNJGCB DMPAC. F?=KH; 5.13 QFMUQ RFC (MMICtQ J?U PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL RFC CVRCLQGML L MD ? QNPGLE MP MD ? FSK?L @MLC. &MP KCR?JQ MP QNPGLEQ, RFC QRP?GEFR JGLC PCEGML GL UFGAF (MMICtQ J?U NCPR?GLQ GQ KSAF J?PECP. "MLCQ ?PC @PGRRJC ?LB RFC CJ?QRGA PCEGML GQ QK?JJ ?LB RFC DP?ARSPC ?@PSNR. %TCLRS?JJW ? J?PEC CLMSEF QRPCQQ RM RFC K?RCPG?J UGJJ A?SQC GR RM @PC?I MP DP?ARSPC. (MMICtQ ,?U

F = kL,

(5.28)

UFCPC L GQ RFC ?KMSLR MD BCDMPK?RGML (RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF, DMP CV?KNJC) NPMBSACB @W RFC DMPAC BCNCLBQ ML RFC QF?NC ?LB AMKNMQGRGML MD RFC M@HCAR ?LB RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC DMPAC.

F , ?LB k GQ ? NPMNMPRGML?JGRW AMLQR?LR RF?R


(5.29)

L = F k

L TCPQSQ ?NNJGCB DMPAC F . 4FC QRP?GEFR QCEKCLR GQ RFC JGLC?P PCEGML UFCPC (MMICtQ J?U GQ M@CWCB. 4FC QJMNC MD RFC QRP?GEFR PCEGML GQ 1 . &MP J?PECP DMPACQ, RFC EP?NF GQ ASPTCB @SR RFC BCDMPK?RGML GQ QRGJJ CJ?QRGAr L UGJJ PCRSPL RM XCPM GD RFC DMPAC GQ PCKMTCB. 3RGJJ EPC?RCP DMPACQ NCPK?LCLRJW BCDMPK RFC M@HCAR k SLRGJ GR DGL?JJW DP?ARSPCQ. 4FC QF?NC MD RFC ASPTC LC?P DP?ARSPC BCNCLBQ ML QCTCP?J D?ARMPQ, GLAJSBGLE FMU RFC DMPAC F GQ ?NNJGCB. .MRC RF?R GL RFGQ EP?NF RFC QJMNC GLAPC?QCQ HSQR @CDMPC DP?ARSPC, GLBGA?RGLE RF?R ? QK?JJ GLAPC?QC GL F GQ NPMBSAGLE ? J?PEC GLAPC?QC GL L LC?P RFC DP?ARSPC.
F?=KH; 5.13 ! EP?NF MD BCDMPK?RGML

k BCNCLBQ SNML ? LSK@CP MD D?ARMPQ DMP RFC K?RCPG?J. &MP CV?KNJC, ? ESGR?P QRPGLE K?BC MD LWJML QRPCRAFCQ UFCL GR GQ L GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC DMPAC ?NNJGCB (?R JC?QR DMP QK?JJ BCDMPK?RGMLQ). 4FGAICP LWJML QRPGLEQ ?LB MLCQ K?BC MD QRCCJ QRPCRAF JCQQ DMP RFC Q?KC ?NNJGCB DMPAC, GKNJWGLE RFCW F?TC ? J?PECP k (QCC F?=KH; 5.14). &GL?JJW, ?JJ RFPCC QRPGLEQ PCRSPL RM RFCGP LMPK?J JCLERFQ UFCL
4FC NPMNMPRGML?JGRW AMLQR?LR RGEFRCLCB, ?LB RFC CJMLE?RGML RFC DMPAC GQ PCKMTCB, NPMTGBCB RFC BCDMPK?RGML GQ QK?JJ. -MQR K?RCPG?JQ UGJJ @CF?TC GL RFGQ K?LLCP GD RFC BCDMPK?RGML GQ JCQQ RF?R ?@MSR 0.1% MP ?@MSR 3 1 N?PR GL 10 .

F?=KH; 5.14 4FC Q?KC DMPAC, GL RFGQ A?QC ? UCGEFR ( w ), ?NNJGCB RM RFPCC BGDDCPCLR ESGR?P QRPGLEQ MD GBCLRGA?J JCLERF NPMBSACQ RFC RFPCC BGDDCPCLR BCDMPK?RGMLQ QFMUL ?Q QF?BCB QCEKCLRQ. 4FC QRPGLE ML RFC JCDR GQ RFGL LWJML, RFC MLC GL RFC KGBBJC GQ RFGAICP LWJML, ?LB RFC MLC ML RFC PGEFR GQ QRCCJ.

176

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

3RPCRAF 9MSPQCJD ? ,GRRJC (MU UMSJB WMS EM ?@MSR KC?QSPGLE RFC NPMNMPRGML?JGRW AMLQR?LR k MD ? PS@@CP @?LB? )D ? PS@@CP @?LB QRPCRAFCB 3 AK UFCL ? 100-E K?QQ U?Q ?RR?AFCB RM GR, RFCL FMU KSAF UMSJB GR QRPCRAF GD RUM QGKGJ?P PS@@CP @?LBQ UCPC ?RR?AFCB RM RFC Q?KC K?QQrCTCL GD NSR RMECRFCP GL N?P?JJCJ MP ?JRCPL?RGTCJW GD RGCB RMECRFCP GL QCPGCQ? 7C LMU AMLQGBCP RFPCC QNCAGDGA RWNCQ MD BCDMPK?RGMLQ: AF?LECQ GL JCLERF (RCLQGML ?LB AMKNPCQQGML), QGBCU?WQ QFC?P (QRPCQQ), ?LB AF?LECQ GL TMJSKC. !JJ BCDMPK?RGMLQ ?PC ?QQSKCB RM @C QK?JJ SLJCQQ MRFCPUGQC QR?RCB.

#F?LECQ GL ,CLERFr4CLQGML ?LB #MKNPCQQGML: %J?QRGA -MBSJSQ


! AF?LEC GL JCLERF (3CC F?=KH; 5.15.)

L GQ NPMBSACB UFCL ? DMPAC GQ ?NNJGCB RM ? UGPC MP PMB N?P?JJCJ RM GRQ JCLERF L 0 , CGRFCP QRPCRAFGLE GR (? RCLQGML) MP AMKNPCQQGLE GR.

F?=KH; 5.15 (?) 4CLQGML. 4FC PMB GQ QRPCRAFCB ? JCLERF

Q?KC K?ELGRSBC GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML. &MP TCPW QK?JJ BCDMPK?RGMLQ ?LB SLGDMPK K?RCPG?JQ, L GQ ?NNPMVGK?RCJW RFC Q?KC DMP RFC Q?KC K?ELGRSBC MD RCLQGML MP AMKNPCQQGML. &MP J?PECP BCDMPK?RGMLQ, RFC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC? AF?LECQ ?Q RFC PMB GQ AMKNPCQQCB MP QRPCRAFCB.

UFCL ? DMPAC GQ ?NNJGCB N?P?JJCJ RM GRQ JCLERF. (@) #MKNPCQQGML. 4FC Q?KC PMB GQ AMKNPCQQCB @W DMPACQ UGRF RFC

%VNCPGKCLRQ F?TC QFMUL RF?R RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF ( L ) BCNCLBQ ML MLJW ? DCU T?PG?@JCQ. !Q ?JPC?BW LMRCB,

BCNCLBQ ML RFC QS@QR?LAC DPMK UFGAF RFC M@HCAR GQ K?BC. !BBGRGML?JJW, RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC MPGEGL?J JCLERF

L GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC DMPAC F ?LB L 0 ?LB GLTCPQCJW

NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC? MD RFC UGPC MP PMB. &MP CV?KNJC, ? JMLE ESGR?P QRPGLE UGJJ QRPCRAF KMPC RF?L ? QFMPR MLC, ?LB ? RFGAI QRPGLE UGJJ QRPCRAF JCQQ RF?L ? RFGL MLC. 7C A?L AMK@GLC ?JJ RFCQC D?ARMPQ GLRM MLC COS?RGML DMP L :

L = 1 F L 0, YA
UFCPC

(5.30)

L GQ RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF, F RFC ?NNJGCB DMPAC, Y GQ ? D?ARMP, A?JJCB RFC CJ?QRGA KMBSJSQ MP 9MSLEtQ KMBSJSQ, RF?R BCNCLBQ ML RFC QS@QR?LAC, A GQ RFC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC?, ?LB L 0 GQ RFC MPGEGL?J JCLERF. -78B; 5.3 JGQRQ T?JSCQ MD Y DMP QCTCP?J K?RCPG?JQrRFMQC UGRF ? J?PEC Y ?PC
Q?GB RM F?TC ? J?PEC J;DI?B; IJH;D=J> @CA?SQC RFCW BCDMPK JCQQ DMP ? EGTCL RCLQGML MP AMKNPCQQGML.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

177

4?@JC 5.3 %J?QRGA -MBSJG;1= &7J;H?7B !JSKGLSK "MLC q RCLQGML "MLC q AMKNPCQQGML "P?QQ "PGAI #MLAPCRC 'J?QQ 'P?LGRC (?GP (FSK?L) (?PBUMMB )PML, A?QR ,C?B -?P@JC .WJML 0MJWQRWPCLC 3GJI 3NGBCP RFPC?B 3RCCJ 4CLBML !ACRMLC %RF?LMJ 'JWACPGL -CPASPW 7?RCP 2EKD=XI CE:KBKI (J;DI?EDV9ECFH;II?ED)Y (10 9 N/m2) 70 16 9 90 15 20 70 45 10 15 100 16 60 5 3 6 3 210 1 0.7 0.9 4.5 25 2.2 80 130 10 40 5 20 90 50 70 20 20 30 45 35 75 ,>;7H CE:KBKI S (10 9 N/m2) 25 80 BKBA CE:KBKI B (10 9 N/m2) 75 8

9MSLEtQ KMBSJG ?PC LMR JGQRCB DMP JGOSGBQ ?LB E?QCQ GL -78B; 5.3 @CA?SQC RFCW A?LLMR @C QRPCRAFCB MP AMKNPCQQCB GL MLJW MLC BGPCARGML. .MRC RF?R RFCPC GQ ?L ?QQSKNRGML RF?R RFC M@HCAR BMCQ LMR ?AACJCP?RC, QM RF?R RFCPC ?PC ?ARS?JJW RUM ?NNJGCB DMPACQ MD K?ELGRSBC F ?ARGLE GL MNNMQGRC BGPCARGMLQ. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC QRPGLEQ GL F?=KH; 5.15 ?PC @CGLE NSJJCB BMUL @W ? DMPAC MD K?ELGRSBC w ?LB FCJB SN @W RFC ACGJGLE, UFGAF ?JQM CVCPRQ ? DMPAC MD K?ELGRSBC w .

EN7CFB; 5.3 ->; ,JH;J9> E< 7 %ED= C78B;


3SQNCLQGML A?@JCQ ?PC SQCB RM A?PPW EMLBMJ?Q ?R QIG PCQMPRQ. (3CC F?=KH; 5.16) #MLQGBCP ? QSQNCLQGML A?@JC RF?R GLAJSBCQ ?L SLQSNNMPRCB QN?L MD 3 IK. #?JASJ?RC RFC ?KMSLR MD QRPCRAF GL RFC QRCCJ A?@JC. !QQSKC RF?R RFC A?@JC F?Q ? BG?KCRCP MD 5.6 AK ?LB RFC K?VGKSK RCLQGML GR A?L 6 UGRFQR?LB GQ 3.010 N .

F?=KH; 5.16 'MLBMJ?Q RP?TCJ ?JMLE QSQNCLQGML A?@JCQ ?R RFC '?J? 9SX?U? QIG PCQMPR GL *?N?L. (APCBGR: 2SBW (CPK?L, &JGAIP)

,JH7J;=O 1. !NNPMVGK?RC ?LB ?TCP?EC T?JSCQ. 9MSLEtQ KMBSJG Y DMP RCLQGML ?LB AMKNPCQQGML QMKCRGKCQ BGDDCP @SR ?PC ?TCP?ECB FCPC. "MLC F?Q QGELGDGA?LRJW BGDDCPCLR 9MSLEtQ KMBSJG DMP RCLQGML ?LB AMKNPCQQGML.

178

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

4FC DMPAC GQ COS?J RM RFC K?VGKSK RCLQGML, MP

L = 1 F L 0 A?L @C SQCB RM DGLB RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF. YA


,EBKJ?ED !JJ OS?LRGRGCQ ?PC ILMUL. 4FSQ,

F = 3.010 6 N . 4FC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC? GQ r 2 = 2.4610 3 m 2 . 4FC COS?RGML

L =
D?I9KII?ED

= 18 m.

3.010 6 N 1 21010 9 N/m 2 2.4610 3 m 2 (3020 m)

(5.31)

4FGQ GQ OSGRC ? QRPCRAF, @SR MLJW ?@MSR 0.6% MD RFC SLQSNNMPRCB JCLERF. %DDCARQ MD RCKNCP?RSPC SNML JCLERF KGEFR @C GKNMPR?LR GL RFCQC CLTGPMLKCLRQ.

"MLCQ, ML RFC UFMJC, BM LMR DP?ARSPC BSC RM RCLQGML MP AMKNPCQQGML. 2?RFCP RFCW ECLCP?JJW DP?ARSPC BSC RM QGBCU?WQ GKN?AR MP @CLBGLE, PCQSJRGLE GL RFC @MLC QFC?PGLE MP QL?NNGLE. 4FC @CF?TGMP MD @MLCQ SLBCP RCLQGML ?LB AMKNPCQQGML GQ GKNMPR?LR @CA?SQC GR BCRCPKGLCQ RFC JM?B RFC @MLCQ A?L A?PPW. "MLCQ ?PC AJ?QQGDGCB ?Q UCGEFR-@C?PGLE QRPSARSPCQ QSAF ?Q AMJSKLQ GL @SGJBGLEQ ?LB RPCCQ. 7CGEFR-@C?PGLE QRPSARSPCQ F?TC QNCAG?J DC?RSPCQ; AMJSKLQ GL @SGJBGLE F?TC QRCCJ-PCGLDMPAGLE PMBQ UFGJC RPCCQ ?LB @MLCQ ?PC DG@PMSQ. 4FC @MLCQ GL BGDDCPCLR N?PRQ MD RFC @MBW QCPTC BGDDCPCLR QRPSARSP?J DSLARGMLQ ?LB ?PC NPMLC RM BGDDCPCLR QRPCQQCQ. 4FSQ RFC @MLC GL RFC RMN MD RFC DCKSP GQ ?PP?LECB GL RFGL QFCCRQ QCN?P?RCB @W K?PPMU UFGJC GL MRFCP NJ?ACQ RFC @MLCQ A?L @C AWJGLBPGA?J ?LB DGJJCB UGRF K?PPMU MP HSQR QMJGB. /TCPUCGEFR NCMNJC F?TC ? RCLBCLAW RMU?PB @MLC B?K?EC BSC RM QSQR?GLCB AMKNPCQQGMLQ GL @MLC HMGLRQ ?LB RCLBMLQ. !LMRFCP @GMJMEGA?J CV?KNJC MD (MMICtQ J?U MAASPQ GL RCLBMLQ. &SLARGML?JJW, RFC RCLBML (RFC RGQQSC AMLLCARGLE KSQAJC RM @MLC) KSQR QRPCRAF C?QGJW ?R DGPQR UFCL ? DMPAC GQ ?NNJGCB, @SR MDDCP ? KSAF EPC?RCP PCQRMPGLE DMPAC DMP ? EPC?RCP QRP?GL. F?=KH; 5.17 QFMUQ ? QRPCQQ-QRP?GL PCJ?RGMLQFGN DMP ? FSK?L RCLBML. 3MKC RCLBMLQ F?TC ? FGEF AMJJ?ECL AMLRCLR QM RFCPC GQ PCJ?RGTCJW JGRRJC QRP?GL, MP JCLERF AF?LEC; MRFCPQ, JGIC QSNNMPR RCLBMLQ (?Q GL RFC JCE) A?L AF?LEC JCLERF SN RM 10%. .MRC RF?R RFGQ QRPCQQ-QRP?GL ASPTC GQ LMLJGLC?P, QGLAC RFC QJMNC MD RFC JGLC AF?LECQ GL BGDDCPCLR PCEGMLQ. )L RFC DGPQR N?PR MD RFC QRPCRAF A?JJCB RFC RMC PCEGML, RFC DG@CPQ GL RFC RCLBML @CEGL RM ?JGEL GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC QRPCQQrRFGQ GQ A?JJCB HA6E<@C<A:. )L RFC JGLC?P PCEGML, RFC DG@PGJQ UGJJ @C QRPCRAFCB, ?LB GL RFC D?GJSPC PCEGML GLBGTGBS?J DG@CPQ @CEGL RM @PC?I. ! QGKNJC KMBCJ MD RFGQ PCJ?RGMLQFGN A?L @C GJJSQRP?RCB @W QNPGLEQ GL N?P?JJCJ: BGDDCPCLR QNPGLEQ ?PC ?ARGT?RCB ?R BGDDCPCLR JCLERFQ MD QRPCRAF. %V?KNJCQ MD RFGQ ?PC EGTCL GL RFC NPM@JCKQ ?R CLB MD RFGQ AF?NRCP. ,GE?KCLRQ (RGQQSC AMLLCARGLE @MLC RM @MLC) @CF?TC GL ? QGKGJ?P U?W.

F?=KH; 5.17 4WNGA?J QRPCQQ-QRP?GL ASPTC DMP K?KK?JG?L RCLBML. 4FPCC PCEGMLQ ?PC QFMUL: (1) RMC PCEGML (2) JGLC?P PCEGML, ?LB (3) D?GJSPC PCEGML.

5LJGIC @MLCQ ?LB RCLBMLQ, UFGAF LCCB RM @C QRPMLE ?Q UCJJ ?Q CJ?QRGA, RFC ?PRCPGCQ ?LB JSLEQ LCCB RM @C TCPW QRPCRAF?@JC. 4FC CJ?QRGA NPMNCPRGCQ MD RFC ?PRCPGCQ ?PC CQQCLRG?J DMP @JMMB DJMU. 4FC NPCQQSPC GL RFC ?PRCPGCQ GLAPC?QCQ ?LB ?PRCPG?J U?JJQ QRPCRAF UFCL RFC @JMMB GQ NSKNCB MSR MD RFC FC?PR. 7FCL RFC ?MPRGA T?JTC QFSRQ, RFC NPCQQSPC GL RFC ?PRCPGCQ BPMNQ ?LB RFC ?PRCPG?J U?JJQ PCJ?V RM K?GLR?GL RFC @JMMB DJMU. 7FCL WMS DCCJ WMSP NSJQC, WMS ?PC DCCJGLE CV?ARJW RFGQrRFC CJ?QRGA @CF?TGMP MD RFC ?PRCPGCQ ?Q RFC @JMMB ESQFCQ RFPMSEF UGRF C?AF NSKN MD RFC FC?PR. )D RFC ?PRCPGCQ UCPC PGEGB, WMS UMSJB LMR DCCJ ? NSJQC. 4FC FC?PR GQ ?JQM ?L MPE?L UGRF QNCAG?J CJ?QRGA NPMNCPRGCQ. 4FC JSLEQ CVN?LB UGRF KSQASJ?P CDDMPR UFCL UC @PC?RFC GL @SR PCJ?V DPCCJW ?LB CJ?QRGA?JJW UFCL UC @PC?RFC MSR. /SP QIGLQ ?PC N?PRGASJ?PJW CJ?QRGA, CQNCAG?JJW DMP RFC WMSLE. ! WMSLE NCPQML A?L EM DPMK 100 IE RM 60 IE UGRF LM TGQG@JC Q?E GL RFCGP QIGLQ. 4FC CJ?QRGAGRW MD ?JJ MPE?LQ PCBSACQ UGRF ?EC. 'P?BS?J NFWQGMJMEGA?J ?EGLE RFPMSEF PCBSARGML GL CJ?QRGAGRW QR?PRQ GL RFC C?PJW 20Q.

EN7CFB; 5.4 C7B9KB7J?D= D;<EHC7J?ED: !EM &K9> DE;I 2EKH %;= ,>EHJ;D 0>;D 2EK ,J7D: ED "J?
#?JASJ?RC RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF MD RFC SNNCP JCE @MLC (RFC DCKSP) UFCL ? 70.0 IE K?L QSNNMPRQ 62.0 IE MD FGQ K?QQ ML GR, ?QQSKGLE RFC @MLC RM @C COSGT?JCLR RM ? SLGDMPK PMB RF?R GQ 40.0 AK JMLE ?LB 2.00 AK GL P?BGSQ. ,JH7J;=O 4FC DMPAC GQ COS?J RM RFC UCGEFR QSNNMPRCB, MP
2 F = mg = 62.0 kg9.80 m/s = 607.6 N,

(5.32)

?LB RFC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC? GQ ,EBKJ?ED

r 2 = 1.25710 3 m 2 . 4FC COS?RGML L = 1 F L 0 A?L @C SQCB RM DGLB RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF. YA

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

179

!JJ OS?LRGRGCQ CVACNR

L ?PC ILMUL. .MRC RF?R RFC AMKNPCQQGML T?JSC DMP 9MSLEtQ KMBSJSQ DMP @MLC KSQR @C SQCB FCPC. 4FSQ, L =

= 210 5 m.
D?I9KII?ED

607.6 N 1 910 9 N/m 2 1.25710 3 m 2 (0.400 m)

(5.33)

4FGQ QK?JJ AF?LEC GL JCLERF QCCKQ PC?QML?@JC, AMLQGQRCLR UGRF MSP CVNCPGCLAC RF?R @MLCQ ?PC PGEGB. )L D?AR, CTCL RFC P?RFCP J?PEC DMPACQ CLAMSLRCPCB BSPGLE QRPCLSMSQ NFWQGA?J ?ARGTGRW BM LMR AMKNPCQQ MP @CLB @MLCQ @W J?PEC ?KMSLRQ. !JRFMSEF @MLC GQ PGEGB AMKN?PCB UGRF D?R MP KSQAJC, QCTCP?J MD RFC QS@QR?LACQ JGQRCB GL -78B; 5.3 F?TC J?PECP T?JSCQ MD 9MSLEtQ KMBSJSQ Y . )L MRFCP UMPBQ, RFCW ?PC KMPC PGEGB ?LB F?TC EPC?RCP RCLQGJC QRPCLERF.

4FC COS?RGML DMP AF?LEC GL JCLERF GQ RP?BGRGML?JJW PC?PP?LECB ?LB UPGRRCL GL RFC DMJJMUGLE DMPK:

F = Y L . L0 A
4FC P?RGM MD DMPAC RM ?PC?,

(5.34)

F , GQ BCDGLCB ?Q IJH;II (KC?QSPCB GL N/m 2 ), ?LB RFC P?RGM MD RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF RM JCLERF, L , GQ BCDGLCB ?Q IJH7?D (? L0 A stress = Y strain.
(5.35)

SLGRJCQQ OS?LRGRW). )L MRFCP UMPBQ,

)L RFGQ DMPK, RFC COS?RGML GQ ?L?JMEMSQ RM (MMICtQ J?U, UGRF QRPCQQ ?L?JMEMSQ RM DMPAC ?LB QRP?GL ?L?JMEMSQ RM BCDMPK?RGML. )D UC ?E?GL PC?PP?LEC RFGQ COS?RGML RM RFC DMPK

F = YA L , L0
UC QCC RF?R GR GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q (MMICtQ J?U UGRF ? NPMNMPRGML?JGRW AMLQR?LR

(5.36)

k = YA . L0

(5.37)

4FGQ ECLCP?J GBC?rRF?R DMPAC ?LB RFC BCDMPK?RGML GR A?SQCQ ?PC NPMNMPRGML?J DMP QK?JJ BCDMPK?RGMLQr?NNJGCQ RM AF?LECQ GL JCLERF, QGBCU?WQ @CLBGLE, ?LB AF?LECQ GL TMJSKC. 3RPCQQ 4FC P?RGM MD DMPAC RM ?PC?,

F , GQ BCDGLCB ?Q QRPCQQ KC?QSPCB GL ./K2. A

3RP?GL 4FC P?RGM MD RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF RM JCLERF,

L , GQ BCDGLCB ?Q QRP?GL (? SLGRJCQQ OS?LRGRW). )L MRFCP UMPBQ, L0 stress = Y strain.


(5.38)

3GBCU?WQ 3RPCQQ: 3FC?P -MBSJSQ x ?LB GR GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM L 0 , P?RFCP RF?L N?P?JJCJ ?Q UGRF RCLQGML ?LB AMKNPCQQGML. 3FC?P BCDMPK?RGML @CF?TCQ QGKGJ?PJW RM RCLQGML ?LB AMKNPCQQGML ?LB A?L @C BCQAPG@CB UGRF QGKGJ?P COS?RGMLQ. 4FC CVNPCQQGML DMP I>;7H :;<EHC7J?ED GQ
F?=KH; 5.18 GJJSQRP?RCQ UF?R GQ KC?LR @W ? QGBCU?WQ QRPCQQ MP ? F;84E<A: 9BE68. (CPC RFC BCDMPK?RGML GQ A?JJCB

x = 1 F L 0, SA
UFCPC ICCN RFC M@HCAR DPMK ?AACJCP?RGLE, RFCPC ?PC ?ARS?JJW RUM COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC DMPACQ 4FC COS?RGML GQ JMEGA?JrDMP CV?KNJC, GR GQ C?QGCP RM @CLB ? JMLE RFGL NCLAGJ (QK?JJ QGKGJ?P QRCCJ PMBQ (J?PEC 3FC?P $CDMPK?RGML

(5.39)

S GQ RFC QFC?P KMBSJSQ (QCC -78B; 5.3) ?LB F GQ RFC DMPAC ?NNJGCB NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM L 0 ?LB N?P?JJCJ RM RFC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC? A . !E?GL, RM S ). x = 1 F L 0, SA F ?NNJGCB ?APMQQ MNNMQGRC D?ACQ, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 5.18. A ) RF?L ? QFMPR RFGAI MLC, ?LB @MRF ?PC KMPC C?QGJW @CLR RF?L

(5.40)

UFCPC

S GQ RFC QFC?P KMBSJSQ ?LB F GQ RFC DMPAC ?NNJGCB NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM L 0 ?LB N?P?JJCJ RM RFC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC? A .

180

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

F?=KH; 5.18 3FC?PGLE DMPACQ ?PC ?NNJGCB NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC JCLERF

QFMSJB @C ICNR GL KGLB RF?R GL ?BBGRGML RM RFC RUM QFC?PGLE DMPACQ, F , RFCPC KSQR @C QSNNMPRGLE DMPACQ RM ICCN RFC M@HCAR DPMK PMR?RGLE. 4FC BGQRMPRGLE CDDCARQ MD RFCQC QSNNMPRGLE DMPACQ ?PC GELMPCB GL RFGQ RPC?RKCLR. 4FC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR ?JQM GQ LMR QFMUL, QGLAC GR GQ SQS?JJW LCEJGEG@JC AMKN?PCB UGRF DMPACQ J?PEC CLMSEF RM A?SQC QGELGDGA?LR BCDMPK?RGMLQ.

L0

?LB N?P?JJCJ RM RFC ?PC?

A , NPMBSAGLE ? BCDMPK?RGML x . 6CPRGA?J DMPACQ ?PC LMR QFMUL, @SR GR

%V?KGL?RGML MD RFC QFC?P KMBSJG GL -78B; 5.3 PCTC?JQ QMKC RCJJGLE N?RRCPLQ. &MP CV?KNJC, QFC?P KMBSJG ?PC JCQQ RF?L 9MSLEtQ KMBSJG DMP KMQR K?RCPG?JQ. "MLC GQ ? PCK?PI?@JC CVACNRGML. )RQ QFC?P KMBSJSQ GQ LMR MLJW EPC?RCP RF?L GRQ 9MSLEtQ KMBSJSQ, @SR GR GQ ?Q J?PEC ?Q RF?R MD QRCCJ. 4FGQ GQ MLC PC?QML RF?R @MLCQ A?L @C JMLE ?LB PCJ?RGTCJW RFGL. "MLCQ A?L QSNNMPR JM?BQ AMKN?P?@JC RM RF?R MD AMLAPCRC ?LB QRCCJ. -MQR @MLC DP?ARSPCQ ?PC LMR A?SQCB @W AMKNPCQQGML @SR @W CVACQQGTC RUGQRGLE ?LB @CLBGLE. 4FC QNGL?J AMJSKL (AMLQGQRGLE MD 26 TCPRC@P?J QCEKCLRQ QCN?P?RCB @W BGQAQ) NPMTGBCQ RFC K?GL QSNNMPR DMP RFC FC?B ?LB SNNCP N?PR MD RFC @MBW. 4FC QNGL?J AMJSKL F?Q LMPK?J ASPT?RSPC DMP QR?@GJGRW, @SR RFGQ ASPT?RSPC A?L @C GLAPC?QCB, JC?BGLE RM GLAPC?QCB QFC?PGLE DMPACQ ML RFC JMUCP TCPRC@P?C. $GQAQ ?PC @CRRCP ?R UGRFQR?LBGLE AMKNPCQQGML?J DMPACQ RF?L QFC?P DMPACQ. "CA?SQC RFC QNGLC GQ LMR TCPRGA?J, RFC UCGEFR MD RFC SNNCP @MBW CVCPRQ QMKC MD @MRF. 0PCEL?LR UMKCL ?LB NCMNJC RF?R ?PC MTCPUCGEFR (UGRF J?PEC ?@BMKCLQ) LCCB RM KMTC RFCGP QFMSJBCPQ @?AI RM K?GLR?GL @?J?LAC, RFCPC@W GLAPC?QGLE RFC ASPT?RSPC GL RFCGP QNGLC ?LB QM GLAPC?QGLE RFC QFC?P AMKNMLCLR MD RFC QRPCQQ. !L GLAPC?QCB ?LEJC BSC RM KMPC ASPT?RSPC GLAPC?QCQ RFC QFC?P DMPACQ ?JMLE RFC NJ?LC. 4FCQC FGEFCP QFC?P DMPACQ GLAPC?QC RFC PGQI MD @?AI GLHSPW RFPMSEF PSNRSPCB BGQAQ. 4FC JSK@MQ?AP?J BGQA (RFC UCBEC QF?NCB BGQA @CJMU RFC J?QR TCPRC@P?C) GQ N?PRGASJ?PJW ?R PGQI @CA?SQC MD GRQ JMA?RGML. 4FC QFC?P KMBSJG DMP AMLAPCRC ?LB @PGAI ?PC TCPW QK?JJ; RFCW ?PC RMM FGEFJW T?PG?@JC RM @C JGQRCB. #MLAPCRC SQCB GL @SGJBGLEQ A?L UGRFQR?LB AMKNPCQQGML, ?Q GL NGJJ?PQ ?LB ?PAFCQ, @SR GQ TCPW NMMP ?E?GLQR QFC?P, ?Q KGEFR @C CLAMSLRCPCB GL FC?TGJW JM?BCB DJMMPQ MP BSPGLE C?PRFOS?ICQ. -MBCPL QRPSARSPCQ UCPC K?BC NMQQG@JC @W RFC SQC MD QRCCJ ?LB QRCCJ-PCGLDMPACB AMLAPCRC. !JKMQR @W BCDGLGRGML, JGOSGBQ ?LB E?QCQ F?TC QFC?P KMBSJG LC?P XCPM, @CA?SQC RFCW DJMU GL PCQNMLQC RM QFC?PGLE DMPACQ.

EN7CFB; 5.5 C7B9KB7J?D= FEH9; +;GK?H;: JE D;<EHC: ->7J '7?B DE;I 'EJ B;D: &K9> .D:;H 7 %E7:
&GLB RFC K?QQ MD RFC NGARSPC F?LEGLE DPMK ? QRCCJ L?GJ ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 5.19, EGTCL RF?R RFC L?GJ @CLBQ MLJW KMBSJSQ GQ ILMUL RM RUM QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ.)

1.80 m . (!QQSKC RFC QFC?P

F?=KH; 5.19 3GBC TGCU MD ? L?GJ UGRF ? NGARSPC FSLE DPMK GR. 4FC L?GJ DJCVCQ TCPW QJGEFRJW (QFMUL KSAF J?PECP RF?L ?ARS?J) @CA?SQC MD RFC QFC?PGLE CDDCAR MD RFC QSNNMPRCB UCGEFR. !JQM QFMUL GQ RFC SNU?PB DMPAC MD RFC U?JJ ML RFC L?GJ, GJJSQRP?RGLE RF?R RFCPC ?PC COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC DMPACQ ?NNJGCB ?APMQQ MNNMQGRC APMQQ QCARGMLQ MD RFC L?GJ. 3CC EN7CFB; 5.5 DMP ? A?JASJ?RGML MD RFC K?QQ MD RFC NGARSPC.

,JH7J;=O 4FC DMPAC

F ML RFC L?GJ (LCEJCARGLE RFC L?GJtQ MUL UCGEFR) GQ RFC UCGEFR MD RFC NGARSPC w . )D UC A?L DGLB w , RFCL RFC K?QQ MD RFC NGARSPC GQ HSQR w . 4FC COS?RGML x = 1 F L A?L @C QMJTCB DMP F . g SA 0 x = 1 F L 0 DMP F , UC QCC RF?R ?JJ MRFCP OS?LRGRGCQ A?L @C DMSLB: SA F = SA x. L0
(5.41)

,EBKJ?ED 3MJTGLE RFC COS?RGML

* GQ DMSLB GL -78B; 5.3 ?LB GQ

S = 8010 9 N/m 2 . 4FC P?BGSQ r GQ 0.750 KK (?Q QCCL GL RFC DGESPC), QM RFC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC? GQ

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

181

A = r 2 = 1.7710 6 m 2.
4FC T?JSC DMP

(5.42)

L 0 GQ ?JQM QFMUL GL RFC DGESPC. 4FSQ, F= (8010 9 N/m 2)(1.7710 6 m 2) (1.8010 6 m) = 51 N. 3 (5.0010 m) F m=w g = g = 5.2 kg.
(5.43)

4FGQ 51 . DMPAC GQ RFC UCGEFR

w MD RFC NGARSPC, QM RFC NGARSPCtQ K?QQ GQ


(5.44)

D?I9KII?ED 4FGQ GQ ? D?GPJW K?QQGTC NGARSPC, ?LB GR GQ GKNPCQQGTC RF?R RFC L?GJ DJCVCQ MLJW

1.80 m r?L ?KMSLR SLBCRCAR?@JC RM RFC SL?GBCB CWC.

#F?LECQ GL 6MJSKC: "SJI -MBSJSQ


!L M@HCAR UGJJ @C AMKNPCQQCB GL ?JJ BGPCARGMLQ GD GLU?PB DMPACQ ?PC ?NNJGCB CTCLJW ML ?JJ GRQ QSPD?ACQ ?Q GL F?=KH; 5.20. )R GQ PCJ?RGTCJW C?QW RM AMKNPCQQ E?QCQ ?LB CVRPCKCJW BGDDGASJR RM AMKNPCQQ JGOSGBQ ?LB QMJGBQ. &MP CV?KNJC, ?GP GL ? UGLC @MRRJC GQ AMKNPCQQCB UFCL GR GQ AMPICB. "SR GD WMS RPW AMPIGLE ? @PGK-DSJJ @MRRJC, WMS A?LLMR AMKNPCQQ RFC UGLCrQMKC KSQR @C PCKMTCB GD RFC AMPI GQ RM @C GLQCPRCB. 4FC PC?QML DMP RFCQC BGDDCPCLR AMKNPCQQG@GJGRGCQ GQ RF?R ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ ?PC QCN?P?RCB @W J?PEC CKNRW QN?ACQ GL E?QCQ @SR N?AICB AJMQC RMECRFCP GL JGOSGBQ ?LB QMJGBQ. 4M AMKNPCQQ ? E?Q, WMS KSQR DMPAC GRQ ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ AJMQCP RMECRFCP. 4M AMKNPCQQ JGOSGBQ ?LB QMJGBQ, WMS KSQR ?ARS?JJW AMKNPCQQ RFCGP ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ, ?LB TCPW QRPMLE CJCARPMK?ELCRGA DMPACQ GL RFCK MNNMQC RFGQ AMKNPCQQGML.

F?=KH; 5.20 !L GLU?PB DMPAC ML ?JJ QSPD?ACQ AMKNPCQQCQ RFGQ AS@C. )RQ AF?LEC GL TMJSKC GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC DMPAC NCP SLGR ?PC? ?LB GRQ MPGEGL?J TMJSKC, ?LB GQ PCJ?RCB RM RFC AMKNPCQQG@GJGRW MD RFC QS@QR?LAC.

7C A?L BCQAPG@C RFC AMKNPCQQGML MP TMJSKC BCDMPK?RGML MD ?L M@HCAR UGRF ?L COS?RGML. &GPQR, UC LMRC RF?R ? DMPAC u?NNJGCB CTCLJWv GQ BCDGLCB RM F?TC RFC Q?KC QRPCQQ, MP P?RGM MD DMPAC RM ?PC?

F ML ?JJ QSPD?ACQ. 4FC BCDMPK?RGML NPMBSACB GQ ? AF?LEC GL TMJSKC V , UFGAF GQ DMSLB RM @CF?TC TCPW A V = 1 F V 0, BA

QGKGJ?PJW RM RFC QFC?P, RCLQGML, ?LB AMKNPCQQGML NPCTGMSQJW BGQASQQCB. (4FGQ GQ LMR QSPNPGQGLE, QGLAC ? AMKNPCQQGML MD RFC CLRGPC M@HCAR GQ COSGT?JCLR RM AMKNPCQQGLE C?AF MD GRQ RFPCC BGKCLQGMLQ.) 4FC PCJ?RGMLQFGN MD RFC AF?LEC GL TMJSKC RM MRFCP NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ GQ EGTCL @W (5.45)

UFCPC

B GQ RFC @SJI KMBSJSQ (QCC -78B; 5.3), V 0 GQ RFC MPGEGL?J TMJSKC, ?LB F GQ RFC DMPAC NCP SLGR ?PC? ?NNJGCB SLGDMPKJW GLU?PB ML ?JJ QSPD?ACQ. A

.MRC RF?R LM @SJI KMBSJG ?PC EGTCL DMP E?QCQ. 7F?R ?PC QMKC CV?KNJCQ MD @SJI AMKNPCQQGML MD QMJGBQ ?LB JGOSGBQ? /LC NP?ARGA?J CV?KNJC GQ RFC K?LSD?ARSPC MD GLBSQRPG?J-EP?BC BG?KMLBQ @W AMKNPCQQGLE A?P@ML UGRF ?L CVRPCKCJW J?PEC DMPAC NCP SLGR ?PC?. 4FC A?P@ML ?RMKQ PC?PP?LEC RFCGP APWQR?JJGLC QRPSARSPC GLRM RFC KMPC RGEFRJW N?AICB N?RRCPL MD BG?KMLBQ. )L L?RSPC, ? QGKGJ?P NPMACQQ MAASPQ BCCN SLBCPEPMSLB, UFCPC CVRPCKCJW J?PEC DMPACQ PCQSJR DPMK RFC UCGEFR MD MTCPJWGLE K?RCPG?J. !LMRFCP L?RSP?J QMSPAC MD J?PEC AMKNPCQQGTC DMPACQ GQ RFC NPCQQSPC APC?RCB @W RFC UCGEFR MD U?RCP, CQNCAG?JJW GL BCCN N?PRQ MD RFC MAC?LQ. 7?RCP CVCPRQ ?L GLU?PB DMPAC ML ?JJ QSPD?ACQ MD ? QS@KCPECB M@HCAR, ?LB CTCL ML RFC U?RCP GRQCJD. !R EPC?R BCNRFQ, U?RCP GQ KC?QSP?@JW AMKNPCQQCB, ?Q RFC DMJJMUGLE CV?KNJC GJJSQRP?RCQ.

EN7CFB; 5.6 C7B9KB7J?D= C>7D=; ?D /EBKC; M?J> D;<EHC7J?ED: !EM &K9> "I 07J;H CECFH;II;: 7J D;FJ>I?
#?JASJ?RC RFC DP?ARGML?J BCAPC?QC GL TMJSKC ( ,JH7J;=O

H;7J (9;7D

V ) DMP QC?U?RCP ?R 5.00 IK BCNRF, UFCPC RFC DMPAC NCP SLGR ?PC? GQ 5.0010 7 N / m 2 . V0

182

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

%OS?RGML ,EBKJ?ED

V = 1 F V 0 GQ RFC AMPPCAR NFWQGA?J PCJ?RGMLQFGN. !JJ OS?LRGRGCQ GL RFC COS?RGML CVACNR V ?PC ILMUL. V0 BA V EGTCQ V0 V = 1 F . V0 BA
(5.46)

3MJTGLE DMP RFC SLILMUL

3S@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ UGRF RFC T?JSC DMP RFC @SJI KMBSJSQ

B DPMK -78B; 5.3,


(5.47)

V = 5.0010 7 N/m 2 V0 2.210 9 N/m 2 = 0.023 = 2.3%.


D?I9KII?ED

!JRFMSEF KC?QSP?@JC, RFGQ GQ LMR ? QGELGDGA?LR BCAPC?QC GL TMJSKC AMLQGBCPGLE RF?R RFC DMPAC NCP SLGR ?PC? GQ ?@MSR 500 ?RKMQNFCPCQ (1 KGJJGML NMSLBQ NCP QOS?PC DMMR). ,GOSGBQ ?LB QMJGBQ ?PC CVRP?MPBGL?PGJW BGDDGASJR RM AMKNPCQQ.

#MLTCPQCJW, TCPW J?PEC DMPACQ ?PC APC?RCB @W JGOSGBQ ?LB QMJGBQ UFCL RFCW RPW RM CVN?LB @SR ?PC AMLQRP?GLCB DPMK BMGLE QMr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

BEII7HO
:;<EHC7J?ED: AF?LEC GL QF?NC BSC RM RFC ?NNJGA?RGML MD DMPAC :H7= <EH9;:

F D , DMSLB RM @C NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC QOS?PC MD RFC QNCCB MD RFC M@HCAR; K?RFCK?RGA?JJW F D = 1 CAv 2, 2 FD v2

UFCPC

C GQ RFC BP?E AMCDDGAGCLR, A GQ RFC ?PC? MD RFC M@HCAR D?AGLE RFC DJSGB, ?LB GQ RFC BCLQGRW MD RFC DJSGB

<H?9J?ED: ? DMPAC RF?R MNNMQCQ PCJ?RGTC KMRGML MP ?RRCKNRQ ?R KMRGML @CRUCCL QWQRCKQ GL AMLR?AR !EEA;XI B7M: NPMNMPRGML?J PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL RFC DMPAC

F ML ? K?RCPG?J ?LB RFC BCDMPK?RGML L GR A?SQCQ, F = kL

A?D;J?9 <H?9J?ED: ? DMPAC RF?R MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML MD RUM QWQRCKQ RF?R ?PC GL AMLR?AR ?LB KMTGLE PCJ?RGTC RM MLC ?LMRFCP C7=D?JK:; E< A?D;J?9 <H?9J?ED: C7=D?JK:; E< IJ7J?9 <H?9J?ED: ,JEA;IX B7M:

f k = kN , UFCPC k GQ RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML f s s N , UFCPC s GQ RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD QR?RGA DPGARGML ?LB N GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC LMPK?J DMPAC

F s = 6rv , UFCPC r GQ RFC P?BGSQ MD RFC M@HCAR, GQ RFC TGQAMQGRW MD RFC DJSGB, ?LB v GQ RFC M@HCARtQ TCJMAGRW

I>;7H :;<EHC7J?ED: BCDMPK?RGML NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC MPGEGL?J JCLERF MD ?L M@HCAR IJ7J?9 <H?9J?ED: ? DMPAC RF?R MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML MD RUM QWQRCKQ RF?R ?PC GL AMLR?AR ?LB ?PC LMR KMTGLE PCJ?RGTC RM MLC ?LMRFCP IJH7?D: P?RGM MD AF?LEC GL JCLERF RM MPGEGL?J JCLERF IJH;II: P?RGM MD DMPAC RM ?PC? J;DI?B; IJH;D=J>: KC?QSPC MD BCDMPK?RGML DMP ? EGTCL RCLQGML MP AMKNPCQQGML

,;9J?ED ,KCC7HO 5.1 FH?9J?ED


w &PGARGML GQ ? AMLR?AR DMPAC @CRUCCL QWQRCKQ RF?R MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML MP ?RRCKNRCB KMRGML @CRUCCL RFCK. 3GKNJC DPGARGML GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC LMPK?J DMPAC N NSQFGLE RFC QWQRCKQ RMECRFCP. (! LMPK?J DMPAC GQ ?JU?WQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC AMLR?AR QSPD?AC @CRUCCL QWQRCKQ.) &PGARGML BCNCLBQ ML @MRF MD RFC K?RCPG?JQ GLTMJTCB. 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD QR?RGA DPGARGML f s @CRUCCL QWQRCKQ QR?RGML?PW PCJ?RGTC RM MLC ?LMRFCP GQ EGTCL @W

f s sN ,

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

183

s GQ RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD QR?RGA DPGARGML, UFGAF BCNCLBQ ML @MRF MD RFC K?RCPG?JQ. w 4FC IGLCRGA DPGARGML DMPAC f k @CRUCCL QWQRCKQ KMTGLE PCJ?RGTC RM MLC ?LMRFCP GQ EGTCL @W
UFCPC UFCPC

f k = kN , k GQ RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML, UFGAF ?JQM BCNCLBQ ML @MRF K?RCPG?JQ.

5.2 DH7= FEH9;I


w $P?E DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR KMTGLE GL ? DJSGB MNNMQC RFC KMRGML. &MP J?PECP M@HCARQ (QSAF ?Q ? @?QC@?JJ) KMTGLE ?R ? TCJMAGRW BP?E DMPAC GQ EGTCL @W F D = 1 CAv 2, 2 UFCPC w &MP QK?JJ M@HCARQ (QSAF ?Q ? @?ARCPGSK) KMTGLE GL ? BCLQCP KCBGSK (QSAF ?Q U?RCP), RFC BP?E DMPAC GQ EGTCL @W 3RMICQt J?U, UFCPC

v GL ?GP, RFC

C GQ RFC BP?E AMCDDGAGCLR (RWNGA?J T?JSCQ ?PC EGTCL GL -78B; 5.2), A GQ RFC ?PC? MD RFC M@HCAR D?AGLE RFC DJSGB, ?LB GQ RFC DJSGB BCLQGRW. F s = 6rv, r GQ RFC P?BGSQ MD RFC M@HCAR, GQ RFC DJSGB TGQAMQGRW, ?LB v GQ RFC M@HCARtQ TCJMAGRW.

5.3 EB7IJ?9?JO: ,JH;II 7D: ,JH7?D


w (MMICtQ J?U GQ EGTCL @W

F = k L, UFCPC L GQ RFC ?KMSLR MD BCDMPK?RGML (RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF), F GQ RFC ?NNJGCB DMPAC, ?LB k GQ ? NPMNMPRGML?JGRW AMLQR?LR RF?R BCNCLBQ ML RFC
QF?NC ?LB AMKNMQGRGML MD RFC M@HCAR ?LB RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC DMPAC. 4FC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL RFC BCDMPK?RGML ?LB RFC ?NNJGCB DMPAC A?L ?JQM @C UPGRRCL ?Q

F , GQ BCDGLCB ?Q FGE8FF, KC?QSPCB GL ./K2. A w 4FC P?RGM MD RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF RM JCLERF, L , GQ BCDGLCB ?Q FGE4<A (? SLGRJCQQ OS?LRGRW). )L MRFCP UMPBQ, L0
w 4FC P?RGM MD DMPAC RM ?PC?,

L = 1 F L 0, YA UFCPC Y GQ 0BHA:VF @B7H?HF, UFGAF BCNCLBQ ML RFC QS@QR?LAC, A GQ RFC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC?, ?LB L 0 GQ RFC MPGEGL?J JCLERF.

stress = Y strain.

w 4FC CVNPCQQGML DMP QFC?P BCDMPK?RGML GQ

x = 1 F L 0, SA UFCPC S GQ RFC QFC?P KMBSJSQ ?LB F GQ RFC DMPAC ?NNJGCB NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM L 0 ?LB N?P?JJCJ RM RFC APMQQ-QCARGML?J ?PC? A . V = 1 F V 0, BA F UFCPC B GQ RFC @SJI KMBSJSQ, V 0 GQ RFC MPGEGL?J TMJSKC, ?LB GQ RFC DMPAC NCP SLGR ?PC? ?NNJGCB SLGDMPKJW GLU?PB ML ?JJ QSPD?ACQ. A

w 4FC PCJ?RGMLQFGN MD RFC AF?LEC GL TMJSKC RM MRFCP NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ GQ EGTCL @W

CED9;FJK7B *K;IJ?EDI 5.1 FH?9J?ED


1. $CDGLC LMPK?J DMPAC. 7F?R GQ GRQ PCJ?RGMLQFGN RM DPGARGML UFCL DPGARGML @CF?TCQ QGKNJW? 2. 4FC EJSC ML ? NGCAC MD R?NC A?L CVCPR DMPACQ. #?L RFCQC DMPACQ @C ? RWNC MD QGKNJC DPGARGML? %VNJ?GL, AMLQGBCPGLE CQNCAG?JJW RF?R R?NC A?L QRGAI RM TCPRGA?J U?JJQ ?LB CTCL RM ACGJGLEQ. 3. 7FCL WMS JC?PL RM BPGTC, WMS BGQAMTCP RF?R WMS LCCB RM JCR SN QJGEFRJW ML RFC @P?IC NCB?J ?Q WMS AMKC RM ? QRMN MP RFC A?P UGJJ QRMN UGRF ? HCPI. %VNJ?GL RFGQ GL RCPKQ MD RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL QR?RGA ?LB IGLCRGA DPGARGML. 4. 7FCL WMS NSQF ? NGCAC MD AF?JI ?APMQQ ? AF?JI@M?PB, GR QMKCRGKCQ QAPCCAFCQ @CA?SQC GR P?NGBJW ?JRCPL?RCQ @CRUCCL QJGNNGLE ?LB QRGAIGLE RM RFC @M?PB. $CQAPG@C RFGQ NPMACQQ GL KMPC BCR?GJ, GL N?PRGASJ?P CVNJ?GLGLE FMU GR GQ PCJ?RCB RM RFC D?AR RF?R IGLCRGA DPGARGML GQ JCQQ RF?L QR?RGA DPGARGML. (4FC Q?KC QJGN-EP?@ NPMACQQ MAASPQ UFCL RGPCQ QAPCCAF ML N?TCKCLR.)

5.2 DH7= FEH9;I


5. !RFJCRCQ QSAF ?Q QUGKKCPQ ?LB @GAWAJGQRQ UC?P @MBW QSGRQ GL AMKNCRGRGML. &MPKSJ?RC ? JGQR MD NPMQ ?LB AMLQ MD QSAF QSGRQ. 6. 4UM CVNPCQQGMLQ UCPC SQCB DMP RFC BP?E DMPAC CVNCPGCLACB @W ? KMTGLE M@HCAR GL ? JGOSGB. /LC BCNCLBCB SNML RFC QNCCB, UFGJC RFC MRFCP U?Q NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC QOS?PC MD RFC QNCCB. )L UFGAF RWNCQ MD KMRGML UMSJB C?AF MD RFCQC CVNPCQQGMLQ @C KMPC ?NNJGA?@JC RF?L RFC MRFCP MLC? 7. !Q A?PQ RP?TCJ, MGJ ?LB E?QMJGLC JC?IQ MLRM RFC PM?B QSPD?AC. )D ? JGEFR P?GL D?JJQ, UF?R BMCQ RFGQ BM RM RFC AMLRPMJ MD RFC A?P? $MCQ ? FC?TW P?GL K?IC ?LW BGDDCPCLAC? 8. 7FW A?L ? QOSGPPCJ HSKN DPMK ? RPCC @P?LAF RM RFC EPMSLB ?LB PSL ?U?W SLB?K?ECB, UFGJC ? FSK?L AMSJB @PC?I ? @MLC GL QSAF ? D?JJ?

5.3 EB7IJ?9?JO: ,JH;II 7D: ,JH7?D

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9. 4FC CJ?QRGA NPMNCPRGCQ MD RFC ?PRCPGCQ ?PC CQQCLRG?J DMP @JMMB DJMU. %VNJ?GL RFC GKNMPR?LAC MD RFGQ GL RCPKQ MD RFC AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ MD RFC DJMU MD @JMMB (NSJQ?RGLE MP AMLRGLSMSQ). 10. 7F?R ?PC WMS DCCJGLE UFCL WMS DCCJ WMSP NSJQC? -C?QSPC WMSP NSJQC P?RC DMP 10 Q ?LB DMP 1 KGL. )Q RFCPC ? D?ARMP MD 6 BGDDCPCLAC? 11. %V?KGLC BGDDCPCLR RWNCQ MD QFMCQ, GLAJSBGLE QNMPRQ QFMCQ ?LB RFMLEQ. )L RCPKQ MD NFWQGAQ, UFW ?PC RFC @MRRMK QSPD?ACQ BCQGELCB ?Q RFCW ?PC? 7F?R BGDDCPCLACQ UGJJ BPW ?LB UCR AMLBGRGMLQ K?IC DMP RFCQC QSPD?ACQ? 12. 7MSJB WMS CVNCAR WMSP FCGEFR RM @C BGDDCPCLR BCNCLBGLE SNML RFC RGKC MD B?W? 7FW MP UFW LMR? 13. 7FW A?L ? QOSGPPCJ HSKN DPMK ? RPCC @P?LAF RM RFC EPMSLB ?LB PSL ?U?W SLB?K?ECB, UFGJC ? FSK?L AMSJB @PC?I ? @MLC GL QSAF ? D?JJ? 14. %VNJ?GL UFW NPCEL?LR UMKCL MDRCL QSDDCP DPMK @?AI QRP?GL J?RC GL RFCGP NPCEL?LAW. 15. !L MJB A?PNCLRCPtQ RPGAI RM ICCN L?GJQ DPMK @CLBGLE UFCL RFCW ?PC NMSLBCB GLRM F?PB K?RCPG?JQ GQ RM EPGN RFC ACLRCP MD RFC L?GJ DGPKJW UGRF NJGCPQ. 7FW BMCQ RFGQ FCJN? 16. 7FCL ? EJ?QQ @MRRJC DSJJ MD TGLCE?P U?PKQ SN, @MRF RFC TGLCE?P ?LB RFC EJ?QQ CVN?LB, @SR TGLCE?P CVN?LBQ QGELGDGA?LRJW KMPC UGRF RCKNCP?RSPC RF?L EJ?QQ. 4FC @MRRJC UGJJ @PC?I GD GR U?Q DGJJCB RM GRQ RGEFRJW A?NNCB JGB. %VNJ?GL UFW, ?LB ?JQM CVNJ?GL FMU ? NMAICR MD ?GP ?@MTC RFC TGLCE?P UMSJB NPCTCLR RFC @PC?I. (4FGQ GQ RFC DSLARGML MD RFC ?GP ?@MTC JGOSGBQ GL EJ?QQ AMLR?GLCPQ.)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

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)HE8B;CI & EN;H9?I;I 5.1 FH?9J?ED


17. ! NFWQGAQ K?HMP GQ AMMIGLE @PC?ID?QR UFCL FC LMRGACQ RF?R RFC DPGARGML?J DMPAC @CRUCCL FGQ QRCCJ QN?RSJ? ?LB FGQ 4CDJML DPWGLE N?L GQ MLJW 0.200 .. +LMUGLE RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC RUM K?RCPG?JQ, FC OSGAIJW A?JASJ?RCQ RFC LMPK?J DMPAC. 7F?R GQ GR? 18. (?) 7FCL PC@SGJBGLE FCP A?PtQ CLEGLC, ? NFWQGAQ K?HMP KSQR CVCPR 300 . MD DMPAC RM GLQCPR ? BPW QRCCJ NGQRML GLRM ? QRCCJ AWJGLBCP. 7F?R GQ RFC LMPK?J DMPAC @CRUCCL RFC NGQRML ?LB AWJGLBCP? (@) 7F?R DMPAC UMSJB QFC F?TC RM CVCPR GD RFC QRCCJ N?PRQ UCPC MGJCB? 19. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC K?VGKSK DPGARGML?J DMPAC GL RFC ILCC HMGLR MD ? NCPQML UFM QSNNMPRQ 66.0 IE MD FCP K?QQ ML RF?R ILCC? (@) $SPGLE QRPCLSMSQ CVCPAGQC GR GQ NMQQG@JC RM CVCPR DMPACQ RM RFC HMGLRQ RF?R ?PC C?QGJW RCL RGKCQ EPC?RCP RF?L RFC UCGEFR @CGLE QSNNMPRCB. 7F?R GQ RFC K?VGKSK DMPAC MD DPGARGML SLBCP QSAF AMLBGRGMLQ? 4FC DPGARGML?J DMPACQ GL HMGLRQ ?PC PCJ?RGTCJW QK?JJ GL ?JJ AGPASKQR?LACQ CVACNR UFCL RFC HMGLRQ BCRCPGMP?RC, QSAF ?Q DPMK GLHSPW MP ?PRFPGRGQ. )LAPC?QCB DPGARGML?J DMPACQ A?L A?SQC DSPRFCP B?K?EC ?LB N?GL. 20. 3SNNMQC WMS F?TC ? 120-IE UMMBCL AP?RC PCQRGLE ML ? UMMB DJMMP. (?) 7F?R K?VGKSK DMPAC A?L WMS CVCPR FMPGXMLR?JJW ML RFC AP?RC UGRFMSR KMTGLE GR? (@) )D WMS AMLRGLSC RM CVCPR RFGQ DMPAC MLAC RFC AP?RC QR?PRQ RM QJGN, UF?R UGJJ GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML RFCL @C? 21. (?) )D F?JD MD RFC UCGEFR MD ? QK?JJ

K?QQ ?LB PCBSACQ RM RFC CVNPCQQGML DMSLB GL RFC NPCTGMSQ NPM@JCK UFCL DPGARGML @CAMKCQ LCEJGEG@JW QK?JJ ( k = 0). 26. #?JASJ?RC RFC BCACJCP?RGML MD ? QLMU @M?PBCP EMGLE SN ? 5.0 , QJMNC ?QQSKGLE RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML DMP U?VCB UMMB ML UCR QLMU. 4FC PCQSJR MD EN;H9?I; 5.17 K?W @C SQCDSJ, @SR @C A?PCDSJ RM AMLQGBCP RFC D?AR RF?R RFC QLMU @M?PBCP GQ EMGLE SNFGJJ. %VNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GL )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= ,JH7J;=?;I. 27. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? QIGCP FC?BGLE BMUL ? 10.0 QJMNC, ?QQSKGLE RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML DMP U?VCB UMMB ML UCR QLMU. (@) &GLB RFC ?LEJC MD RFC QJMNC BMUL UFGAF RFGQ QIGCP AMSJB AM?QR ?R ? AMLQR?LR TCJMAGRW. 9MS A?L LCEJCAR ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GL @MRF N?PRQ, ?LB WMS UGJJ DGLB RFC PCQSJR MD EN;H9?I; 5.17 RM @C SQCDSJ. %VNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GL RFC )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= ,JH7J;=?;I. 28. )D ?L M@HCAR GQ RM PCQR ML ?L GLAJGLC UGRFMSR QJGNNGLE, RFCL DPGARGML KSQR COS?J RFC AMKNMLCLR MD RFC UCGEFR MD RFC M@HCAR N?P?JJCJ RM RFC GLAJGLC. 4FGQ PCOSGPCQ EPC?RCP ?LB EPC?RCP DPGARGML DMP QRCCNCP QJMNCQ. 3FMU RF?R RFC K?VGKSK ?LEJC MD ?L GLAJGLC ?@MTC RFC FMPGXMLR?J DMP UFGAF ?L M@HCAR UGJJ LMR QJGBC BMUL GQ = tan 1 s . 9MS K?W SQC RFC PCQSJR MD RFC NPCTGMSQ NPM@JCK. !QQSKC RF?R PC?AFCB GRQ K?VGKSK T?JSC.

a = 0 ?LB RF?R QR?RGA DPGARGML F?Q

1.0010 3 kg SRGJGRW RPSAI GQ

QSNNMPRCB @W GRQ RUM BPGTC UFCCJQ, UF?R GQ RFC K?VGKSK ?AACJCP?RGML GR A?L ?AFGCTC ML BPW AMLAPCRC? (@) 7GJJ ? KCR?J A?@GLCR JWGLE ML RFC UMMBCL @CB MD RFC RPSAI QJGN GD GR ?AACJCP?RCQ ?R RFGQ P?RC? (A) 3MJTC @MRF NPM@JCKQ ?QQSKGLE RFC RPSAI F?Q DMSP-UFCCJ BPGTC. 22. ! RC?K MD CGEFR BMEQ NSJJQ ? QJCB UGRF U?VCB UMMB PSLLCPQ ML UCR QLMU (KSQF!). 4FC BMEQ F?TC ?TCP?EC K?QQCQ MD 19.0 IE, ?LB RFC JM?BCB QJCB UGRF GRQ PGBCP F?Q ? K?QQ MD 210 IE. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML QR?PRGLE DPMK PCQR GD C?AF BME CVCPRQ ?L ?TCP?EC DMPAC MD 185 . @?AIU?PB ML RFC QLMU. (@) 7F?R GQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MLAC RFC QJCB QR?PRQ RM KMTC? (A) &MP @MRF QGRS?RGMLQ, A?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC GL RFC AMSNJGLE @CRUCCL RFC BMEQ ?LB RFC QJCB. 23. #MLQGBCP RFC 65.0-IE GAC QI?RCP @CGLE NSQFCB @W RUM MRFCPQ QFMUL GL F?=KH; 5.21. (?) &GLB RFC BGPCARGML ?LB K?ELGRSBC MD F tot , RFC RMR?J DMPAC CVCPRCB ML FCP @W RFC MRFCPQ, EGTCL RF?R RFC K?ELGRSBCQ

29. #?JASJ?RC RFC K?VGKSK BCACJCP?RGML MD ? A?P RF?R GQ FC?BGLE BMUL ? 6 QJMNC (MLC RF?R K?ICQ ?L ?LEJC MD 6 UGRF RFC FMPGXMLR?J) SLBCP RFC DMJJMUGLE PM?B AMLBGRGMLQ. 9MS K?W ?QQSKC RF?R RFC UCGEFR MD RFC A?P GQ CTCLJW BGQRPG@SRCB ML ?JJ DMSP RGPCQ ?LB RF?R RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD QR?RGA DPGARGML GQ GLTMJTCBrRF?R GQ, RFC RGPCQ ?PC LMR ?JJMUCB RM QJGN BSPGLE RFC BCACJCP?RGML. ()ELMPC PMJJGLE.) #?JASJ?RC DMP ? A?P: (?) /L BPW AMLAPCRC. (@) /L UCR AMLAPCRC. (A) /L GAC, ?QQSKGLE RF?R s = 0.100 , RFC Q?KC ?Q DMP QFMCQ ML GAC. 30. #?JASJ?RC RFC K?VGKSK ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? A?P RF?R GQ FC?BGLE SN ? QJMNC (MLC RF?R K?ICQ ?L ?LEJC MD 4 UGRF RFC FMPGXMLR?J) SLBCP RFC DMJJMUGLE PM?B AMLBGRGMLQ. !QQSKC RF?R MLJW F?JD RFC UCGEFR MD RFC A?P GQ QSNNMPRCB @W RFC RUM BPGTC UFCCJQ ?LB RF?R RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD QR?RGA DPGARGML GQ GLTMJTCBrRF?R GQ, RFC RGPCQ ?PC LMR ?JJMUCB RM QJGN BSPGLE RFC ?AACJCP?RGML. ()ELMPC PMJJGLE.) (?) /L BPW AMLAPCRC. (@) /L UCR AMLAPCRC. (A) /L GAC, ?QQSKGLE RF?R s = 0.100 , RFC Q?KC ?Q DMP QFMCQ ML GAC.

F 1 ?LB F 2 ?PC 31. 2CNC?R EN;H9?I; 5.18 DMP ? A?P UGRF DMSP-UFCCJ BPGTC. 5 26.4 . ?LB 18.6 ., PCQNCARGTCJW. (@) 7F?R GQ FCP GLGRG?J ?AACJCP?RGML GD QFC 32. ! DPCGEFR RP?GL AMLQGQRQ MD RUM 8.0010 -kg CLEGLCQ ?LB 45 A?PQ
GQ GLGRG?JJW QR?RGML?PW ?LB UC?PGLE QRCCJ-@J?BCB QI?RCQ RF?R NMGLR GL RFC BGPCARGML MD F tot ? (A) 7F?R GQ FCP ?AACJCP?RGML ?QQSKGLE QFC GQ ?JPC?BW KMTGLE GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC BGPCARGML MNNMQGRC RF?R MD KMRGML MP ?RRCKNRCB KMRGML @CRUCCL QSPD?ACQ GL AMLR?AR.) UGRF ?TCP?EC K?QQCQ MD

5.5010 5 kg . (?) 7F?R DMPAC KSQR C?AF

F tot ? (2CKCK@CP RF?R DPGARGML ?JU?WQ ?ARQ GL

CLEGLC CVCPR @?AIU?PB ML RFC RP?AI RM ?AACJCP?RC RFC RP?GL ?R ? P?RC MD 5.0010 2 m / s 2 GD RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML GQ 7.5010 5 N , ?QQSKGLE RFC CLEGLCQ CVCPR GBCLRGA?J DMPACQ? 4FGQ GQ LMR ? J?PEC DPGARGML?J DMPAC DMP QSAF ? K?QQGTC QWQRCK. 2MJJGLE DPGARGML DMP RP?GLQ GQ QK?JJ, ?LB AMLQCOSCLRJW RP?GLQ ?PC TCPW CLCPEW-CDDGAGCLR RP?LQNMPR?RGML QWQRCKQ. (@) 7F?R GQ RFC DMPAC GL RFC AMSNJGLE @CRUCCL RFC 37RF ?LB 38RF A?PQ (RFGQ GQ RFC DMPAC C?AF CVCPRQ ML RFC MRFCP), ?QQSKGLE ?JJ A?PQ F?TC RFC Q?KC K?QQ ?LB RF?R DPGARGML GQ CTCLJW BGQRPG@SRCB ?KMLE ?JJ MD RFC A?PQ ?LB CLEGLCQ? 33. #MLQGBCP RFC 52.0-IE KMSLR?GL AJGK@CP GL F?=KH; 5.22. (?) &GLB RFC RCLQGML GL RFC PMNC ?LB RFC DMPAC RF?R RFC KMSLR?GL AJGK@CP KSQR CVCPR UGRF FCP DCCR ML RFC TCPRGA?J PMAI D?AC RM PCK?GL QR?RGML?PW. !QQSKC RF?R RFC DMPAC GQ CVCPRCB N?P?JJCJ RM FCP JCEQ. !JQM, ?QQSKC LCEJGEG@JC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W FCP ?PKQ. (@) 7F?R GQ RFC KGLGKSK AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML @CRUCCL FCP QFMCQ ?LB RFC AJGDD?

F?=KH; 5.21

24. 3FMU RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ?LW M@HCAR BMUL ? DPGARGMLJCQQ GLAJGLC RF?R K?ICQ ?L ?LEJC UGRF RFC FMPGXMLR?J GQ a = g sin . (.MRC RF?R RFGQ ?AACJCP?RGML GQ GLBCNCLBCLR MD K?QQ.) 25. 3FMU RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ?LW M@HCAR BMUL ?L GLAJGLC UFCPC DPGARGML @CF?TCQ QGKNJW (RF?R GQ, UFCPC f k = kN ) GQ

a = g( sin kcos ). .MRC RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ GLBCNCLBCLR MD

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RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW GQ QK?JJ)? !QQSKC ?JJ T?JSCQ ?PC ?AASP?RC RM RFPCC QGELGDGA?LR BGEGRQ. 38. ! 560-E QOSGPPCJ UGRF ? QSPD?AC ?PC? MD 930 cm 2 D?JJQ DPMK ? 5.0-K RPCC RM RFC EPMSLB. %QRGK?RC GRQ RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW. (5QC ? BP?E AMCDDGAGCLR DMP ? FMPGXMLR?J QIWBGTCP.) 7F?R UGJJ @C RFC TCJMAGRW MD ? 56-IE NCPQML FGRRGLE RFC EPMSLB, ?QQSKGLE LM BP?E AMLRPG@SRGML GL QSAF ? QFMPR BGQR?LAC? 39. 4M K?GLR?GL ? AMLQR?LR QNCCB, RFC DMPAC NPMTGBCB @W ? A?PtQ CLEGLC KSQR COS?J RFC BP?E DMPAC NJSQ RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML MD RFC PM?B (RFC PMJJGLE PCQGQR?LAC). (?) 7F?R ?PC RFC BP?E DMPACQ ?R 70 IK/F ?LB 100 IK/F DMP ? 4MWMR? #?KPW? ($P?E ?PC? GQ 0.70 m 2 ) (@) 7F?R GQ RFC BP?E DMPAC ?R 70 IK/F ?LB 100 IK/F DMP ? (SKKCP (2? ($P?E ?PC? GQ ?JJ T?JSCQ ?PC ?AASP?RC RM RFPCC QGELGDGA?LR BGEGRQ.

2.44 m 2 ) !QQSKC

40. "W UF?R D?ARMP BMCQ RFC BP?E DMPAC ML ? A?P GLAPC?QC ?Q GR EMCQ DPMK 65 RM 110 IK/F? 41. #?JASJ?RC RFC TCJMAGRW ? QNFCPGA?J P?GL BPMN UMSJB ?AFGCTC D?JJGLE DPMK 5.00 IK (?) GL RFC ?@QCLAC MD ?GP BP?E (@) UGRF ?GP BP?E. 4?IC RFC QGXC 3 3 ?APMQQ MD RFC BPMN RM @C 4 KK, RFC BCLQGRW RM @C 1.0010 kg/m , ?LB
F?=KH; 5.22 0?PR MD RFC AJGK@CPtQ UCGEFR GQ QSNNMPRCB @W FCP PMNC ?LB N?PR @W DPGARGML @CRUCCL FCP DCCR ?LB RFC PMAI D?AC.

RFC QSPD?AC ?PC? RM @C

r 2 .

34. ! AMLRCQR?LR GL ? UGLRCP QNMPRGLE CTCLR NSQFCQ ? 45.0-IE @JMAI MD GAC ?APMQQ ? DPMXCL J?IC ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 5.23(?). (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC KGLGKSK DMPAC F FC KSQR CVCPR RM ECR RFC @JMAI KMTGLE. (@) 7F?R GQ GRQ ?AACJCP?RGML MLAC GR QR?PRQ RM KMTC, GD RF?R DMPAC GQ K?GLR?GLCB? 35. 2CNC?R EN;H9?I; 5.19 UGRF RFC AMLRCQR?LR NSJJGLE RFC @JMAI MD GAC UGRF ? PMNC MTCP FGQ QFMSJBCP ?R RFC Q?KC ?LEJC ?@MTC RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 5.23(@).

42. 5QGLE 3RMICQt J?U, TCPGDW RF?R RFC SLGRQ DMP TGQAMQGRW ?PC IGJMEP?KQ NCP KCRCP NCP QCAMLB. 43. &GLB RFC RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW MD ? QNFCPGA?J @?ARCPGSK (BG?KCRCP 2.00 m ) D?JJGLE GL U?RCP. 9MS UGJJ DGPQR LCCB RM LMRC RF?R RFC BP?E DMPAC GQ COS?J RM RFC UCGEFR ?R RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW. 4?IC RFC BCLQGRW MD RFC @?ARCPGSK 3 3 RM @C 1.1010 kg/m . 44. 3RMICQt J?U BCQAPG@CQ QCBGKCLR?RGML MD N?PRGAJCQ GL JGOSGBQ ?LB A?L @C SQCB RM KC?QSPC TGQAMQGRW. 0?PRGAJCQ GL JGOSGBQ ?AFGCTC RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW OSGAIJW. /LC A?L KC?QSPC RFC RGKC GR R?ICQ DMP ? N?PRGAJC RM D?JJ ? ACPR?GL BGQR?LAC ?LB RFCL SQC 3RMICQt J?U RM A?JASJ?RC RFC TGQAMQGRW MD RFC JGOSGB. 3 3 3SNNMQC ? QRCCJ @?JJ @C?PGLE (BCLQGRW 7.810 kg/m , BG?KCRCP

3.0 mm ) GQ BPMNNCB GL ? AMLR?GLCP MD KMRMP MGJ. )R R?ICQ 12 Q RM D?JJ ? BGQR?LAC MD 0.60 K. #?JASJ?RC RFC TGQAMQGRW MD RFC MGJ. 5.3 EB7IJ?9?JO: ,JH;II 7D: ,JH7?D
45. $SPGLE ? AGPASQ ?AR, MLC NCPDMPKCP QUGLEQ SNQGBC BMUL F?LEGLE DPMK ? RP?NCXC FMJBGLE ?LMRFCP, ?JQM SNQGBC-BMUL, NCPDMPKCP @W RFC JCEQ. )D RFC SNU?PB DMPAC ML RFC JMUCP NCPDMPKCP GQ RFPCC RGKCQ FCP UCGEFR, FMU KSAF BM RFC @MLCQ (RFC DCKSPQ) GL FCP SNNCP JCEQ QRPCRAF? 9MS K?W ?QQSKC C?AF GQ COSGT?JCLR RM ? SLGDMPK PMB 35.0 AK JMLE ?LB 1.80 AK GL P?BGSQ. (CP K?QQ GQ 60.0 IE. 46. $SPGLE ? UPCQRJGLE K?RAF, ? 150 IE UPCQRJCP @PGCDJW QR?LBQ ML MLC F?LB BSPGLE ? K?LCSTCP BCQGELCB RM NCPNJCV FGQ ?JPC?BW KMPG@SLB ?BTCPQ?PW. "W FMU KSAF BMCQ RFC SNNCP ?PK @MLC QFMPRCL GL JCLERF? 4FC @MLC A?L @C PCNPCQCLRCB @W ? SLGDMPK PMB 38.0 AK GL JCLERF ?LB 2.10 AK GL P?BGSQ. 47. (?) 4FC uJC?Bv GL NCLAGJQ GQ ? EP?NFGRC AMKNMQGRGML UGRF ? 9MSLEtQ 9 KMBSJSQ MD ?@MSR 110 N / m 2 . #?JASJ?RC RFC AF?LEC GL JCLERF MD RFC
F?=KH; 5.23 7FGAF KCRFMB MD QJGBGLE ? @JMAI MD GAC PCOSGPCQ JCQQ DMPACr(?) NSQFGLE MP (@) NSJJGLE ?R RFC Q?KC ?LEJC ?@MTC RFC FMPGXMLR?J?

5.2 DH7= FEH9;I


36. 4FC RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW MD ? NCPQML D?JJGLE GL ?GP BCNCLBQ SNML RFC UCGEFR ?LB RFC ?PC? MD RFC NCPQML D?AGLE RFC DJSGB. &GLB RFC RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRW (GL KCRCPQ NCP QCAMLB ?LB IGJMKCRCPQ NCP FMSP) MD ?L 80.0-IE QIWBGTCP D?JJGLE GL ? NGIC (FC?BDGPQR) NMQGRGML UGRF ? QSPD?AC ?PC? MD 0.140 m 2 . 37. ! 60-IE ?LB ? 90-IE QIWBGTCP HSKN DPMK ?L ?GPNJ?LC ?R ?L ?JRGRSBC MD 6000 K, @MRF D?JJGLE GL RFC NGIC NMQGRGML. -?IC QMKC ?QQSKNRGML ML RFCGP DPMLR?J ?PC?Q ?LB A?JASJ?RC RFCGP RCPKGL?J TCJMAGRGCQ. (MU JMLE UGJJ GR R?IC DMP C?AF QIWBGTCP RM PC?AF RFC EPMSLB (?QQSKGLE RFC RGKC RM PC?AF
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

JC?B GL ?L ?SRMK?RGA NCLAGJ GD WMS R?N GR QRP?GEFR GLRM RFC NCLAGJ UGRF ? DMPAC MD 4.0 .. 4FC JC?B GQ 0.50 KK GL BG?KCRCP ?LB 60 KK JMLE. (@) )Q RFC ?LQUCP PC?QML?@JC? 4F?R GQ, BMCQ GR QCCK RM @C AMLQGQRCLR UGRF UF?R WMS F?TC M@QCPTCB UFCL SQGLE NCLAGJQ? 48. 46 @PM?BA?QR ?LRCLL?Q ?PC RFC R?JJCQR ?PRGDGAG?J QRPSARSPCQ ML %?PRF. )L 1987, ? 72.0-IE NFWQGAGQR NJ?ACB FGKQCJD ?LB 400 IE MD COSGNKCLR ?R RFC RMN MD MLC 610-K FGEF ?LRCLL? RM NCPDMPK EP?TGRW CVNCPGKCLRQ. "W FMU KSAF U?Q RFC ?LRCLL? AMKNPCQQCB, GD UC AMLQGBCP GR RM @C COSGT?JCLR RM ? QRCCJ AWJGLBCP 0.150 K GL P?BGSQ? 49. (?) "W FMU KSAF BMCQ ? 65.0-IE KMSLR?GL AJGK@CP QRPCRAF FCP 0.800-AK BG?KCRCP LWJML PMNC UFCL QFC F?LEQ 35.0 K @CJMU ? PMAI MSRAPMNNGLE? (@) $MCQ RFC ?LQUCP QCCK RM @C AMLQGQRCLR UGRF UF?R WMS F?TC M@QCPTCB DMP LWJML PMNCQ? 7MSJB GR K?IC QCLQC GD RFC PMNC UCPC ?ARS?JJW ? @SLECC AMPB?

#(!04%2 5 Y &524(%2 !00,)#!4)/.3 /& .%74/.'3 ,!73: &2)#4)/., $2!', !.$ %,!34)#)49

187

50. ! 20.0-K R?JJ FMJJMU ?JSKGLSK DJ?ENMJC GQ COSGT?JCLR GL QRPCLERF RM ? QMJGB AWJGLBCP 4.00 AK GL BG?KCRCP. ! QRPMLE UGLB @CLBQ RFC NMJC KSAF ?Q ? FMPGXMLR?J DMPAC MD 900 . CVCPRCB ?R RFC RMN UMSJB. (MU D?P RM RFC QGBC BMCQ RFC RMN MD RFC NMJC DJCV? 51. !Q ?L MGJ UCJJ GQ BPGJJCB, C?AF LCU QCARGML MD BPGJJ NGNC QSNNMPRQ GRQ MUL UCGEFR ?LB RF?R MD RFC NGNC ?LB BPGJJ @GR @CLC?RF GR. #?JASJ?RC RFC QRPCRAF GL ? LCU 6.00 K JCLERF MD QRCCJ NGNC RF?R QSNNMPRQ 3.00 IK MD NGNC F?TGLE ? K?QQ MD 20.0 IE/K ?LB ? 100-IE BPGJJ @GR. 4FC NGNC GQ COSGT?JCLR GL QRPCLERF RM ? QMJGB AWJGLBCP 5.00 AK GL BG?KCRCP. 52. #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC ? NG?LM RSLCP ?NNJGCQ RM QRPCRAF ? QRCCJ NG?LM UGPC 8.00 KK, GD RFC UGPC GQ MPGEGL?JJW 0.850 KK GL BG?KCRCP ?LB 1.35 K JMLE. 53. ! TCPRC@P? GQ QS@HCARCB RM ? QFC?PGLE DMPAC MD 500 .. &GLB RFC QFC?P BCDMPK?RGML, R?IGLE RFC TCPRC@P? RM @C ? AWJGLBCP 3.00 AK FGEF ?LB 4.00 AK GL BG?KCRCP. 54. ! BGQI @CRUCCL TCPRC@P?C GL RFC QNGLC GQ QS@HCARCB RM ? QFC?PGLE DMPAC MD 600 .. &GLB GRQ QFC?P BCDMPK?RGML, R?IGLE GR RM F?TC RFC QFC?P KMBSJSQ 9 MD 110 N / m 2 . 4FC BGQI GQ COSGT?JCLR RM ? QMJGB AWJGLBCP 0.700 AK FGEF ?LB 4.00 AK GL BG?KCRCP. 55. 7FCL SQGLE ? NCLAGJ CP?QCP, WMS CVCPR ? TCPRGA?J DMPAC MD 6.00 . ?R ? BGQR?LAC MD 2.00 AK DPMK RFC F?PBUMMB-CP?QCP HMGLR. 4FC NCLAGJ GQ 6.00 KK GL BG?KCRCP ?LB GQ FCJB ?R ?L ?LEJC MD 20.0 RM RFC FMPGXMLR?J. (?) "W FMU KSAF BMCQ RFC UMMB DJCV NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM GRQ JCLERF? (@) (MU KSAF GQ GR AMKNPCQQCB JCLERFUGQC? 56. 4M AMLQGBCP RFC CDDCAR MD UGPCQ FSLE ML NMJCQ, UC R?IC B?R? DPMK EN7CFB; 4.8, GL UFGAF RCLQGMLQ GL UGPCQ QSNNMPRGLE ? RP?DDGA JGEFR UCPC A?JASJ?RCB. 4FC JCDR UGPC K?BC ?L ?LEJC 30.0 @CJMU RFC FMPGXMLR?J UGRF RFC RMN MD GRQ NMJC ?LB A?PPGCB ? RCLQGML MD 108 .. 4FC 12.0 K R?JJ FMJJMU ?JSKGLSK NMJC GQ COSGT?JCLR GL QRPCLERF RM ? 4.50 AK BG?KCRCP QMJGB AWJGLBCP. (?) (MU D?P GQ GR @CLR RM RFC QGBC? (@) "W FMU KSAF GQ GR AMKNPCQQCB? 57. ! D?PKCP K?IGLE EP?NC HSGAC DGJJQ ? EJ?QQ @MRRJC RM RFC @PGK ?LB A?NQ GR RGEFRJW. 4FC HSGAC CVN?LBQ KMPC RF?L RFC EJ?QQ UFCL GR U?PKQ SN, GL QSAF 3 ? U?W RF?R RFC TMJSKC GLAPC?QCQ @W 0.2% (RF?R GQ, V / V 0 = 210 ) PCJ?RGTC RM RFC QN?AC ?T?GJ?@JC. #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W RFC HSGAC 9 NCP QOS?PC ACLRGKCRCP GD GRQ @SJI KMBSJSQ GQ 1.810 N/m 2 , ?QQSKGLE RFC @MRRJC BMCQ LMR @PC?I. )L TGCU MD WMSP ?LQUCP, BM WMS RFGLI RFC @MRRJC UGJJ QSPTGTC? 58. (?) 7FCL U?RCP DPCCXCQ, GRQ TMJSKC GLAPC?QCQ @W 9.05% (RF?R GQ, V / V 0 = 9.0510 2 ). 7F?R DMPAC NCP SLGR ?PC? GQ U?RCP A?N?@JC MD CVCPRGLE ML ? AMLR?GLCP UFCL GR DPCCXCQ? ()R GQ ?AACNR?@JC RM SQC RFC @SJI KMBSJSQ MD U?RCP GL RFGQ NPM@JCK.) (@) )Q GR QSPNPGQGLE RF?R QSAF DMPACQ A?L DP?ARSPC CLEGLC @JMAIQ, @MSJBCPQ, ?LB RFC JGIC? 59. 4FGQ NPM@JCK PCRSPLQ RM RFC RGEFRPMNC U?JICP QRSBGCB GL EN7CFB; 4.6, 3 UFM APC?RCB ? RCLQGML MD 3.9410 N GL ? UGPC K?IGLE ?L ?LEJC 5.0 @CJMU RFC FMPGXMLR?J UGRF C?AF QSNNMPRGLE NMJC. #?JASJ?RC FMU KSAF RFGQ RCLQGML QRPCRAFCQ RFC QRCCJ UGPC GD GR U?Q MPGEGL?JJW 15 K JMLE ?LB 0.50 AK GL BG?KCRCP. 60. 4FC NMJC GL F?=KH; 5.24 GQ ?R ? 90.0 @CLB GL ? NMUCP JGLC ?LB GQ RFCPCDMPC QS@HCARCB RM KMPC QFC?P DMPAC RF?L NMJCQ GL QRP?GEFR N?PRQ MD RFC JGLC. 4FC RCLQGML GL C?AF JGLC GQ 4.0010 4 N , ?R RFC ?LEJCQ QFMUL. 4FC NMJC GQ 15.0 K R?JJ, F?Q ?L 18.0 AK BG?KCRCP, ?LB A?L @C AMLQGBCPCB RM F?TC F?JD RFC QRPCLERF MD F?PBUMMB. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC AMKNPCQQGML MD RFC NMJC. (@) &GLB FMU KSAF GR @CLBQ ?LB GL UF?R BGPCARGML. (A) &GLB RFC RCLQGML GL ? ESW UGPC SQCB RM ICCN RFC NMJC QRP?GEFR GD GR GQ ?RR?AFCB RM RFC RMN MD RFC NMJC ?R ?L ?LEJC MD 30.0 UGRF RFC TCPRGA?J. (#JC?PJW, RFC ESW UGPC KSQR @C GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML MD RFC @CLB.)
F?=KH; 5.24 4FGQ RCJCNFMLC NMJC GQ ?R ?

90

@CLB GL ? NMUCP JGLC. ! ESW UGPC GQ

?RR?AFCB RM RFC RMN MD RFC NMJC ?R ?L ?LEJC MD

30

UGRF RFC TCPRGA?J.

188

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4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

189

5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

F?=KH; 6.1 4FGQ !SQRP?JG?L 'P?LB 0PGV &MPKSJ? 1 P?AC A?P KMTCQ GL ? AGPASJ?P N?RF ?Q GR K?ICQ RFC RSPL. )RQ UFCCJQ ?JQM QNGL P?NGBJWrRFC J?RRCP AMKNJCRGLE K?LW PCTMJSRGMLQ, RFC DMPKCP MLJW N?PR MD MLC (? AGPASJ?P ?PA). 4FC Q?KC NFWQGA?J NPGLAGNJCQ ?PC GLTMJTCB GL C?AF. (APCBGR: 2GAF?PB -SLAIRML)

,C?PLGLE /@HCARGTCQ
6.1. +EJ7J?ED AD=B; 7D: AD=KB7H /;BE9?JO 6.2. C;DJH?F;J7B A99;B;H7J?ED 6.3. C;DJH?F;J7B FEH9; 6.4. F?9J?J?EKI FEH9;I 7D: 'ED-?D;HJ?7B FH7C;I: ->; CEH?EB?I FEH9; 6.5. ';MJEDXI .D?L;HI7B %7M E< H7L?J7J?ED 6.6. ,7J;BB?J;I 7D: $;FB;HXI %7MI: AD AH=KC;DJ <EH ,?CFB?9?JO

"DJHE:K9J?ED JE .D?<EHC C?H9KB7H &EJ?ED 7D:

H7L?J7J?ED

-?LW KMRGMLQ, QSAF ?Q RFC ?PA MD ? @GPBtQ DJGEFR MP %?PRFtQ N?RF ?PMSLB RFC 3SL, ?PC ASPTCB. 2CA?JJ RF?R .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U RCJJQ SQ RF?R KMRGML GQ ?JMLE ? QRP?GEFR JGLC ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB SLJCQQ RFCPC GQ ? LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC. 7C UGJJ RFCPCDMPC QRSBW LMR MLJW KMRGML ?JMLE ASPTCQ, @SR ?JQM RFC DMPACQ RF?R A?SQC GR, GLAJSBGLE EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPACQ. )L QMKC U?WQ, RFGQ AF?NRCP GQ ? AMLRGLS?RGML MD DOD7C?9I: ';MJED'I %7MI E< &EJ?ED ?Q UC QRSBW KMPC ?NNJGA?RGMLQ MD .CURMLt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

6.1 +EJ7J?ED AD=B; 7D: AD=KB7H /;BE9?JO


)L $?D;C7J?9I, UC QRSBGCB KMRGML ?JMLE ? QRP?GEFR JGLC ?LB GLRPMBSACB QSAF AMLACNRQ ?Q BGQNJ?ACKCLR, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML. -ME-D?C;DI?ED7B $?D;C7J?9I BC?JR UGRF KMRGML GL RUM BGKCLQGMLQ. 0PMHCARGJC KMRGML GQ ? QNCAG?J A?QC MD RUM-BGKCLQGML?J IGLCK?RGAQ GL UFGAF RFC M@HCAR GQ NPMHCARCB

190

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

GLRM RFC ?GP, UFGJC @CGLE QS@HCAR RM RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC, ?LB J?LBQ ? BGQR?LAC ?U?W. )L RFGQ AF?NRCP, UC AMLQGBCP QGRS?RGMLQ UFCPC RFC M@HCAR BMCQ LMR J?LB @SR KMTCQ GL ? ASPTC. 7C @CEGL RFC QRSBW MD SLGDMPK AGPASJ?P KMRGML @W BCDGLGLE RUM ?LESJ?P OS?LRGRGCQ LCCBCB RM BCQAPG@C PMR?RGML?J KMRGML.

2MR?RGML !LEJC
7FCL M@HCARQ PMR?RC ?@MSR QMKC ?VGQrDMP CV?KNJC, UFCL RFC #$ (AMKN?AR BGQA) GL F?=KH; 6.2 PMR?RCQ ?@MSR GRQ ACLRCPrC?AF NMGLR GL RFC M@HCAR DMJJMUQ ? AGPASJ?P ?PA. #MLQGBCP ? JGLC DPMK RFC ACLRCP MD RFC #$ RM GRQ CBEC. %?AF F?J SQCB RM PCAMPB QMSLB ?JMLE RFGQ JGLC KMTCQ RFPMSEF RFC Q?KC ?LEJC GL RFC Q?KC ?KMSLR MD RGKC. 4FC PMR?RGML ?LEJC GQ RFC ?KMSLR MD PMR?RGML ?LB GQ ?L?JMEMSQ RM JGLC?P BGQR?LAC. 7C BCDGLC RFC HEJ7J?ED 7D=B; RM @C RFC P?RGM MD RFC ?PA JCLERF RM RFC P?BGSQ MD ASPT?RSPC:

s = r .

(6.1)

F?=KH; 6.2 !JJ NMGLRQ ML ? #$ RP?TCJ GL AGPASJ?P ?PAQ. 4FC NGRQ ?JMLE ? JGLC DPMK RFC ACLRCP RM RFC CBEC ?JJ KMTC RFPMSEF RFC Q?KC ?LEJC

GL ? RGKC

t .

F?=KH; 6.3 4FC P?BGSQ MD ? AGPAJC GQ PMR?RCB RFPMSEF ?L ?LEJC

. 4FC ?PA JCLERF s

GQ BCQAPG@CB ML RFC AGPASKDCPCLAC.

4FC 7H9 B;D=J>

s GQ RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB ?JMLE ? AGPASJ?P N?RF ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 6.3 .MRC RF?R r GQ RFC H7:?KI E< 9KHL7JKH; MD RFC AGPASJ?P N?RF. r . 4FC AGPASKDCPCLAC MD ? AGPAJC GQ 2r . 4FSQ DMP
(6.2)

7C ILMU RF?R DMP MLC AMKNJCRC PCTMJSRGML, RFC ?PA JCLERF GQ RFC AGPASKDCPCLAC MD ? AGPAJC MD P?BGSQ MLC AMKNJCRC PCTMJSRGML RFC PMR?RGML ?LEJC GQ

r = 2 r = 2.
4FGQ PCQSJR GQ RFC @?QGQ DMP BCDGLGLE RFC SLGRQ SQCB RM KC?QSPC PMR?RGML ?LEJCQ,

RM @C H7:?7DI (P?B), BCDGLCB QM RF?R


(6.3)

2 rad = 1 revolution.
! AMKN?PGQML MD QMKC SQCDSJ ?LEJCQ CVNPCQQCB GL @MRF BCEPCCQ ?LB P?BG?LQ GQ QFMUL GL -78B; 6.1.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

191

4?@JC 6.1 #MKN?PGQML MD !LESJ?P 5LGRQ D;=H;; &;7IKH;I +7:?7D &;7IKH;

30 60 90 120 135 180

6 3 2 2 3 3 4

F?=KH; 6.4 0MGLRQ 1 ?LB 2 PMR?RC RFPMSEF RFC Q?KC ?LEJC ( PMR?RGML

(r) .

), @SR NMGLR 2 KMTCQ RFPMSEF ? EPC?RCP ?PA JCLERF (s)

@CA?SQC GR GQ ?R ? EPC?RCP BGQR?LAC DPMK RFC ACLRCP MD

)D = 2 P?B, RFCL RFC #$ F?Q K?BC MLC AMKNJCRC PCTMJSRGML, ?LB CTCPW NMGLR ML RFC #$ GQ @?AI ?R GRQ MPGEGL?J NMQGRGML. "CA?SQC RFCPC ?PC GL ? AGPAJC MP MLC PCTMJSRGML, RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL P?BG?LQ ?LB BCEPCCQ GQ RFSQ

360
(6.4)

2 rad = 360
QM RF?R

1 rad = 360 57.3. 2 !LESJ?P 6CJMAGRW


(MU D?QR GQ ?L M@HCAR PMR?RGLE? 7C BCDGLC 7D=KB7H L;BE9?JO

(6.5)

?Q RFC P?RC MD AF?LEC MD ?L ?LEJC. )L QWK@MJQ, RFGQ GQ = , t


(6.6)

UFCPC ?L ?LESJ?P PMR?RGML R?ICQ NJ?AC GL ? RGKC t . 4FC EPC?RCP RFC PMR?RGML ?LEJC GL ? EGTCL ?KMSLR MD RGKC, RFC EPC?RCP RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW. 4FC SLGRQ DMP ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW ?PC P?BG?LQ NCP QCAMLB (P?B/Q). !LESJ?P TCJMAGRW RFC PMR?RGLE #$. 4FGQ NGR KMTCQ ?L ?PA JCLERF

GQ ?L?JMEMSQ RM JGLC?P TCJMAGRW v . 4M ECR RFC NPCAGQC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL ?LESJ?P ?LB JGLC?P TCJMAGRW, UC ?E?GL AMLQGBCP ? NGR ML s GL ? RGKC t , ?LB QM GR F?Q ? JGLC?P TCJMAGRW v = s . t
(6.7)

&PMK

s = r UC QCC RF?R s = r . 3S@QRGRSRGLE RFGQ GLRM RFC CVNPCQQGML DMP v EGTCQ v = r = r. t


(6.8)

7C UPGRC RFGQ PCJ?RGMLQFGN GL RUM BGDDCPCLR U?WQ ?LB E?GL RUM BGDDCPCLR GLQGEFRQ:

v = r or = v r.

(6.9)

192

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

v = r or = v r QR?RCQ RF?R RFC JGLC?P TCJMAGRW v GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC BGQR?LAC DPMK RFC ACLRCP MD PMR?RGML, RFSQ, GR GQ J?PECQR DMP ? NMGLR ML RFC PGK (J?PECQR r ), ?Q WMS KGEFR CVNCAR. 7C A?L ?JQM A?JJ RFGQ JGLC?P QNCCB v MD ? NMGLR ML RFC PGK RFC G4A:8AG<4? FC887. 4FC QCAMLB PCJ?RGMLQFGN GL v = r or = v r A?L @C GJJSQRP?RCB @W AMLQGBCPGLE RFC RGPC MD ? KMTGLE A?P. .MRC RF?R RFC QNCCB MD ? NMGLR ML RFC PGK MD RFC RGPC GQ RFC
4FC DGPQR PCJ?RGMLQFGN GL Q?KC ?Q RFC QNCCB v MD RFC A?P. 3CC F?=KH; 6.5. 3M RFC D?QRCP RFC A?P KMTCQ, RFC D?QRCP RFC RGPC QNGLQrJ?PEC v KC?LQ ? J?PEC , @CA?SQC v = r . 3GKGJ?PJW, ? J?PECP-P?BGSQ RGPC PMR?RGLE ?R RFC Q?KC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW ( ) UGJJ NPMBSAC ? EPC?RCP JGLC?P QNCCB ( v ) DMP RFC A?P.

F?=KH; 6.5 ! A?P KMTGLE ?R ? TCJMAGRW RFC A?P.

RM RFC PGEFR F?Q ? RGPC PMR?RGLE UGRF ?L ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW

RFC A?P UCPC H?AICB SN. 4FSQ RFC A?P KMTCQ DMPU?PB ?R JGLC?P TCJMAGRW

v = r , UFCPC r

.4FC QNCCB MD RFC RPC?B MD RFC RGPC PCJ?RGTC RM RFC ?VJC GQ v , RFC Q?KC ?Q GD

GQ RFC RGPC P?BGSQ. ! J?PECP ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW DMP RFC RGPC KC?LQ ? EPC?RCP TCJMAGRW DMP

EN7CFB; 6.1 !EM F7IJ DE;I 7 C7H -?H; ,F?D?


#?JASJ?RC RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW MD ? 0.300 K P?BGSQ A?P RGPC UFCL RFC A?P RP?TCJQ ?R ,JH7J;=O "CA?SQC RFC JGLC?P QNCCB MD RFC RGPC PGK GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC QNCCB MD RFC A?P, UC F?TC

15.0 m/s (?@MSR 54 km/h ). 3CC F?=KH; 6.5.

v = 15.0 m/s. 4FC P?BGSQ MD RFC RGPC GQ EGTCL RM @C r = 0.300 m. +LMUGLE v ?LB r , UC A?L SQC RFC QCAMLB PCJ?RGMLQFGN GL v = r, = v r RM A?JASJ?RC RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW.

,EBKJ?ED 4M A?JASJ?RC RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW, UC UGJJ SQC RFC DMJJMUGLE PCJ?RGMLQFGN:

=v r.
3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC ILMULQ,

(6.10)

= 15.0 m/s = 50.0 rad/s. 0.300 m


D?I9KII?ED

(6.11)

7FCL UC A?LACJ SLGRQ GL RFC ?@MTC A?JASJ?RGML, UC ECR 50.0/Q. "SR RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW KSQR F?TC SLGRQ MD P?B/Q. "CA?SQC P?BG?LQ ?PC ?ARS?JJW SLGRJCQQ (P?BG?LQ ?PC BCDGLCB ?Q ? P?RGM MD BGQR?LAC), UC A?L QGKNJW GLQCPR RFCK GLRM RFC ?LQUCP DMP RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW. !JQM LMRC RF?R GD ?L C?PRF KMTCP UGRF KSAF J?PECP RGPCQ, Q?W 1.20 K GL P?BGSQ, UCPC KMTGLE ?R RFC Q?KC QNCCB MD 15.0 K/Q, GRQ RGPCQ UMSJB PMR?RC KMPC QJMUJW. 4FCW UMSJB F?TC ?L ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW

= (15.0 m/s) / (1.20 m) = 12.5 rad/s.

(6.12)

"MRF ?LB v F?TC BGPCARGMLQ (FCLAC RFCW ?PC ?LESJ?P ?LB JGLC?P I8?B6<G<8F, PCQNCARGTCJW). !LESJ?P TCJMAGRW F?Q MLJW RUM BGPCARGMLQ UGRF PCQNCAR RM RFC ?VGQ MD PMR?RGMLrGR GQ CGRFCP AJMAIUGQC MP AMSLRCPAJMAIUGQC. ,GLC?P TCJMAGRW GQ R?LECLR RM RFC N?RF, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL F?=KH; 6.6. 4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLR 4GC ?L M@HCAR RM RFC CLB MD ? QRPGLE ?LB QUGLE GR ?PMSLB GL ? FMPGXMLR?J AGPAJC ?@MTC WMSP FC?B (QUGLE ?R WMSP UPGQR). -?GLR?GL SLGDMPK QNCCB ?Q RFC M@HCAR QUGLEQ ?LB KC?QSPC RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW MD RFC KMRGML. 7F?R GQ RFC ?NNPMVGK?RC QNCCB MD RFC M@HCAR? )BCLRGDW ? NMGLR AJMQC RM WMSP F?LB ?LB R?IC ?NNPMNPG?RC KC?QSPCKCLRQ RM A?JASJ?RC RFC JGLC?P QNCCB ?R RFGQ NMGLR. )BCLRGDW MRFCP AGPASJ?P KMRGMLQ ?LB KC?QSPC RFCGP ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRGCQ.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

193

F?=KH; 6.6 !Q ?L M@HCAR KMTCQ GL ? AGPAJC, FCPC ? DJW ML RFC CBEC MD ?L MJB-D?QFGMLCB TGLWJ PCAMPB, GRQ GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW GQ ?JU?WQ R?LECLR RM RFC AGPAJC. 4FC BGPCARGML MD RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW GQ AJMAIUGQC GL RFGQ A?QC.

0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: ,?BW@SE 2CTMJSRGML

F?=KH; 6.7 %7:O8K= +;LEBKJ?ED (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42083/1.6/HEJ7J?ED6;D.@7H)

*MGL RFC J?BW@SE GL ?L CVNJMP?RGML MD PMR?RGML?J KMRGML. 2MR?RC RFC KCPPW-EM-PMSLB RM AF?LEC GRQ ?LEJC, MP AFMMQC ? AMLQR?LR ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW MP ?LESJ?P ?AACJCP?RGML. %VNJMPC FMU AGPASJ?P KMRGML PCJ?RCQ RM RFC @SE'Q V,W NMQGRGML, TCJMAGRW, ?LB ?AACJCP?RGML SQGLE TCARMPQ MP EP?NFQ.

6.2 C;DJH?F;J7B A99;B;H7J?ED


7C ILMU DPMK IGLCK?RGAQ RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML GQ ? AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW, CGRFCP GL GRQ K?ELGRSBC MP GL GRQ BGPCARGML, MP @MRF. )L SLGDMPK AGPASJ?P KMRGML, RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC TCJMAGRW AF?LECQ AMLQR?LRJW, QM RFCPC GQ ?JU?WQ ?L ?QQMAG?RCB ?AACJCP?RGML, CTCL RFMSEF RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC TCJMAGRW KGEFR @C AMLQR?LR. 9MS CVNCPGCLAC RFGQ ?AACJCP?RGML WMSPQCJD UFCL WMS RSPL ? AMPLCP GL WMSP A?P. ()D WMS FMJB RFC UFCCJ QRC?BW BSPGLE ? RSPL ?LB KMTC ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB, WMS ?PC GL SLGDMPK AGPASJ?P KMRGML.) 7F?R WMS LMRGAC GQ ? QGBCU?WQ ?AACJCP?RGML @CA?SQC WMS ?LB RFC A?P ?PC AF?LEGLE BGPCARGML. 4FC QF?PNCP RFC ASPTC ?LB RFC EPC?RCP WMSP QNCCB, RFC KMPC LMRGAC?@JC RFGQ ?AACJCP?RGML UGJJ @CAMKC. )L RFGQ QCARGML UC CV?KGLC RFC BGPCARGML ?LB K?ELGRSBC MD RF?R ?AACJCP?RGML. F?=KH; 6.8 QFMUQ ?L M@HCAR KMTGLE GL ? AGPASJ?P N?RF ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB. 4FC BGPCARGML MD RFC GLQR?LR?LCMSQ TCJMAGRW GQ QFMUL ?R RUM NMGLRQ ?JMLE RFC N?RF. !AACJCP?RGML GQ GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW, UFGAF NMGLRQ BGPCARJW RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP MD PMR?RGML (RFC ACLRCP MD RFC AGPASJ?P N?RF). 4FGQ NMGLRGLE GQ QFMUL UGRF RFC TCARMP BG?EP?K GL RFC DGESPC. 7C A?JJ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ?L M@HCAR KMTGLE GL SLGDMPK AGPASJ?P KMRGML (PCQSJRGLE DPMK ? LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC) RFC 9;DJH?F;J7B 799;B;H7J?ED( a c ); ACLRPGNCR?J KC?LQ uRMU?PB RFC ACLRCPv MP uACLRCP QCCIGLE.v

194

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

F?=KH; 6.8 4FC BGPCARGMLQ MD RFC TCJMAGRW MD ?L M@HCAR ?R RUM BGDDCPCLR NMGLRQ ?PC QFMUL, ?LB RFC AF?LEC GL TCJMAGRW (3CC QK?JJ GLQCR.) "CA?SQC

a c = v / t , RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ ?JQM RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP; a c s GQ COS?J RM RFC AFMPB JCLERF r DMP QK?JJ RGKC BGDDCPCLACQ.)

GQ QCCL RM NMGLR BGPCARJW RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP MD ASPT?RSPC.

GQ A?JJCB ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML. ("CA?SQC

GQ TCPW QK?JJ, RFC ?PA JCLERF

4FC BGPCARGML MD ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP MD ASPT?RSPC, @SR UF?R GQ GRQ K?ELGRSBC? .MRC RF?R RFC RPG?LEJC DMPKCB @W RFC TCJMAGRW TCARMPQ ?LB RFC MLC DMPKCB @W RFC P?BGG r ?LB s ?PC QGKGJ?P. "MRF RFC RPG?LEJCQ !"# ?LB 012 ?PC GQMQACJCQ RPG?LEJCQ (RUM COS?J QGBCQ). 4FC RUM COS?J QGBCQ MD RFC TCJMAGRW TCARMP RPG?LEJC ?PC RFC QNCCBQ v 1 = v 2 = v . 5QGLE RFC NPMNCPRGCQ MD RUM QGKGJ?P RPG?LEJCQ, UC M@R?GL

v = s . v r
!AACJCP?RGML GQ

(6.13)

v / t , ?LB QM UC DGPQR QMJTC RFGQ CVNPCQQGML DMP v : v = v r s.


(6.14)

4FCL UC BGTGBC RFGQ @W

t , WGCJBGLE v = v s . t r t
(6.15)

&GL?JJW, LMRGLE RF?R

v / t = a c ?LB RF?R s / t = v , RFC JGLC?P MP R?LECLRG?J QNCCB, UC QCC RF?R RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML GQ
2 a c = vr ,

(6.16)

UFGAF GQ RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ?L M@HCAR GL ? AGPAJC MD P?BGSQ r ?R ? QNCCB v . 3M, ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML GQ EPC?RCP ?R FGEF QNCCBQ ?LB GL QF?PN ASPTCQ (QK?JJCP P?BGSQ), ?Q WMS F?TC LMRGACB UFCL BPGTGLE ? A?P. "SR GR GQ ? @GR QSPNPGQGLE RF?R a c GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM QNCCB QOS?PCB, GKNJWGLE, DMP CV?KNJC, RF?R GR GQ DMSP RGKCQ ?Q F?PB RM R?IC ? ASPTC ?R 100 IK/F RF?L ?R 50 IK/F. ! QF?PN AMPLCP F?Q ? QK?JJ P?BGSQ, QM RF?R F?TC NPM@?@JW LMRGACB. )R GQ ?JQM SQCDSJ RM CVNPCQQ

a c GQ EPC?RCP DMP RGEFRCP RSPLQ, ?Q WMS

a c GL RCPKQ MD ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW. 3S@QRGRSRGLE v = r GLRM RFC ?@MTC CVNPCQQGML, UC DGLB a c = (r) 2 / r = r 2 . 7C A?L
2 a c = vr ; a c = r 2.

CVNPCQQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML SQGLE CGRFCP MD RUM COS?RGMLQ: (6.17)

2CA?JJ RF?R RFC BGPCARGML MD

a c GQ RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP. 9MS K?W SQC UFGAFCTCP CVNPCQQGML GQ KMPC AMLTCLGCLR, ?Q GJJSQRP?RCB GL CV?KNJCQ @CJMU.

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g) ; K?VGKSK ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML MD QCTCP?J FSLBPCB RFMSQ?LB g GQ NMQQG@JC GL ? T?ASSK. (SK?L ACLRPGDSECQ, CVRPCKCJW J?PEC ACLRPGDSECQ, F?TC @CCL SQCB RM RCQR RFC RMJCP?LAC MD ?QRPML?SRQ RM RFC CDDCARQ MD ?AACJCP?RGMLQ J?PECP RF?L RF?R MD %?PRFtQ EP?TGRW.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

195

EN7CFB; 6.2 !EM DE;I J>; C;DJH?F;J7B A99;B;H7J?ED E< 7 C7H AHEKD: 7 CKHL; CECF7H; M?J> ->7J DK; JE H7L?JO?
7F?R GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? A?P DMJJMUGLE ? ASPTC MD P?BGSQ 500 K ?R ? QNCCB MD 25.0 K/Q (?@MSR 90 IK/F)? #MKN?PC RFC ?AACJCP?RGML UGRF RF?R BSC RM EP?TGRW DMP RFGQ D?GPJW ECLRJC ASPTC R?ICL ?R FGEFU?W QNCCB. 3CC F?=KH; 6.9(?). ,JH7J;=O "CA?SQC ,EBKJ?ED %LRCPGLE RFC EGTCL T?JSCQ MD
2 v ?LB r ?PC EGTCL, RFC DGPQR CVNPCQQGML GL a c = vr ; a c = r 2 GQ RFC KMQR AMLTCLGCLR RM SQC.

v = 25.0 m/s ?LB r = 500 m GLRM RFC DGPQR CVNPCQQGML DMP a c EGTCQ
2 (25.0 m/s) 2 a c = vr = = 1.25 m/s 2. 500 m

(6.18)

D?I9KII?ED 4M AMKN?PC RFGQ UGRF RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW


2 2 (g = 9.80 m/s 2) , UC R?IC RFC P?RGM MD a c / g = 1.25 m/s / 9.80 m/s = 0.128 . 4FSQ,

a c = 0.128 g ?LB GQ LMRGAC?@JC CQNCAG?JJW GD WMS UCPC LMR UC?PGLE ? QC?R @CJR.

F?=KH; 6.9 (?) 4FC A?P DMJJMUGLE ? AGPASJ?P N?RF ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB GQ ?AACJCP?RCB NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM GRQ TCJMAGRW, ?Q QFMUL. 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFGQ ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML GQ DMSLB GL EN7CFB; 6.2. (@) ! N?PRGAJC MD K?QQ GL ? ACLRPGDSEC GQ PMR?RGLE ?R AMLQR?LR ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW . )R KSQR @C ?AACJCP?RCB NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM GRQ TCJMAGRW MP GR UMSJB AMLRGLSC GL ? QRP?GEFR JGLC. 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC LCACQQ?PW ?AACJCP?RGML GQ DMSLB GL EN7CFB; 6.3.

EN7CFB; 6.3 !EM B?= "I J>; C;DJH?F;J7B A99;B;H7J?ED ?D 7D .BJH79;DJH?<K=;?


#?JASJ?RC RFC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? NMGLR 7.50 AK DPMK RFC ?VGQ MD ?L KBJH79;DJH?<K=; QNGLLGLE ?R P?RGM MD RFGQ ?AACJCP?RGML RM RF?R BSC RM EP?TGRW. 3CC F?=KH; 6.9(@). ,JH7J;=O

7.5 10 4 rev/min. $CRCPKGLC RFC

196

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

4FC RCPK PCT/KGL QR?LBQ DMP PCTMJSRGMLQ NCP KGLSRC. "W AMLTCPRGLE RFGQ RM P?BG?LQ NCP QCAMLB, UC M@R?GL RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW 2 2 EGTCL, UC A?L SQC RFC QCAMLB CVNPCQQGML GL RFC COS?RGML a c = v r ; a c = r RM A?JASJ?RC RFC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML. ,EBKJ?ED 4M AMLTCPR

. "CA?SQC r GQ

7.5010 4 rev / min RM P?BG?LQ NCP QCAMLB, UC SQC RFC D?ARQ RF?R MLC PCTMJSRGML GQ 2rad ?LB MLC KGLSRC GQ 60.0 Q. 4FSQ, = 7.5010 4 rev 2 rad 1 min = 7854 rad/s. min 1 rev 60.0 s
(6.19)

.MU RFC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML GQ EGTCL @W RFC QCAMLB CVNPCQQGML GL

2 a c = vr ; a c = r 2 ?Q

a c = r 2.
#MLTCPRGLE 7.50 AK RM KCRCPQ ?LB QS@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ EGTCQ

(6.20)

a c = (0.0750 m)(7854 rad/s) 2 = 4.6310 6 m/s 2.


.MRC RF?R RFC SLGRJCQQ P?BG?LQ ?PC BGQA?PBCB GL MPBCP RM ECR RFC AMPPCAR SLGRQ DMP ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML. 4?IGLE RFC P?RGM MD

(6.21)

a c RM g WGCJBQ
(6.22)

a c 4.6310 6 5 g = 9.80 = 4.7210 .


D?I9KII?ED 4FGQ J?QR PCQSJR KC?LQ RF?R RFC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML GQ 472,000 RGKCQ ?Q QRPMLE ?Q

g . )R GQ LM UMLBCP RF?R QSAF FGEF ACLRPGDSECQ ?PC A?JJCB

SJRP?ACLRPGDSECQ. 4FC CVRPCKCJW J?PEC ?AACJCP?RGMLQ GLTMJTCB EPC?RJW BCAPC?QC RFC RGKC LCCBCB RM A?SQC RFC QCBGKCLR?RGML MD @JMMB ACJJQ MP MRFCP K?RCPG?JQ.

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

F?=KH; 6.10 %7:O8K= &EJ?ED 2D (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42084/1.6/B7:O8K=-CEJ?ED-2:6;D.@7H)

6.3 C;DJH?F;J7B FEH9;


!LW DMPAC MP AMK@GL?RGML MD DMPACQ A?L A?SQC ? ACLRPGNCR?J MP P?BG?J ?AACJCP?RGML. *SQR ? DCU CV?KNJCQ ?PC RFC RCLQGML GL RFC PMNC ML ? RCRFCP @?JJ, RFC DMPAC MD %?PRFtQ EP?TGRW ML RFC -MML, DPGARGML @CRUCCL PMJJCP QI?RCQ ?LB ? PGLI DJMMP, ? @?LICB PM?BU?WtQ DMPAC ML ? A?P, ?LB DMPACQ ML RFC RS@C MD ? QNGLLGLE ACLRPGDSEC. !LW LCR DMPAC A?SQGLE SLGDMPK AGPASJ?P KMRGML GQ A?JJCB ? 9;DJH?F;J7B <EH9;. 4FC BGPCARGML MD ? ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC GQ RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP MD ASPT?RSPC, RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC BGPCARGML MD ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML. !AAMPBGLE RM .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML, LCR DMPAC GQ K?QQ RGKCQ ?AACJCP?RGML: LCR F = ma . &MP SLGDMPK AGPASJ?P KMRGML, RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RFC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGMLr

a = a c . 4FSQ, RFC K?ELGRSBC MD ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC F c GQ

F c = ma c.
"W SQGLE RFC CVNPCQQGMLQ DMP ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML

(6.23)

2 a c DPMK a c = vr ; a c = r 2 , UC ECR RUM CVNPCQQGMLQ DMP RFC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC F c GL RCPKQ MD

K?QQ, TCJMAGRW, ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW, ?LB P?BGSQ MD ASPT?RSPC:

F c = m vr ; F c = mr 2.
9MS K?W SQC UFGAFCTCP CVNPCQQGML DMP ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC GQ KMPC AMLTCLGCLR. #CLRPGNCR?J DMPAC RFC ACLRCP MD ASPT?RSPC, @CA?SQC

(6.24)

a c GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC TCJMAGRW ?LB NMGLRGLE RM RFC ACLRCP MD ASPT?RSPC. r , WMS ECR

F c GQ ?JU?WQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC N?RF ?LB NMGLRGLE RM

.MRC RF?R GD WMS QMJTC RFC DGPQR CVNPCQQGML DMP

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

197

2 r = mv . Fc

(6.25)

4FGQ GKNJGCQ RF?R DMP ? EGTCL K?QQ ?LB TCJMAGRW, ? J?PEC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC A?SQCQ ? QK?JJ P?BGSQ MD ASPT?RSPCrRF?R GQ, ? RGEFR ASPTC.

F?=KH; 6.11 4FC DPGARGML?J DMPAC QSNNJGCQ RFC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC ?LB GQ LSKCPGA?JJW COS?J RM GR. #CLRPGNCR?J DMPAC GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM TCJMAGRW ?LB A?SQCQ SLGDMPK AGPASJ?P KMRGML. 4FC J?PECP RFC

F c , RFC QK?JJCP RFC P?BGSQ MD ASPT?RSPC r

?LB RFC QF?PNCP RFC ASPTC. 4FC QCAMLB ASPTC F?Q RFC Q?KC

v , @SR ? J?PECP F c

NPMBSACQ ? QK?JJCP

r .

EN7CFB; 6.4 0>7J CE;<<?9?;DJ E< FH?9J?ED DE C7H -?H;I ';;: ED 7 FB7J CKHL;?
(?) #?JASJ?RC RFC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC CVCPRCB ML ? 900 IE A?P RF?R LCEMRG?RCQ ? 500 K P?BGSQ ASPTC ?R 25.0 K/Q. (@) !QQSKGLE ?L SL@?LICB ASPTC, DGLB RFC KGLGKSK QR?RGA AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML, @CRUCCL RFC RGPCQ ?LB RFC PM?B, QR?RGA DPGARGML @CGLE RFC PC?QML RF?R ICCNQ RFC A?P DPMK QJGNNGLE (QCC F?=KH; 6.12). ,JH7J;=O 7D: ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) 7C ILMU RF?R
2 F c = mv r . 4FSQ, 2 (900 kg)(25.0 m/s) 2 F c = mv = 1125 N. r = (500 m)

(6.26)

,JH7J;=O <EH (8) F?=KH; 6.12 QFMUQ RFC DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC A?P ML ?L SL@?LICB (JCTCJ EPMSLB) ASPTC. &PGARGML GQ RM RFC JCDR, ICCNGLE RFC A?P DPMK QJGNNGLE, ?LB @CA?SQC GR GQ RFC MLJW FMPGXMLR?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC A?P, RFC DPGARGML GQ RFC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC GL RFGQ A?QC. 7C ILMU RF?R RFC K?VGKSK QR?RGA DPGARGML (?R UFGAF RFC RGPCQ PMJJ @SR BM LMR QJGN) GQ s N , UFCPC s GQ RFC QR?RGA AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML ?LB . GQ RFC LMPK?J DMPAC. 4FC LMPK?J DMPAC COS?JQ RFC A?PtQ UCGEFR ML JCTCJ EPMSLB, QM RF?R

N = mg . 4FSQ RFC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC GL RFGQ QGRS?RGML GQ F c = f = sN = smg.

(6.27)

.MU UC F?TC ? PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC ?LB RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML. 5QGLE RFC DGPQR CVNPCQQGML DMP

F c = mr 2
2

F c = m vr ,

F c DPMK RFC COS?RGML


(6.28)

m vr = smg.
7C QMJTC RFGQ DMP

(6.29)

s , LMRGLE RF?R K?QQ A?LACJQ, ?LB M@R?GL


2 s = v rg .

(6.30)

,EBKJ?ED <EH (8)

198

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC ILMULQ,

s =

(25.0 m/s) 2 = 0.13. (500 m)(9.80 m/s 2)

(6.31)

("CA?SQC AMCDDGAGCLRQ MD DPGARGML ?PC ?NNPMVGK?RC, RFC ?LQUCP GQ EGTCL RM MLJW RUM BGEGRQ.) D?I9KII?ED
2

7C AMSJB ?JQM QMJTC N?PR (?) SQGLE RFC DGPQR CVNPCQQGML GL

F c = mr 2

F c = m vr , @CA?SQC m, v, ?LB r ?PC EGTCL. 4FC AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML DMSLB GL

N?PR (@) GQ KSAF QK?JJCP RF?L GQ RWNGA?JJW DMSLB @CRUCCL RGPCQ ?LB PM?BQ. 4FC A?P UGJJ QRGJJ LCEMRG?RC RFC ASPTC GD RFC AMCDDGAGCLR GQ EPC?RCP RF?L 0.13, @CA?SQC QR?RGA DPGARGML GQ ? PCQNMLQGTC DMPAC, @CGLE ?@JC RM ?QQSKC ? T?JSC JCQQ RF?L @SR LM KMPC RF?L s N . ! FGEFCP AMCDDGAGCLR UMSJB ?JQM ?JJMU RFC A?P RM LCEMRG?RC RFC ASPTC ?R ? FGEFCP QNCCB, @SR GD RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML GQ JCQQ, RFC Q?DC QNCCB UMSJB @C JCQQ RF?L 25 K/Q. .MRC RF?R K?QQ A?LACJQ, GKNJWGLE RF?R GL RFGQ CV?KNJC, GR BMCQ LMR K?RRCP FMU FC?TGJW JM?BCB RFC A?P GQ RM LCEMRG?RC RFC RSPL. -?QQ A?LACJQ @CA?SQC DPGARGML GQ ?QQSKCB NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC LMPK?J DMPAC, UFGAF GL RSPL GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM K?QQ. )D RFC QSPD?AC MD RFC PM?B UCPC @?LICB, RFC LMPK?J DMPAC UMSJB @C JCQQ ?Q UGJJ @C BGQASQQCB @CJMU.

F?=KH; 6.12 4FGQ A?P ML JCTCJ EPMSLB GQ KMTGLE ?U?W ?LB RSPLGLE RM RFC JCDR. 4FC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC A?SQGLE RFC A?P RM RSPL GL ? AGPASJ?P N?RF GQ BSC RM DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC RGPCQ ?LB RFC PM?B. ! KGLGKSK AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML GQ LCCBCB, MP RFC A?P UGJJ KMTC GL ? J?PECP-P?BGSQ ASPTC ?LB JC?TC RFC PM?BU?W.

,CR SQ LMU AMLQGBCP 87DA;: 9KHL;I, UFCPC RFC QJMNC MD RFC PM?B FCJNQ WMS LCEMRG?RC RFC ASPTC. 3CC F?=KH; 6.13. 4FC EPC?RCP RFC ?LEJC , RFC D?QRCP WMS A?L R?IC RFC ASPTC. 2?AC RP?AIQ DMP @GICQ ?Q UCJJ ?Q A?PQ, DMP CV?KNJC, MDRCL F?TC QRCCNJW @?LICB ASPTCQ. )L ?L uGBC?JJW @?LICB ASPTC,v RFC ?LEJC GQ QSAF RF?R WMS A?L LCEMRG?RC RFC ASPTC ?R ? ACPR?GL QNCCB UGRFMSR RFC ?GB MD DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC RGPCQ ?LB RFC PM?B. 7C UGJJ BCPGTC ?L CVNPCQQGML DMP

DMP ?L GBC?JJW @?LICB ASPTC ?LB AMLQGBCP ?L CV?KNJC PCJ?RCB RM GR.

&MP ?:;7B 87DA?D=, RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC COS?JQ RFC FMPGXMLR?J ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC GL RFC ?@QCLAC MD DPGARGML. 4FC AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC LMPK?J DMPAC . GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?LB TCPRGA?J BGPCARGMLQ KSQR COS?J RFC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC ?LB RFC UCGEFR MD RFC A?P, PCQNCARGTCJW. )L A?QCQ GL UFGAF DMPACQ ?PC LMR N?P?JJCJ, GR GQ KMQR AMLTCLGCLR RM AMLQGBCP AMKNMLCLRQ ?JMLE NCPNCLBGASJ?P ?VCQrGL RFGQ A?QC, RFC TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGMLQ.

GQ GBC?J DMP RFC QNCCB ?LB P?BGSQ, RFCL RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC UGJJ COS?J RFC LCACQQ?PW ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC. 4FC MLJW RUM CVRCPL?J DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC A?P ?PC GRQ UCGEFR w ?LB RFC LMPK?J DMPAC MD RFC PM?B N .
F?=KH; 6.13 QFMUQ ? DPCC @MBW BG?EP?K DMP ? A?P ML ? DPGARGMLJCQQ @?LICB ASPTC. )D RFC ?LEJC (! DPGARGMLJCQQ QSPD?AC A?L MLJW CVCPR ? DMPAC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC QSPD?ACrRF?R GQ, ? LMPK?J DMPAC.) 4FCQC RUM DMPACQ KSQR ?BB RM EGTC ? LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC RF?R GQ FMPGXMLR?J RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP MD ASPT?RSPC ?LB F?Q K?ELGRSBC mv 2 /r . "CA?SQC RFGQ GQ RFC APSAG?J DMPAC ?LB GR GQ FMPGXMLR?J, UC SQC ? AMMPBGL?RC QWQRCK UGRF TCPRGA?J ?LB FMPGXMLR?J ?VCQ. /LJW RFC LMPK?J DMPAC F?Q ? FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLR, ?LB QM RFGQ KSQR COS?J RFC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPACrRF?R GQ,
2 N sin = mv r .

(6.32)

"CA?SQC RFC A?P BMCQ LMR JC?TC RFC QSPD?AC MD RFC PM?B, RFC LCR TCPRGA?J DMPAC KSQR @C XCPM, KC?LGLE RF?R RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLRQ MD RFC RUM CVRCPL?J DMPACQ KSQR @C COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML. &PMK RFC DGESPC, UC QCC RF?R RFC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC LMPK?J DMPAC GQ N cos , ?LB RFC MLJW MRFCP TCPRGA?J DMPAC GQ RFC A?PtQ UCGEFR. 4FCQC KSQR @C COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC; RFSQ,

N cos = mg.

(6.33)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

199

.MU UC A?L AMK@GLC RFC J?QR RUM COS?RGMLQ RM CJGKGL?RC

N = mg / (cos ) , ?LB QS@QRGRSRGLE RFGQ GLRM RFC DGPQR WGCJBQ

N ?LB ECR ?L CVNPCQQGML DMP , ?Q BCQGPCB. 3MJTGLE RFC QCAMLB COS?RGML DMP
2 mg sin = mv r cos

(6.34) (6.35)

2 mg tan() = mv r

tan =
4?IGLE RFC GLTCPQC R?LECLR EGTCQ

v2 rg.
(6.36)

2 = tan 1v rg (ideally banked curve, no friction).

4FGQ CVNPCQQGML A?L @C SLBCPQRMMB @W AMLQGBCPGLE FMU BCNCLBQ ML v ?LB r . ! J?PEC UGJJ @C M@R?GLCB DMP ? J?PEC v ?LB ? QK?JJ r . 4F?R GQ, PM?BQ KSQR @C QRCCNJW @?LICB DMP FGEF QNCCBQ ?LB QF?PN ASPTCQ. &PGARGML FCJNQ, @CA?SQC GR ?JJMUQ WMS RM R?IC RFC ASPTC ?R EPC?RCP MP JMUCP QNCCB RF?L GD RFC ASPTC GQ DPGARGMLJCQQ. .MRC RF?R BMCQ LMR BCNCLB ML RFC K?QQ MD RFC TCFGAJC.

F?=KH; 6.13 4FC A?P ML RFGQ @?LICB ASPTC GQ KMTGLE ?U?W ?LB RSPLGLE RM RFC JCDR.

EN7CFB; 6.5 0>7J "I J>; ":;7B ,F;;: JE -7A; 7 ,J;;FBO B7DA;: -?=>J CKHL;?
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
2 tan = v rg

(6.37)

UC ECR

v = (rg tan ) 1 / 2.
.MRGLE RF?R R?L 65.0` = 2.14, UC M@R?GL
(100

(6.38)

v =
D?I9KII?ED

m)(9.80 m/s 2)(2.14)

1/2

(6.39)

= 45.8 m/s.
4FGQ GQ HSQR ?@MSR 165 IK/F, AMLQGQRCLR UGRF ? TCPW QRCCNJW @?LICB ?LB P?RFCP QF?PN ASPTC. 4GPC DPGARGML CL?@JCQ ? TCFGAJC RM R?IC RFC ASPTC ?R QGELGDGA?LRJW FGEFCP QNCCBQ. #?JASJ?RGMLQ QGKGJ?P RM RFMQC GL RFC NPCACBGLE CV?KNJCQ A?L @C NCPDMPKCB DMP ? FMQR MD GLRCPCQRGLE QGRS?RGMLQ GL UFGAF ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC GQ GLTMJTCBr? LSK@CP MD RFCQC ?PC NPCQCLRCB GL RFGQ AF?NRCPtQ 0PM@JCKQ ?LB %VCPAGQCQ.

200

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

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

F?=KH; 6.14

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6.4 F?9J?J?EKI FEH9;I 7D: 'ED-?D;HJ?7B FH7C;I: ->; CEH?EB?I FEH9;


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F?=KH; 6.15 (?) 4FC A?P BPGTCP DCCJQ FCPQCJD DMPACB RM RFC JCDR PCJ?RGTC RM RFC A?P UFCL QFC K?ICQ ? PGEFR RSPL. 4FGQ GQ ? DGARGRGMSQ DMPAC ?PGQGLE DPMK RFC SQC MD RFC A?P ?Q ? DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC. (@) )L RFC %?PRFtQ DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC, RFC BPGTCP KMTCQ GL ? QRP?GEFR JGLC, M@CWGLE .CURMLtQ DGPQR J?U, ?LB RFC A?P KMTCQ RM RFC PGEFR. 4FCPC GQ LM PC?J DMPAC RM RFC JCDR ML RFC BPGTCP PCJ?RGTC RM %?PRF. 4FCPC GQ ? PC?J DMPAC RM RFC PGEFR ML RFC A?P RM K?IC GR RSPL.

7C A?L PCAMLAGJC RFCQC NMGLRQ MD TGCU @W CV?KGLGLE RFC DP?KCQ MD PCDCPCLAC SQCB. ,CR SQ AMLACLRP?RC ML NCMNJC GL ? A?P. 0?QQCLECPQ GLQRGLARGTCJW SQC RFC A?P ?Q ? DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC, UFGJC ? NFWQGAGQR SQCQ %?PRF. 4FC NFWQGAGQR AFMMQCQ %?PRF @CA?SQC GR GQ TCPW LC?PJW ?L GLCPRG?J DP?KC MD PCDCPCLACrMLC GL UFGAF ?JJ DMPACQ ?PC PC?J (RF?R GQ, GL UFGAF ?JJ DMPACQ F?TC ?L GBCLRGDG?@JC NFWQGA?J MPGEGL). )L QSAF ? DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC, .CURMLtQ J?UQ MD KMRGML R?IC RFC DMPK EGTCL GL DOD7C?9I: ';MJED'I %7MI E< &EJ?ED 4FC A?P GQ ? DED-?D;HJ?7B <H7C; E< H;<;H;D9; @CA?SQC GR GQ ?AACJCP?RCB RM RFC QGBC. 4FC DMPAC RM RFC JCDR QCLQCB @W A?P N?QQCLECPQ GQ ? <?9J?J?EKI <EH9; F?TGLE LM NFWQGA?J MPGEGL. 4FCPC GQ LMRFGLE PC?J NSQFGLE RFCK JCDRrRFC A?P, ?Q UCJJ ?Q RFC BPGTCP, GQ ?ARS?JJW ?AACJCP?RGLE RM RFC PGEFR. ,CR SQ LMU R?IC ? KCLR?J PGBC ML ? KCPPW-EM-PMSLBrQNCAGDGA?JJW, ? P?NGBJW PMR?RGLE NJ?WEPMSLB KCPPW-EM-PMSLB. 9MS R?IC RFC KCPPW-EM-PMSLB RM @C WMSP DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC @CA?SQC WMS PMR?RC RMECRFCP. )L RF?R LML-GLCPRG?J DP?KC, WMS DCCJ ? DGARGRGMSQ DMPAC, L?KCB 9;DJH?<K=7B <EH9; (LMR RM @C AMLDSQCB UGRF ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC), RPWGLE RM RFPMU WMS MDD. 9MS KSQR F?LE ML RGEFRJW RM AMSLRCP?AR RFC ACLRPGDSE?J DMPAC. )L %?PRFtQ DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC, RFCPC GQ LM DMPAC RPWGLE RM RFPMU WMS MDD. 2?RFCP WMS KSQR F?LE ML RM K?IC WMSPQCJD EM GL ? AGPAJC @CA?SQC MRFCPUGQC WMS UMSJB EM GL ? QRP?GEFR JGLC, PGEFR MDD RFC KCPPW-EM-PMSLB.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

201

F?=KH; 6.16 (?) ! PGBCP ML ? KCPPW-EM-PMSLB DCCJQ ?Q GD FC GQ @CGLE RFPMUL MDD. 4FGQ DGARGRGMSQ DMPAC GQ A?JJCB RFC ACLRPGDSE?J DMPACrGR CVNJ?GLQ RFC PGBCPtQ KMRGML GL RFC PMR?RGLE DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC. (@) )L ?L GLCPRG?J DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC ?LB ?AAMPBGLE RM .CURMLtQ J?UQ, GR GQ FGQ GLCPRG? RF?R A?PPGCQ FGK MDD ?LB LMR ? PC?J DMPAC (RFC SLQF?BCB PGBCP F?Q

F net = 0

?LB FC?BQ GL ? QRP?GEFR JGLC). ! PC?J DMPAC,

F centripetal , GQ LCCBCB RM A?SQC ? AGPASJ?P N?RF.

4FGQ GLCPRG?J CDDCAR, A?PPWGLE WMS ?U?W DPMK RFC ACLRCP MD PMR?RGML GD RFCPC GQ LM ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC RM A?SQC AGPASJ?P KMRGML, GQ NSR RM EMMB SQC GL ACLRPGDSECQ (QCC F?=KH; 6.17). ! ACLRPGDSEC QNGLQ ? Q?KNJC TCPW P?NGBJW, ?Q KCLRGMLCB C?PJGCP GL RFGQ AF?NRCP. 6GCUCB DPMK RFC PMR?RGLE DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC, RFC DGARGRGMSQ ACLRPGDSE?J DMPAC RFPMUQ N?PRGAJCQ MSRU?PB, F?QRCLGLE RFCGP QCBGKCLR?RGML. 4FC EPC?RCP RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW, RFC EPC?RCP RFC ACLRPGDSE?J DMPAC. "SR UF?R PC?JJW F?NNCLQ GQ RF?R RFC GLCPRG? MD RFC N?PRGAJCQ A?PPGCQ RFCK ?JMLE ? JGLC R?LECLR RM RFC AGPAJC UFGJC RFC RCQR RS@C GQ DMPACB GL ? AGPASJ?P N?RF @W ? ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC.

F?=KH; 6.17 #CLRPGDSECQ SQC GLCPRG? RM NCPDMPK RFCGP R?QI. 0?PRGAJCQ GL RFC DJSGB QCBGKCLR AMKC MSR @CA?SQC RFCGP GLCPRG? A?PPGCQ RFCK ?U?W DPMK RFC ACLRCP MD PMR?RGML. 4FC J?PEC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW MD RFC ACLRPGDSEC OSGAICLQ RFC QCBGKCLR?RGML. 5JRGK?RCJW, RFC N?PRGAJCQ UGJJ AMKC GLRM AMLR?AR UGRF RFC RCQR RS@C U?JJQ, UFGAF UGJJ RFCL QSNNJW RFC ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC LCCBCB RM K?IC RFCK KMTC GL ? AGPAJC MD AMLQR?LR P?BGSQ.

,CR SQ LMU AMLQGBCP UF?R F?NNCLQ GD QMKCRFGLE KMTCQ GL ? DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC RF?R PMR?RCQ. &MP CV?KNJC, UF?R GD WMS QJGBC ? @?JJ BGPCARJW ?U?W DPMK RFC ACLRCP MD RFC KCPPW-EM-PMSLB, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 6.18? 4FC @?JJ DMJJMUQ ? QRP?GEFR N?RF PCJ?RGTC RM %?PRF (?QQSKGLE LCEJGEG@JC DPGARGML) ?LB ? N?RF ASPTCB RM RFC PGEFR ML RFC KCPPW-EM-PMSLBtQ QSPD?AC. ! NCPQML QR?LBGLE LCVR RM RFC KCPPW-EM-PMSLB QCCQ RFC @?JJ KMTGLE QRP?GEFR ?LB RFC KCPPW-EMPMSLB PMR?RGLE SLBCPLC?RF GR. )L RFC KCPPW-EM-PMSLBtQ DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC, UC CVNJ?GL RFC ?NN?PCLR ASPTC RM RFC PGEFR @W SQGLE ? DGARGRGMSQ DMPAC, A?JJCB RFC CEH?EB?I <EH9;, RF?R A?SQCQ RFC @?JJ RM ASPTC RM RFC PGEFR. 4FC DGARGRGMSQ #MPGMJGQ DMPAC A?L @C SQCB @W ?LWMLC GL RF?R DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC RM CVNJ?GL UFW M@HCARQ DMJJMU ASPTCB N?RFQ ?LB ?JJMUQ SQ RM ?NNJW .CURMLtQ ,?UQ GL LML-GLCPRG?J DP?KCQ MD PCDCPCLAC.

202

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

F?=KH; 6.18 ,MMIGLE BMUL ML RFC AMSLRCPAJMAIUGQC PMR?RGML MD ? KCPPW-EM-PMSLB, UC QCC RF?R ? @?JJ QJGB QRP?GEFR RMU?PB RFC CBEC DMJJMUQ ? N?RF ASPTCB RM RFC PGEFR. 4FC NCPQML QJGBCQ RFC @?JJ RMU?PB NMGLR ", QR?PRGLE ?R NMGLR !. "MRF NMGLRQ PMR?RC RM RFC QF?BCB NMQGRGMLQ (!t ?LB "t) QFMUL GL RFC RGKC RF?R RFC @?JJ DMJJMUQ RFC ASPTCB N?RF GL RFC PMR?RGLE DP?KC ?LB ? QRP?GEFR N?RF GL %?PRFtQ DP?KC.

5N SLRGJ LMU, UC F?TC AMLQGBCPCB %?PRF RM @C ?L GLCPRG?J DP?KC MD PCDCPCLAC UGRF JGRRJC MP LM UMPPW ?@MSR CDDCARQ BSC RM GRQ PMR?RGML. 9CR QSAF CDDCARQ 7B CVGQRrGL RFC PMR?RGML MD UC?RFCP QWQRCKQ, DMP CV?KNJC. -MQR AMLQCOSCLACQ MD %?PRFtQ PMR?RGML A?L @C OS?JGR?RGTCJW SLBCPQRMMB @W ?L?JMEW UGRF RFC KCPPW-EM-PMSLB. 6GCUCB DPMK ?@MTC RFC .MPRF 0MJC, %?PRF PMR?RCQ AMSLRCPAJMAIUGQC, ?Q BMCQ RFC KCPPW-EM-PMSLB GL F?=KH; 6.18. !Q ML RFC KCPPW-EMPMSLB, ?LW KMRGML GL %?PRFtQ LMPRFCPL FCKGQNFCPC CVNCPGCLACQ ? #MPGMJGQ DMPAC RM RFC PGEFR. *SQR RFC MNNMQGRC MAASPQ GL RFC QMSRFCPL FCKGQNFCPC; RFCPC, RFC DMPAC GQ RM RFC JCDR. "CA?SQC %?PRFtQ ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW GQ QK?JJ, RFC #MPGMJGQ DMPAC GQ SQS?JJW LCEJGEG@JC, @SR DMP J?PEC-QA?JC KMRGMLQ, QSAF ?Q UGLB N?RRCPLQ, GR F?Q QS@QR?LRG?J CDDCARQ. 4FC #MPGMJGQ DMPAC A?SQCQ FSPPGA?LCQ GL RFC LMPRFCPL FCKGQNFCPC RM PMR?RC GL RFC AMSLRCPAJMAIUGQC BGPCARGML, UFGJC RFC RPMNGA?J AWAJMLCQ (UF?R FSPPGA?LCQ ?PC A?JJCB @CJMU RFC COS?RMP) GL RFC QMSRFCPL FCKGQNFCPC PMR?RC GL RFC AJMAIUGQC BGPCARGML. 4FC RCPKQ FSPPGA?LC, RWNFMML, ?LB RPMNGA?J QRMPK ?PC PCEGML?JJW-QNCAGDGA L?KCQ DMP RPMNGA?J AWAJMLCQ, QRMPK QWQRCKQ AF?P?ARCPGXCB @W JMU NPCQQSPC ACLRCPQ, QRPMLE UGLBQ, ?LB FC?TW P?GLQ. F?=KH; 6.19 FCJNQ QFMU FMU RFCQC PMR?RGMLQ R?IC NJ?AC. !GP DJMUQ RMU?PB ?LW PCEGML MD JMU NPCQQSPC, ?LB RPMNGA?J AWAJMLCQ AMLR?GL N?PRGASJ?PJW JMU NPCQQSPCQ. 4FSQ UGLBQ DJMU RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP MD ? RPMNGA?J AWAJMLC MP ? JMU-NPCQQSPC UC?RFCP QWQRCK ?R RFC QSPD?AC. )L RFC LMPRFCPL FCKGQNFCPC, RFCQC GLU?PB UGLBQ ?PC BCDJCARCB RM RFC PGEFR, ?Q QFMUL GL RFC DGESPC, NPMBSAGLE ? AMSLRCPAJMAIUGQC AGPASJ?RGML ?R RFC QSPD?AC DMP JMU-NPCQQSPC XMLCQ MD ?LW RWNC. ,MU NPCQQSPC ?R RFC QSPD?AC GQ ?QQMAG?RCB UGRF PGQGLE ?GP, UFGAF ?JQM NPMBSACQ AMMJGLE ?LB AJMSB DMPK?RGML, K?IGLE JMU-NPCQQSPC N?RRCPLQ OSGRC TGQG@JC DPMK QN?AC. #MLTCPQCJW, UGLB AGPASJ?RGML ?PMSLB FGEF-NPCQQSPC XMLCQ GQ AJMAIUGQC GL RFC LMPRFCPL FCKGQNFCPC @SR GQ JCQQ TGQG@JC @CA?SQC FGEF NPCQQSPC GQ ?QQMAG?RCB UGRF QGLIGLE ?GP, NPMBSAGLE AJC?P QIGCQ. 4FC PMR?RGML MD RPMNGA?J AWAJMLCQ ?LB RFC N?RF MD ? @?JJ ML ? KCPPW-EM-PMSLB A?L HSQR ?Q UCJJ @C CVNJ?GLCB @W GLCPRG? ?LB RFC PMR?RGML MD RFC QWQRCK SLBCPLC?RF. 7FCL LML-GLCPRG?J DP?KCQ ?PC SQCB, DGARGRGMSQ DMPACQ, QSAF ?Q RFC #MPGMJGQ DMPAC, KSQR @C GLTCLRCB RM CVNJ?GL RFC ASPTCB N?RF. 4FCPC GQ LM GBCLRGDG?@JC NFWQGA?J QMSPAC DMP RFCQC DGARGRGMSQ DMPACQ. )L ?L GLCPRG?J DP?KC, GLCPRG? CVNJ?GLQ RFC N?RF, ?LB LM DMPAC GQ DMSLB RM @C UGRFMSR ?L GBCLRGDG?@JC QMSPAC. %GRFCP TGCU ?JJMUQ SQ RM BCQAPG@C L?RSPC, @SR ? TGCU GL ?L GLCPRG?J DP?KC GQ RFC QGKNJCQR ?LB RPSCQR, GL RFC QCLQC RF?R ?JJ DMPACQ F?TC PC?J MPGEGLQ ?LB CVNJ?L?RGMLQ.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

203

F?=KH; 6.19 (?) 4FC AMSLRCPAJMAIUGQC PMR?RGML MD RFGQ LMPRFCPL FCKGQNFCPC FSPPGA?LC GQ ? K?HMP AMLQCOSCLAC MD RFC #MPGMJGQ DMPAC. (APCBGR: .!3!) (@) 7GRFMSR RFC #MPGMJGQ DMPAC, ?GP UMSJB DJMU QRP?GEFR GLRM ? JMU-NPCQQSPC XMLC, QSAF ?Q RF?R DMSLB GL RPMNGA?J AWAJMLCQ. (A) 4FC #MPGMJGQ DMPAC BCDJCARQ RFC UGLBQ RM RFC PGEFR, NPMBSAGLE ? AMSLRCPAJMAIUGQC PMR?RGML. (B) 7GLB DJMUGLE ?U?W DPMK ? FGEF-NPCQQSPC XMLC GQ ?JQM BCDJCARCB RM RFC PGEFR, NPMBSAGLE ? AJMAIUGQC PMR?RGML. (C) 4FC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML MD PMR?RGML GQ NPMBSACB @W RFC #MPGMJGQ DMPAC GL RFC QMSRFCPL FCKGQNFCPC, JC?BGLE RM RPMNGA?J AWAJMLCQ. (APCBGR: .!3!)

6.5 ';MJEDXI .D?L;HI7B %7M E<

H7L?J7J?ED

7F?R BM ?AFGLE DCCR, ? D?JJGLE ?NNJC, ?LB RFC MP@GR MD RFC -MML F?TC GL AMKKML? %?AF GQ A?SQCB @W RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC. /SP DCCR ?PC QRP?GLCB @W QSNNMPRGLE MSP UCGEFRrRFC DMPAC MD %?PRFtQ EP?TGRW ML SQ. !L ?NNJC D?JJQ DPMK ? RPCC @CA?SQC MD RFC Q?KC DMPAC ?ARGLE ? DCU KCRCPQ ?@MTC %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC. !LB RFC -MML MP@GRQ %?PRF @CA?SQC EP?TGRW GQ ?@JC RM QSNNJW RFC LCACQQ?PW ACLRPGNCR?J DMPAC ?R ? BGQR?LAC MD FSLBPCBQ MD KGJJGMLQ MD KCRCPQ. )L D?AR, RFC Q?KC DMPAC A?SQCQ NJ?LCRQ RM MP@GR RFC 3SL, QR?PQ RM MP@GR RFC ACLRCP MD RFC E?J?VW, ?LB E?J?VGCQ RM AJSQRCP RMECRFCP. 'P?TGRW GQ ?LMRFCP CV?KNJC MD SLBCPJWGLE QGKNJGAGRW GL L?RSPC. )R GQ RFC UC?ICQR MD RFC DMSP @?QGA DMPACQ DMSLB GL L?RSPC, ?LB GL QMKC U?WQ RFC JC?QR SLBCPQRMMB. )R GQ ? DMPAC RF?R ?ARQ ?R ? BGQR?LAC, UGRFMSR NFWQGA?J AMLR?AR, ?LB GQ CVNPCQQCB @W ? DMPKSJ? RF?R GQ T?JGB CTCPWUFCPC GL RFC SLGTCPQC, DMP K?QQCQ ?LB BGQR?LACQ RF?R T?PW DPMK RFC RGLW RM RFC GKKCLQC. 3GP )Q??A .CURML U?Q RFC DGPQR QAGCLRGQR RM NPCAGQCJW BCDGLC RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC, ?LB RM QFMU RF?R GR AMSJB CVNJ?GL @MRF D?JJGLE @MBGCQ ?LB ?QRPMLMKGA?J KMRGMLQ. 3CC F?=KH; 6.20. "SR .CURML U?Q LMR RFC DGPQR RM QSQNCAR RF?R RFC Q?KC DMPAC A?SQCB @MRF MSP UCGEFR ?LB RFC KMRGML MD NJ?LCRQ. (GQ DMPCPSLLCP '?JGJCM '?JGJCG F?B AMLRCLBCB RF?R D?JJGLE @MBGCQ ?LB NJ?LCR?PW KMRGMLQ F?B RFC Q?KC A?SQC. 3MKC MD .CURMLtQ AMLRCKNMP?PGCQ, QSAF ?Q 2M@CPR (MMIC, #FPGQRMNFCP 7PCL, ?LB %BKSLB (?JJCW, F?B ?JQM K?BC QMKC NPMEPCQQ RMU?PB SLBCPQR?LBGLE EP?TGR?RGML. "SR .CURML U?Q RFC DGPQR RM NPMNMQC ?L CV?AR K?RFCK?RGA?J DMPK ?LB RM SQC RF?R DMPK RM QFMU RF?R RFC KMRGML MD FC?TCLJW @MBGCQ QFMSJB @C AMLGA QCARGMLQrAGPAJCQ, CJJGNQCQ, N?P?@MJ?Q, ?LB FWNCP@MJ?Q. 4FGQ RFCMPCRGA?J NPCBGARGML U?Q ? K?HMP RPGSKNFrGR F?B @CCL ILMUL DMP QMKC RGKC RF?R KMMLQ, NJ?LCRQ, ?LB AMKCRQ DMJJMU QSAF N?RFQ, @SR LM MLC F?B @CCL ?@JC RM NPMNMQC ? KCAF?LGQK RF?R A?SQCB RFCK RM DMJJMU RFCQC N?RFQ ?LB LMR MRFCPQ.

204

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

F?=KH; 6.20 !AAMPBGLE RM C?PJW ?AAMSLRQ, .CURML U?Q GLQNGPCB RM K?IC RFC AMLLCARGML @CRUCCL D?JJGLE @MBGCQ ?LB ?QRPMLMKGA?J KMRGMLQ UFCL FC Q?U ?L ?NNJC D?JJ DPMK ? RPCC ?LB PC?JGXCB RF?R GD RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC AMSJB CVRCLB ?@MTC RFC EPMSLB RM ? RPCC, GR KGEFR ?JQM PC?AF RFC 3SL. 4FC GLQNGP?RGML MD .CURMLtQ ?NNJC GQ ? N?PR MD UMPJBUGBC DMJIJMPC ?LB K?W CTCL @C @?QCB GL D?AR. 'PC?R GKNMPR?LAC GQ ?RR?AFCB RM GR @CA?SQC .CURMLtQ SLGTCPQ?J J?U MD EP?TGR?RGML ?LB FGQ J?UQ MD KMRGML ?LQUCPCB TCPW MJB OSCQRGMLQ ?@MSR L?RSPC ?LB E?TC RPCKCLBMSQ QSNNMPR RM RFC LMRGML MD SLBCPJWGLE QGKNJGAGRW ?LB SLGRW GL L?RSPC. 3AGCLRGQRQ QRGJJ CVNCAR SLBCPJWGLE QGKNJGAGRW RM CKCPEC DPMK RFCGP MLEMGLE GLOSGPGCQ GLRM L?RSPC.

4FC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC GQ PCJ?RGTCJW QGKNJC. )R GQ ?JU?WQ ?RRP?ARGTC, ?LB GR BCNCLBQ MLJW ML RFC K?QQCQ GLTMJTCB ?LB RFC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RFCK. 3R?RCB GL KMBCPL J?LES?EC, ';MJEDXI KD?L;HI7B B7M E< =H7L?J7J?ED QR?RCQ RF?R CTCPW N?PRGAJC GL RFC SLGTCPQC ?RRP?ARQ CTCPW MRFCP N?PRGAJC UGRF ? DMPAC ?JMLE ? JGLC HMGLGLE RFCK. 4FC DMPAC GQ BGPCARJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC NPMBSAR MD RFCGP K?QQCQ ?LB GLTCPQCJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC QOS?PC MD RFC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RFCK.

F?=KH; 6.21 'P?TGR?RGML?J ?RRP?ARGML GQ ?JMLE ? JGLC HMGLGLE RFC ACLRCPQ MD K?QQ MD RFCQC RUM @MBGCQ. 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC DMPAC GQ RFC Q?KC ML C?AF, AMLQGQRCLR UGRF .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U.

-GQAMLACNRGML !JCPR 4FC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC DMPAC ML C?AF M@HCAR (MLC F?Q J?PECP K?QQ RF?L RFC MRFCP) GQ RFC Q?KC, AMLQGQRCLR UGRF .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U. 4FC @MBGCQ UC ?PC BC?JGLE UGRF RCLB RM @C J?PEC. 4M QGKNJGDW RFC QGRS?RGML UC ?QQSKC RF?R RFC @MBW ?ARQ ?Q GD GRQ CLRGPC K?QQ GQ AMLACLRP?RCB ?R MLC QNCAGDGA NMGLR A?JJCB RFC 9;DJ;H E< C7II (#-), UFGAF UGJJ @C DSPRFCP CVNJMPCB GL %?D;7H &EC;DJKC 7D: CEBB?I?EDI. &MP RUM @MBGCQ F?TGLE K?QQCQ m ?LB M UGRF ? BGQR?LAC r @CRUCCL RFCGP ACLRCPQ MD K?QQ, RFC COS?RGML DMP .CURMLtQ SLGTCPQ?J J?U MD EP?TGR?RGML GQ

F = G mM , r2

(6.40)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

205

UFCPC F GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC ?LB G GQ ? NPMNMPRGML?JGRW D?ARMP A?JJCB RFC =H7L?J7J?ED7B 9EDIJ7DJ. G GQ ? SLGTCPQ?J EP?TGR?RGML?J AMLQR?LRrRF?R GQ, GR GQ RFMSEFR RM @C RFC Q?KC CTCPWUFCPC GL RFC SLGTCPQC. )R F?Q @CCL KC?QSPCB CVNCPGKCLR?JJW RM @C

G = 6.67310 11 N m kg 2
GL 3) SLGRQ. .MRC RF?R RFC SLGRQ MD

(6.41)

G ?PC QSAF RF?R ? DMPAC GL LCURMLQ GQ M@R?GLCB DPMK F = G mM , UFCL AMLQGBCPGLE K?QQCQ GL IGJMEP?KQ ?LB r2

BGQR?LAC GL KCRCPQ. &MP CV?KNJC, RUM 1.000 IE K?QQCQ QCN?P?RCB @W 1.000 K UGJJ CVNCPGCLAC ? EP?TGR?RGML?J ?RRP?ARGML MD 6.67310 11 N . 4FGQ GQ ?L CVRP?MPBGL?PGJW QK?JJ DMPAC. 4FC QK?JJ K?ELGRSBC MD RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC GQ AMLQGQRCLR UGRF CTCPWB?W CVNCPGCLAC. 7C ?PC SL?U?PC RF?R CTCL J?PEC M@HCARQ JGIC KMSLR?GLQ CVCPR EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPACQ ML SQ. )L D?AR, MSP @MBW UCGEFR GQ RFC DMPAC MD ?RRP?ARGML MD RFC 8AG<E8 E4EG; ML SQ UGRF ? K?QQ MD 610 24 kg .

g GQ ?@MSR 9.80 m/s 2 ML %?PRF. 7C A?L LMU BCRCPKGLC UFW RFGQ GQ QM. 4FC UCGEFR MD ?L M@HCAR @: GQ RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC @CRUCCL GR ?LB %?PRF. 3S@QRGRSRGLE @: DMP F GL .CURMLtQ SLGTCPQ?J J?U MD EP?TGR?RGML EGTCQ
2CA?JJ RF?R RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW

mg = G mM , r2

(6.42)

UFCPC m GQ RFC K?QQ MD RFC M@HCAR, M GQ RFC K?QQ MD %?PRF, ?LB r GQ RFC BGQR?LAC RM RFC ACLRCP MD %?PRF (RFC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RFC ACLRCPQ MD K?QQ MD RFC M@HCAR ?LB %?PRF). 3CC F?=KH; 6.22. 4FC K?QQ m MD RFC M@HCAR A?LACJQ, JC?TGLE ?L COS?RGML DMP g :

g = GM . r2
3S@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ DMP %?PRFtQ K?QQ ?LB P?BGSQ (RM RFPCC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ),

(6.43)

2 5.9810 24 kg g = 6.6710 11 N m , kg 2 (6.3810 6 m) 2

(6.44)

?LB UC M@R?GL ? T?JSC DMP RFC ?AACJCP?RGML MD ? D?JJGLE @MBW:

g = 9.80 m/s 2.

(6.45)

F?=KH; 6.22 4FC BGQR?LAC @CRUCCL RFC ACLRCPQ MD K?QQ MD %?PRF ?LB ?L M@HCAR ML GRQ QSPD?AC GQ TCPW LC?PJW RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC P?BGSQ MD %?PRF, @CA?SQC %?PRF GQ QM KSAF J?PECP RF?L RFC M@HCAR.

4FGQ GQ RFC CVNCARCB T?JSC 4A7 <F <A78C8A78AG B9 G;8 5B7LVF @4FF. .CURMLtQ J?U MD EP?TGR?RGML R?ICQ '?JGJCMtQ M@QCPT?RGML RF?R ?JJ K?QQCQ D?JJ UGRF RFC Q?KC ?AACJCP?RGML ? QRCN DSPRFCP, CVNJ?GLGLE RFC M@QCPT?RGML GL RCPKQ MD ? DMPAC RF?R A?SQCQ M@HCARQ RM D?JJrGL D?AR, GL RCPKQ MD ? SLGTCPQ?JJW CVGQRGLE DMPAC MD ?RRP?ARGML @CRUCCL K?QQCQ. 4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLR 4?IC ? K?P@JC, ? @?JJ, ?LB ? QNMML ?LB BPMN RFCK DPMK RFC Q?KC FCGEFR. $M RFCW FGR RFC DJMMP ?R RFC Q?KC RGKC? )D WMS BPMN ? NGCAC MD N?NCP ?Q UCJJ, BMCQ GR @CF?TC JGIC RFC MRFCP M@HCARQ? %VNJ?GL WMSP M@QCPT?RGMLQ. -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ !RRCKNRQ ?PC QRGJJ @CGLE K?BC RM SLBCPQR?LB RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC. !Q UC QF?JJ QCC GL )7HJ?9B; )>OI?9I, KMBCPL NFWQGAQ GQ CVNJMPGLE RFC AMLLCARGMLQ MD EP?TGRW RM MRFCP DMPACQ, QN?AC, ?LB RGKC. 'CLCP?J PCJ?RGTGRW ?JRCPQ MSP TGCU MD EP?TGR?RGML, JC?BGLE SQ RM RFGLI MD EP?TGR?RGML ?Q @CLBGLE QN?AC ?LB RGKC. )L RFC DMJJMUGLE CV?KNJC, UC K?IC ? AMKN?PGQML QGKGJ?P RM MLC K?BC @W .CURML FGKQCJD. (C LMRCB RF?R GD RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC A?SQCB RFC -MML RM MP@GR %?PRF, RFCL RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW QFMSJB COS?J RFC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC -MML GL GRQ MP@GR. .CURML DMSLB RF?R RFC RUM ?AACJCP?RGMLQ ?EPCCB uNPCRRW LC?PJW.v

206

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EN7CFB; 6.6 E7HJ>XI

H7L?J7J?ED7B FEH9; "I J>; C;DJH?F;J7B FEH9; &7A?D= J>; &EED &EL; ?D 7 CKHL;: )7J>

(?) &GLB RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM %?PRFtQ EP?TGRW ?R RFC BGQR?LAC MD RFC -MML. (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML LCCBCB RM ICCN RFC -MML GL GRQ MP@GR (?QQSKGLE ? AGPASJ?P MP@GR ?@MSR ? DGVCB %?PRF), ?LB AMKN?PC GR UGRF RFC T?JSC MD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM %?PRFtQ EP?TGRW RF?R WMS F?TC HSQR DMSLB. ,JH7J;=O <EH (7) 4FGQ A?JASJ?RGML GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC MLC DGLBGLE RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW ?R %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC, CVACNR RF?R 8 %?PRF RM RFC ACLRCP MD RFC -MML. 4FC P?BGSQ MD RFC -MMLtQ LC?PJW AGPASJ?P MP@GR GQ 3.8410 m . ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) 3S@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ GLRM RFC CVNPCQQGML DMP

r GQ RFC BGQR?LAC DPMK RFC ACLRCP MD

g DMSLB ?@MTC, PCKCK@CPGLE RF?R M GQ RFC K?QQ MD %?PRF LMR RFC -MML, WGCJBQ
(6.46)

2 5.9810 24 kg g = GM = 6.6710 11 N m 2 2 kg (3.8410 8 m) 2 r

= 2.7010 3 m/s. 2

,JH7J;=O <EH (8) #CLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB SQGLE CGRFCP DMPK MD
2 a c = vr . a c = r 2

(6.47)

7C AFMMQC RM SQC RFC QCAMLB DMPK:

a c = r 2,
UFCPC

(6.48)

GQ RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW MD RFC -MML ?@MSR %?PRF.

,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) 'GTCL RF?R RFC NCPGMB (RFC RGKC GR R?ICQ RM K?IC MLC AMKNJCRC PMR?RGML) MD RFC -MMLtQ MP@GR GQ 27.3 B?WQ, (B) ?LB SQGLE

1 d24 hr 60 min 60 s = 86,400 s d hr min


UC QCC RF?R

(6.49)

2 rad = = = 2.6610 6 rad s . t (27.3 d)(86,400 s/d)


4FC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML GQ

(6.50)

a c = r 2 = (3.8410 8 m)(2.6610 6 rad/s) 2 = 2.7210 3 m/s. 2


4FC BGPCARGML MD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML GQ RMU?PB RFC ACLRCP MD RFC %?PRF. D?I9KII?ED

(6.51)

4FC ACLRPGNCR?J ?AACJCP?RGML MD RFC -MML DMSLB GL (@) BGDDCPQ @W JCQQ RF?L 1% DPMK RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM %?PRFtQ EP?TGRW DMSLB GL (?). 4FGQ ?EPCCKCLR GQ ?NNPMVGK?RC @CA?SQC RFC -MMLtQ MP@GR GQ QJGEFRJW CJJGNRGA?J, ?LB %?PRF GQ LMR QR?RGML?PW (P?RFCP RFC %?PRF--MML QWQRCK PMR?RCQ ?@MSR GRQ ACLRCP MD K?QQ, UFGAF GQ JMA?RCB QMKC 1700 IK @CJMU %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC). 4FC AJC?P GKNJGA?RGML GQ RF?R %?PRFtQ EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC A?SQCQ RFC -MML RM MP@GR %?PRF.

7FW BMCQ %?PRF LMR PCK?GL QR?RGML?PW ?Q RFC -MML MP@GRQ GR? 4FGQ GQ @CA?SQC, ?Q CVNCARCB DPMK .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U, GD %?PRF CVCPRQ ? DMPAC ML RFC -MML, RFCL RFC -MML QFMSJB CVCPR ?L COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC DMPAC ML %?PRF (QCC F?=KH; 6.23). 7C BM LMR QCLQC RFC -MMLtQ CDDCAR ML %?PRFtQ KMRGML, @CA?SQC RFC -MMLtQ EP?TGRW KMTCQ MSP @MBGCQ PGEFR ?JMLE UGRF %?PRF @SR RFCPC ?PC MRFCP QGELQ ML %?PRF RF?R AJC?PJW QFMU RFC CDDCAR MD RFC -MMLtQ EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC ?Q BGQASQQCB GL ,7J;BB?J;I 7D: $;FB;H'I %7MI: AD AH=KC;DJ <EH ,?CFB?9?JO.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

207

F?=KH; 6.23 (?) %?PRF ?LB RFC -MML PMR?RC ?NNPMVGK?RCJW MLAC ? KMLRF ?PMSLB RFCGP AMKKML ACLRCP MD K?QQ. (@) 4FCGP ACLRCP MD K?QQ MP@GRQ RFC 3SL GL ?L CJJGNRGA?J MP@GR, @SR %?PRFtQ N?RF ?PMSLB RFC 3SL F?Q uUGEEJCQv GL GR. 3GKGJ?P UGEEJCQ GL RFC N?RFQ MD QR?PQ F?TC @CCL M@QCPTCB ?LB ?PC AMLQGBCPCB BGPCAR CTGBCLAC MD NJ?LCRQ MP@GRGLE RFMQC QR?PQ. 4FGQ GQ GKNMPR?LR @CA?SQC RFC NJ?LCRQt PCDJCARCB JGEFR GQ MDRCL RMM BGK RM @C M@QCPTCB.

4GBCQ
/AC?L RGBCQ ?PC MLC TCPW M@QCPT?@JC PCQSJR MD RFC -MMLtQ EP?TGRW ?ARGLE ML %?PRF. F?=KH; 6.24 GQ ? QGKNJGDGCB BP?UGLE MD RFC -MMLtQ NMQGRGML PCJ?RGTC RM RFC RGBCQ. "CA?SQC U?RCP C?QGJW DJMUQ ML %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC, ? FGEF RGBC GQ APC?RCB ML RFC QGBC MD %?PRF LC?PCQR RM RFC -MML, UFCPC RFC -MMLtQ EP?TGR?RGML?J NSJJ GQ QRPMLECQR. 7FW GQ RFCPC ?JQM ? FGEF RGBC ML RFC MNNMQGRC QGBC MD %?PRF? 4FC ?LQUCP GQ RF?R %?PRF GQ NSJJCB RMU?PB RFC -MML KMPC RF?L RFC U?RCP ML RFC D?P QGBC, @CA?SQC %?PRF GQ AJMQCP RM RFC -MML. 3M RFC U?RCP ML RFC QGBC MD %?PRF AJMQCQR RM RFC -MML GQ NSJJCB ?U?W DPMK %?PRF, ?LB %?PRF GQ NSJJCB ?U?W DPMK U?RCP ML RFC D?P QGBC. !Q %?PRF PMR?RCQ, RFC RGB?J @SJEC (?L CDDCAR MD RFC RGB?J DMPACQ @CRUCCL ?L MP@GRGLE L?RSP?J Q?RCJJGRC ?LB RFC NPGK?PW NJ?LCR RF?R GR MP@GRQ) ICCNQ GRQ MPGCLR?RGML UGRF RFC -MML. 4FSQ RFCPC ?PC RUM RGBCQ NCP B?W (RFC ?ARS?J RGB?J NCPGMB GQ ?@MSR 12 FMSPQ ?LB 25.2 KGLSRCQ), @CA?SQC RFC -MML KMTCQ GL GRQ MP@GR C?AF B?W ?Q UCJJ).

F?=KH; 6.24 4FC -MML A?SQCQ MAC?L RGBCQ @W ?RRP?ARGLE RFC U?RCP ML RFC LC?P QGBC KMPC RF?L %?PRF, ?LB @W ?RRP?ARGLE %?PRF KMPC RF?L RFC U?RCP ML RFC D?P QGBC. 4FC BGQR?LACQ ?LB QGXCQ ?PC LMR RM QA?JC. &MP RFGQ QGKNJGDGCB PCNPCQCLR?RGML MD RFC %?PRF--MML QWQRCK, RFCPC ?PC RUM FGEF ?LB RUM JMU RGBCQ NCP B?W ?R ?LW JMA?RGML, @CA?SQC %?PRF PMR?RCQ SLBCP RFC RGB?J @SJEC.

4FC 3SL ?JQM ?DDCARQ RGBCQ, ?JRFMSEF GR F?Q ?@MSR F?JD RFC CDDCAR MD RFC -MML. (MUCTCP, RFC J?PECQR RGBCQ, A?JJCB QNPGLE RGBCQ, MAASP UFCL %?PRF, RFC -MML, ?LB RFC 3SL ?PC ?JGELCB. 4FC QK?JJCQR RGBCQ, A?JJCB LC?N RGBCQ, MAASP UFCL RFC 3SL GQ ?R ? 90 ?LEJC RM RFC %?PRF--MML ?JGELKCLR.

F?=KH; 6.25 (?, @) 3NPGLE RGBCQ: 4FC FGEFCQR RGBCQ MAASP UFCL %?PRF, RFC -MML, ?LB RFC 3SL ?PC ?JGELCB. (A) .C?N RGBC: 4FC JMUCQR RGBCQ MAASP UFCL RFC 3SL JGCQ ?R %?PRF--MML ?JGELKCLR. .MRC RF?R RFGQ DGESPC GQ LMR BP?UL RM QA?JC.

90

RM RFC

208

#(!04%2 6 Y 5.)&/2- #)2#5,!2 -/4)/. !.$ '2!6)4!4)/.

4GBCQ ?PC LMR SLGOSC RM %?PRF @SR MAASP GL K?LW ?QRPMLMKGA?J QWQRCKQ. 4FC KMQR CVRPCKC RGBCQ MAASP UFCPC RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC GQ RFC QRPMLECQR ?LB T?PGCQ KMQR P?NGBJW, QSAF ?Q LC?P @J?AI FMJCQ (QCC F?=KH; 6.26). ! DCU JGICJW A?LBGB?RCQ DMP @J?AI FMJCQ F?TC @CCL M@QCPTCB GL MSP E?J?VW. 4FCQC F?TC K?QQCQ EPC?RCP RF?L RFC 3SL @SR F?TC BG?KCRCPQ MLJW ? DCU IGJMKCRCPQ ?APMQQ. 4FC RGB?J DMPACQ LC?P RFCK ?PC QM EPC?R RF?R RFCW A?L ?ARS?JJW RC?P K?RRCP DPMK ? AMKN?LGML QR?P.

F?=KH; 6.26 ! @J?AI FMJC GQ ?L M@HCAR UGRF QSAF QRPMLE EP?TGRW RF?R LMR CTCL JGEFR A?L CQA?NC GR. 4FGQ @J?AI FMJC U?Q APC?RCB @W RFC QSNCPLMT? MD MLC QR?P GL ? RUM-QR?P QWQRCK. 4FC RGB?J DMPACQ APC?RCB @W RFC @J?AI FMJC ?PC QM EPC?R RF?R GR RC?PQ K?RRCP DPMK RFC AMKN?LGML QR?P. 4FGQ K?RRCP GQ AMKNPCQQCB ?LB FC?RCB ?Q GR GQ QSAICB GLRM RFC @J?AI FMJC, APC?RGLE JGEFR ?LB 8-P?WQ M@QCPT?@JC DPMK %?PRF.

v7CGEFRJCQQLCQQv ?LB -GAPMEP?TGRW


)L AMLRP?QR RM RFC RPCKCLBMSQ EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC LC?P @J?AI FMJCQ GQ RFC ?NN?PCLR EP?TGR?RGML?J DGCJB CVNCPGCLACB @W ?QRPML?SRQ MP@GRGLE %?PRF. 7F?R GQ RFC CDDCAR MD uUCGEFRJCQQLCQQv SNML ?L ?QRPML?SR UFM GQ GL MP@GR DMP KMLRFQ? /P UF?R ?@MSR RFC CDDCAR MD UCGEFRJCQQLCQQ SNML NJ?LR EPMURF? 7CGEFRJCQQLCQQ BMCQLtR KC?L RF?R ?L ?QRPML?SR GQ LMR @CGLE ?ARCB SNML @W RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC. 4FCPC GQ LM uXCPM EP?TGRWv GL ?L ?QRPML?SRtQ MP@GR. 4FC RCPK HSQR KC?LQ RF?R RFC ?QRPML?SR GQ GL DPCC-D?JJ, ?AACJCP?RGLE UGRF RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM EP?TGRW. )D ?L CJCT?RMP A?@JC @PC?IQ, RFC N?QQCLECPQ GLQGBC UGJJ @C GL DPCC D?JJ ?LB UGJJ CVNCPGCLAC UCGEFRJCQQLCQQ. 9MS A?L CVNCPGCLAC QFMPR NCPGMBQ MD UCGEFRJCQQLCQQ GL QMKC PGBCQ GL ?KSQCKCLR N?PIQ.

F?=KH; 6.27 !QRPML?SRQ CVNCPGCLAGLE UCGEFRJCQQLCQQ ML @M?PB RFC )LRCPL?RGML?J 3N?AC 3R?RGML. (APCBGR: .!3!)

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(6.52)

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(6.53)

M WGCJBQ M= gr 2 . G
(6.54)

M A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB @CA?SQC ?JJ OS?LRGRGCQ ML RFC PGEFR, GLAJSBGLE RFC P?BGSQ MD %?PRF r , ?PC ILMUL DPMK BGPCAR KC?QSPCKCLRQ. 7C QF?JJ QCC GL G ?JQM ?JJMUQ DMP RFC BCRCPKGL?RGML MD ?QRPMLMKGA?J K?QQCQ. )LRCPCQRGLEJW, MD ?JJ RFC DSLB?KCLR?J AMLQR?LRQ GL NFWQGAQ, G GQ @W D?P RFC JC?QR UCJJ BCRCPKGLCB.
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210

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T 22

T 12

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, 3

(6.55)

UFCPC T GQ RFC NCPGMB (RGKC DMP MLC MP@GR) ?LB r GQ RFC ?TCP?EC P?BGSQ. 4FGQ COS?RGML GQ T?JGB MLJW DMP AMKN?PGLE RUM QK?JJ K?QQCQ MP@GRGLE RFC Q?KC J?PEC MLC. -MQR GKNMPR?LRJW, RFGQ GQ ? BCQAPGNRGTC COS?RGML MLJW, EGTGLE LM GLDMPK?RGML ?Q RM RFC A?SQC MD RFC COS?JGRW.

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8

m DPMK RFC ACLRCP MD %?PRF, A?JASJ?RC RFC NCPGMB MD

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T 2 . 4FC EGTCL GLDMPK?RGML RCJJQ SQ RF?R RFC MP@GR?J P?BGSQ MD

T 22

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T 2 A?L @C DMSLB.
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r 13 r2

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(6.56)

T 2 , UC APMQQ-KSJRGNJW ?LB R?IC RFC QOS?PC PMMR, WGCJBGLE


3 r T 22 = T 12 r 2

(6.57) (6.58)

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(6.59)

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(6.63)

4 2 r 2 . GM r = T2
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3.8410 5 5.7910 7 1.08210 8 1.49610 8 2.27910 8 7.78310 8 1.42710 9 4.49710 9 5.9010 9 4.2210 5 6.7110 5 1.0710 6 1.8810 6

1.0110 18 3.3410 24 3.3510 24 3.3510 24 3.3510 24 3.3510 24 3.3510 24 3.3510 24 3.3310 24 3.1910 21 3.2010 21 3.1910 21 3.2010 21

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214

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24. 3CKG-RP?GJCP RPSAIQ F?TC ?L MBMKCRCP ML MLC FS@ MD ? RP?GJCP UFCCJ. 4FC FS@ GQ UCGEFRCB QM RF?R GR BMCQ LMR PMR?RC, @SR GR AMLR?GLQ EC?PQ RM AMSLR RFC LSK@CP MD UFCCJ PCTMJSRGMLQrGR RFCL A?JASJ?RCQ RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB. )D RFC UFCCJ F?Q ? 1.15 K BG?KCRCP ?LB EMCQ RFPMSEF 200,000 PMR?RGMLQ, FMU K?LW IGJMKCRCPQ QFMSJB RFC MBMKCRCP PC?B? 25. -GAPMU?TC MTCLQ PMR?RC ?R ? P?RC MD ?@MSR 6 PCT/KGL. 7F?R GQ RFGQ GL PCTMJSRGMLQ NCP QCAMLB? 7F?R GQ RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW GL P?BG?LQ NCP QCAMLB? 26. !L ?SRMKM@GJC UGRF 0.260 K P?BGSQ RGPCQ RP?TCJQ 80,000 IK @CDMPC UC?PGLE RFCK MSR. (MU K?LW PCTMJSRGMLQ BM RFC RGPCQ K?IC, LCEJCARGLE ?LW @?AIGLE SN ?LB ?LW AF?LEC GL P?BGSQ BSC RM UC?P? 27. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC NCPGMB MD PMR?RGML MD %?PRF GL QCAMLBQ? (@) 7F?R GQ RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW MD %?PRF? (A) 'GTCL RF?R %?PRF F?Q ? P?BGSQ MD 6.410 6 m ?R GRQ COS?RMP, UF?R GQ RFC JGLC?P TCJMAGRW ?R %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC? 28. ! @?QC@?JJ NGRAFCP @PGLEQ FGQ ?PK DMPU?PB BSPGLE ? NGRAF, PMR?RGLE RFC DMPC?PK ?@MSR RFC CJ@MU. )D RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC @?JJ GL RFC NGRAFCPtQ F?LB GQ 35.0 K/Q ?LB RFC @?JJ GQ 0.300 K DPMK RFC CJ@MU HMGLR, UF?R GQ RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW MD RFC DMPC?PK? 29. )L J?APMQQC, ? @?JJ GQ RFPMUL DPMK ? LCR ML RFC CLB MD ? QRGAI @W PMR?RGLE RFC QRGAI ?LB DMPC?PK ?@MSR RFC CJ@MU. )D RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW MD RFC @?JJ ?@MSR RFC CJ@MU HMGLR GQ 30.0 P?B/Q ?LB RFC @?JJ GQ 1.30 K DPMK RFC CJ@MU HMGLR, UF?R GQ RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC @?JJ? 30. ! RPSAI UGRF 0.420 K P?BGSQ RGPCQ RP?TCJQ ?R 32.0 K/Q. 7F?R GQ RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW MD RFC PMR?RGLE RGPCQ GL P?BG?LQ NCP QCAMLB? 7F?R GQ RFGQ GL PCT/KGL? 31. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI 7FCL IGAIGLE ? DMMR@?JJ, RFC IGAICP PMR?RCQ FGQ JCE ?@MSR RFC FGN HMGLR. (?) )D RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC RGN MD RFC IGAICPtQ QFMC GQ 35.0 K/Q ?LB RFC FGN HMGLR GQ 1.05 K DPMK RFC RGN MD RFC QFMC, UF?R GQ RFC QFMC RGNtQ ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW? (@) 4FC QFMC GQ GL AMLR?AR UGRF RFC GLGRG?JJW LC?PJW QR?RGML?PW 0.500 IE DMMR@?JJ DMP 20.0 KQ. 7F?R ?TCP?EC DMPAC GQ CVCPRCB ML RFC DMMR@?JJ RM EGTC GR ? TCJMAGRW MD 20.0 K/Q? (A) &GLB RFC K?VGKSK P?LEC MD RFC DMMR@?JJ, LCEJCARGLE ?GP PCQGQR?LAC. 32. CEDIJHK9J 2EKH (MD )HE8B;C #MLQGBCP ?L ?KSQCKCLR N?PI PGBC GL UFGAF N?PRGAGN?LRQ ?PC PMR?RCB ?@MSR ? TCPRGA?J ?VGQ GL ? AWJGLBCP UGRF TCPRGA?J U?JJQ. /LAC RFC ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW PC?AFCQ GRQ DSJJ T?JSC, RFC DJMMP BPMNQ ?U?W ?LB DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC U?JJQ ?LB RFC PGBCPQ NPCTCLRQ RFCK DPMK QJGBGLE BMUL. #MLQRPSAR ? NPM@JCK GL UFGAF WMS A?JASJ?RC RFC LCACQQ?PW ?LESJ?P TCJMAGRW RF?R ?QQSPCQ RFC PGBCPQ UGJJ LMR QJGBC BMUL RFC U?JJ. )LAJSBC ? DPCC @MBW BG?EP?K MD ? QGLEJC PGBCP. !KMLE RFC T?PG?@JCQ RM AMLQGBCP ?PC RFC P?BGSQ MD RFC AWJGLBCP ?LB RFC AMCDDGAGCLRQ MD DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC PGBCPQt AJMRFGLE ?LB RFC U?JJ.

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6.3 C;DJH?F;J7B FEH9;


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EA8E:L NJ?WQ ?L CQQCLRG?J PMJC @MRF GL CTCPWB?W CTCLRQ ?LB GL QAGCLRGDGA NFCLMKCL?. 9MS A?L LM BMS@R L?KC K?LW DMPKQ MD CLCPEW, DPMK RF?R NPMTGBCB @W MSP DMMBQ, RM RFC CLCPEW UC SQC RM PSL MSP A?PQ, RM RFC QSLJGEFR RF?R U?PKQ SQ ML RFC @C?AF. 9MS A?L ?JQM AGRC CV?KNJCQ MD UF?R NCMNJC A?JJ CLCPEW RF?R K?W LMR @C QAGCLRGDGA, QSAF ?Q QMKCMLC F?TGLE ?L CLCPECRGA NCPQML?JGRW. .MR MLJW BMCQ CLCPEW F?TC K?LW GLRCPCQRGLE DMPKQ, GR GQ GLTMJTCB GL ?JKMQR ?JJ NFCLMKCL?, ?LB GQ MLC MD RFC KMQR GKNMPR?LR AMLACNRQ MD NFWQGAQ. 7F?R K?ICQ GR CTCL KMPC GKNMPR?LR GQ RF?R RFC RMR?J ?KMSLR MD CLCPEW GL RFC SLGTCPQC GQ AMLQR?LR. %LCPEW A?L AF?LEC DMPKQ, @SR GR A?LLMR ?NNC?P DPMK LMRFGLE MP BGQ?NNC?P UGRFMSR ? RP?AC. %LCPEW GQ RFSQ MLC MD ? F?LBDSJ MD NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ RF?R UC Q?W GQ 6BAF8EI87. CEDI;HL7J?ED E< ;D;H=O (?Q NFWQGAGQRQ JGIC RM A?JJ RFC NPGLAGNJC RF?R CLCPEW A?L LCGRFCP @C APC?RCB LMP BCQRPMWCB) GQ @?QCB ML CVNCPGKCLR. %TCL ?Q QAGCLRGQRQ BGQAMTCPCB LCU DMPKQ MD CLCPEW, AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW F?Q ?JU?WQ @CCL DMSLB RM ?NNJW. 0CPF?NQ RFC KMQR BP?K?RGA CV?KNJC MD RFGQ U?Q QSNNJGCB @W %GLQRCGL UFCL FC QSEECQRCB RF?R K?QQ GQ COSGT?JCLR RM CLCPEW (FGQ D?KMSQ COS?RGML E = mc 2 ). &PMK ? QMAGCR?J TGCUNMGLR, CLCPEW GQ MLC MD RFC K?HMP @SGJBGLE @JMAIQ MD KMBCPL AGTGJGX?RGML. %LCPEW PCQMSPACQ ?PC ICW JGKGRGLE D?ARMPQ RM CAMLMKGA EPMURF. 4FC UMPJB SQC MD CLCPEW PCQMSPACQ, CQNCAG?JJW MGJ, AMLRGLSCQ RM EPMU, UGRF MKGLMSQ AMLQCOSCLACQ CAMLMKGA?JJW, QMAG?JJW, NMJGRGA?JJW, ?LB CLTGPMLKCLR?JJW. 7C UGJJ @PGCDJW CV?KGLC RFC UMPJBtQ CLCPEW SQC N?RRCPLQ ?R RFC CLB MD RFGQ AF?NRCP. 4FCPC GQ LM QGKNJC, WCR ?AASP?RC, QAGCLRGDGA BCDGLGRGML DMP CLCPEW. %LCPEW GQ AF?P?ARCPGXCB @W GRQ K?LW DMPKQ ?LB RFC D?AR RF?R GR GQ AMLQCPTCB. 7C A?L JMMQCJW BCDGLC ;D;H=O ?Q RFC ?@GJGRW RM BM UMPI, ?BKGRRGLE RF?R GL QMKC AGPASKQR?LACQ LMR ?JJ CLCPEW GQ ?T?GJ?@JC RM BM UMPI. "CA?SQC MD RFC ?QQMAG?RGML MD CLCPEW UGRF UMPI, UC @CEGL RFC AF?NRCP UGRF ? BGQASQQGML MD UMPI. 7MPI GQ GLRGK?RCJW PCJ?RCB RM CLCPEW ?LB FMU CLCPEW KMTCQ DPMK MLC QWQRCK RM ?LMRFCP MP AF?LECQ DMPK.

7.1 0EHA: ->; ,9?;DJ?<?9 D;<?D?J?ED


7F?R )R -C?LQ RM $M 7MPI
4FC QAGCLRGDGA BCDGLGRGML MD UMPI BGDDCPQ GL QMKC U?WQ DPMK GRQ CTCPWB?W KC?LGLE. #CPR?GL RFGLEQ UC RFGLI MD ?Q F?PB UMPI, QSAF ?Q UPGRGLE ?L CV?K MP A?PPWGLE ? FC?TW JM?B ML JCTCJ EPMSLB, ?PC LMR UMPI ?Q BCDGLCB @W ? QAGCLRGQR. 4FC QAGCLRGDGA BCDGLGRGML MD UMPI PCTC?JQ GRQ PCJ?RGMLQFGN RM CLCPEWrUFCLCTCP UMPI GQ BMLC, CLCPEW GQ RP?LQDCPPCB. &MP UMPI, GL RFC QAGCLRGDGA QCLQC, RM @C BMLC, ? DMPAC KSQR @C CVCPRCB ?LB RFCPC KSQR @C KMRGML MP BGQNJ?ACKCLR GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC DMPAC. &MPK?JJW, RFC MEHA BMLC ML ? QWQRCK @W ? AMLQR?LR DMPAC GQ BCDGLCB RM @C G;8 CEB7H6G B9 G;8 6B@CBA8AG B9 G;8 9BE68 <A G;8 7<E86G<BA B9 @BG<BA G<@8F G;8 7<FG4A68 G;EBH:; J;<6; G;8 9BE68 46GF. &MP MLC-U?W KMRGML GL MLC BGKCLQGML, RFGQ GQ CVNPCQQCB GL COS?RGML DMPK ?Q

224

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

W = F (cos ) d ,
UFCPC W GQ UMPI, d GQ RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD RFC QWQRCK, ?LB F?=KH; 7.2. 7C A?L ?JQM UPGRC RFGQ ?Q

(7.1)

GQ RFC ?LEJC @CRUCCL RFC DMPAC TCARMP F ?LB RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCARMP d , ?Q GL W = Fd cos .
(7.2)

4M DGLB RFC UMPI BMLC ML ? QWQRCK RF?R SLBCPEMCQ KMRGML RF?R GQ LMR MLC-U?W MP RF?R GQ GL RUM MP RFPCC BGKCLQGMLQ, UC BGTGBC RFC KMRGML GLRM MLC-U?W MLC-BGKCLQGML?J QCEKCLRQ ?LB ?BB SN RFC UMPI BMLC MTCP C?AF QCEKCLR. 7F?R GQ 7MPI? 4FC UMPI BMLC ML ? QWQRCK @W ? AMLQR?LR DMPAC GQ G;8 CEB7H6G B9 G;8 6B@CBA8AG B9 G;8 9BE68 <A G;8 7<E86G<BA B9 @BG<BA G<@8F G;8 7<FG4A68 G;EBH:; J;<6; G;8 9BE68 46GF. &MP MLC-U?W KMRGML GL MLC BGKCLQGML, RFGQ GQ CVNPCQQCB GL COS?RGML DMPK ?Q

W = Fd cos ,
UFCPC @CRUCCL RFC DMPAC TCARMP

(7.3)

W GQ UMPI, F GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC DMPAC ML RFC QWQRCK, d GQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD RFC QWQRCK, ?LB GQ RFC ?LEJC F ?LB RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCARMP d .

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

225

F?=KH; 7.2 %V?KNJCQ MD UMPI. (?) 4FC UMPI BMLC @W RFC DMPAC

LCACQQ?PGJW ? AMKNMLCLR MD DMPAC F GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC KMRGML. %LCPEW GQ RP?LQDCPPCB RM RFC @PGCDA?QC ?LB AMSJB GL RSPL @C SQCB RM BM UMPI. (C) 7FCL RFC @PGCDA?QC GQ JMUCPCB, CLCPEW GQ RP?LQDCPPCB MSR MD RFC @PGCDA?QC ?LB GLRM ?L CJCARPGA ECLCP?RMP. (CPC RFC UMPI BMLC ML RFC @PGCDA?QC @W RFC ECLCP?RMP GQ LCE?RGTC, PCKMTGLE CLCPEW DPMK RFC @PGCDA?QC, @CA?SQC

KMRGML. (@) ! NCPQML FMJBGLE ? @PGCDA?QC BMCQ LM UMPI ML GR, @CA?SQC RFCPC GQ LM KMRGML. .M CLCPEW GQ RP?LQDCPPCB RM MP DPMK RFC @PGCDA?QC. (A) 4FC NCPQML KMTGLE RFC @PGCDA?QC FMPGXMLR?JJW ?R ? AMLQR?LR QNCCB BMCQ LM UMPI ML GR, ?LB RP?LQDCPQ LM CLCPEW RM GR. (B) 7MPI <F BMLC ML RFC @PGCDA?QC @W A?PPWGLE GR SN QR?GPQ ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB, @CA?SQC RFCPC GQ

ML RFGQ J?UL KMUCP GQ

Fd cos . .MRC RF?R F cos

GQ RFC AMKNMLCLR MD RFC DMPAC GL RFC BGPCARGML MD

?LB

?PC GL MNNMQGRC BGPCARGMLQ.

4M CV?KGLC UF?R RFC BCDGLGRGML MD UMPI KC?LQ, JCR SQ AMLQGBCP RFC MRFCP QGRS?RGMLQ QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.2. 4FC NCPQML FMJBGLE RFC @PGCDA?QC GL F?=KH; 7.2(@) BMCQ LM UMPI, DMP CV?KNJC. (CPC d = 0 , QM W = 0 . 7FW GQ GR WMS ECR RGPCB HSQR FMJBGLE ? JM?B? 4FC ?LQUCP GQ RF?R WMSP KSQAJCQ ?PC BMGLE UMPI ?E?GLQR MLC ?LMRFCP, 5HG G;8L 4E8 7B<A: AB JBE> BA G;8 FLFG8@ B9 <AG8E8FG (RFC u@PGCDA?QC-%?PRF QWQRCKvrQCC H7L?J7J?ED7B )EJ;DJ?7B ED;H=O DMP KMPC BCR?GJQ). 4FCPC KSQR @C KMRGML DMP UMPI RM @C BMLC, ?LB RFCPC KSQR @C ? AMKNMLCLR MD RFC DMPAC GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC KMRGML. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC NCPQML A?PPWGLE RFC @PGCDA?QC ML JCTCJ EPMSLB GL F?=KH; 7.2(A) BMCQ LM UMPI ML GR, @CA?SQC RFC DMPAC GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC KMRGML. 4F?R GQ, cos 90 = 0 , ?LB QM W = 0 . )L AMLRP?QR, UFCL ? DMPAC CVCPRCB ML RFC QWQRCK F?Q ? AMKNMLCLR GL RFC BGPCARGML MD KMRGML, QSAF ?Q GL F?=KH; 7.2(B), UMPI <F BMLCrCLCPEW GQ RP?LQDCPPCB RM RFC @PGCDA?QC. &GL?JJW, GL F?=KH; 7.2(C), CLCPEW GQ RP?LQDCPPCB DPMK RFC @PGCDA?QC RM ? ECLCP?RMP. 4FCPC ?PC RUM EMMB U?WQ RM GLRCPNPCR RFGQ CLCPEW RP?LQDCP. /LC GLRCPNPCR?RGML GQ RF?R RFC @PGCDA?QCtQ UCGEFR BMCQ UMPI ML RFC ECLCP?RMP, EGTGLE GR CLCPEW. 4FC MRFCP GLRCPNPCR?RGML GQ RF?R RFC

226

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

ECLCP?RMP BMCQ LCE?RGTC UMPI ML RFC @PGCDA?QC, RFSQ PCKMTGLE CLCPEW DPMK GR. 4FC BP?UGLE QFMUQ RFC J?RRCP, UGRF RFC DMPAC DPMK RFC ECLCP?RMP SNU?PB ML RFC @PGCDA?QC, ?LB RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR BMULU?PB. 4FGQ K?ICQ = 180 , ?LB cos 180 = 1 ; RFCPCDMPC, W GQ LCE?RGTC.

#?JASJ?RGLE 7MPI
7MPI ?LB CLCPEW F?TC RFC Q?KC SLGRQ. &PMK RFC BCDGLGRGML MD UMPI, UC QCC RF?R RFMQC SLGRQ ?PC DMPAC RGKCQ BGQR?LAC. 4FSQ, GL 3) SLGRQ, UMPI ?LB CLCPEW ?PC KC?QSPCB GL D;MJED-C;J;HI. ! LCURML-KCRCP GQ EGTCL RFC QNCAG?J L?KC @EKB; (*), ?LB 1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m 2/s 2 . /LC HMSJC GQ LMR ? J?PEC ?KMSLR MD CLCPEW; GR UMSJB JGDR ? QK?JJ 100-EP?K ?NNJC ? BGQR?LAC MD ?@MSR 1 KCRCP.

EN7CFB; 7.1 C7B9KB7J?D= J>; 0EHA 2EK DE JE )KI> 7 %7MD &EM;H A9HEII 7 %7H=; %7MD
(MU KSAF UMPI GQ BMLC ML RFC J?UL KMUCP @W RFC NCPQML GL F?=KH; 7.2(?) GD FC CVCPRQ ? AMLQR?LR DMPAC MD FMPGXMLR?J ?LB NSQFCQ RFC KMUCP NCPQMLtQ ?TCP?EC B?GJW GLR?IC MD

25.0 m ML JCTCJ EPMSLB? #MLTCPR RFC ?KMSLR MD UMPI DPMK HMSJCQ RM IGJMA?JMPGCQ ?LB AMKN?PC GR UGRF RFGQ 10,000 kJ (?@MSR 2400 kcal ) MD DMMB CLCPEW. /LC 64?BE<8 (1 A?J) MD FC?R GQ RFC ?KMSLR PCOSGPCB RM U?PK 1 E MD U?RCP @W 1C , ?LB GQ COSGT?JCLR RM 4.184 J , UFGJC MLC 9BB7 64?BE<8 (1 IA?J) GQ COSGT?JCLR RM 4184 J . W = Fd cos .

75.0 N ?R ?L ?LEJC 35 @CJMU RFC

,JH7J;=O 7C A?L QMJTC RFGQ NPM@JCK @W QS@QRGRSRGLE RFC EGTCL T?JSCQ GLRM RFC BCDGLGRGML MD UMPI BMLC ML ? QWQRCK, QR?RCB GL RFC COS?RGML 4FC DMPAC, ?LEJC, ?LB BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?PC EGTCL, QM RF?R MLJW RFC UMPI ,EBKJ?ED 4FC COS?RGML DMP RFC UMPI GQ

W GQ SLILMUL.

W = Fd cos .
3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ EGTCQ

(7.4)

W = (75.0 N)(25.0 m) cos (35.0) = 1536 J = 1.5410 J.


#MLTCPRGLE RFC UMPI GL HMSJCQ RM IGJMA?JMPGCQ WGCJBQ AMLQSKNRGML GQ
3

(7.5)

W = (1536 J)(1 kcal / 4184 J) = 0.367 kcal . 4FC P?RGM MD RFC UMPI BMLC RM RFC B?GJW W = 1.5310 4. 2400 kcal
(7.6)

D?I9KII?ED 4FGQ P?RGM GQ ? RGLW DP?ARGML MD UF?R RFC NCPQML AMLQSKCQ, @SR GR GQ RWNGA?J. 6CPW JGRRJC MD RFC CLCPEW PCJC?QCB GL RFC AMLQSKNRGML MD DMMB GQ SQCB RM BM UMPI. %TCL UFCL UC uUMPIv ?JJ B?W JMLE, JCQQ RF?L 10% MD MSP DMMB CLCPEW GLR?IC GQ SQCB RM BM UMPI ?LB KMPC RF?L 90% GQ AMLTCPRCB RM RFCPK?J CLCPEW MP QRMPCB ?Q AFCKGA?J CLCPEW GL D?R.

7.2 $?D;J?9 ED;H=O 7D: J>; 0EHA-ED;H=O ->;EH;C


7MPI 4P?LQDCPQ %LCPEW
7F?R F?NNCLQ RM RFC UMPI BMLC ML ? QWQRCK? %LCPEW GQ RP?LQDCPPCB GLRM RFC QWQRCK, @SR GL UF?R DMPK? $MCQ GR PCK?GL GL RFC QWQRCK MP KMTC ML? 4FC ?LQUCPQ BCNCLB ML RFC QGRS?RGML. &MP CV?KNJC, GD RFC J?UL KMUCP GL F?=KH; 7.2(?) GQ NSQFCB HSQR F?PB CLMSEF RM ICCN GR EMGLE ?R ? AMLQR?LR QNCCB, RFCL CLCPEW NSR GLRM RFC KMUCP @W RFC NCPQML GQ PCKMTCB AMLRGLSMSQJW @W DPGARGML, ?LB CTCLRS?JJW JC?TCQ RFC QWQRCK GL RFC DMPK MD FC?R RP?LQDCP. )L AMLRP?QR, UMPI BMLC ML RFC @PGCDA?QC @W RFC NCPQML A?PPWGLE GR SN QR?GPQ GL F?=KH; 7.2(B) GQ QRMPCB GL RFC @PGCDA?QC-%?PRF QWQRCK ?LB A?L @C PCAMTCPCB ?R ?LW RGKC, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.2(C). )L D?AR, RFC @SGJBGLE MD RFC NWP?KGBQ GL ?LAGCLR %EWNR GQ ?L CV?KNJC MD QRMPGLE CLCPEW GL ? QWQRCK @W BMGLE UMPI ML RFC QWQRCK. 3MKC MD RFC CLCPEW GKN?PRCB RM RFC QRMLC @JMAIQ GL JGDRGLE RFCK BSPGLE AMLQRPSARGML MD RFC NWP?KGBQ PCK?GLQ GL RFC QRMLC-%?PRF QWQRCK ?LB F?Q RFC NMRCLRG?J RM BM UMPI. )L RFGQ QCARGML UC @CEGL RFC QRSBW MD T?PGMSQ RWNCQ MD UMPI ?LB DMPKQ MD CLCPEW. 7C UGJJ DGLB RF?R QMKC RWNCQ MD UMPI JC?TC RFC CLCPEW MD ? QWQRCK AMLQR?LR, DMP CV?KNJC, UFCPC?Q MRFCPQ AF?LEC RFC QWQRCK GL QMKC U?W, QSAF ?Q K?IGLE GR KMTC. 7C UGJJ ?JQM BCTCJMN BCDGLGRGMLQ MD GKNMPR?LR DMPKQ MD CLCPEW, QSAF ?Q RFC CLCPEW MD KMRGML.

.CR 7MPI ?LB RFC 7MPI-%LCPEW 4FCMPCK


7C ILMU DPMK RFC QRSBW MD .CURMLtQ J?UQ GL DOD7C?9I: FEH9; 7D: ';MJED'I %7MI E< &EJ?ED RF?R LCR DMPAC A?SQCQ ?AACJCP?RGML. 7C UGJJ QCC GL RFGQ QCARGML RF?R UMPI BMLC @W RFC LCR DMPAC EGTCQ ? QWQRCK CLCPEW MD KMRGML, ?LB GL RFC NPMACQQ UC UGJJ ?JQM DGLB ?L CVNPCQQGML DMP RFC CLCPEW MD KMRGML. ,CR SQ QR?PR @W AMLQGBCPGLE RFC RMR?J, MP LCR, UMPI BMLC ML ? QWQRCK. .CR UMPI GQ BCDGLCB RM @C RFC QSK MD UMPI BMLC @W ?JJ CVRCPL?J DMPACQrRF?R GQ, D;J MEHA GQ RFC UMPI BMLC @W RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC F net . )L COS?RGML DMPK, RFGQ GQ W net = F netd cos UFCPC GQ RFC ?LEJC @CRUCCL RFC DMPAC TCARMP ?LB RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR TCARMP. F?=KH; 7.3(?) QFMUQ ? EP?NF MD DMPAC TCPQSQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR DMP RFC AMKNMLCLR MD RFC DMPAC GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLRrRF?R GQ, ?L TQ. KMPC ECLCP?J NPMACQQ UFCPC RFC DMPAC T?PGCQ. 4FC ?PC? SLBCP RFC ASPTC GQ BGTGBCB GLRM QRPGNQ, C?AF F?TGLE ?L ?TCP?EC DMPAC

d EP?NF. )L RFGQ A?QC, F cos GQ AMLQR?LR. 9MS A?L QCC RF?R RFC ?PC? SLBCP RFC EP?NF GQ Fd cos , MP RFC UMPI BMLC. F?=KH; 7.3(@) QFMUQ ? (F cos ) i(ave) . 4FC

F cos

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

227

UMPI BMLC GQ

(F cos ) i(ave)d i DMP C?AF QRPGN, ?LB RFC RMR?J UMPI BMLC GQ RFC QSK MD RFC W i . 4FSQ RFC RMR?J UMPI BMLC GQ RFC RMR?J ?PC? SLBCP RFC

ASPTC, ? SQCDSJ NPMNCPRW RM UFGAF UC QF?JJ PCDCP J?RCP.

F?=KH; 7.3 (?) ! EP?NF MD

UFGAF RFC DMPAC T?PGCQ. 4FC UMPI BMLC DMP C?AF GLRCPT?J GQ RFC ?PC? MD C?AF QRPGN; RFSQ, RFC RMR?J ?PC? SLBCP RFC ASPTC COS?JQ RFC RMR?J UMPI BMLC.

F cos

TQ.

d , UFCL F cos

GQ AMLQR?LR. 4FC ?PC? SLBCP RFC ASPTC PCNPCQCLRQ RFC UMPI BMLC @W RFC DMPAC. (@) ! EP?NF MD

F cos

TQ.

GL

.CR UMPI UGJJ @C QGKNJCP RM CV?KGLC GD UC AMLQGBCP ? MLC-BGKCLQGML?J QGRS?RGML UFCPC ? DMPAC GQ SQCB RM ?AACJCP?RC ?L M@HCAR GL ? BGPCARGML N?P?JJCJ RM GRQ GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW. 3SAF ? QGRS?RGML MAASPQ DMP RFC N?AI?EC ML RFC PMJJCP @CJR AMLTCWMP QWQRCK QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.4.

F?=KH; 7.4 ! N?AI?EC ML ? PMJJCP @CJR GQ NSQFCB FMPGXMLR?JJW RFPMSEF ? BGQR?LAC

d.

4FC DMPAC MD EP?TGRW ?LB RFC LMPK?J DMPAC ?ARGLE ML RFC N?AI?EC ?PC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB BM LM UMPI. -MPCMTCP, RFCW ?PC ?JQM COS?J GL K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC GL BGPCARGML QM RFCW A?LACJ GL A?JASJ?RGLE RFC LCR DMPAC. 4FC LCR DMPAC ?PGQCQ QMJCJW DPMK RFC FMPGXMLR?J ?NNJGCB DMPAC F app ?LB RFC FMPGXMLR?J DPGARGML DMPAC UMPI GQ EGTCL @W

f . 4FSQ, ?Q CVNCARCB, RFC LCR DMPAC GQ N?P?JJCJ RM RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR, QM RF?R = 0 ?LB cos = 1 , ?LB RFC LCR W net = F netd.
(7.7)

4FC CDDCAR MD RFC LCR DMPAC

F net GQ RM ?AACJCP?RC RFC N?AI?EC DPMK v 0 RM v . 4FC IGLCRGA CLCPEW MD RFC N?AI?EC GLAPC?QCQ, GLBGA?RGLE RF?R RFC LCR UMPI

BMLC ML RFC QWQRCK GQ NMQGRGTC. (3CC EN7CFB; 7.2.) "W SQGLE .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U, ?LB BMGLE QMKC ?JEC@P?, UC A?L PC?AF ?L GLRCPCQRGLE AMLAJSQGML. 3S@QRGRSRGLE F net = ma DPMK .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U EGTCQ

W net = mad.
4M ECR ? PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL LCR UMPI ?LB RFC QNCCB EGTCL RM ? QWQRCK @W RFC LCR DMPAC ?ARGLE ML GR, UC R?IC

(7.8)

d = x x 0 ?LB SQC RFC COS?RGML

QRSBGCB GL &EJ?ED EGK7J?EDI <EH CEDIJ7DJ A99;B;H7J?ED ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED DMP RFC AF?LEC GL QNCCB MTCP ? BGQR?LAC AMLQR?LR T?JSC . 7FCL

d GD RFC ?AACJCP?RGML F?Q RFC v2 v02 2d

a ; L?KCJW, v 2 = v 0 2 + 2ad (LMRC RF?R a ?NNC?PQ GL RFC CVNPCQQGML DMP RFC LCR UMPI). 3MJTGLE DMP ?AACJCP?RGML EGTCQ a =

a GQ QS@QRGRSRCB GLRM RFC NPCACBGLE CVNPCQQGML DMP W net , UC M@R?GL

228

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

W net = m
4FC

v 2 v 2 0 d . 2d

(7.9)

d A?LACJQ, ?LB UC PC?PP?LEC RFGQ RM M@R?GL W = 1 mv 2 1 mv 02 . 2 2


(7.10)

4FGQ CVNPCQQGML GQ A?JJCB RFC MEHA-;D;H=O J>;EH;C, ?LB GR ?ARS?JJW ?NNJGCQ <A :8A8E4? (CTCL DMP DMPACQ RF?R T?PW GL BGPCARGML ?LB K?ELGRSBC), ?JRFMSEF UC F?TC BCPGTCB GR DMP RFC QNCAG?J A?QC MD ? AMLQR?LR DMPAC N?P?JJCJ RM RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR. 4FC RFCMPCK GKNJGCQ RF?R RFC LCR UMPI ML ? QWQRCK COS?JQ RFC AF?LEC GL RFC OS?LRGRW 1 mv 2 . 4FGQ OS?LRGRW GQ MSP DGPQR CV?KNJC MD ? DMPK MD CLCPEW.

4FC 7MPI-%LCPEW 4FCMPCK 4FC LCR UMPI ML ? QWQRCK COS?JQ RFC AF?LEC GL RFC OS?LRGRW

1 mv 2 . 2
(7.11)

W net = 1 mv 2 1 mv 02 2 2
4FC OS?LRGRW

(+E4AF?4G<BA4? IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ BGQRGLAR DPMK EBG4G<BA4? IGLCRGA CLCPEW, UFGAF GQ AMLQGBCPCB J?RCP.) )L COS?RGML DMPK, RFC RP?LQJ?RGML?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW,

1 mv 2 GL RFC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK GQ BCDGLCB RM @C RFC RP?LQJ?RGML?J A?D;J?9 ;D;H=O (+%) MD ? K?QQ m KMTGLE ?R ? QNCCB v . 2 KE = 1 mv 2, 2

(7.12)

GQ RFC CLCPEW ?QQMAG?RCB UGRF RP?LQJ?RGML?J KMRGML. +GLCRGA CLCPEW GQ ? DMPK MD CLCPEW ?QQMAG?RCB UGRF RFC KMRGML MD ? N?PRGAJC, QGLEJC @MBW, MP QWQRCK MD M@HCARQ KMTGLE RMECRFCP. 7C ?PC ?U?PC RF?R GR R?ICQ CLCPEW RM ECR ?L M@HCAR, JGIC ? A?P MP RFC N?AI?EC GL F?=KH; 7.4, SN RM QNCCB, @SR GR K?W @C ? @GR QSPNPGQGLE RF?R IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM QNCCB QOS?PCB. 4FGQ NPMNMPRGML?JGRW KC?LQ, DMP CV?KNJC, RF?R ? A?P RP?TCJGLE ?R 100 IK/F F?Q DMSP RGKCQ RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW GR F?Q ?R 50 IK/F, FCJNGLE RM CVNJ?GL UFW FGEF-QNCCB AMJJGQGMLQ ?PC QM BCT?QR?RGLE. 7C UGJJ LMU AMLQGBCP ? QCPGCQ MD CV?KNJCQ RM GJJSQRP?RC T?PGMSQ ?QNCARQ MD UMPI ?LB CLCPEW.

EN7CFB; 7.2 C7B9KB7J?D= J>; $?D;J?9 ED;H=O E< 7 )79A7=;


3SNNMQC ? 30.0-IE N?AI?EC ML RFC PMJJCP @CJR AMLTCWMP QWQRCK GL F?=KH; 7.4 GQ KMTGLE ?R 0.500 K/Q. 7F?R GQ GRQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW? ,JH7J;=O "CA?SQC RFC K?QQ ,EBKJ?ED 4FC IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ EGTCL @W

m ?LB QNCCB v ?PC EGTCL, RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB DPMK GRQ BCDGLGRGML ?Q EGTCL GL RFC COS?RGML KE = 1 mv 2 . 2

KE = 1 mv 2. 2
%LRCPGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ EGTCQ

(7.13)

KE = 0.5(30.0 kg)(0.500 m/s) 2,


UFGAF WGCJBQ

(7.14)

KE = 3.75 kg m 2/s 2 = 3.75 J.


D?I9KII?ED

(7.15)

.MRC RF?R RFC SLGR MD IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ RFC HMSJC, RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC SLGR MD UMPI, ?Q KCLRGMLCB UFCL UMPI U?Q DGPQR BCDGLCB. )R GQ ?JQM GLRCPCQRGLE RF?R, ?JRFMSEF RFGQ GQ ? D?GPJW K?QQGTC N?AI?EC, GRQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ LMR J?PEC ?R RFGQ PCJ?RGTCJW JMU QNCCB. 4FGQ D?AR GQ AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC M@QCPT?RGML RF?R NCMNJC A?L KMTC N?AI?ECQ JGIC RFGQ UGRFMSR CVF?SQRGLE RFCKQCJTCQ.

EN7CFB; 7.3 D;J;HC?D?D= J>; 0EHA JE A99;B;H7J; 7 )79A7=;


3SNNMQC RF?R WMS NSQF ML RFC 30.0-IE N?AI?EC GL F?=KH; 7.4 UGRF ? AMLQR?LR DMPAC MD 120 . RFPMSEF ? BGQR?LAC MD 0.800 K, ?LB RF?R RFC MNNMQGLE DPGARGML DMPAC ?TCP?ECQ 5.00 .. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC LCR UMPI BMLC ML RFC N?AI?EC. (@) 3MJTC RFC Q?KC NPM@JCK ?Q GL N?PR (?), RFGQ RGKC @W DGLBGLE RFC UMPI BMLC @W C?AF DMPAC RF?R AMLRPG@SRCQ RM RFC LCR DMPAC. ,JH7J;=O 7D: CED9;FJ <EH (7)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

229

4FGQ GQ ? KMRGML GL MLC BGKCLQGML NPM@JCK, @CA?SQC RFC BMULU?PB DMPAC (DPMK RFC UCGEFR MD RFC N?AI?EC) ?LB RFC LMPK?J DMPAC F?TC COS?J K?ELGRSBC ?LB MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML, QM RF?R RFCW A?LACJ GL A?JASJ?RGLE RFC LCR DMPAC, UFGJC RFC ?NNJGCB DMPAC, DPGARGML, ?LB RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?PC ?JJ FMPGXMLR?J. (3CC F?=KH; 7.4.) !Q CVNCARCB, RFC LCR UMPI GQ RFC LCR DMPAC RGKCQ BGQR?LAC. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) 4FC LCR DMPAC GQ RFC NSQF DMPAC KGLSQ DPGARGML, MP

F net = 120 N 5.00 N = 115 N . 4FSQ RFC LCR UMPI GQ W net = F netd = (115 N)(0.800 m) = 92.0 N m = 92.0 J.
(7.16)

D?I9KII?ED <EH (7) 4FGQ T?JSC GQ RFC LCR UMPI BMLC ML RFC N?AI?EC. 4FC NCPQML ?ARS?JJW BMCQ KMPC UMPI RF?L RFGQ, @CA?SQC DPGARGML MNNMQCQ RFC KMRGML. &PGARGML BMCQ LCE?RGTC UMPI ?LB PCKMTCQ QMKC MD RFC CLCPEW RFC NCPQML CVNCLBQ ?LB AMLTCPRQ GR RM RFCPK?J CLCPEW. 4FC LCR UMPI COS?JQ RFC QSK MD RFC UMPI BMLC @W C?AF GLBGTGBS?J DMPAC. ,JH7J;=O 7D: CED9;FJ <EH (8) 4FC DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC N?AI?EC ?PC EP?TGRW, RFC LMPK?J DMPAC, RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML, ?LB RFC ?NNJGCB DMPAC. 4FC LMPK?J DMPAC ?LB DMPAC MD EP?TGRW ?PC C?AF NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR, ?LB RFCPCDMPC BM LM UMPI. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) 4FC ?NNJGCB DMPAC BMCQ UMPI.

W app = F appd cos(0) = F appd = (120 N)(0.800 m) = 96.0 J

(7.17)

4FC DPGARGML DMPAC ?LB BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?PC GL MNNMQGRC BGPCARGMLQ, QM RF?R

= 180 , ?LB RFC UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML GQ


(7.18)

W fr = F frd cos(180) = F frd = (5.00 N)(0.800 m) = 4.00 J.


3M RFC ?KMSLRQ MD UMPI BMLC @W EP?TGRW, @W RFC LMPK?J DMPAC, @W RFC ?NNJGCB DMPAC, ?LB @W DPGARGML ?PC, PCQNCARGTCJW,

W gr

= 0,

(7.19)

W N = 0, W app = 96.0 J, W fr

= 4.00 J.
(7.20)

4FC RMR?J UMPI BMLC ?Q RFC QSK MD RFC UMPI BMLC @W C?AF DMPAC GQ RFCL QCCL RM @C

W total = W gr + W N + W app + W fr = 92.0 J.


D?I9KII?ED <EH (8) 4FC A?JASJ?RCB RMR?J UMPI

W total ?Q RFC QSK MD RFC UMPI @W C?AF DMPAC ?EPCCQ, ?Q CVNCARCB, UGRF RFC UMPI W net BMLC @W RFC LCR DMPAC. 4FC

UMPI BMLC @W ? AMJJCARGML MD DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB @W CGRFCP ?NNPM?AF.

EN7CFB; 7.4 D;J;HC?D?D= ,F;;: <HEC 0EHA 7D: ED;H=O


&GLB RFC QNCCB MD RFC N?AI?EC GL F?=KH; 7.4 ?R RFC CLB MD RFC NSQF, SQGLE UMPI ?LB CLCPEW AMLACNRQ. ,JH7J;=O (CPC RFC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK A?L @C SQCB, @CA?SQC UC F?TC HSQR A?JASJ?RCB RFC LCR UMPI, A?JASJ?RGMLQ ?JJMU SQ RM DGLB RFC DGL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW, ,EBKJ?ED 4FC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK GL COS?RGML DMPK GQ

1 mv 2 , ?LB RFSQ RFC DGL?J QNCCB v . 2

W net , ?LB RFC GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW, 1 mv 0 2 . 4FCQC 2

W net = 1 mv 2 1 mv 0 2. 2 2
3MJTGLE DMP

(7.21)

1 mv 2 EGTCQ 2 1 mv 2 = W + 1 mv 2. net 2 2 0
(7.22)

230

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

4FSQ,

1 mv 2 = 92.0 J+3.75 J = 95.75 J. 2


3MJTGLE DMP RFC DGL?J QNCCB ?Q PCOSCQRCB ?LB CLRCPGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ EGTCQ

(7.23)

v =
D?I9KII?ED

191.5 kg m 2/s 2 2(95.75 J) = m 30.0 kg = 2.53 m/s.

(7.24)

5QGLE UMPI ?LB CLCPEW, UC LMR MLJW ?PPGTC ?R ?L ?LQUCP, UC QCC RF?R RFC DGL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ RFC QSK MD RFC GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?LB RFC LCR UMPI BMLC ML RFC N?AI?EC. 4FGQ KC?LQ RF?R RFC UMPI GLBCCB ?BBQ RM RFC CLCPEW MD RFC N?AI?EC.

EN7CFB; 7.5 0EHA 7D: ED;H=O C7D +;L;7B D?IJ7D9;, -EE


(MU D?P BMCQ RFC N?AI?EC GL F?=KH; 7.4 AM?QR ?DRCP RFC NSQF, ?QQSKGLE DPGARGML PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR? 5QC UMPI ?LB CLCPEW AMLQGBCP?RGMLQ. ,JH7J;=O 7C ILMU RF?R MLAC RFC NCPQML QRMNQ NSQFGLE, DPGARGML UGJJ @PGLE RFC N?AI?EC RM PCQR. )L RCPKQ MD CLCPEW, DPGARGML BMCQ LCE?RGTC UMPI SLRGJ GR F?Q PCKMTCB ?JJ MD RFC N?AI?ECtQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW. 4FC UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML GQ RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML RGKCQ RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB RGKCQ RFC AMQGLC MD RFC ?LEJC @CRUCCL RFC DPGARGML DMPAC ?LB BGQNJ?ACKCLR; FCLAC, RFGQ EGTCQ SQ ? U?W MD DGLBGLE RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB ?DRCP RFC NCPQML QRMNQ NSQFGLE. ,EBKJ?ED 4FC LMPK?J DMPAC ?LB DMPAC MD EP?TGRW A?LACJ GL A?JASJ?RGLE RFC LCR DMPAC. 4FC FMPGXMLR?J DPGARGML DMPAC GQ RFCL RFC LCR DMPAC, ?LB GR ?ARQ MNNMQGRC RM RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR, QM = 180 . 4M PCBSAC RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW MD RFC N?AI?EC RM XCPM, RFC UMPI W fr @W DPGARGML KSQR @C KGLSQ RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW RF?R RFC N?AI?EC QR?PRCB UGRF NJSQ UF?R RFC N?AI?EC ?AASKSJ?RCB BSC RM RFC NSQFGLE. 4FSQ

W fr = f d cos = f d , UFCPC d GQ RFC BGQR?LAC GR R?ICQ RM QRMN. 4FSQ, d =


?LB QM

W fr = 95.75 J . &SPRFCPKMPC,

W fr = 95.75 J , f 5.00 N d = 19.2 m.

(7.25)

(7.26)

D?I9KII?ED 4FGQ GQ ? PC?QML?@JC BGQR?LAC DMP ? N?AI?EC RM AM?QR ML ? PCJ?RGTCJW DPGARGML-DPCC AMLTCWMP QWQRCK. .MRC RF?R RFC UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML GQ LCE?RGTC (RFC DMPAC GQ GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML MD KMRGML), QM GR PCKMTCQ RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW.

3MKC MD RFC CV?KNJCQ GL RFGQ QCARGML A?L @C QMJTCB UGRFMSR AMLQGBCPGLE CLCPEW, @SR ?R RFC CVNCLQC MD KGQQGLE MSR ML E?GLGLE GLQGEFRQ ?@MSR UF?R UMPI ?LB CLCPEW ?PC BMGLE GL RFGQ QGRS?RGML. /L RFC UFMJC, QMJSRGMLQ GLTMJTGLE CLCPEW ?PC ECLCP?JJW QFMPRCP ?LB C?QGCP RF?L RFMQC SQGLE IGLCK?RGAQ ?LB BWL?KGAQ ?JMLC.

7.3

H7L?J7J?ED7B )EJ;DJ?7B ED;H=O

7MPI $MLC !E?GLQR 'P?TGRW


#JGK@GLE QR?GPQ ?LB JGDRGLE M@HCARQ GQ UMPI GL @MRF RFC QAGCLRGDGA ?LB CTCPWB?W QCLQCrGR GQ UMPI BMLC ?E?GLQR RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC. 7FCL RFCPC GQ UMPI, RFCPC GQ ? RP?LQDMPK?RGML MD CLCPEW. 4FC UMPI BMLC ?E?GLQR RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC EMCQ GLRM ?L GKNMPR?LR DMPK MD QRMPCB CLCPEW RF?R UC UGJJ CVNJMPC GL RFGQ QCARGML. ,CR SQ A?JASJ?RC RFC UMPI BMLC GL JGDRGLE ?L M@HCAR MD K?QQ QNCCB, RFCL RFC DMPAC LCCBCB RM JGDR GR GQ COS?J RM GRQ UCGEFR =H7L?J7J?ED7B FEJ;DJ?7B ;D;H=O

m RFPMSEF ? FCGEFR h , QSAF ?Q GL F?=KH; 7.5. )D RFC M@HCAR GQ JGDRCB QRP?GEFR SN ?R AMLQR?LR mg . 4FC UMPI BMLC ML RFC K?QQ GQ RFCL W = Fd = mgh . 7C BCDGLC RFGQ RM @C RFC PE g E?GLCB @W RFC M@HCAR, PCAMELGXGLE

(PE g) NSR GLRM (MP E?GLCB @W) RFC M@HCAR-%?PRF QWQRCK. 4FGQ CLCPEW GQ ?QQMAG?RCB UGRF RFC QR?RC MD QCN?P?RGML

@CRUCCL RUM M@HCARQ RF?R ?RRP?AR C?AF MRFCP @W RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC. &MP AMLTCLGCLAC, UC PCDCP RM RFGQ ?Q RFC

RF?R RFGQ GQ CLCPEW QRMPCB GL RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DGCJB MD %?PRF. 7FW BM UC SQC RFC UMPB uQWQRCKv? 0MRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ ? NPMNCPRW MD ? QWQRCK P?RFCP RF?L MD ? QGLEJC M@HCARrBSC RM GRQ NFWQGA?J NMQGRGML. !L M@HCARtQ EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J GQ BSC RM GRQ NMQGRGML PCJ?RGTC RM RFC QSPPMSLBGLEQ UGRFGL RFC %?PRFM@HCAR QWQRCK. 4FC DMPAC ?NNJGCB RM RFC M@HCAR GQ ?L CVRCPL?J DMPAC, DPMK MSRQGBC RFC QWQRCK. 7FCL GR BMCQ NMQGRGTC UMPI GR GLAPC?QCQ RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MD RFC QWQRCK. "CA?SQC EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW BCNCLBQ ML PCJ?RGTC NMQGRGML, UC LCCB ? PCDCPCLAC JCTCJ ?R UFGAF RM QCR RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW COS?J RM 0. 7C SQS?JJW AFMMQC RFGQ NMGLR RM @C %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC, @SR RFGQ NMGLR GQ ?P@GRP?PW; UF?R GQ GKNMPR?LR GQ RFC 7<998E8A68 GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW, @CA?SQC RFGQ BGDDCPCLAC GQ UF?R PCJ?RCQ RM RFC UMPI BMLC. 4FC BGDDCPCLAC GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MD ?L M@HCAR (GL RFC %?PRF-M@HCAR QWQRCK) @CRUCCL RUM PSLEQ MD ? J?BBCP UGJJ @C RFC Q?KC DMP RFC DGPQR RUM PSLEQ ?Q DMP RFC J?QR RUM PSLEQ.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

231

#MLTCPRGLE "CRUCCL 0MRCLRG?J %LCPEW ?LB +GLCRGA %LCPEW


'P?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW K?W @C AMLTCPRCB RM MRFCP DMPKQ MD CLCPEW, QSAF ?Q IGLCRGA CLCPEW. )D UC PCJC?QC RFC K?QQ, EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC UGJJ BM ?L ?KMSLR MD UMPI COS?J RM mgh ML GR, RFCPC@W GLAPC?QGLE GRQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW @W RF?R Q?KC ?KMSLR (@W RFC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK). 7C UGJJ DGLB GR KMPC SQCDSJ RM AMLQGBCP HSQR RFC AMLTCPQGML MD

PE g RM KE UGRFMSR CVNJGAGRJW AMLQGBCPGLE RFC GLRCPKCBG?RC QRCN MD UMPI. (3CC EN7CFB; 7.7.) 4FGQ QFMPRASR

K?ICQ GR GQ C?QGCP RM QMJTC NPM@JCKQ SQGLE CLCPEW (GD NMQQG@JC) P?RFCP RF?L CVNJGAGRJW SQGLE DMPACQ.

F?=KH; 7.5 (?) 4FC UMPI BMLC RM JGDR RFC UCGEFR GQ QRMPCB GL RFC K?QQ-%?PRF QWQRCK ?Q EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW. (@) !Q RFC UCGEFR KMTCQ BMULU?PB, RFGQ EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ RP?LQDCPPCB RM RFC ASAIMM AJMAI.

-MPC NPCAGQCJW, UC BCDGLC RFC 6;4A:8 GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW

PE g RM @C
(7.27)

PE g = mgh,

UFCPC, DMP QGKNJGAGRW, UC BCLMRC RFC AF?LEC GL FCGEFR @W h P?RFCP RF?L RFC SQS?J h . .MRC RF?R h GQ NMQGRGTC UFCL RFC DGL?J FCGEFR GQ EPC?RCP RF?L RFC GLGRG?J FCGEFR, ?LB TGAC TCPQ?. &MP CV?KNJC, GD ? 0.500-IE K?QQ FSLE DPMK ? ASAIMM AJMAI GQ P?GQCB 1.00 K, RFCL GRQ AF?LEC GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ
2 mgh = 0.500 kg9.80 m/s (1.00 m)

(7.28)

= 4.90 kg m 2/s 2 = 4.90 J.


.MRC RF?R RFC SLGRQ MD EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW RSPL MSR RM @C HMSJCQ, RFC Q?KC ?Q DMP UMPI ?LB MRFCP DMPKQ MD CLCPEW. !Q RFC AJMAI PSLQ, RFC K?QQ GQ JMUCPCB. 7C A?L RFGLI MD RFC K?QQ ?Q EP?BS?JJW EGTGLE SN GRQ 4.90 * MD EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW, J<G;BHG 7<E86G?L 6BAF<78E<A: G;8 9BE68 B9 :E4I<GL G;4G 7B8F G;8 JBE>.

5QGLE 0MRCLRG?J %LCPEW RM 3GKNJGDW #?JASJ?RGMLQ


4FC COS?RGML

PE g = mgh ?NNJGCQ DMP ?LW N?RF RF?R F?Q ? AF?LEC GL FCGEFR MD h , LMR HSQR UFCL RFC K?QQ GQ JGDRCB QRP?GEFR SN. (3CC F?=KH; 7.6.) )R mgh (? QGKNJC KSJRGNJGA?RGML) RF?L GR GQ RM A?JASJ?RC RFC UMPI BMLC ?JMLE ? AMKNJGA?RCB N?RF. 4FC GBC? MD EP?TGR?RGML?J

GQ KSAF C?QGCP RM A?JASJ?RC

NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW F?Q RFC BMS@JC ?BT?LR?EC RF?R GR GQ TCPW @PM?BJW ?NNJGA?@JC ?LB GR K?ICQ A?JASJ?RGMLQ C?QGCP. &PMK LMU ML, UC UGJJ AMLQGBCP RF?R ?LW AF?LEC GL TCPRGA?J NMQGRGML h MD ? K?QQ m GQ ?AAMKN?LGCB @W ? AF?LEC GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW mgh , ?LB UC UGJJ ?TMGB RFC COSGT?JCLR @SR KMPC BGDDGASJR R?QI MD A?JASJ?RGLE UMPI BMLC @W MP ?E?GLQR RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC.

232

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

F?=KH; 7.6 4FC AF?LEC GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW

(PE g)

@CRUCCL NMGLRQ ! ?LB " GQ GLBCNCLBCLR MD RFC N?RF.

PE g = mgh

DMP ?LW N?RF @CRUCCL RFC RUM NMGLRQ.

'P?TGRW GQ MLC MD ? QK?JJ AJ?QQ MD DMPACQ UFCPC RFC UMPI BMLC @W MP ?E?GLQR RFC DMPAC BCNCLBQ MLJW ML RFC QR?PRGLE ?LB CLBGLE NMGLRQ, LMR ML RFC N?RF @CRUCCL RFCK.

EN7CFB; 7.6 ->; FEH9; JE ,JEF F7BB?D=


! 60.0-IE NCPQML HSKNQ MLRM RFC DJMMP DPMK ? FCGEFR MD 3.00 K. )D FC J?LBQ QRGDDJW (UGRF FGQ ILCC HMGLRQ AMKNPCQQGLE @W 0.500 AK), A?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC ML RFC ILCC HMGLRQ. ,JH7J;=O 4FGQ NCPQMLtQ CLCPEW GQ @PMSEFR RM XCPM GL RFGQ QGRS?RGML @W RFC UMPI BMLC ML FGK @W RFC DJMMP ?Q FC QRMNQ. 4FC GLGRG?J

PE g GQ RP?LQDMPKCB GLRM

KE ?Q FC D?JJQ. 4FC UMPI BMLC @W RFC DJMMP PCBSACQ RFGQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW RM XCPM.
,EBKJ?ED 4FC UMPI BMLC ML RFC NCPQML @W RFC DJMMP ?Q FC QRMNQ GQ EGTCL @W

W = Fd cos = Fd,
UGRF ? KGLSQ QGEL @CA?SQC RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR UFGJC QRMNNGLE ?LB RFC DMPAC DPMK DJMMP ?PC GL MNNMQGRC BGPCARGMLQ DJMMP PCKMTCQ CLCPEW DPMK RFC QWQRCK, QM GR BMCQ LCE?RGTC UMPI. 4FC IGLCRGA CLCPEW RFC NCPQML F?Q SNML PC?AFGLE RFC DJMMP GQ RFC ?KMSLR MD NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW JMQR @W D?JJGLE RFPMSEF FCGEFR

(7.29)

(cos = cos 180 = 1) . 4FC h:


(7.30)

KE = PE g = mgh,
4FC BGQR?LAC d RF?R RFC NCPQMLtQ ILCCQ @CLB GQ KSAF QK?JJCP RF?L RFC FCGEFR CLCPEW BSPGLE RFC ILCC @CLB GQ GELMPCB. 4FC UMPI

h MD RFC D?JJ, QM RFC ?BBGRGML?J AF?LEC GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J

W BMLC @W RFC DJMMP ML RFC NCPQML QRMNQ RFC NCPQML ?LB @PGLEQ RFC NCPQMLtQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW RM XCPM: W = KE = mgh.
(7.31)

#MK@GLGLE RFGQ COS?RGML UGRF RFC CVNPCQQGML DMP

W EGTCQ Fd = mgh.
(7.32)

2CA?JJGLE RF?R

h GQ LCE?RGTC @CA?SQC RFC NCPQML DCJJ 7BJA, RFC DMPAC ML RFC ILCC HMGLRQ GQ EGTCL @W F=
2 60.0 kg9.80 m/s (3.00 m) mgh = = 3.5310 5 N. d 5.0010 3 m

(7.33)

D?I9KII?ED 3SAF ? J?PEC DMPAC (500 RGKCQ KMPC RF?L RFC NCPQMLtQ UCGEFR) MTCP RFC QFMPR GKN?AR RGKC GQ CLMSEF RM @PC?I @MLCQ. ! KSAF @CRRCP U?W RM ASQFGML RFC QFMAI GQ @W @CLBGLE RFC JCEQ MP PMJJGLE ML RFC EPMSLB, GLAPC?QGLE RFC RGKC MTCP UFGAF RFC DMPAC ?ARQ. ! @CLBGLE KMRGML MD 0.5 K RFGQ U?W WGCJBQ

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

233

? DMPAC 100 RGKCQ QK?JJCP RF?L GL RFC CV?KNJC. ! I?LE?PMM'Q FMNNGLE QFMUQ RFGQ KCRFMB GL ?ARGML. 4FC I?LE?PMM GQ RFC MLJW J?PEC ?LGK?J RM SQC FMNNGLE DMP JMAMKMRGML, @SR RFC QFMAI GL FMNNGLE GQ ASQFGMLCB @W RFC @CLBGLE MD GRQ FGLB JCEQ GL C?AF HSKN.(3CC F?=KH; 7.7.)

F?=KH; 7.7 4FC UMPI BMLC @W RFC EPMSLB SNML RFC I?LE?PMM PCBSACQ GRQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW RM XCPM ?Q GR J?LBQ. (MUCTCP, @W ?NNJWGLE RFC DMPAC MD RFC EPMSLB ML RFC FGLB JCEQ MTCP ? JMLECP BGQR?LAC, RFC GKN?AR ML RFC @MLCQ GQ PCBSACB. (APCBGR: #FPGQ 3?KSCJ, &JGAIP)

EN7CFB; 7.7 F?D:?D= J>; ,F;;: E< 7 +EBB;H CE7IJ;H <HEC ?JI !;?=>J
(?) 7F?R GQ RFC DGL?J QNCCB MD RFC PMJJCP AM?QRCP QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.8 GD GR QR?PRQ DPMK PCQR ?R RFC RMN MD RFC 20.0 K FGJJ ?LB UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML?J DMPACQ GQ LCEJGEG@JC? (@) 7F?R GQ GRQ DGL?J QNCCB (?E?GL ?QQSKGLE LCEJGEG@JC DPGARGML) GD GRQ GLGRG?J QNCCB GQ 5.00 K/Q?

F?=KH; 7.8 4FC QNCCB MD ? PMJJCP AM?QRCP GLAPC?QCQ ?Q EP?TGRW NSJJQ GR BMULFGJJ ?LB GQ EPC?RCQR ?R GRQ JMUCQR NMGLR. 6GCUCB GL RCPKQ MD CLCPEW, RFC PMJJCP-AM?QRCP-%?PRF QWQRCKtQ EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB RM IGLCRGA CLCPEW. )D UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML GQ LCEJGEG@JC, ?JJ

PE g

GQ AMLTCPRCB RM

KE .

,JH7J;=O 4FC PMJJCP AM?QRCP JMQCQ NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW ?Q GR EMCQ BMULFGJJ. 7C LCEJCAR DPGARGML, QM RF?R RFC PCK?GLGLE DMPAC CVCPRCB @W RFC RP?AI GQ RFC LMPK?J DMPAC, UFGAF GQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC BGPCARGML MD KMRGML ?LB BMCQ LM UMPI. 4FC LCR UMPI ML RFC PMJJCP AM?QRCP GQ RFCL BMLC @W EP?TGRW ?JMLC. 4FC ?BFF MD EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW DPMK KMTGLE 7BJAJ4E7 RFPMSEF ? BGQR?LAC h COS?JQ RFC :4<A GL IGLCRGA CLCPEW. 4FGQ A?L @C UPGRRCL GL COS?RGML DMPK ?Q ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) (CPC RFC GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ XCPM, QM RF?R

PE g = KE . 5QGLE RFC COS?RGMLQ DMP PE g ?LB KE , UC A?L QMJTC DMP RFC DGL?J QNCCB v , UFGAF GQ RFC BCQGPCB OS?LRGRW.

KE = 1 mv 2 . 4FC COS?RGML DMP AF?LEC GL NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW QR?RCQ RF?R PE g = mgh . 3GLAC h 2 GQ LCE?RGTC GL RFGQ A?QC, UC UGJJ PCUPGRC RFGQ ?Q PE g = mg h RM QFMU RFC KGLSQ QGEL AJC?PJW. 4FSQ, PE g = KE
@CAMKCQ (7.34)

mg h = 1 mv 2. 2

(7.35)

234

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

3MJTGLE DMP

v , UC DGLB RF?R K?QQ A?LACJQ ?LB RF?R v = 2g h .


(7.36)

3S@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ,

v =
,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) !E?GL

2 2 9.80 m/s (20.0 m)

(7.37)

= 19.8 m/s. PE g = KE . )L RFGQ A?QC RFCPC GQ GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW, QM KE = 1 mv 2 1 mv 0 2 . 4FSQ, 2 2 mg h = 1 mv 2 1 mv 0 2. 2 2


2C?PP?LEGLE EGTCQ (7.38)

1 mv 2 = mg h + 1 mv 2. 2 2 0 v = 2g h + v 0 2.
4FGQ COS?RGML GQ TCPW QGKGJ?P RM RFC IGLCK?RGAQ COS?RGML

(7.39)

4FGQ KC?LQ RF?R RFC DGL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ RFC QSK MD RFC GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?LB RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW. -?QQ ?E?GL A?LACJQ, ?LB (7.40)

v = v 0 2 + 2ad , @SR GR GQ KMPC ECLCP?JrRFC IGLCK?RGAQ COS?RGML GQ T?JGB MLJW DMP


(7.41)

AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML, UFCPC?Q MSP COS?RGML ?@MTC GQ T?JGB DMP ?LW N?RF PCE?PBJCQQ MD UFCRFCP RFC M@HCAR KMTCQ UGRF ? AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML. .MU, QS@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ EGTCQ

v = 2(9.80 m/s 2)(20.0 m) + (5.00 m/s) 2 = 20.4 m/s.


D?I9KII?ED 7D: "CFB?97J?EDI

&GPQR, LMRC RF?R K?QQ A?LACJQ. 4FGQ GQ OSGRC AMLQGQRCLR UGRF M@QCPT?RGMLQ K?BC GL F7BB?D= (8@;9JI RF?R ?JJ M@HCARQ D?JJ ?R RFC Q?KC P?RC GD DPGARGML GQ LCEJGEG@JC. 3CAMLB, MLJW RFC QNCCB MD RFC PMJJCP AM?QRCP GQ AMLQGBCPCB; RFCPC GQ LM GLDMPK?RGML ?@MSR GRQ BGPCARGML ?R ?LW NMGLR. 4FGQ PCTC?JQ ?LMRFCP ECLCP?J RPSRF. 7FCL DPGARGML GQ LCEJGEG@JC, RFC QNCCB MD ? D?JJGLE @MBW BCNCLBQ MLJW ML GRQ GLGRG?J QNCCB ?LB FCGEFR, ?LB LMR ML GRQ K?QQ MP RFC N?RF R?ICL. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC PMJJCP AM?QRCP UGJJ F?TC RFC Q?KC DGL?J QNCCB UFCRFCP GR D?JJQ 20.0 K QRP?GEFR BMUL MP R?ICQ ? KMPC AMKNJGA?RCB N?RF JGIC RFC MLC GL RFC DGESPC. 4FGPB, ?LB NCPF?NQ SLCVNCARCBJW, RFC DGL?J QNCCB GL N?PR (@) GQ EPC?RCP RF?L GL N?PR (?), @SR @W D?P JCQQ RF?L 5.00 K/Q. &GL?JJW, LMRC RF?R QNCCB A?L @C DMSLB ?R 4AL FCGEFR ?JMLE RFC U?W @W QGKNJW SQGLE RFC ?NNPMNPG?RC T?JSC MD h ?R RFC NMGLR MD GLRCPCQR.

7C F?TC QCCL RF?R UMPI BMLC @W MP ?E?GLQR RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC BCNCLBQ MLJW ML RFC QR?PRGLE ?LB CLBGLE NMGLRQ, ?LB LMR ML RFC N?RF @CRUCCL, ?JJMUGLE SQ RM BCDGLC RFC QGKNJGDWGLE AMLACNR MD EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW. 7C A?L BM RFC Q?KC RFGLE DMP ? DCU MRFCP DMPACQ, ?LB UC UGJJ QCC RF?R RFGQ JC?BQ RM ? DMPK?J BCDGLGRGML MD RFC J?U MD AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW. -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC )LTCQRGE?RGMLr#MLTCPRGLE 0MRCLRG?J RM +GLCRGA %LCPEW /LC A?L QRSBW RFC AMLTCPQGML MD EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GLRM IGLCRGA CLCPEW GL RFGQ CVNCPGKCLR. /L ? QKMMRF, JCTCJ QSPD?AC, SQC ? PSJCP MD RFC IGLB RF?R F?Q ? EPMMTC PSLLGLE ?JMLE GRQ JCLERF ?LB ? @MMI RM K?IC ?L GLAJGLC (QCC F?=KH; 7.9). 0J?AC ? K?P@JC ?R RFC 10-AK NMQGRGML ML RFC PSJCP ?LB JCR GR PMJJ BMUL RFC PSJCP. 7FCL GR FGRQ RFC JCTCJ QSPD?AC, KC?QSPC RFC RGKC GR R?ICQ RM PMJJ MLC KCRCP. .MU NJ?AC RFC K?P@JC ?R RFC 20-AK ?LB RFC 30-AK NMQGRGMLQ ?LB ?E?GL KC?QSPC RFC RGKCQ GR R?ICQ RM PMJJ 1 K ML RFC JCTCJ QSPD?AC. &GLB RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC K?P@JC ML RFC JCTCJ QSPD?AC DMP ?JJ RFPCC NMQGRGMLQ. 0JMR TCJMAGRW QOS?PCB TCPQSQ RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB @W RFC K?P@JC. 7F?R GQ RFC QF?NC MD C?AF NJMR? )D RFC QF?NC GQ ? QRP?GEFR JGLC, RFC NJMR QFMUQ RF?R RFC K?P@JCtQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?R RFC @MRRMK GQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM GRQ NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW ?R RFC PCJC?QC NMGLR.

F?=KH; 7.9 ! K?P@JC PMJJQ BMUL ? PSJCP, ?LB GRQ QNCCB ML RFC JCTCJ QSPD?AC GQ KC?QSPCB.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

235

7.4 CEDI;HL7J?L; FEH9;I 7D: )EJ;DJ?7B ED;H=O


0MRCLRG?J %LCPEW ?LB #MLQCPT?RGTC &MPACQ
7MPI GQ BMLC @W ? DMPAC, ?LB QMKC DMPACQ, QSAF ?Q UCGEFR, F?TC QNCAG?J AF?P?ARCPGQRGAQ. ! 9EDI;HL7J?L; <EH9; GQ MLC, JGIC RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC, DMP UFGAF UMPI BMLC @W MP ?E?GLQR GR BCNCLBQ MLJW ML RFC QR?PRGLE ?LB CLBGLE NMGLRQ MD ? KMRGML ?LB LMR ML RFC N?RF R?ICL. 7C A?L BCDGLC ? FEJ;DJ?7B ;D;H=O (PE) DMP ?LW AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC, HSQR ?Q UC BGB DMP RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC. &MP CV?KNJC, UFCL WMS UGLB SN ? RMW, ?L CEE RGKCP, MP ?L MJBD?QFGMLCB U?RAF, WMS BM UMPI ?E?GLQR GRQ QNPGLE ?LB QRMPC CLCPEW GL GR. (7C RPC?R RFCQC QNPGLEQ ?Q GBC?J, GL RF?R UC ?QQSKC RFCPC GQ LM DPGARGML ?LB LM NPMBSARGML MD RFCPK?J CLCPEW.) 4FGQ QRMPCB CLCPEW GQ PCAMTCP?@JC ?Q UMPI, ?LB GR GQ SQCDSJ RM RFGLI MD GR ?Q NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW AMLR?GLCB GL RFC QNPGLE. )LBCCB, RFC PC?QML RF?R RFC QNPGLE F?Q RFGQ AF?P?ARCPGQRGA GQ RF?R GRQ DMPAC GQ 6BAF8EI4G<I8. 4F?R GQ, ? AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC PCQSJRQ GL QRMPCB MP NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW. 'P?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ MLC CV?KNJC, ?Q GQ RFC CLCPEW QRMPCB GL ? QNPGLE. 7C UGJJ ?JQM QCC FMU AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?PC PCJ?RCB RM RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW. 0MRCLRG?J %LCPEW ?LB #MLQCPT?RGTC &MPACQ 0MRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ RFC CLCPEW ? QWQRCK F?Q BSC RM NMQGRGML, QF?NC, MP AMLDGESP?RGML. )R GQ QRMPCB CLCPEW RF?R GQ AMKNJCRCJW PCAMTCP?@JC. ! AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC GQ MLC DMP UFGAF UMPI BMLC @W MP ?E?GLQR GR BCNCLBQ MLJW ML RFC QR?PRGLE ?LB CLBGLE NMGLRQ MD ? KMRGML ?LB LMR ML RFC N?RF R?ICL. 7C A?L BCDGLC ? NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW

(PE) DMP ?LW AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC. 4FC UMPI BMLC ?E?GLQR ? AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC RM PC?AF ? DGL?J AMLDGESP?RGML

BCNCLBQ ML RFC AMLDGESP?RGML, LMR RFC N?RF DMJJMUCB, ?LB GQ RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW ?BBCB.

0MRCLRG?J %LCPEW MD ? 3NPGLE F ML RFC QNPGLE ?LB RFC L ?PC NPMNMPRGML?J, F = kL .) (3CC F?=KH; 7.10.) &MP MSP QNPGLE, UC UGJJ PCNJ?AC L (RFC ?KMSLR MD BCDMPK?RGML NPMBSACB @W ? DMPAC F ) @W RFC BGQR?LAC x RF?R RFC QNPGLE GQ QRPCRAFCB MP AMKNPCQQCB ?JMLE GRQ JCLERF. 3M RFC DMPAC LCCBCB RM QRPCRAF RFC QNPGLE F?Q K?ELGRSBC F = kx , UFCPC k GQ RFC QNPGLEtQ DMPAC AMLQR?LR. 4FC DMPAC GLAPC?QCQ JGLC?PJW DPMK 0 ?R RFC QR?PR RM kx GL RFC DSJJW QRPCRAFCB NMQGRGML. 4FC ?TCP?EC DMPAC GQ kx / 2 . 4FSQ RFC UMPI BMLC GL QRPCRAFGLE MP AMKNPCQQGLE RFC QNPGLE GQ W s = Fd = kx x = 1 kx 2 . !JRCPL?RGTCJW, UC LMRCB GL 2 2 $?D;J?9 ED;H=O 7D: J>; 0EHA-ED;H=O ->;EH;C RF?R RFC ?PC? SLBCP ? EP?NF MD F TQ. x GQ RFC UMPI BMLC @W RFC DMPAC. )L F?=KH; 7.10(A) UC QCC RF?R RFGQ ?PC? GQ ?JQM 1 kx 2 . 7C RFCPCDMPC BCDGLC RFC FEJ;DJ?7B ;D;H=O E< 7 IFH?D=, PE s , RM @C 2
M@CWQ (MMICtQ J?U. ((MMICtQ J?U U?Q CV?KGLCB GL EB7IJ?9?JO: ,JH;II 7D: ,JH7?D, ?LB QR?RCQ RF?R RFC K?ELGRSBC MD DMPAC PCQSJRGLE BCDMPK?RGML &GPQR, JCR SQ M@R?GL ?L CVNPCQQGML DMP RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW QRMPCB GL ? QNPGLE ( PE s ). 7C A?JASJ?RC RFC UMPI BMLC RM QRPCRAF MP AMKNPCQQ ? QNPGLE RF?R

PE s = 1 kx 2, 2
UFCPC RFC QNPGLE ?LB RFC CLCPEW QRMPCB GL GR ?Q ? PCQSJR MD QRPCRAFGLE MP AMKNPCQQGLE GR ? BGQR?LAC

(7.42)

k GQ RFC QNPGLEtQ DMPAC AMLQR?LR ?LB x GQ RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK GRQ SLBCDMPKCB NMQGRGML. 4FC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW PCNPCQCLRQ RFC UMPI BMLC BA x . 4FC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MD RFC QNPGLE PE s BMCQ LMR BCNCLB ML RFC N?RF R?ICL; GR BCNCLBQ MLJW ML RFC QRPCRAF MP QOSCCXC x GL RFC DGL?J AMLDGESP?RGML.

F?=KH; 7.10 (?) !L SLBCDMPKCB QNPGLE F?Q LM UMPI BMLC RM QRPCRAF (MP AMKNPCQQ) GR GQ (A) ! EP?NF MD

TQ.

F?Q ? QJMNC MD

1 kx 2 . "CA?SQC RFC DMPAC GQ AMLQCPT?RGTC, RFGQ UMPI GQ QRMPCB ?Q NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW (PE ) GL RFC QNPGLE, ?LB GR A?L @C DSJJW PCAMTCPCB. s 2 k , ?LB RFC ?PC? SLBCP RFC EP?NF GQ 1 kx 2 . 4FSQ RFC UMPI BMLC MP NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW QRMPCB GQ 1 kx 2 . 2 2

PE s

QRMPCB GL GR. (@) 4FC DMPAC LCCBCB RM QRPCRAF (MP AMKNPCQQ) RFC QNPGLE ? BGQR?LAC

F?Q ? K?ELGRSBC

F = kx

, ?LB RFC

4FC COS?RGML

KCBGSK @W BCDMPKGLE GR. )LBCCB, RFC ECLCP?J BCDGLGRGML MD FEJ;DJ?7B ;D;H=O GQ CLCPEW BSC RM NMQGRGML, QF?NC, MP AMLDGESP?RGML. &MP QF?NC MP NMQGRGML BCDMPK?RGMLQ, QRMPCB CLCPEW GQ PE s = 1 kx 2 , UFCPC k GQ RFC DMPAC AMLQR?LR MD RFC N?PRGASJ?P QWQRCK ?LB x GQ GRQ BCDMPK?RGML. !LMRFCP CV?KNJC GQ 2 QCCL GL F?=KH; 7.11 DMP ? ESGR?P QRPGLE.

PE s = 1 kx 2 F?Q ECLCP?J T?JGBGRW @CWMLB RFC QNCAG?J A?QC DMP UFGAF GR U?Q BCPGTCB. 0MRCLRG?J CLCPEW A?L @C QRMPCB GL ?LW CJ?QRGA 2

236

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

F?=KH; 7.11 7MPI GQ BMLC RM BCDMPK RFC ESGR?P QRPGLE, EGTGLE GR NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW. 7FCL PCJC?QCB, RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB RM IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?LB @?AI RM NMRCLRG?J ?Q RFC QRPGLE MQAGJJ?RCQ @?AI ?LB DMPRF. ! TCPW QK?JJ DP?ARGML GQ BGQQGN?RCB ?Q QMSLB CLCPEW, QJMUJW PCKMTGLE CLCPEW DPMK RFC QRPGLE.

#MLQCPT?RGML MD -CAF?LGA?J %LCPEW


,CR SQ LMU AMLQGBCP UF?R DMPK RFC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK R?ICQ UFCL MLJW AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?PC GLTMJTCB. 4FGQ UGJJ JC?B SQ RM RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW NPGLAGNJC. 4FC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK QR?RCQ RF?R RFC LCR UMPI BMLC @W ?JJ DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML ? QWQRCK COS?JQ GRQ AF?LEC GL IGLCRGA CLCPEW. )L COS?RGML DMPK, RFGQ GQ

W net = 1 mv 2 1 mv 0 2 = KE. 2 2
)D MLJW AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?AR, RFCL

(7.43)

W net = W c,
UFCPC

(7.44)

W c GQ RFC RMR?J UMPI BMLC @W ?JJ AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ. 4FSQ, W c = KE.


(7.45)

.MU, GD RFC AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC, QSAF ?Q RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC MP ? QNPGLE DMPAC, BMCQ UMPI, RFC QWQRCK JMQCQ NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW. 4F?R GQ, 4FCPCDMPC,

W c = PE .
(7.46)

PE = KE
MP

KE + PE = 0.
4FGQ COS?RGML KC?LQ RF?R RFC RMR?J IGLCRGA ?LB NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ AMLQR?LR DMP ?LW NPMACQQ GLTMJTGLE MLJW AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ. 4F?R GQ,

(7.47)

or

(conservative forces only), KE i + PE i = KE f + PE f


KE + PE = constant

(7.48)

UFCPC G ?LB D BCLMRC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J T?JSCQ. 4FGQ COS?RGML GQ ? DMPK MD RFC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK DMP AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ; GR GQ ILMUL ?Q RFC 9EDI;HL7J?ED E< C;9>7D?97B ;D;H=O NPGLAGNJC. 2CKCK@CP RF?R RFGQ ?NNJGCQ RM RFC CVRCLR RF?R ?JJ RFC DMPACQ ?PC AMLQCPT?RGTC, QM RF?R DPGARGML GQ LCEJGEG@JC. 4FC RMR?J IGLCRGA NJSQ NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MD ? QWQRCK GQ BCDGLCB RM @C GRQ C;9>7D?97B ;D;H=O, (KE + PE) . )L ? QWQRCK RF?R CVNCPGCLACQ MLJW AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ, RFCPC GQ ? NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW ?QQMAG?RCB UGRF C?AF DMPAC, ?LB RFC CLCPEW MLJW AF?LECQ DMPK @CRUCCL

PE , UGRF RFC RMR?J CLCPEW PCK?GLGLE AMLQR?LR.

KE ?LB RFC T?PGMSQ RWNCQ MD

EN7CFB; 7.8 .I?D= CEDI;HL7J?ED E< &;9>7D?97B ED;H=O JE C7B9KB7J; J>; ,F;;: E< 7 -EO C7H
! 0.100-IE RMW A?P GQ NPMNCJJCB @W ? AMKNPCQQCB QNPGLE, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.12. 4FC A?P DMJJMUQ ? RP?AI RF?R PGQCQ 0.180 K ?@MTC RFC QR?PRGLE NMGLR. 4FC QNPGLE GQ AMKNPCQQCB 4.00 AK ?LB F?Q ? DMPAC AMLQR?LR MD 250.0 ./K. !QQSKGLE UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML RM @C LCEJGEG@JC, DGLB (?) FMU D?QR RFC A?P GQ EMGLE @CDMPC GR QR?PRQ SN RFC QJMNC ?LB (@) FMU D?QR GR GQ EMGLE ?R RFC RMN MD RFC QJMNC.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

237

F?=KH; 7.12 ! RMW A?P GQ NSQFCB @W ? AMKNPCQQCB QNPGLE ?LB AM?QRQ SN ? QJMNC. !QQSKGLE LCEJGEG@JC DPGARGML, RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GL RFC QNPGLE GQ DGPQR AMKNJCRCJW AMLTCPRCB RM IGLCRGA CLCPEW, ?LB RFCL RM ? AMK@GL?RGML MD IGLCRGA ?LB EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW ?Q RFC A?P PGQCQ. 4FC BCR?GJQ MD RFC N?RF ?PC SLGKNMPR?LR @CA?SQC ?JJ DMPACQ ?PC AMLQCPT?RGTCrRFC A?P UMSJB F?TC RFC Q?KC DGL?J QNCCB GD GR RMMI RFC ?JRCPL?RC N?RF QFMUL.

,JH7J;=O 4FC QNPGLE DMPAC ?LB RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC ?PC AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ, QM AMLQCPT?RGML MD KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW A?L @C SQCB. 4FSQ,

KE i +PE i = KE f + PE f
MP

(7.49)

1 mv 2 + mgh + 1 kx 2 = 1 mv 2 + mgh + 1 kx 2, i 2 i f 2 f 2 f 2 i

(7.50)

UFCPC h GQ RFC FCGEFR (TCPRGA?J NMQGRGML) ?LB x GQ RFC AMKNPCQQGML MD RFC QNPGLE. 4FGQ ECLCP?J QR?RCKCLR JMMIQ AMKNJCV @SR @CAMKCQ KSAF QGKNJCP UFCL UC QR?PR AMLQGBCPGLE QNCAGDGA QGRS?RGMLQ. &GPQR, UC KSQR GBCLRGDW RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J AMLBGRGMLQ GL ? NPM@JCK; RFCL, UC CLRCP RFCK GLRM RFC J?QR COS?RGML RM QMJTC DMP ?L SLILMUL. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) 4FGQ N?PR MD RFC NPM@JCK GQ JGKGRCB RM AMLBGRGMLQ HSQR @CDMPC RFC A?P GQ PCJC?QCB ?LB HSQR ?DRCP GR JC?TCQ RFC QNPGLE. 4?IC RFC GLGRG?J FCGEFR RM @C XCPM, QM RF?R @MRF h i ?LB h f ?PC XCPM. &SPRFCPKMPC, RFC GLGRG?J QNCCB v i GQ XCPM ?LB RFC DGL?J AMKNPCQQGML MD RFC QNPGLE x f GQ XCPM, ?LB QM QCTCP?J RCPKQ GL RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW COS?RGML ?PC XCPM ?LB GR QGKNJGDGCQ RM

1 kx 2 = 1 mv 2. 2 i 2 f

(7.51)

)L MRFCP UMPBQ, RFC GLGRG?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GL RFC QNPGLE GQ AMLTCPRCB AMKNJCRCJW RM IGLCRGA CLCPEW GL RFC ?@QCLAC MD DPGARGML. 3MJTGLE DMP RFC DGL?J QNCCB ?LB CLRCPGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ WGCJBQ

vf =

k m xi = 250.0 N/m (0.0400 m) 0.100 kg = 2.00 m/s.

(7.52)

,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) /LC KCRFMB MD DGLBGLE RFC QNCCB ?R RFC RMN MD RFC QJMNC GQ RM AMLQGBCP AMLBGRGMLQ HSQR @CDMPC RFC A?P GQ PCJC?QCB ?LB HSQR ?DRCP GR PC?AFCQ RFC RMN MD RFC QJMNC, AMKNJCRCJW GELMPGLE CTCPWRFGLE GL @CRUCCL. $MGLE RFC Q?KC RWNC MD ?L?JWQGQ RM DGLB UFGAF RCPKQ ?PC XCPM, RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW @CAMKCQ

1 kx 2 = 1 mv 2 + mgh . f 2 i 2 f

(7.53)

4FGQ DMPK MD RFC COS?RGML KC?LQ RF?R RFC QNPGLEtQ GLGRG?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB N?PRJW RM EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW ?LB N?PRJW RM IGLCRGA CLCPEW. 4FC DGL?J QNCCB ?R RFC RMN MD RFC QJMNC UGJJ @C JCQQ RF?L ?R RFC @MRRMK. 3MJTGLE DMP v f ?LB QS@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ EGTCQ

vf = =
D?I9KII?ED

= 0.687 m/s.

250.0 N/m 2 2 0.100 kg (0.0400 m) 2(9.80 m/s )(0.180 m)

kx i 2 m 2gh f

(7.54)

!LMRFCP U?W RM QMJTC RFGQ NPM@JCK GQ RM PC?JGXC RF?R RFC A?PtQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW @CDMPC GR EMCQ SN RFC QJMNC GQ AMLTCPRCB N?PRJW RM NMRCLRG?J CLCPEWrRF?R GQ, RM R?IC RFC DGL?J AMLBGRGMLQ GL N?PR (?) RM @C RFC GLGRG?J AMLBGRGMLQ GL N?PR (@).

.MRC RF?R, DMP AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ, UC BM LMR BGPCARJW A?JASJ?RC RFC UMPI RFCW BM; P?RFCP, UC AMLQGBCP RFCGP CDDCARQ RFPMSEF RFCGP AMPPCQNMLBGLE NMRCLRG?J CLCPEGCQ, HSQR ?Q UC BGB GL EN7CFB; 7.8. .MRC ?JQM RF?R UC BM LMR AMLQGBCP BCR?GJQ MD RFC N?RF R?ICLrMLJW RFC QR?PRGLE ?LB CLBGLE NMGLRQ ?PC GKNMPR?LR (?Q JMLE ?Q RFC N?RF GQ LMR GKNMQQG@JC). 4FGQ ?QQSKNRGML GQ SQS?JJW ? RPCKCLBMSQ QGKNJGDGA?RGML, @CA?SQC RFC N?RF K?W @C AMKNJGA?RCB ?LB DMPACQ K?W T?PW ?JMLE RFC U?W.

238

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: %LCPEW 3I?RC 0?PI ,C?PL ?@MSR AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW UGRF ? QI?RCP BSBC! "SGJB RP?AIQ, P?KNQ ?LB HSKNQ DMP RFC QI?RCP ?LB TGCU RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW, NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW ?LB DPGARGML ?Q FC KMTCQ. 9MS A?L ?JQM R?IC RFC QI?RCP RM BGDDCPCLR NJ?LCRQ MP CTCL QN?AC!

F?=KH; 7.13 ED;H=O ,A7J; )7HA (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42149/1.4/;D;H=O-IA7J;-F7HA6;D.@7H)

7.5 'ED9EDI;HL7J?L; FEH9;I


.MLAMLQCPT?RGTC &MPACQ ?LB &PGARGML
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

F?=KH; 7.14 4FC ?KMSLR MD RFC F?NNW D?AC CP?QCB BCNCLBQ ML RFC N?RF R?ICL @W RFC CP?QCP @CRUCCL NMGLRQ ! ?LB ", ?Q BMCQ RFC UMPI BMLC ?E?GLQR DPGARGML. ,CQQ UMPI GQ BMLC ?LB JCQQ MD RFC D?AC GQ CP?QCB DMP RFC N?RF GL (?) RF?L DMP RFC N?RF GL (@). 4FC DMPAC FCPC GQ DPGARGML, ?LB KMQR MD RFC UMPI EMCQ GLRM RFCPK?J CLCPEW RF?R QS@QCOSCLRJW JC?TCQ RFC QWQRCK (RFC F?NNW D?AC NJSQ RFC CP?QCP). 4FC CLCPEW CVNCLBCB A?LLMR @C DSJJW PCAMTCPCB.

(MU .MLAMLQCPT?RGTC &MPACQ !DDCAR -CAF?LGA?J %LCPEW


$86;4A<64? CLCPEW @4L LMR @C AMLQCPTCB UFCL LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?AR. &MP CV?KNJC, UFCL ? A?P GQ @PMSEFR RM ? QRMN @W DPGARGML ML JCTCJ EPMSLB, GR JMQCQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW, UFGAF GQ BGQQGN?RCB ?Q RFCPK?J CLCPEW, PCBSAGLE GRQ KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW. F?=KH; 7.15 AMKN?PCQ RFC CDDCARQ MD AMLQCPT?RGTC ?LB LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ. 7C MDRCL AFMMQC RM SLBCPQR?LB QGKNJCP QWQRCKQ QSAF ?Q RF?R BCQAPG@CB GL F?=KH; 7.15(?) DGPQR @CDMPC QRSBWGLE KMPC AMKNJGA?RCB QWQRCKQ ?Q GL F?=KH; 7.15(@).

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

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

239

(MU RFC 7MPI-%LCPEW 4FCMPCK !NNJGCQ


.MU JCR SQ AMLQGBCP UF?R DMPK RFC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK R?ICQ UFCL @MRF AMLQCPT?RGTC ?LB LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?AR. 7C UGJJ QCC RF?R RFC UMPI BMLC @W LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ COS?JQ RFC AF?LEC GL RFC KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW MD ? QWQRCK. !Q LMRCB GL $?D;J?9 ED;H=O 7D: J>; 0EHA-ED;H=O ->;EH;C, RFC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK QR?RCQ RF?R RFC LCR UMPI ML ? QWQRCK COS?JQ RFC AF?LEC GL GRQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW, MP W net = KE . 4FC LCR UMPI GQ RFC QSK MD RFC UMPI @W LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ NJSQ RFC UMPI @W AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ. 4F?R GQ,

W net = W nc + W c,
QM RF?R

(7.55)

W nc + W c = KE,
UFCPC

(7.56)

W nc GQ RFC RMR?J UMPI BMLC @W ?JJ LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?LB W c GQ RFC RMR?J UMPI BMLC @W ?JJ AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ.

F?=KH; 7.16 ! NCPQML NSQFCQ ? AP?RC SN ? P?KN, BMGLE UMPI ML RFC AP?RC. &PGARGML ?LB EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC (LMR QFMUL) ?JQM BM UMPI ML RFC AP?RC; @MRF DMPACQ MNNMQC RFC NCPQMLtQ NSQF. !Q RFC AP?RC GQ NSQFCB SN RFC P?KN, GR E?GLQ KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW, GKNJWGLE RF?R RFC UMPI BMLC @W RFC NCPQML GQ EPC?RCP RF?L RFC UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML.

#MLQGBCP F?=KH; 7.16, GL UFGAF ? NCPQML NSQFCQ ? AP?RC SN ? P?KN ?LB GQ MNNMQCB @W DPGARGML. !Q GL RFC NPCTGMSQ QCARGML, UC LMRC RF?R UMPI BMLC @W ? AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC AMKCQ DPMK ? JMQQ MD EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW, QM RF?R W c = PE . 3S@QRGRSRGLE RFGQ COS?RGML GLRM RFC NPCTGMSQ MLC ?LB QMJTGLE DMP

W nc EGTCQ

W nc = KE + PE.
4FGQ COS?RGML KC?LQ RF?R RFC RMR?J KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW

(7.57)

(KE + PE) AF?LECQ @W CV?ARJW RFC ?KMSLR MD UMPI BMLC @W LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ. )L

F?=KH; 7.16, RFGQ GQ RFC UMPI BMLC @W RFC NCPQML KGLSQ RFC UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML. 3M CTCL GD CLCPEW GQ LMR AMLQCPTCB DMP RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR (QSAF ?Q RFC AP?RC), UC ILMU RF?R ?L COS?J ?KMSLR MD UMPI U?Q BMLC RM A?SQC RFC AF?LEC GL RMR?J KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW. 7C PC?PP?LEC

W nc = KE + PE RM M@R?GL KE i +PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f .
(7.58)

4FGQ KC?LQ RF?R RFC ?KMSLR MD UMPI BMLC @W LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?BBQ RM RFC KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW MD ? QWQRCK. )D CLCPEW GQ GLAPC?QCB, QSAF ?Q UFCL RFC NCPQML NSQFCQ RFC AP?RC SN RFC P?KN GL F?=KH; 7.16. )D BCAPC?QCB, QSAF ?Q UFCL RFC PMAI FGRQ RFC EPMSLB GL F?=KH; 7.15(@). )D

W nc GQ XCPM, RFCL KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW GQ AMLQCPTCB, ?LB LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?PC @?J?LACB. &MP CV?KNJC, UFCL WMS NSQF ? J?UL KMUCP ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB ML JCTCJ EPMSLB, WMSP UMPI BMLC GQ PCKMTCB @W RFC UMPI MD DPGARGML, ?LB RFC KMUCP F?Q ? AMLQR?LR CLCPEW. !NNJWGLE %LCPEW #MLQCPT?RGML UGRF .MLAMLQCPT?RGTC &MPACQ
7FCL LM AF?LEC GL NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MAASPQ, ?NNJWGLE

W nc GQ NMQGRGTC, RFCL KCAF?LGA?J W nc GQ LCE?RGTC, RFCL KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW GQ

KE i +PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f ?KMSLRQ RM ?NNJWGLE RFC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK @W QCRRGLE

RFC AF?LEC GL IGLCRGA CLCPEW RM @C COS?J RM RFC LCR UMPI BMLC ML RFC QWQRCK, UFGAF GL RFC KMQR ECLCP?J A?QC GLAJSBCQ @MRF AMLQCPT?RGTC ?LB LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ. "SR UFCL QCCIGLE GLQRC?B RM DGLB ? AF?LEC GL RMR?J KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW GL QGRS?RGMLQ RF?R GLTMJTC AF?LECQ GL @MRF NMRCLRG?J ?LB IGLCRGA CLCPEW, RFC NPCTGMSQ COS?RGML KE i + PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f Q?WQ RF?R WMS A?L QR?PR @W DGLBGLE RFC AF?LEC GL KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW RF?R UMSJB F?TC PCQSJRCB DPMK HSQR RFC AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ, GLAJSBGLE RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW AF?LECQ, ?LB ?BB RM GR RFC UMPI BMLC, UGRF RFC NPMNCP QGEL, @W ?LW LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ GLTMJTCB.

EN7CFB; 7.9 C7B9KB7J?D= D?IJ7D9; -H7L;B;:: !EM F7H 7 B7I;87BB )B7O;H ,B?:;I
#MLQGBCP RFC QGRS?RGML QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.17, UFCPC ? @?QC@?JJ NJ?WCP QJGBCQ RM ? QRMN ML JCTCJ EPMSLB. 5QGLE CLCPEW AMLQGBCP?RGMLQ, A?JASJ?RC RFC BGQR?LAC RFC 65.0-IE @?QC@?JJ NJ?WCP QJGBCQ, EGTCL RF?R FGQ GLGRG?J QNCCB GQ 6.00 K/Q ?LB RFC DMPAC MD DPGARGML ?E?GLQR FGK GQ ? AMLQR?LR 450 ..

240

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

F?=KH; 7.17 4FC @?QC@?JJ NJ?WCP QJGBCQ RM ? QRMN GL ? BGQR?LAC RFC GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW.

d . )L RFC NPMACQQ, DPGARGML PCKMTCQ RFC NJ?WCPtQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW @W BMGLE ?L ?KMSLR MD UMPI fd

COS?J RM

,JH7J;=O &PGARGML QRMNQ RFC NJ?WCP @W AMLTCPRGLE FGQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW GLRM MRFCP DMPKQ, GLAJSBGLE RFCPK?J CLCPEW. )L RCPKQ MD RFC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK, RFC UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML, UFGAF GQ LCE?RGTC, GQ ?BBCB RM RFC GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW RM PCBSAC GR RM XCPM. 4FC UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML GQ LCE?RGTC, @CA?SQC f GQ GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML MD RFC KMRGML (RF?R GQ, = 180 , ?LB QM cos = 1 ). 4FSQ W nc = fd . 4FC COS?RGML QGKNJGDGCQ RM

1 mv 2 fd = 0 2 i
MP

(7.59)

fd = 1 mv 2. 2 i
4FGQ COS?RGML A?L LMU @C QMJTCB DMP RFC BGQR?LAC ,EBKJ?ED 3MJTGLE RFC NPCTGMSQ COS?RGML DMP

(7.60)

d.

d ?LB QS@QRGRSRGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ WGCJBQ d = = mv i 2 2f


(7.61)

(65.0 kg)(6.00 m/s) 2 (2)(450 N) = 2.60 m.


D?I9KII?ED 4FC KMQR GKNMPR?LR NMGLR MD RFGQ CV?KNJC GQ RF?R RFC ?KMSLR MD LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC UMPI COS?JQ RFC AF?LEC GL KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW. &MP CV?KNJC, WMS KSQR UMPI F?PBCP RM QRMN ? RPSAI, UGRF GRQ J?PEC KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW, RF?L RM QRMN ? KMQOSGRM.

EN7CFB; 7.10 C7B9KB7J?D= D?IJ7D9; -H7L;B;:: ,B?:?D= .F 7D "D9B?D;


3SNNMQC RF?R RFC NJ?WCP DPMK EN7CFB; 7.9 GQ PSLLGLE SN ? FGJJ F?TGLE ? 5.00 GLAJGLC SNU?PB UGRF ? QSPD?AC QGKGJ?P RM RF?R GL RFC @?QC@?JJ QR?BGSK. 4FC NJ?WCP QJGBCQ UGRF RFC Q?KC GLGRG?J QNCCB. $CRCPKGLC FMU D?P FC QJGBCQ.

F?=KH; 7.18 4FC Q?KC @?QC@?JJ NJ?WCP QJGBCQ RM ? QRMN ML ?

5.00

QJMNC.

,JH7J;=O )L RFGQ A?QC, RFC UMPI BMLC @W RFC LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DPGARGML DMPAC ML RFC NJ?WCP PCBSACQ RFC KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW FC F?Q DPMK FGQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?R XCPM FCGEFR, RM RFC DGL?J KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW FC F?Q @W KMTGLE RFPMSEF BGQR?LAC d RM PC?AF FCGEFR h ?JMLE RFC FGJJ, UGRF h = d sin 5.00 . 4FGQ GQ CVNPCQQCB @W RFC COS?RGML

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

241

KE + PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f .
,EBKJ?ED 4FC UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML GQ ?E?GL

(7.62)

W nc = fd ; GLGRG?JJW RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GQ PE i = mg 0 = 0 ?LB RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ KE i = 1 mv 2 ; 2 i RFC DGL?J CLCPEW AMLRPG@SRGMLQ ?PC KE f = 0 DMP RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?LB PE f = mgh = mgd sin DMP RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW.
3S@QRGRSRGLE RFCQC T?JSCQ EGTCQ

1 mv 2 + 0 + fd = 0 + mgd sin . 2 i
1 2 2 mv i

(7.63)

3MJTC RFGQ DMP

d RM M@R?GL d = =
(7.64)

(0.5)(65.0 kg)(6.00 m/s) 2 450 N+(65.0 kg)(9.80 m/s 2) sin (5.00) = 2.31 m.
D?I9KII?ED !Q KGEFR F?TC @CCL CVNCARCB, RFC NJ?WCP QJGBCQ ? QFMPRCP BGQR?LAC @W QJGBGLE SNFGJJ. .MRC RF?R RFC NPM@JCK AMSJB ?JQM F?TC @CCL QMJTCB GL RCPKQ MD RFC DMPACQ BGPCARJW ?LB RFC UMPI CLCPEW RFCMPCK, GLQRC?B MD SQGLE RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW. 4FGQ KCRFMB UMSJB F?TC PCOSGPCB AMK@GLGLE RFC LMPK?J DMPAC ?LB DMPAC MD EP?TGRW TCARMPQ, UFGAF LM JMLECP A?LACJ C?AF MRFCP @CA?SQC RFCW NMGLR GL BGDDCPCLR BGPCARGMLQ, ?LB DPGARGML, RM DGLB RFC LCR DMPAC. 9MS AMSJB RFCL SQC RFC LCR DMPAC ?LB RFC LCR UMPI RM DGLB RFC BGQR?LAC d RF?R PCBSACQ RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW RM XCPM. "W ?NNJWGLE AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW ?LB SQGLE RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GLQRC?B, UC LCCB MLJW AMLQGBCP RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW DMPAC TCARMPQ. 4FGQ QGKNJGDGCQ RFC QMJSRGML AMLQGBCP?@JW.

f + mg sin

mgh , UGRFMSR AMK@GLGLE ?LB PCQMJTGLE

-?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC )LTCQRGE?RGMLr$CRCPKGLGLE &PGARGML DPMK RFC 3RMNNGLE $GQR?LAC 4FGQ CVNCPGKCLR GLTMJTCQ RFC AMLTCPQGML MD EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW GLRM RFCPK?J CLCPEW. 5QC RFC PSJCP, @MMI, ?LB K?P@JC DPMK -7A;-!EC; "DL;IJ?=7J?EDWCEDL;HJ?D= )EJ;DJ?7B JE $?D;J?9 ED;H=O. )L ?BBGRGML, WMS UGJJ LCCB ? DM?K ASN UGRF ? QK?JJ FMJC GL RFC QGBC, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.19. &PMK RFC 10-AK NMQGRGML ML RFC PSJCP, JCR RFC K?P@JC PMJJ GLRM RFC ASN NMQGRGMLCB ?R RFC @MRRMK MD RFC PSJCP. -C?QSPC RFC BGQR?LAC d RFC ASN KMTCQ @CDMPC QRMNNGLE. 7F?R DMPACQ A?SQCB GR RM QRMN? 7F?R F?NNCLCB RM RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW MD RFC K?P@JC ?R RFC @MRRMK MD RFC PSJCP? .CVR, NJ?AC RFC K?P@JC ?R RFC 20-AK ?LB RFC 30-AK NMQGRGMLQ ?LB ?E?GL KC?QSPC RFC BGQR?LAC RFC ASN KMTCQ ?DRCP RFC K?P@JC CLRCPQ GR. 0JMR RFC BGQR?LAC RFC ASN KMTCQ TCPQSQ RFC GLGRG?J K?P@JC NMQGRGML ML RFC PSJCP. )Q RFGQ PCJ?RGMLQFGN JGLC?P? 7GRF QMKC QGKNJC ?QQSKNRGMLQ, WMS A?L SQC RFCQC B?R? RM DGLB RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD IGLCRGA DPGARGML

f ML RFC ASN GQ k N , UFCPC RFC LMPK?J DMPAC N GQ HSQR RFC UCGEFR MD RFC ASN NJSQ RFC K?P@JC. 4FC LMPK?J DMPAC ?LB DMPAC MD EP?TGRW BM LM
UMPI @CA?SQC RFCW ?PC NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR MD RFC ASN, UFGAF KMTCQ FMPGXMLR?JJW. 4FC UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML GQ RFC K?QQ MD RFC K?P@JC ?Q UCJJ RM A?JASJ?RC GRQ GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW.

k MD RFC ASN ML RFC R?@JC. 4FC DMPAC MD DPGARGML fd . 9MS UGJJ LCCB

)R GQ GLRCPCQRGLE RM BM RFC ?@MTC CVNCPGKCLR ?JQM UGRF ? QRCCJ K?P@JC (MP @?JJ @C?PGLE). 2CJC?QGLE GR DPMK RFC Q?KC NMQGRGMLQ ML RFC PSJCP ?Q WMS BGB UGRF RFC EJ?QQ K?P@JC, GQ RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFGQ QRCCJ K?P@JC RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC K?P@JC ?R RFC @MRRMK MD RFC PSJCP? )Q RFC BGQR?LAC RFC ASN KMTCQ NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC K?QQ MD RFC QRCCJ ?LB EJ?QQ K?P@JCQ?

F?=KH; 7.19 2MJJGLE ? K?P@JC BMUL ? PSJCP GLRM ? DM?K ASN.

0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: 4FC 2?KN %VNJMPC DMPACQ, CLCPEW ?LB UMPI ?Q WMS NSQF FMSQCFMJB M@HCARQ SN ?LB BMUL ? P?KN. ,MUCP ?LB P?GQC RFC P?KN RM QCC FMU RFC ?LEJC MD GLAJGL?RGML ?DDCARQ RFC N?P?JJCJ DMPACQ ?ARGLE ML RFC DGJC A?@GLCR. 'P?NFQ QFMU DMPACQ, CLCPEW ?LB UMPI.

242

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

F?=KH; 7.20 ->; +7CF (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42150/1.6/J>;-H7CF6;D.@7H)

7.6 CEDI;HL7J?ED E< ED;H=O


,?U MD #MLQCPT?RGML MD %LCPEW
%LCPEW, ?Q UC F?TC LMRCB, GQ AMLQCPTCB, K?IGLE GR MLC MD RFC KMQR GKNMPR?LR NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ GL L?RSPC. 4FC B7M E< 9EDI;HL7J?ED E< ;D;H=O A?L @C QR?RCB ?Q DMJJMUQ: +BG4? 8A8E:L <F 6BAFG4AG <A 4AL CEB68FF. G @4L 6;4A:8 <A 9BE@ BE 58 GE4AF98EE87 9EB@ BA8 FLFG8@ GB 4ABG;8E, 5HG G;8 GBG4? E8@4<AF G;8 F4@8. 7C F?TC CVNJMPCB QMKC DMPKQ MD CLCPEW ?LB QMKC U?WQ GR A?L @C RP?LQDCPPCB DPMK MLC QWQRCK RM ?LMRFCP. 4FGQ CVNJMP?RGML JCB RM RFC BCDGLGRGML MD RUM K?HMP RWNCQ MD CLCPEWrKCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW (KE + PE) ?LB CLCPEW RP?LQDCPPCB TG? UMPI BMLC @W LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ (W nc) . "SR CLCPEW R?ICQ @4AL MRFCP DMPKQ, K?LGDCQRGLE GRQCJD GL @4AL BGDDCPCLR U?WQ, ?LB UC LCCB RM @C ?@JC RM BC?J UGRF ?JJ MD RFCQC @CDMPC UC A?L UPGRC ?L COS?RGML DMP RFC ?@MTC ECLCP?J QR?RCKCLR MD RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW.

/RFCP &MPKQ MD %LCPEW RF?L -CAF?LGA?J %LCPEW


!R RFGQ NMGLR, UC BC?J UGRF ?JJ MRFCP DMPKQ MD CLCPEW @W JSKNGLE RFCK GLRM ? QGLEJC EPMSN A?JJCB EJ>;H ;D;H=O ( OE ). 4FCL UC A?L QR?RC RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW GL COS?RGML DMPK ?Q

KE i + PE i + W nc + OE i = KE f + PE f + OE f .
!JJ RWNCQ MD CLCPEW ?LB UMPI A?L @C GLAJSBCB GL RFGQ TCPW ECLCP?J QR?RCKCLR MD AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW. +GLCRGA CLCPEW GQ AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC GQ PCNPCQCLRCB @W

(7.65)

KE , UMPI BMLC @W ? PE , UMPI BMLC @W LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ GQ W nc , ?LB ?JJ MRFCP CLCPEGCQ ?PC GLAJSBCB ?Q OE . 4FGQ COS?RGML ?NNJGCQ RM ?JJ NPCTGMSQ CV?KNJCQ; GL RFMQC QGRS?RGMLQ OE U?Q AMLQR?LR, ?LB QM GR QS@RP?ARCB MSR ?LB U?Q LMR BGPCARJW AMLQGBCPCB.
-?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 5QCDSJLCQQ MD RFC %LCPEW #MLQCPT?RGML 0PGLAGNJC 4FC D?AR RF?R CLCPEW GQ AMLQCPTCB ?LB F?Q K?LW DMPKQ K?ICQ GR TCPW GKNMPR?LR. 9MS UGJJ DGLB RF?R CLCPEW GQ BGQASQQCB GL K?LW AMLRCVRQ, @CA?SQC GR GQ GLTMJTCB GL ?JJ NPMACQQCQ. )R UGJJ ?JQM @CAMKC ?NN?PCLR RF?R K?LW QGRS?RGMLQ ?PC @CQR SLBCPQRMMB GL RCPKQ MD CLCPEW ?LB RF?R NPM@JCKQ ?PC MDRCL KMQR C?QGJW AMLACNRS?JGXCB ?LB QMJTCB @W AMLQGBCPGLE CLCPEW.

7FCL BMCQ OE NJ?W ? PMJC? /LC CV?KNJC MAASPQ UFCL ? NCPQML C?RQ. &MMB GQ MVGBGXCB UGRF RFC PCJC?QC MD A?P@ML BGMVGBC, U?RCP, ?LB CLCPEW. 3MKC MD RFGQ AFCKGA?J CLCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB RM IGLCRGA CLCPEW UFCL RFC NCPQML KMTCQ, RM NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW UFCL RFC NCPQML AF?LECQ ?JRGRSBC, ?LB RM RFCPK?J CLCPEW (?LMRFCP DMPK MD OE ).

3MKC MD RFC -?LW &MPKQ MD %LCPEW


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rGLTMJTGLE GBCLRGDWGLE NFWQGA?J NPGLAGNJCQ, ILMULQ, ?LB SLILMULQ, AFCAIGLE SLGRQ, ?LB QM MLrAMLRGLSC RM @C PCJCT?LR FCPC. ,J;F 1. $CRCPKGLC RFC QWQRCK MD GLRCPCQR ?LB GBCLRGDW UF?R GLDMPK?RGML GQ EGTCL ?LB UF?R OS?LRGRW GQ RM @C A?JASJ?RCB. ! QICRAF UGJJ FCJN. ,J;F 2. %V?KGLC ?JJ RFC DMPACQ GLTMJTCB ?LB BCRCPKGLC UFCRFCP WMS ILMU MP ?PC EGTCL RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW DPMK RFC UMPI BMLC @W RFC DMPACQ. 4FCL SQC QRCN 3 MP QRCN 4. ,J;F 3. )D WMS ILMU RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEGCQ DMP RFC DMPACQ RF?R CLRCP GLRM RFC NPM@JCK, RFCL DMPACQ ?PC ?JJ AMLQCPT?RGTC, ?LB WMS A?L ?NNJW AMLQCPT?RGML MD KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW QGKNJW GL RCPKQ MD NMRCLRG?J ?LB IGLCRGA CLCPEW. 4FC COS?RGML CVNPCQQGLE AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW GQ

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

243

KE i + PE i = KE f + PE f .

(7.66)

,J;F 4. )D WMS ILMU RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW DMP MLJW QMKC MD RFC DMPACQ, NMQQG@JW @CA?SQC QMKC MD RFCK ?PC LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC ?LB BM LMR F?TC ? NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW, MP GD RFCPC ?PC MRFCP CLCPEGCQ RF?R ?PC LMR C?QGJW RPC?RCB GL RCPKQ MD DMPAC ?LB UMPI, RFCL RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW J?U GL GRQ KMQR ECLCP?J DMPK KSQR @C SQCB.

KE i + PE i + W nc + OE i = KE f + PE f + OE f .
)L KMQR NPM@JCKQ, MLC MP KMPC MD RFC RCPKQ GQ XCPM, QGKNJGDWGLE GRQ QMJSRGML. $M LMR A?JASJ?RC ?JPC?BW GLAMPNMP?RCB GL RFC

(7.67)

PE RCPKQ.

W c , RFC UMPI BMLC @W AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ; GR GQ

,J;F 5. 9MS F?TC ?JPC?BW GBCLRGDGCB RFC RWNCQ MD UMPI ?LB CLCPEW GLTMJTCB (GL QRCN 2). "CDMPC QMJTGLE DMP RFC SLILMUL, 8?<@<A4G8 G8E@F J;8E8I8E CBFF<5?8 RM QGKNJGDW RFC ?JEC@P?. &MP CV?KNJC, AFMMQC h = 0 ?R CGRFCP RFC GLGRG?J MP DGL?J NMGLR, QM RF?R PE g GQ XCPM RFCPC. 4FCL QMJTC DMP RFC SLILMUL GL RFC ASQRMK?PW K?LLCP. ,J;F 6. C;86> G;8 4AFJ8E GB F88 <9 <G <F E84FBA45?8. /LAC WMS F?TC QMJTCB ? NPM@JCK, PCCV?KGLC RFC DMPKQ MD UMPI ?LB CLCPEW RM QCC GD WMS F?TC QCR SN RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW COS?RGML AMPPCARJW. &MP CV?KNJC, UMPI BMLC ?E?GLQR DPGARGML QFMSJB @C LCE?RGTC, NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW ?R RFC @MRRMK MD ? FGJJ QFMSJB @C JCQQ RF?L RF?R ?R RFC RMN, ?LB QM ML. !JQM AFCAI RM QCC RF?R RFC LSKCPGA?J T?JSC M@R?GLCB GQ PC?QML?@JC. &MP CV?KNJC, RFC DGL?J QNCCB MD ? QI?RC@M?PBCP UFM AM?QRQ BMUL ? 3-K-FGEF P?KN AMSJB PC?QML?@JW @C 20 IK/F, @SR ABG 80 IK/F.

4P?LQDMPK?RGML MD %LCPEW
4FC RP?LQDMPK?RGML MD CLCPEW DPMK MLC DMPK GLRM MRFCPQ GQ F?NNCLGLE ?JJ RFC RGKC. 4FC AFCKGA?J CLCPEW GL DMMB GQ AMLTCPRCB GLRM RFCPK?J CLCPEW RFPMSEF KCR?@MJGQK; JGEFR CLCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB GLRM AFCKGA?J CLCPEW RFPMSEF NFMRMQWLRFCQGQ. )L ? J?PECP CV?KNJC, RFC AFCKGA?J CLCPEW AMLR?GLCB GL AM?J GQ AMLTCPRCB GLRM RFCPK?J CLCPEW ?Q GR @SPLQ RM RSPL U?RCP GLRM QRC?K GL ? @MGJCP. 4FGQ RFCPK?J CLCPEW GL RFC QRC?K GL RSPL GQ AMLTCPRCB RM KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW ?Q GR QNGLQ ? RSP@GLC, UFGAF GQ AMLLCARCB RM ? ECLCP?RMP RM NPMBSAC CJCARPGA?J CLCPEW. ()L ?JJ MD RFCQC CV?KNJCQ, LMR ?JJ MD RFC GLGRG?J CLCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB GLRM RFC DMPKQ KCLRGMLCB. 4FGQ GKNMPR?LR NMGLR GQ BGQASQQCB J?RCP GL RFGQ QCARGML.) !LMRFCP CV?KNJC MD CLCPEW AMLTCPQGML MAASPQ GL ? QMJ?P ACJJ. 3SLJGEFR GKNGLEGLE ML ? QMJ?P ACJJ (QCC F?=KH; 7.21) NPMBSACQ CJCARPGAGRW, UFGAF GL RSPL A?L @C SQCB RM PSL ?L CJCARPGA KMRMP. %LCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB DPMK RFC NPGK?PW QMSPAC MD QMJ?P CLCPEW GLRM CJCARPGA?J CLCPEW ?LB RFCL GLRM KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW.

F?=KH; 7.21 3MJ?P CLCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB GLRM CJCARPGA?J CLCPEW @W QMJ?P ACJJQ, UFGAF GQ SQCB RM PSL ? KMRMP GL RFGQ QMJ?P-NMUCP ?GPAP?DR. (APCBGR: .!3!)

244

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

4?@JC 7.1 %LCPEW MD 6?PGMSQ /@HCARQ ?LB 0FCLMKCL? (8@;9J/F>;DEC;DED "GE "?LE %LCPEW PCJC?QCB GL ? QSNCPLMT? &SQGML MD ?JJ RFC FWBPMECL GL %?PRFtQ MAC?LQ !LLS?J UMPJB CLCPEW SQC ,?PEC DSQGML @MK@ (9 KCE?RML) 1 IE FWBPMECL (DSQGML RM FCJGSK) 1 IE SP?LGSK (LSAJC?P DGQQGML) (GPMQFGK?-QGXC DGQQGML @MK@ (10 IGJMRML) 90,000-RML ?GPAP?DR A?PPGCP ?R 30 ILMRQ 1 @?PPCJ APSBC MGJ 1 RML 4.4 1 E?JJML MD E?QMJGLC $?GJW FMKC CJCARPGAGRW SQC (BCTCJMNCB AMSLRPGCQ) $?GJW ?BSJR DMMB GLR?IC (PCAMKKCLBCB) 1000-IE A?P ?R 90 IK/F 1 E D?R (9.3 IA?J) !40 FWBPMJWQGQ PC?ARGML 1 E A?P@MFWBP?RC (4.1 IA?J) 1 E NPMRCGL (4.1 IA?J) 4CLLGQ @?JJ ?R 100 IK/F -MQOSGRM 10 2

ED;H=O ?D @EKB;I

10 68 10 44 10 34 410 20 3.810 16 6.410 14 8.010 13 4.210 13 1.110 10 5.910 9 4.210 9 1.210 8 710 7 1.210 7 3.110 5 3.910 4 3.210 4 1.710 4 1.710 4 22 1.310 6 4.010 15 10 19

g at 0.5 m/s

3GLEJC CJCARPML GL ? 46 RS@C @C?K %LCPEW RM @PC?I MLC $.! QRP?LB

%DDGAGCLAW
%TCL RFMSEF CLCPEW GQ AMLQCPTCB GL ?L CLCPEW AMLTCPQGML NPMACQQ, RFC MSRNSR MD HF89H? 8A8E:L MP UMPI UGJJ @C JCQQ RF?L RFC CLCPEW GLNSR. 4FC ;<<?9?;D9O Eff MD ?L CLCPEW AMLTCPQGML NPMACQQ GQ BCDGLCB ?Q

Efficiency (Eff ) =

useful energy or work output W out = . E in total energy input

(7.68)

-78B; 7.2 JGQRQ QMKC CDDGAGCLAGCQ MD KCAF?LGA?J BCTGACQ ?LB FSK?L ?ARGTGRGCQ. )L ? AM?J-DGPCB NMUCP NJ?LR, DMP CV?KNJC, ?@MSR 40% MD RFC AFCKGA?J CLCPEW GL RFC AM?J @CAMKCQ SQCDSJ CJCARPGA?J CLCPEW. 4FC MRFCP 60% RP?LQDMPKQ GLRM MRFCP (NCPF?NQ JCQQ SQCDSJ) CLCPEW DMPKQ, QSAF ?Q RFCPK?J CLCPEW, UFGAF GQ RFCL PCJC?QCB RM RFC CLTGPMLKCLR RFPMSEF AMK@SQRGML E?QCQ ?LB AMMJGLE RMUCPQ.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

245

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

F?=KH; 7.22 &7II;I 7D: ,FH?D=I (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42151/1.5/C7II-IFH?D=-B786;D.@7H)

7.7 )EM;H
7F?R GQ 0MUCP?
'BJ8ErRFC UMPB AMLHSPCQ SN K?LW GK?ECQ: ? NPMDCQQGML?J DMMR@?JJ NJ?WCP KSQAJGLE ?QGBC FGQ MNNMLCLR, ? BP?EQRCP PM?PGLE ?U?W DPMK RFC QR?PRGLE JGLC, ? TMJA?LM @JMUGLE GRQ J?T? GLRM RFC ?RKMQNFCPC, MP ? PMAICR @J?QRGLE MDD, ?Q GL F?=KH; 7.23.

F?=KH; 7.23 4FGQ NMUCPDSJ PMAICR ML RFC 3N?AC 3FSRRJC EA784IBE BGB UMPI ?LB AMLQSKCB CLCPEW ?R ? TCPW FGEF P?RC. (APCBGR: .!3!)

4FCQC GK?ECQ MD NMUCP F?TC GL AMKKML RFC P?NGB NCPDMPK?LAC MD UMPI, AMLQGQRCLR UGRF RFC QAGCLRGDGA BCDGLGRGML MD FEM;H ( P ) ?Q RFC P?RC ?R UFGAF UMPI GQ BMLC.

1. +;FH;I;DJ7J?L; L7BK;I

246

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

0MUCP 0MUCP GQ RFC P?RC ?R UFGAF UMPI GQ BMLC.

P=W t
4FC 3) SLGR DMP NMUCP GQ RFC M7JJ ( W ), UFCPC 1 U?RR COS?JQ 1 HMSJC/QCAMLB

(7.69)

(1 W = 1 J/s).

"CA?SQC UMPI GQ CLCPEW RP?LQDCP, NMUCP GQ ?JQM RFC P?RC ?R UFGAF CLCPEW GQ CVNCLBCB. ! 60-7 JGEFR @SJ@, DMP CV?KNJC, CVNCLBQ 60 * MD CLCPEW NCP QCAMLB. 'PC?R NMUCP KC?LQ ? J?PEC ?KMSLR MD UMPI MP CLCPEW BCTCJMNCB GL ? QFMPR RGKC. &MP CV?KNJC, UFCL ? NMUCPDSJ A?P ?AACJCP?RCQ P?NGBJW, GR BMCQ ? J?PEC ?KMSLR MD UMPI ?LB AMLQSKCQ ? J?PEC ?KMSLR MD DSCJ GL ? QFMPR RGKC.

#?JASJ?RGLE 0MUCP DPMK %LCPEW EN7CFB; 7.11 C7B9KB7J?D= J>; )EM;H JE CB?C8 ,J7?HI
7F?R GQ RFC NMUCP MSRNSR DMP ? 60.0-IE UMK?L UFM PSLQ SN ? 3.00 K FGEF DJGEFR MD QR?GPQ GL 3.50 Q, QR?PRGLE DPMK PCQR @SR F?TGLE ? DGL?J QNCCB MD 2.00 K/Q? (3CC F?=KH; 7.24.)

F?=KH; 7.24 7FCL RFGQ UMK?L PSLQ SNQR?GPQ QR?PRGLE DPMK PCQR, QFC AMLTCPRQ RFC AFCKGA?J CLCPEW MPGEGL?JJW DPMK DMMB GLRM IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?LB EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW. (CP NMUCP MSRNSR BCNCLBQ ML FMU D?QR QFC BMCQ RFGQ.

,JH7J;=O 7D: CED9;FJ 4FC UMPI EMGLE GLRM KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW GQ

W = KE + PE . !R RFC @MRRMK MD RFC QR?GPQ, UC R?IC @MRF KE ?LB PE g ?Q GLGRG?JJW XCPM; RFSQ,

BGTGBC GR @W RGKC RM ECR NMUCP. ,EBKJ?ED

W = KE f + PE g = 1 mv f 2 + mgh , UFCPC h GQ RFC TCPRGA?J FCGEFR MD RFC QR?GPQ. "CA?SQC ?JJ RCPKQ ?PC EGTCL, UC A?L A?JASJ?RC W ?LB RFCL 2

3S@QRGRSRGLE RFC CVNPCQQGML DMP

W GLRM RFC BCDGLGRGML MD NMUCP EGTCL GL RFC NPCTGMSQ COS?RGML, P = W / t WGCJBQ


1 mv 2 + mgh f 2 P=W = . t t

(7.70)

%LRCPGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ WGCJBQ


2 2 0.5 60.0 kg(2.00 m/s) + 60.0 kg9.80 m/s (3.00 m) P = 3.50 s 120 J + 1764 J = 3.50 s = 538 W.

(7.71)

D?I9KII?ED 4FC UMK?L BMCQ 1764 * MD UMPI RM KMTC SN RFC QR?GPQ AMKN?PCB UGRF MLJW 120 * RM GLAPC?QC FCP IGLCRGA CLCPEW; RFSQ, KMQR MD FCP NMUCP MSRNSR GQ PCOSGPCB DMP AJGK@GLE P?RFCP RF?L ?AACJCP?RGLE.

)R GQ GKNPCQQGTC RF?R RFGQ UMK?LtQ SQCDSJ NMUCP MSRNSR GQ QJGEFRJW JCQQ RF?L 1 >EHI;FEM;H

(1 hp = 746 W) ! 0CMNJC A?L ECLCP?RC KMPC RF?L ?

FMPQCNMUCP UGRF RFCGP JCE KSQAJCQ DMP QFMPR NCPGMBQ MD RGKC @W P?NGBJW AMLTCPRGLE ?T?GJ?@JC @JMMB QSE?P ?LB MVWECL GLRM UMPI MSRNSR. (! FMPQC A?L NSR
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

247

MSR 1 FN DMP FMSPQ ML CLB.) /LAC MVWECL GQ BCNJCRCB, NMUCP MSRNSR BCAPC?QCQ ?LB RFC NCPQML @CEGLQ RM @PC?RFC P?NGBJW RM M@R?GL MVWECL RM KCR?@MJGXC KMPC DMMBrRFGQ GQ ILMUL ?Q RFC 48EB5<6 QR?EC MD CVCPAGQC. )D RFC UMK?L AJGK@CB RFC QR?GPQ QJMUJW, RFCL FCP NMUCP MSRNSR UMSJB @C KSAF JCQQ, ?JRFMSEF RFC ?KMSLR MD UMPI BMLC UMSJB @C RFC Q?KC. -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC )LTCQRGE?RGMLr-C?QSPC 9MSP 0MUCP 2?RGLE $CRCPKGLC WMSP MUL NMUCP P?RGLE @W KC?QSPGLE RFC RGKC GR R?ICQ WMS RM AJGK@ ? DJGEFR MD QR?GPQ. 7C UGJJ GELMPC RFC E?GL GL IGLCRGA CLCPEW, ?Q RFC ?@MTC CV?KNJC QFMUCB RF?R GR U?Q ? QK?JJ NMPRGML MD RFC CLCPEW E?GL. $MLtR CVNCAR RF?R WMSP MSRNSR UGJJ @C KMPC RF?L ?@MSR 0.5 FN.

%V?KNJCQ MD 0MUCP
%V?KNJCQ MD NMUCP ?PC JGKGRCB MLJW @W RFC GK?EGL?RGML, @CA?SQC RFCPC ?PC ?Q K?LW RWNCQ ?Q RFCPC ?PC DMPKQ MD UMPI ?LB CLCPEW. (3CC -78B; 7.3 DMP QMKC CV?KNJCQ.) 3SLJGEFR PC?AFGLE %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC A?PPGCQ ? K?VGKSK NMUCP MD ?@MSR 1.3 IGJMU?RRQ NCP QOS?PC KCRCP (kW/m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

F?=KH; 7.25 4PCKCLBMSQ ?KMSLRQ MD CJCARPGA NMUCP ?PC ECLCP?RCB @W AM?J-DGPCB NMUCP NJ?LRQ QSAF ?Q RFGQ MLC GL #FGL?, @SR ?L CTCL J?PECP ?KMSLR MD NMUCP EMCQ GLRM FC?R RP?LQDCP RM RFC QSPPMSLBGLEQ. 4FC J?PEC AMMJGLE RMUCPQ FCPC ?PC LCCBCB RM RP?LQDCP FC?R ?Q P?NGBJW ?Q GR GQ NPMBSACB. 4FC RP?LQDCP MD FC?R GQ LMR SLGOSC RM AM?J NJ?LRQ @SR GQ ?L SL?TMGB?@JC AMLQCOSCLAC MD ECLCP?RGLE CJCARPGA NMUCP DPMK ?LW DSCJrLSAJC?P, AM?J, MGJ, L?RSP?J E?Q, MP RFC JGIC. (APCBGR: +JCGLMJGTC, 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

248

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

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

510 37 10 37 10 28 410 26 410 15 210 12 310 9 10 8 210 6 810 4 510 3 410 3 100 60 8 3 10 3

0MUCP ?LB %LCPEW #MLQSKNRGML


7C SQS?JJW F?TC RM N?W DMP RFC CLCPEW UC SQC. )R GQ GLRCPCQRGLE ?LB C?QW RM CQRGK?RC RFC AMQR MD CLCPEW DMP ?L CJCARPGA?J ?NNJG?LAC GD GRQ NMUCP AMLQSKNRGML P?RC ?LB RGKC SQCB ?PC ILMUL. 4FC FGEFCP RFC NMUCP AMLQSKNRGML P?RC ?LB RFC JMLECP RFC ?NNJG?LAC GQ SQCB, RFC EPC?RCP RFC AMQR MD RF?R ?NNJG?LAC. 4FC NMUCP AMLQSKNRGML P?RC GQ P = W / t = E / t , UFCPC E GQ RFC CLCPEW QSNNJGCB @W RFC CJCARPGAGRW AMKN?LW. 3M RFC CLCPEW AMLQSKCB MTCP ? RGKC t GQ

E = Pt.
%JCARPGAGRW @GJJQ QR?RC RFC CLCPEW SQCB GL SLGRQ MD A?BEM7JJ->EKHI AMLTCLGCLR @CA?SQC CJCARPGA?J NMUCP AMLQSKNRGML ?R RFC IGJMU?RR JCTCJ DMP FMSPQ ?R ? RGKC GQ RWNGA?J.

(7.72)

(kW h), UFGAF GQ RFC NPMBSAR MD NMUCP GL IGJMU?RRQ ?LB RGKC GL FMSPQ. 4FGQ SLGR GQ

EN7CFB; 7.12 C7B9KB7J?D= ED;H=O CEIJI


7F?R GQ RFC AMQR MD PSLLGLE ? 0.200-I7 AMKNSRCP 6.00 F NCP B?W DMP 30.0 B GD RFC AMQR MD CJCARPGAGRW GQ $0.120 NCP ,JH7J;=O #MQR GQ @?QCB ML CLCPEW AMLQSKCB; RFSQ, UC KSQR DGLB ,EBKJ?ED 4FC CLCPEW AMLQSKCB GL

kW h ?

E DPMK E = Pt ?LB RFCL A?JASJ?RC RFC AMQR. "CA?SQC CJCARPGA?J CLCPEW GQ CVNPCQQCB GL kW h , ?R RFC QR?PR MD ? NPM@JCK QSAF ?Q RFGQ GR GQ AMLTCLGCLR RM AMLTCPR RFC SLGRQ GLRM kW ?LB FMSPQ. kW h GQ E = Pt = (0.200 kW)(6.00 h/d)(30.0 d) = 36.0 kW h,
(7.73)

?LB RFC AMQR GQ QGKNJW EGTCL @W

cost = (36.0 kW h)($0.120 per kW h) = $4.32 per month.


D?I9KII?ED

(7.74)

4FC AMQR MD SQGLE RFC AMKNSRCP GL RFGQ CV?KNJC GQ LCGRFCP CVMP@GR?LR LMP LCEJGEG@JC. )R GQ AJC?P RF?R RFC AMQR GQ ? AMK@GL?RGML MD NMUCP ?LB RGKC. 7FCL @MRF ?PC FGEF, QSAF ?Q DMP ?L ?GP AMLBGRGMLCP GL RFC QSKKCP, RFC AMQR GQ FGEF.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

249

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rRF?R GQ, BCTGACQ RF?R AMLQSKC JCQQ NMUCP RM ?AAMKNJGQF RFC Q?KC R?QI. /LC CV?KNJC GQ RFC AMKN?AR DJSMPCQACLR JGEFR @SJ@, UFGAF NPMBSACQ MTCP DMSP RGKCQ KMPC JGEFR NCP U?RR MD NMUCP AMLQSKCB RF?L GRQ GLA?LBCQACLR AMSQGL. -MBCPL AGTGJGX?RGML BCNCLBQ ML CLCPEW, @SR ASPPCLR JCTCJQ MD CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML ?LB NPMBSARGML ?PC LMR QSQR?GL?@JC. 4FC JGICJGFMMB MD ? JGLI @CRUCCL EJM@?J U?PKGLE ?LB DMQQGJ DSCJ SQC (UGRF GRQ AMLAMKGR?LR NPMBSARGML MD A?P@ML BGMVGBC), F?Q K?BC PCBSARGML GL CLCPEW SQC ?Q UCJJ ?Q ? QFGDR RM LMLDMQQGJ DSCJQ MD RFC SRKMQR GKNMPR?LAC. %TCL RFMSEF CLCPEW GL ?L GQMJ?RCB QWQRCK GQ ? AMLQCPTCB OS?LRGRW, RFC DGL?J PCQSJR MD KMQR CLCPEW RP?LQDMPK?RGMLQ GQ U?QRC FC?R RP?LQDCP RM RFC CLTGPMLKCLR, UFGAF GQ LM JMLECP SQCDSJ DMP BMGLE UMPI. !Q UC UGJJ BGQASQQ GL KMPC BCR?GJ GL ->;HCE:OD7C?9I, RFC NMRCLRG?J DMP CLCPEW RM NPMBSAC SQCDSJ UMPI F?Q @CCL uBCEP?BCBv GL RFC CLCPEW RP?LQDMPK?RGML.

7.8 0EHA, ED;H=O, 7D: )EM;H ?D !KC7DI


%LCPEW #MLTCPQGML GL (SK?LQ
/SP MUL @MBGCQ, JGIC ?JJ JGTGLE MPE?LGQKQ, ?PC CLCPEW AMLTCPQGML K?AFGLCQ. #MLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW GKNJGCQ RF?R RFC AFCKGA?J CLCPEW QRMPCB GL DMMB GQ AMLTCPRCB GLRM UMPI, RFCPK?J CLCPEW, ?LB/MP QRMPCB ?Q AFCKGA?J CLCPEW GL D?RRW RGQQSC. (3CC F?=KH; 7.26.) 4FC DP?ARGML EMGLE GLRM C?AF DMPK BCNCLBQ @MRF ML FMU KSAF UC C?R ?LB ML MSP JCTCJ MD NFWQGA?J ?ARGTGRW. )D UC C?R KMPC RF?L GQ LCCBCB RM BM UMPI ?LB QR?W U?PK, RFC PCK?GLBCP EMCQ GLRM @MBW D?R.

F?=KH; 7.26 %LCPEW AMLQSKCB @W FSK?LQ GQ AMLTCPRCB RM UMPI, RFCPK?J CLCPEW, ?LB QRMPCB D?R. "W D?P RFC J?PECQR DP?ARGML EMCQ RM RFCPK?J CLCPEW, ?JRFMSEF RFC DP?ARGML T?PGCQ BCNCLBGLE ML RFC RWNC MD NFWQGA?J ?ARGTGRW.

0MUCP #MLQSKCB ?R 2CQR


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

%LCPEW AMLQSKNRGML GQ BGPCARJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM MVWECL AMLQSKNRGML @CA?SQC RFC BGECQRGTC NPMACQQ GQ @?QGA?JJW MLC MD MVGBGXGLE DMMB. 7C A?L KC?QSPC RFC CLCPEW NCMNJC SQC BSPGLE T?PGMSQ ?ARGTGRGCQ @W KC?QSPGLE RFCGP MVWECL SQC. (3CC F?=KH; 7.27.) !NNPMVGK?RCJW 20 I* MD CLCPEW ?PC NPMBSACB DMP C?AF JGRCP MD MVWECL AMLQSKCB, GLBCNCLBCLR MD RFC RWNC MD DMMB. -78B; 7.5 QFMUQ CLCPEW ?LB MVWECL AMLQSKNRGML P?RCQ (NMUCP CVNCLBCB) DMP ? T?PGCRW MD ?ARGTGRGCQ.

0MUCP MD $MGLE 5QCDSJ 7MPI


7MPI BMLC @W ? NCPQML GQ QMKCRGKCQ A?JJCB KI;<KB MEHA, UFGAF GQ JBE> 7BA8 BA G;8 BHGF<78 JBE?7, QSAF ?Q JGDRGLE UCGEFRQ. 5QCDSJ UMPI PCOSGPCQ ? DMPAC CVCPRCB RFPMSEF ? BGQR?LAC ML RFC MSRQGBC UMPJB, ?LB QM GR CVAJSBCQ GLRCPL?J UMPI, QSAF ?Q RF?R BMLC @W RFC FC?PR UFCL NSKNGLE @JMMB. 5QCDSJ UMPI BMCQ GLAJSBC RF?R BMLC GL AJGK@GLE QR?GPQ MP ?AACJCP?RGLE RM ? DSJJ PSL, @CA?SQC RFCQC ?PC ?AAMKNJGQFCB @W CVCPRGLE DMPACQ ML RFC MSRQGBC UMPJB. &MPACQ CVCPRCB @W RFC @MBW ?PC LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC, QM RF?R RFCW A?L AF?LEC RFC KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW ( KE + PE ) MD RFC QWQRCK UMPICB SNML, ?LB RFGQ GQ MDRCL RFC EM?J. ! @?QC@?JJ NJ?WCP RFPMUGLE ? @?JJ, DMP CV?KNJC, GLAPC?QCQ @MRF RFC @?JJtQ IGLCRGA ?LB NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW.

250

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

)D ? NCPQML LCCBQ KMPC CLCPEW RF?L RFCW AMLQSKC, QSAF ?Q UFCL BMGLE TGEMPMSQ UMPI, RFC @MBW KSQR BP?U SNML RFC AFCKGA?J CLCPEW QRMPCB GL D?R. 3M CVCPAGQC A?L @C FCJNDSJ GL JMQGLE D?R. (MUCTCP, RFC ?KMSLR MD CVCPAGQC LCCBCB RM NPMBSAC ? JMQQ GL D?R, MP RM @SPL MDD CVRP? A?JMPGCQ AMLQSKCB RF?R B?W, A?L @C J?PEC, ?Q EN7CFB; 7.13 GJJSQRP?RCQ.

EN7CFB; 7.13 C7B9KB7J?D= 0;?=>J %EII <HEC EN;H9?I?D=


)D ? NCPQML UFM LMPK?JJW PCOSGPCQ ?L ?TCP?EC MD 12,000 I* (3000 IA?J) MD DMMB CLCPEW NCP B?W AMLQSKCQ 13,000 I* NCP B?W, FC UGJJ QRC?BGJW E?GL UCGEFR. (MU KSAF @GAWAJGLE NCP B?W GQ PCOSGPCB RM UMPI MDD RFGQ CVRP? 1000 I*? ,EBKJ?ED -78B; 7.5 QR?RCQ RF?R 400 7 ?PC SQCB UFCL AWAJGLE ?R ? KMBCP?RC QNCCB. 4FC RGKC PCOSGPCB RM UMPI MDD 1000 I* ?R RFGQ P?RC GQ RFCL

Time =
D?I9KII?ED

energy time

energy

= 1000 kJ = 2500 s = 42 min. 400 W

(7.75)

)D RFGQ NCPQML SQCQ KMPC CLCPEW RF?L FC MP QFC AMLQSKCQ, RFC NCPQMLtQ @MBW UGJJ M@R?GL RFC LCCBCB CLCPEW @W KCR?@MJGXGLE @MBW D?R. )D RFC NCPQML SQCQ 13,000 I* @SR AMLQSKCQ MLJW 12,000 I*, RFCL RFC ?KMSLR MD D?R JMQQ UGJJ @C

1.0 g fat Fat loss = (1000 kJ) = 26 g, 39 kJ

(7.76)

?QQSKGLE RFC CLCPEW AMLRCLR MD D?R RM @C 39 I*/E.

F?=KH; 7.27 ! NSJQC MVWKCRCP GQ ?L ?NN?P?RSQ RF?R KC?QSPCQ RFC ?KMSLR MD MVWECL GL @JMMB. /VWKCRCPQ A?L @C SQCB RM BCRCPKGLC ? NCPQMLtQ KCR?@MJGA P?RC, UFGAF GQ RFC P?RC ?R UFGAF DMMB CLCPEW GQ AMLTCPRCB RM ?LMRFCP DMPK. 3SAF KC?QSPCKCLRQ A?L GLBGA?RC RFC JCTCJ MD ?RFJCRGA AMLBGRGMLGLE ?Q UCJJ ?Q ACPR?GL KCBGA?J NPM@JCKQ. (APCBGR: 5SQG!H?H?, 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

4?@JC 7.5 %LCPEW ?LB /VWECL #MLQSKNRGML 2?RCQ;2= (0MUCP) A9J?L?JO 3JCCNGLE 3GRRGLE ?R PCQR 3R?LBGLE PCJ?VCB 3GRRGLE GL AJ?QQ 7?JIGLE (5 IK/F) #WAJGLE (13q18 IK/F) 3FGTCPGLE 0J?WGLE RCLLGQ 3UGKKGLE @PC?QRQRPMIC )AC QI?RGLE (14.5 IK/F) #JGK@GLE QR?GPQ (116/KGL) #WAJGLE (21 IK/F) 2SLLGLE APMQQ-AMSLRPW 0J?WGLE @?QICR@?JJ #WAJGLE, NPMDCQQGML?J P?ACP 3NPGLRGLE ED;H=O 9EDIKCFJ?ED ?D M7JJI 83 120 125 210 280 400 425 440 475 545 685 700 740 800 1855 2415 (NO=;D 9EDIKCFJ?ED ?D B?J;HI (2/C?D 0.24 0.34 0.36 0.60 0.80 1.14 1.21 1.26 1.36 1.56 1.96 2.00 2.12 2.28 5.30 6.90

2. DMP ?L ?TCP?EC 76-IE K?JC


4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

251

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

F?=KH; 7.28 4FGQ D-2) QA?L QFMUQ ?L GLAPC?QCB JCTCJ MD CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML GL RFC TGQGML ACLRCP MD RFC @P?GL. (CPC, RFC N?RGCLR U?Q @CGLE ?QICB RM PCAMELGXC D?ACQ. (APCBGR: .)( TG? 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

7.9 0EHB: ED;H=O .I;


%LCPEW GQ ?L GKNMPR?LR GLEPCBGCLR GL ?JJ NF?QCQ MD QMAGCRW. 7C JGTC GL ? TCPW GLRCPBCNCLBCLR UMPJB, ?LB ?AACQQ RM ?BCOS?RC ?LB PCJG?@JC CLCPEW PCQMSPACQ GQ APSAG?J DMP CAMLMKGA EPMURF ?LB DMP K?GLR?GLGLE RFC OS?JGRW MD MSP JGTCQ. "SR ASPPCLR JCTCJQ MD CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML ?LB NPMBSARGML ?PC LMR QSQR?GL?@JC. !@MSR 40% MD RFC UMPJBtQ CLCPEW AMKCQ DPMK MGJ, ?LB KSAF MD RF?R EMCQ RM RP?LQNMPR?RGML SQCQ. /GJ NPGACQ ?PC BCNCLBCLR ?Q KSAF SNML LCU (MP DMPCQCCL) BGQAMTCPGCQ ?Q RFCW ?PC SNML NMJGRGA?J CTCLRQ ?LB QGRS?RGMLQ ?PMSLB RFC UMPJB. 4FC 5.3., UGRF 4.5% MD RFC UMPJBtQ NMNSJ?RGML, AMLQSKCQ 24% MD RFC UMPJBtQ MGJ NPMBSARGML NCP WC?P; 66% MD RF?R MGJ GQ GKNMPRCB!

2CLCU?@JC ?LB .MLPCLCU?@JC %LCPEW 3MSPACQ


4FC NPGLAGN?J CLCPEW PCQMSPACQ SQCB GL RFC UMPJB ?PC QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.29. 4FC DSCJ KGV F?Q AF?LECB MTCP RFC WC?PQ @SR LMU GQ BMKGL?RCB @W MGJ, ?JRFMSEF L?RSP?J E?Q ?LB QMJ?P AMLRPG@SRGMLQ ?PC GLAPC?QGLE. +;D;M78B; <EHCI E< ;D;H=O ?PC RFMQC QMSPACQ RF?R A?LLMR @C SQCB SN, QSAF ?Q U?RCP, UGLB, QMJ?P, ?LB @GMK?QQ. !@MSR 85% MD MSP CLCPEW AMKCQ DPMK LMLPCLCU?@JC <EII?B <K;BIrMGJ, L?RSP?J E?Q, AM?J. 4FC JGICJGFMMB MD ? JGLI @CRUCCL EJM@?J U?PKGLE ?LB DMQQGJ DSCJ SQC, UGRF GRQ NPMBSARGML MD A?P@ML BGMVGBC RFPMSEF AMK@SQRGML, F?Q K?BC, GL RFC CWCQ MD K?LW QAGCLRGQRQ, ? QFGDR RM LMLDMQQGJ DSCJQ MD SRKMQR GKNMPR?LACr@SR GR UGJJ LMR @C C?QW.

F?=KH; 7.29 7MPJB CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML @W QMSPAC, GL @GJJGMLQ MD IGJMU?RR-FMSPQ: 2006. (APCBGR: +6$0)

4FC 7MPJBtQ 'PMUGLE %LCPEW .CCBQ


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tQ QCAMLB J?PECQR AMLQSKCP MD MGJ. (MUCTCP, MTCP 1/3 MD RFGQ GQ GKNMPRCB. 5LJGIC KMQR 7CQRCPL AMSLRPGCQ, AM?J BMKGL?RCQ RFC AMKKCPAG?J CLCPEW PCQMSPACQ MD #FGL?, ?AAMSLRGLE DMP 2/3 MD GRQ

252

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML. )L 2009 #FGL? QSPN?QQCB RFC 5LGRCB 3R?RCQ ?Q RFC J?PECQR ECLCP?RMP MD

CO 2 . )L )LBG?, RFC K?GL CLCPEW PCQMSPACQ ?PC @GMK?QQ

(UMMB ?LB BSLE) ?LB AM?J. (?JD MD )LBG?tQ MGJ GQ GKNMPRCB. !@MSR 70% MD )LBG?tQ CJCARPGAGRW GQ ECLCP?RCB @W FGEFJW NMJJSRGLE AM?J. 9CR RFCPC ?PC QGXC?@JC QRPGBCQ @CGLE K?BC GL PCLCU?@JC CLCPEW. )LBG? F?Q ? P?NGBJW EPMUGLE UGLB CLCPEW @?QC, ?LB GR F?Q RFC J?PECQR QMJ?P AMMIGLE NPMEP?K GL RFC UMPJB.

F?=KH; 7.30 0?QR ?LB NPMHCARCB UMPJB CLCPEW SQC (QMSPAC: "?QCB ML B?R? DPMK 5.3. %LCPEW )LDMPK?RGML !BKGLGQRP?RGML, 2011)

F?=KH; 7.31 3MJ?P ACJJ ?PP?WQ ?R ? NMUCP NJ?LR GL 3RCGLBMPD, 'CPK?LW (APCBGR: -GAF?CJ "CRIC, &JGAIP)

-78B; 7.6 BGQNJ?WQ RFC 2006 AMKKCPAG?J CLCPEW KGV @W AMSLRPW DMP QMKC MD RFC NPGKC CLCPEW SQCPQ GL RFC UMPJB. 7FGJC LML-PCLCU?@JC QMSPACQ BMKGL?RC, QMKC AMSLRPGCQ ECR ? QGXC?@JC NCPACLR?EC MD RFCGP CJCARPGAGRW DPMK PCLCU?@JC PCQMSPACQ. &MP CV?KNJC, ?@MSR 67% MD .CU :C?J?LBtQ CJCARPGAGRW BCK?LB GQ KCR @W FWBPMCJCARPGA. /LJW 10% MD RFC 5.3. CJCARPGAGRW GQ ECLCP?RCB @W PCLCU?@JC PCQMSPACQ, NPGK?PGJW FWBPMCJCARPGA. )R GQ BGDDGASJR RM BCRCPKGLC RMR?J AMLRPG@SRGMLQ MD PCLCU?@JC CLCPEW GL QMKC AMSLRPGCQ UGRF ? J?PEC PSP?J NMNSJ?RGML, QM RFCQC NCPACLR?ECQ GL RFGQ R?@JC ?PC JCDR @J?LI. 4?@JC 7.6 %LCPEW #MLQSKNRGMLr3CJCARCB #MSLRPGCQ (2006) CEKDJHO !SQRP?JG? "P?XGJ #FGL? %EWNR 'CPK?LW )LBG? )LBMLCQG? *?N?L .CU :C?J?LB 2SQQG? 5.3. 0EHB: CEDIKCFJ?ED, ?D E# (1018 #) 5.4 9.6 63 2.4 16 15 4.9 24 0.44 31 105 432 (?B 34% 48% 22% 50% 37% 34% 51% 48% 32% 19% 40% 39% '7JKH7B 7I 17% 7% 3% 41% 24% 7% 26% 14% 26% 53% 23% 23% CE7B 44% 5% 69% 1% 24% 52% 16% 21% 6% 16% 22% 24% 'K9B;7H 0% 1% 1% 0% 11% 1% 0% 12% 0% 5% 8% 6% !O:HE 3% 35% 6% 6% 1% 5% 2% 4% 11% 6% 3% 6% 1% 2% 3% 1% 19% 3% (J>;H +;D;M78B;I 1% 2% EB;9JH?9?JO .I; F;H 97F?J7 (A0>/ OH) 10000 2000 1500 990 6400 470 420 7100 8500 5700 12500 2600 ED;H=O .I; F;H 97F?J7 ( #/ OH) 260 50 35 32 173 13 22 176 102 202 340 71

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

253

%LCPEW ?LB %AMLMKGA 7CJJ-@CGLE


4FC J?QR RUM AMJSKLQ GL RFGQ R?@JC CV?KGLC RFC CLCPEW ?LB CJCARPGAGRW SQC NCP A?NGR?. %AMLMKGA UCJJ-@CGLE GQ BCNCLBCLR SNML CLCPEW SQC, ?LB GL KMQR AMSLRPGCQ FGEFCP QR?LB?PBQ MD JGTGLE, ?Q KC?QSPCB @W '$0 (EPMQQ BMKCQRGA NPMBSAR) NCP A?NGR?, ?PC K?RAFCB @W FGEFCP JCTCJQ MD CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML NCP A?NGR?. 4FGQ GQ @MPLC MSR GL F?=KH; 7.32. )LAPC?QCB CDDGAGCLAW MD CLCPEW SQC UGJJ AF?LEC RFGQ BCNCLBCLAW. ! EJM@?J NPM@JCK GQ @?J?LAGLE CLCPEW PCQMSPAC BCTCJMNKCLR ?E?GLQR RFC F?PKDSJ CDDCARQ SNML RFC CLTGPMLKCLR GL GRQ CVRP?ARGML ?LB SQC.

F?=KH; 7.32 0MUCP AMLQSKNRGML NCP A?NGR? TCPQSQ '$0 NCP A?NGR? DMP T?PGMSQ AMSLRPGCQ. .MRC RFC GLAPC?QC GL CLCPEW SQ?EC UGRF GLAPC?QGLE '$0. (2007, APCBGR: &P?LI T?L -GCPJM, 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

#MLQCPTGLE %LCPEW
!Q UC DGLGQF RFGQ AF?NRCP ML CLCPEW ?LB UMPI, GR GQ PCJCT?LR RM BP?U QMKC BGQRGLARGMLQ @CRUCCL RUM QMKCRGKCQ KGQSLBCPQRMMB RCPKQ GL RFC ?PC? MD CLCPEW SQC. !Q F?Q @CCL KCLRGMLCB CJQCUFCPC, RFC uJ?U MD RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEWv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rQSAF ?Q BCTCJMNGLE ?LB SQGLE KMPC CDDGAGCLR PMMK FC?RCPQ, A?PQ RF?R F?TC EPC?RCP KGJCQ-NCP-E?JJML P?RGLEQ, CLCPEWCDDGAGCLR AMKN?AR DJSMPCQACLR JGEFRQ, CRA. 3GLAC CLCPEW GL ?L GQMJ?RCB QWQRCK GQ LMR BCQRPMWCB MP APC?RCB MP ECLCP?RCB, MLC KGEFR UMLBCP UFW UC LCCB RM @C AMLACPLCB ?@MSR MSP CLCPEW PCQMSPACQ, QGLAC CLCPEW GQ ? AMLQCPTCB OS?LRGRW. 4FC NPM@JCK GQ RF?R RFC DGL?J PCQSJR MD KMQR CLCPEW RP?LQDMPK?RGMLQ GQ U?QRC FC?R RP?LQDCP RM RFC CLTGPMLKCLR ?LB AMLTCPQGML RM CLCPEW DMPKQ LM JMLECP SQCDSJ DMP BMGLE UMPI. 4M QR?RC GR GL ?LMRFCP U?W, RFC NMRCLRG?J DMP CLCPEW RM NPMBSAC SQCDSJ UMPI F?Q @CCL uBCEP?BCBv GL RFC CLCPEW RP?LQDMPK?RGML. (4FGQ UGJJ @C BGQASQQCB GL KMPC BCR?GJ GL ->;HCE:OD7C?9I.)

BEII7HO
87I7B C;J78EB?9 H7J;: RFC RMR?J CLCPEW AMLTCPQGML P?RC MD ? NCPQML ?R PCQR 9>;C?97B ;D;H=O: RFC CLCPEW GL ? QS@QR?LAC QRMPCB GL RFC @MLBQ @CRUCCL ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ RF?R A?L @C PCJC?QCB GL ? AFCKGA?J PC?ARGML 9EDI;HL7J?ED E< C;9>7D?97B ;D;H=O: RFC PSJC RF?R RFC QSK MD RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEGCQ ?LB NMRCLRG?J CLCPEGCQ PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR GD MLJW AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?AR ML ?LB UGRFGL ? QWQRCK 9EDI;HL7J?L; <EH9;: ? DMPAC RF?R BMCQ RFC Q?KC UMPI DMP ?LW EGTCL GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J AMLDGESP?RGML, PCE?PBJCQQ MD RFC N?RF DMJJMUCB ;<<?9?;D9O: ? KC?QSPC MD RFC CDDCARGTCLCQQ MD RFC GLNSR MD CLCPEW RM BM UMPI; SQCDSJ CLCPEW MP UMPI BGTGBCB @W RFC RMR?J GLNSR MD CLCPEW ;B;9JH?97B ;D;H=O: RFC CLCPEW A?PPGCB @W ? DJMU MD AF?PEC ;D;H=O: RFC ?@GJGRW RM BM UMPI <EII?B <K;BI: MGJ, L?RSP?J E?Q, ?LB AM?J <H?9J?ED: RFC DMPAC @CRUCCL QSPD?ACQ RF?R MNNMQCQ MLC QJGBGLE ML RFC MRFCP; DPGARGML AF?LECQ KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW GLRM RFCPK?J CLCPEW =H7L?J7J?ED7B FEJ;DJ?7B ;D;H=O: RFC CLCPEW ?L M@HCAR F?Q BSC RM GRQ NMQGRGML GL ? EP?TGR?RGML?J DGCJB >EHI;FEM;H: ?L MJBCP LML-3) SLGR MD NMUCP, UGRF

1 hp = 746 W

254

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

@EKB;: 3) SLGR MD UMPI ?LB CLCPEW, COS?J RM MLC LCURML-KCRCP A?BEM7JJ->EKH: A?D;J?9 ;D;H=O: K?QQ

(kW h) SLGR SQCB NPGK?PGJW DMP CJCARPGA?J CLCPEW NPMTGBCB @W CJCARPGA SRGJGRW AMKN?LGCQ
RFC CLCPEW ?L M@HCAR F?Q @W PC?QML MD GRQ KMRGML, COS?J RM

m KMTGLE ?R QNCCB v

1 mv 2 DMP RFC RP?LQJ?RGML?J (G.C., LML-PMR?RGML?J) KMRGML MD ?L M@HCAR MD 2

B7M E< 9EDI;HL7J?ED E< ;D;H=O: RFC ECLCP?J J?U RF?R RMR?J CLCPEW GQ AMLQR?LR GL ?LW NPMACQQ; CLCPEW K?W AF?LEC GL DMPK MP @C RP?LQDCPPCB DPMK MLC QWQRCK RM ?LMRFCP, @SR RFC RMR?J PCK?GLQ RFC Q?KC C;9>7D?97B ;D;H=O: RFC QSK MD IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?LB NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW C;J78EB?9 H7J;: RFC P?RC ?R UFGAF RFC @MBW SQCQ DMMB CLCPEW RM QSQR?GL JGDC ?LB RM BM BGDDCPCLR ?ARGTGRGCQ D;J MEHA: UMPI BMLC @W RFC LCR DMPAC, MP TCARMP QSK MD ?JJ RFC DMPACQ, ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR DED9EDI;HL7J?L; <EH9;: ? DMPAC UFMQC UMPI BCNCLBQ ML RFC N?RF DMJJMUCB @CRUCCL RFC EGTCL GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J AMLDGESP?RGMLQ DK9B;7H ;D;H=O: CLCPEW PCJC?QCB @W AF?LECQ UGRFGL ?RMKGA LSAJCG, QSAF ?Q RFC DSQGML MD RUM JGEFR LSAJCG MP RFC DGQQGML MD ? FC?TW LSAJCSQ FEJ;DJ?7B ;D;H=O E< 7 IFH?D=: RFC QRMPCB CLCPEW MD ? QNPGLE ?Q ? DSLARGML MD GRQ BGQNJ?ACKCLR; UFCL (MMICtQ J?U ?NNJGCQ, GR GQ EGTCL @W RFC CVNPCQQGML 1 kx 2 UFCPC x GQ RFC BGQR?LAC RFC QNPGLE GQ AMKNPCQQCB MP CVRCLBCB ?LB k GQ RFC QNPGLE AMLQR?LR

FEJ;DJ?7B ;D;H=O: CLCPEW BSC RM NMQGRGML, QF?NC, MP AMLDGESP?RGML FEM;H: RFC P?RC ?R UFGAF UMPI GQ BMLC H7:?7DJ ;D;H=O: RFC CLCPEW A?PPGCB @W CJCARPMK?ELCRGA U?TCQ H;D;M78B; <EHCI E< ;D;H=O: RFMQC QMSPACQ RF?R A?LLMR @C SQCB SN, QSAF ?Q U?RCP, UGLB, QMJ?P, ?LB @GMK?QQ J>;HC7B ;D;H=O: RFC CLCPEW UGRFGL ?L M@HCAR BSC RM RFC P?LBMK KMRGML MD GRQ ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ RF?R ?AAMSLRQ DMP RFC M@HCAR'Q RCKNCP?RSPC KI;<KB MEHA: UMPI BMLC ML ?L CVRCPL?J QWQRCK M7JJ: (7) 3) SLGR MD NMUCP, UGRF

1 W = 1 J/s

MEHA-;D;H=O J>;EH;C: RFC PCQSJR, @?QCB ML .CURMLtQ J?UQ, RF?R RFC LCR UMPI BMLC ML ?L M@HCAR GQ COS?J RM GRQ AF?LEC GL IGLCRGA CLCPEW MEHA: RFC RP?LQDCP MD CLCPEW @W ? DMPAC RF?R A?SQCQ ?L M@HCAR RM @C BGQNJ?ACB; RFC NPMBSAR MD RFC AMKNMLCLR MD RFC DMPAC GL RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR ?LB RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR

,;9J?ED ,KCC7HO 7.1 0EHA: ->; ,9?;DJ?<?9 D;<?D?J?ED


w 7MPI GQ RFC RP?LQDCP MD CLCPEW @W ? DMPAC ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR ?Q GR GQ BGQNJ?ACB. w 4FC UMPI W RF?R ? DMPAC F BMCQ ML ?L M@HCAR GQ RFC NPMBSAR MD RFC K?ELGRSBC RGKCQ RFC AMQGLC MD RFC ?LEJC

@CRUCCL RFCK. )L QWK@MJQ,

F MD RFC DMPAC, RGKCQ RFC K?ELGRSBC d MD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR,

w 4FC 3) SLGR DMP UMPI ?LB CLCPEW GQ RFC HMSJC (*), UFCPC

1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m 2/s 2 .

W = Fd cos .

w 4FC UMPI BMLC @W ? DMPAC GQ XCPM GD RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR GQ CGRFCP XCPM MP NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC DMPAC. w 4FC UMPI BMLC GQ NMQGRGTC GD RFC DMPAC ?LB BGQNJ?ACKCLR F?TC RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML, ?LB LCE?RGTC GD RFCW F?TC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML.

7.2 $?D;J?9 ED;H=O 7D: J>; 0EHA-ED;H=O ->;EH;C w 4FC LCR UMPI W net GQ RFC UMPI BMLC @W RFC LCR DMPAC ?ARGLE ML ?L M@HCAR.
w 7MPI BMLC ML ?L M@HCAR RP?LQDCPQ CLCPEW RM RFC M@HCAR. w 4FC RP?LQJ?RGML?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW MD ?L M@HCAR MD K?QQ w 4FC UMPI-CLCPEW RFCMPCK QR?RCQ RF?R RFC LCR UMPI

W net ML ? QWQRCK AF?LECQ GRQ IGLCRGA CLCPEW, W net = 1 mv 2 1 mv 0 2 . 2 2

m KMTGLE ?R QNCCB v GQ KE = 1 mv 2 . 2

7.3

H7L?J7J?ED7B )EJ;DJ?7B ED;H=O g RFC ?AACJCP?RGML BSC RM

w 7MPI BMLC ?E?GLQR EP?TGRW GL JGDRGLE ?L M@HCAR @CAMKCQ NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MD RFC M@HCAR-%?PRF QWQRCK. w 4FC AF?LEC GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW, PE g , GQ PE g = mgh , UGRF h @CGLE RFC GLAPC?QC GL FCGEFR ?LB

EP?TGRW. w 4FC EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MD ?L M@HCAR LC?P %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC GQ BSC RM GRQ NMQGRGML GL RFC K?QQ-%?PRF QWQRCK. /LJW BGDDCPCLACQ GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW, PE g , F?TC NFWQGA?J QGELGDGA?LAC.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

255

w !Q ?L M@HCAR BCQACLBQ UGRFMSR DPGARGML, GRQ EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW AF?LECQ GLRM IGLCRGA CLCPEW AMPPCQNMLBGLE RM GLAPC?QGLE QNCCB, QM RF?R KE= PE g .

7.4 CEDI;HL7J?L; FEH9;I 7D: )EJ;DJ?7B ED;H=O


w ! AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC GQ MLC DMP UFGAF UMPI BCNCLBQ MLJW ML RFC QR?PRGLE ?LB CLBGLE NMGLRQ MD ? KMRGML, LMR ML RFC N?RF R?ICL. w 7C A?L BCDGLC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW (PE) DMP ?LW AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC, HSQR ?Q UC BCDGLCB PE g DMP RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC. w 4FC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MD ? QNPGLE GQ

NMQGRGML. w -CAF?LGA?J CLCPEW GQ BCDGLCB RM @C KE + PE DMP ? AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC. w 7FCL MLJW AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?AR ML ?LB UGRFGL ? QWQRCK, RFC RMR?J KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW GQ AMLQR?LR. )L COS?RGML DMPK,

PE s = 1 kx 2 , UFCPC k GQ RFC QNPGLEtQ DMPAC AMLQR?LR ?LB x GQ RFC BGQNJ?ACKCLR DPMK GRQ SLBCDMPKCB 2

or

KE i + PE i = KE f + PE f
KE + PE = constant

UFCPC G ?LB D BCLMRC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J T?JSCQ. 4FGQ GQ ILMUL ?Q RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW.

7.5 'ED9EDI;HL7J?L; FEH9;I


w ! LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC GQ MLC DMP UFGAF UMPI BCNCLBQ ML RFC N?RF. w &PGARGML GQ ?L CV?KNJC MD ? LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC RF?R AF?LECQ KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW GLRM RFCPK?J CLCPEW. w 7MPI W nc BMLC @W ? LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPAC AF?LECQ RFC KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW MD ? QWQRCK. )L COS?RGML DMPK,

COSGT?JCLRJW, KE i + PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f . w 7FCL @MRF AMLQCPT?RGTC ?LB LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?AR, CLCPEW AMLQCPT?RGML A?L @C ?NNJGCB ?LB SQCB RM A?JASJ?RC KMRGML GL RCPKQ MD RFC ILMUL NMRCLRG?J CLCPEGCQ MD RFC AMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ ?LB RFC UMPI BMLC @W LMLAMLQCPT?RGTC DMPACQ, GLQRC?B MD DGLBGLE RFC LCR UMPI DPMK RFC LCR DMPAC, MP F?TGLE RM BGPCARJW ?NNJW .CURMLtQ J?UQ.

W nc = KE + PE MP,

7.6 CEDI;HL7J?ED E< ED;H=O


w 4FC J?U MD AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW QR?RCQ RF?R RFC RMR?J CLCPEW GQ AMLQR?LR GL ?LW NPMACQQ. %LCPEW K?W AF?LEC GL DMPK MP @C RP?LQDCPPCB DPMK MLC QWQRCK RM ?LMRFCP, @SR RFC RMR?J PCK?GLQ RFC Q?KC. w 7FCL ?JJ DMPKQ MD CLCPEW ?PC AMLQGBCPCB, AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW GQ UPGRRCL GL COS?RGML DMPK ?Q KE i + PE i + W nc + OE i = KE f + PE f + OE f , UFCPC OE GQ ?JJ EJ>;H <EHCI E< ;D;H=O @CQGBCQ KCAF?LGA?J CLCPEW. w #MKKMLJW CLAMSLRCPCB DMPKQ MD CLCPEW GLAJSBC CJCARPGA CLCPEW, AFCKGA?J CLCPEW, P?BG?LR CLCPEW, LSAJC?P CLCPEW, ?LB RFCPK?J CLCPEW. w %LCPEW GQ MDRCL SRGJGXCB RM BM UMPI, @SR GR GQ LMR NMQQG@JC RM AMLTCPR ?JJ RFC CLCPEW MD ? QWQRCK RM UMPI. w 4FC CDDGAGCLAW AMLQSKCB.

Eff MD ? K?AFGLC MP FSK?L GQ BCDGLCB RM @C Eff =

W out , UFCPC W out GQ SQCDSJ UMPI MSRNSR ?LB E in GQ RFC CLCPEW E in

7.7 )EM;H
w 0MUCP GQ RFC P?RC ?R UFGAF UMPI GQ BMLC, MP GL COS?RGML DMPK, DMP RFC ?TCP?EC NMUCP w 4FC 3) SLGR DMP NMUCP GQ RFC U?RR (7), UFCPC

1 W = 1 J/s .

P DMP UMPI W BMLC MTCP ? RGKC t , P = W / t . 1 hp = 746 W .

w 4FC NMUCP MD K?LW BCTGACQ QSAF ?Q CJCARPGA KMRMPQ GQ ?JQM MDRCL CVNPCQQCB GL FMPQCNMUCP (FN), UFCPC

7.8 0EHA, ED;H=O, 7D: )EM;H ?D !KC7DI


w 4FC FSK?L @MBW AMLTCPRQ CLCPEW QRMPCB GL DMMB GLRM UMPI, RFCPK?J CLCPEW, ?LB/MP AFCKGA?J CLCPEW RF?R GQ QRMPCB GL D?RRW RGQQSC. w 4FC E4G8 ?R UFGAF RFC @MBW SQCQ DMMB CLCPEW RM QSQR?GL JGDC ?LB RM BM BGDDCPCLR ?ARGTGRGCQ GQ A?JJCB RFC KCR?@MJGA P?RC, ?LB RFC AMPPCQNMLBGLE P?RC UFCL ?R PCQR GQ A?JJCB RFC @?Q?J KCR?@MJGA P?RC ("-2) w 4FC CLCPEW GLAJSBCB GL RFC @?Q?J KCR?@MJGA P?RC GQ BGTGBCB ?KMLE T?PGMSQ QWQRCKQ GL RFC @MBW, UGRF RFC J?PECQR DP?ARGML EMGLE RM RFC JGTCP ?LB QNJCCL, ?LB RFC @P?GL AMKGLE LCVR. w !@MSR 75% MD DMMB A?JMPGCQ ?PC SQCB RM QSQR?GL @?QGA @MBW DSLARGMLQ GLAJSBCB GL RFC @?Q?J KCR?@MJGA P?RC. w 4FC CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML MD NCMNJC BSPGLE T?PGMSQ ?ARGTGRGCQ A?L @C BCRCPKGLCB @W KC?QSPGLE RFCGP MVWECL SQC, @CA?SQC RFC BGECQRGTC NPMACQQ GQ @?QGA?JJW MLC MD MVGBGXGLE DMMB.

7.9 0EHB: ED;H=O .I;


w 4FC PCJ?RGTC SQC MD BGDDCPCLR DSCJQ RM NPMTGBC CLCPEW F?Q AF?LECB MTCP RFC WC?PQ, @SR DSCJ SQC GQ ASPPCLRJW BMKGL?RCB @W MGJ, ?JRFMSEF L?RSP?J E?Q ?LB QMJ?P AMLRPG@SRGMLQ ?PC GLAPC?QGLE. w !JRFMSEF LML-PCLCU?@JC QMSPACQ BMKGL?RC, QMKC AMSLRPGCQ KCCR ? QGXC?@JC NCPACLR?EC MD RFCGP CJCARPGAGRW LCCBQ DPMK PCLCU?@JC PCQMSPACQ. w 4FC 5LGRCB 3R?RCQ M@R?GLQ MLJW ?@MSR 10% MD GRQ CLCPEW DPMK PCLCU?@JC QMSPACQ, KMQRJW FWBPMCJCARPGA NMUCP. w %AMLMKGA UCJJ-@CGLE GQ BCNCLBCLR SNML CLCPEW SQC, ?LB GL KMQR AMSLRPGCQ FGEFCP QR?LB?PBQ MD JGTGLE, ?Q KC?QSPCB @W '$0 ('PMQQ $MKCQRGA 0PMBSAR) NCP A?NGR?, ?PC K?RAFCB @W FGEFCP JCTCJQ MD CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML NCP A?NGR?. w %TCL RFMSEF, GL ?AAMPB?LAC UGRF RFC J?U MD AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW, CLCPEW A?L LCTCP @C APC?RCB MP BCQRPMWCB, CLCPEW RF?R A?L @C SQCB RM BM UMPI GQ ?JU?WQ N?PRJW AMLTCPRCB RM JCQQ SQCDSJ DMPKQ, QSAF ?Q U?QRC FC?R RM RFC CLTGPMLKCLR, GL ?JJ MD MSP SQCQ MD CLCPEW DMP NP?ARGA?J NSPNMQCQ.

CED9;FJK7B *K;IJ?EDI 7.1 0EHA: ->; ,9?;DJ?<?9 D;<?D?J?ED

256

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

1. 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC MD QMKCRFGLE UC RFGLI MD ?Q UMPI GL CTCPWB?W AGPASKQR?LACQ RF?R GQ LMR UMPI GL RFC QAGCLRGDGA QCLQC. )Q CLCPEW RP?LQDCPPCB MP AF?LECB GL DMPK GL WMSP CV?KNJC? )D QM, CVNJ?GL FMU RFGQ GQ ?AAMKNJGQFCB UGRFMSR BMGLE UMPI. 2. 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC MD ? QGRS?RGML GL UFGAF RFCPC GQ ? DMPAC ?LB ? BGQNJ?ACKCLR, @SR RFC DMPAC BMCQ LM UMPI. %VNJ?GL UFW GR BMCQ LM UMPI. 3. $CQAPG@C ? QGRS?RGML GL UFGAF ? DMPAC GQ CVCPRCB DMP ? JMLE RGKC @SR BMCQ LM UMPI. %VNJ?GL.

7.2 $?D;J?9 ED;H=O 7D: J>; 0EHA-ED;H=O ->;EH;C


4. 4FC NCPQML GL F?=KH; 7.33 BMCQ UMPI ML RFC J?UL KMUCP. 5LBCP UF?R AMLBGRGMLQ UMSJB RFC KMUCP E?GL CLCPEW? 5LBCP UF?R AMLBGRGMLQ UMSJB GR JMQC CLCPEW?

F?=KH; 7.33

5. 7MPI BMLC ML ? QWQRCK NSRQ CLCPEW GLRM GR. 7MPI BMLC @W ? QWQRCK PCKMTCQ CLCPEW DPMK GR. 'GTC ?L CV?KNJC DMP C?AF QR?RCKCLR. 6. 7FCL QMJTGLE DMP QNCCB GL EN7CFB; 7.4, UC ICNR MLJW RFC NMQGRGTC PMMR. 7FW?

7.3

H7L?J7J?ED7B )EJ;DJ?7B ED;H=O

7. )L EN7CFB; 7.7, UC A?JASJ?RCB RFC DGL?J QNCCB MD ? PMJJCP AM?QRCP RF?R BCQACLBCB 20 K GL FCGEFR ?LB F?B ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 5 K/Q BMULFGJJ. 3SNNMQC RFC PMJJCP AM?QRCP F?B F?B ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 5 K/Q HC;<?? GLQRC?B, ?LB GR AM?QRCB SNFGJJ, QRMNNCB, ?LB RFCL PMJJCB @?AI BMUL RM ? DGL?J NMGLR 20 K @CJMU RFC QR?PR. 7C UMSJB DGLB GL RF?R A?QC RF?R GR F?B RFC Q?KC DGL?J QNCCB. %VNJ?GL GL RCPKQ MD AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW. 8. $MCQ RFC UMPI WMS BM ML ? @MMI UFCL WMS JGDR GR MLRM ? QFCJD BCNCLB ML RFC N?RF R?ICL? /L RFC RGKC R?ICL? /L RFC FCGEFR MD RFC QFCJD? /L RFC K?QQ MD RFC @MMI?

7.4 CEDI;HL7J?L; FEH9;I 7D: )EJ;DJ?7B ED;H=O


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

7.6 CEDI;HL7J?ED E< ED;H=O


13. #MLQGBCP RFC DMJJMUGLE QACL?PGM. ! A?P DMP UFGAF DPGARGML GQ ABG LCEJGEG@JC ?AACJCP?RCQ DPMK PCQR BMUL ? FGJJ, PSLLGLE MSR MD E?QMJGLC ?DRCP ? QFMPR BGQR?LAC. 4FC BPGTCP JCRQ RFC A?P AM?QR D?PRFCP BMUL RFC FGJJ, RFCL SN ?LB MTCP ? QK?JJ APCQR. (C RFCL AM?QRQ BMUL RF?R FGJJ GLRM ? E?Q QR?RGML, UFCPC FC @P?ICQ RM ? QRMN ?LB DGJJQ RFC R?LI UGRF E?QMJGLC. )BCLRGDW RFC DMPKQ MD CLCPEW RFC A?P F?Q, ?LB FMU RFCW ?PC AF?LECB ?LB RP?LQDCPPCB GL RFGQ QCPGCQ MD CTCLRQ. (3CC F?=KH; 7.34.)

F?=KH; 7.34 ! A?P CVNCPGCLAGLE LML-LCEJGEG@JC DPGARGML AM?QRQ BMUL ? FGJJ, MTCP ? QK?JJ APCQR, RFCL BMULFGJJ ?E?GL, ?LB AMKCQ RM ? QRMN ?R ? E?Q QR?RGML.

14. $CQAPG@C RFC CLCPEW RP?LQDCPQ ?LB RP?LQDMPK?RGMLQ DMP ? H?TCJGL, QR?PRGLE DPMK RFC NMGLR ?R UFGAF ?L ?RFJCRC NGAIQ SN RFC H?TCJGL ?LB CLBGLE UFCL RFC H?TCJGL GQ QRSAI GLRM RFC EPMSLB ?DRCP @CGLE RFPMUL. 15. $M BCTGACQ UGRF CDDGAGCLAGCQ MD JCQQ RF?L MLC TGMJ?RC RFC J?U MD AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW? %VNJ?GL. 16. ,GQR DMSP BGDDCPCLR DMPKQ MP RWNCQ MD CLCPEW. 'GTC MLC CV?KNJC MD ? AMLTCPQGML DPMK C?AF MD RFCQC DMPKQ RM ?LMRFCP DMPK.
4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

257

17. ,GQR RFC CLCPEW AMLTCPQGMLQ RF?R MAASP UFCL PGBGLE ? @GAWAJC.

7.7 )EM;H
18. -MQR CJCARPGA?J ?NNJG?LACQ ?PC P?RCB GL U?RRQ. $MCQ RFGQ P?RGLE BCNCLB ML FMU JMLE RFC ?NNJG?LAC GQ ML? (7FCL MDD, GR GQ ? XCPM-U?RR BCTGAC.) %VNJ?GL GL RCPKQ MD RFC BCDGLGRGML MD NMUCP. 19. %VNJ?GL, GL RCPKQ MD RFC BCDGLGRGML MD NMUCP, UFW CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML GQ QMKCRGKCQ JGQRCB GL IGJMU?RR-FMSPQ P?RFCP RF?L HMSJCQ. 7F?R GQ RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL RFCQC RUM CLCPEW SLGRQ? 20. ! QN?PI MD QR?RGA CJCARPGAGRW, QSAF ?Q RF?R WMS KGEFR PCACGTC DPMK ? BMMPILM@ ML ? AMJB BPW B?W, K?W A?PPW ? DCU FSLBPCB U?RRQ MD NMUCP. %VNJ?GL UFW WMS ?PC LMR GLHSPCB @W QSAF ? QN?PI.

7.8 0EHA, ED;H=O, 7D: )EM;H ?D !KC7DI


21. %VNJ?GL UFW GR GQ C?QGCP RM AJGK@ ? KMSLR?GL ML ? XGEX?E N?RF P?RFCP RF?L MLC QRP?GEFR SN RFC QGBC. )Q WMSP GLAPC?QC GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW RFC Q?KC GL @MRF A?QCQ? )Q WMSP CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML RFC Q?KC GL @MRF? 22. $M WMS BM UMPI ML RFC MSRQGBC UMPJB UFCL WMS PS@ WMSP F?LBQ RMECRFCP RM U?PK RFCK? 7F?R GQ RFC CDDGAGCLAW MD RFGQ ?ARGTGRW? 23. 3FGTCPGLE GQ ?L GLTMJSLR?PW PCQNMLQC RM JMUCPCB @MBW RCKNCP?RSPC. 7F?R GQ RFC CDDGAGCLAW MD RFC @MBW UFCL QFGTCPGLE, ?LB GQ RFGQ ? BCQGP?@JC T?JSC? 24. $GQASQQ RFC PCJ?RGTC CDDCARGTCLCQQ MD BGCRGLE ?LB CVCPAGQC GL JMQGLE UCGEFR, LMRGLE RF?R KMQR ?RFJCRGA ?ARGTGRGCQ AMLQSKC DMMB CLCPEW ?R ? P?RC MD 400 RM 500 7, UFGJC ? QGLEJC ASN MD WMESPR A?L AMLR?GL 1360 I* (325 IA?J). 3NCAGDGA?JJW, GQ GR JGICJW RF?R CVCPAGQC ?JMLC UGJJ @C QSDDGAGCLR RM JMQC UCGEFR? 9MS K?W UGQF RM AMLQGBCP RF?R PCESJ?P CVCPAGQC K?W GLAPC?QC RFC KCR?@MJGA P?RC, UFCPC?Q NPMRP?ARCB BGCRGLE K?W PCBSAC GR.

7.9 0EHB: ED;H=O .I;


25. 7F?R GQ RFC BGDDCPCLAC @CRUCCL CLCPEW AMLQCPT?RGML ?LB RFC J?U MD AMLQCPT?RGML MD CLCPEW? 'GTC QMKC CV?KNJCQ MD C?AF. 26. )D RFC CDDGAGCLAW MD ? AM?J-DGPCB CJCARPGA?J ECLCP?RGLE NJ?LR GQ 35%, RFCL UF?R BM UC KC?L UFCL UC Q?W RF?R CLCPEW GQ ? AMLQCPTCB OS?LRGRW?

258

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

)HE8B;CI & EN;H9?I;I 7.1 0EHA: ->; ,9?;DJ?<?9 D;<?D?J?ED


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

F?=KH; 7.37 ! PCQASC QJCB ?LB TGARGK ?PC JMUCPCB BMUL ? QRCCN QJMNC.

7.2 $?D;J?9 ED;H=O 7D: J>; 0EHA-ED;H=O ->;EH;C


35. #MKN?PC RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW MD ? 20,000-IE RPSAI KMTGLE ?R 110 IK/F UGRF RF?R MD ?L 80.0-IE ?QRPML?SR GL MP@GR KMTGLE ?R 27,500 IK/F. 36. (?) (MU D?QR KSQR ? 3000-IE CJCNF?LR KMTC RM F?TC RFC Q?KC IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?Q ? 65.0-IE QNPGLRCP PSLLGLE ?R 10.0 K/Q? (@) $GQASQQ FMU RFC J?PECP CLCPEGCQ LCCBCB DMP RFC KMTCKCLR MD J?PECP ?LGK?JQ UMSJB PCJ?RC RM KCR?@MJGA P?RCQ. 37. #MLDGPK RFC T?JSC EGTCL DMP RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEW MD ?L ?GPAP?DR A?PPGCP GL -78B; 7.1. 9MS UGJJ LCCB RM JMMI SN RFC BCDGLGRGML MD ? L?SRGA?J KGJC (1 ILMR = 1 L?SRGA?J KGJC/F). 38. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC LCCBCB RM @PGLE ? 950-IE A?P RM PCQR DPMK ? QNCCB MD 90.0 IK/F GL ? BGQR?LAC MD 120 K (? D?GPJW RWNGA?J BGQR?LAC DMP ? LML-N?LGA QRMN). (@) 3SNNMQC GLQRC?B RFC A?P FGRQ ? AMLAPCRC ?@SRKCLR ?R DSJJ QNCCB ?LB GQ @PMSEFR RM ? QRMN GL 2.00 K. #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB ML RFC A?P ?LB AMKN?PC GR UGRF RFC DMPAC DMSLB GL N?PR (?). 39. ! A?PtQ @SKNCP GQ BCQGELCB RM UGRFQR?LB ? 4.0-IK/F (1.1-K/Q) AMJJGQGML UGRF ?L GKKMT?@JC M@HCAR UGRFMSR B?K?EC RM RFC @MBW MD RFC A?P. 4FC @SKNCP ASQFGMLQ RFC QFMAI @W ?@QMP@GLE RFC DMPAC MTCP ? BGQR?LAC. #?JASJ?RC RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC ?TCP?EC DMPAC ML ? @SKNCP RF?R AMJJ?NQCQ 0.200 K UFGJC @PGLEGLE ? 900-IE A?P RM PCQR DPMK ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 1.1 K/ Q. 40. "MVGLE EJMTCQ ?PC N?BBCB RM JCQQCL RFC DMPAC MD ? @JMU. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W ? @MVGLE EJMTC ML ?L MNNMLCLRtQ D?AC, GD RFC EJMTC ?LB D?AC AMKNPCQQ 7.50 AK BSPGLE ? @JMU GL UFGAF RFC 7.00-IE ?PK ?LB EJMTC ?PC @PMSEFR RM PCQR DPMK ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 10.0 K/Q. (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W ?L GBCLRGA?J @JMU GL RFC EMPW MJB B?WQ UFCL LM EJMTCQ UCPC SQCB ?LB RFC ILSAIJCQ ?LB D?AC UMSJB AMKNPCQQ MLJW 2.00 AK. (A) $GQASQQ RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC DMPAC UGRF EJMTC ML. $MCQ GR QCCK FGEF CLMSEF RM A?SQC B?K?EC CTCL RFMSEF GR GQ JMUCP RF?L RFC DMPAC UGRF LM EJMTC?

F?=KH; 7.35 ! K?L NSQFCQ ? AP?RC SN ? P?KN.

32. (MU KSAF UMPI GQ BMLC @W RFC @MW NSJJGLE FGQ QGQRCP 30.0 K GL ? U?EML ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.36? !QQSKC LM DPGARGML ?ARQ ML RFC U?EML.

F?=KH; 7.36 4FC @MW BMCQ UMPI ML RFC QWQRCK MD RFC U?EML ?LB RFC AFGJB UFCL FC NSJJQ RFCK ?Q QFMUL.

33. ! QFMNNCP NSQFCQ ? EPMACPW A?PR 20.0 K ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB ML JCTCJ EPMSLB, ?E?GLQR ? 35.0 . DPGARGML?J DMPAC. (C NSQFCQ GL ? BGPCARGML 25.0 @CJMU RFC FMPGXMLR?J. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC UMPI BMLC ML RFC A?PR @W DPGARGML? (@) 7F?R GQ RFC UMPI BMLC ML RFC A?PR @W RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC? (A) 7F?R GQ RFC UMPI BMLC ML RFC A?PR @W RFC QFMNNCP? (B) &GLB RFC DMPAC RFC QFMNNCP CVCPRQ, SQGLE CLCPEW AMLQGBCP?RGMLQ. (C) 7F?R GQ RFC RMR?J UMPI BMLC ML RFC A?PR? 34. 3SNNMQC RFC QIG N?RPMJ JMUCPQ ? PCQASC QJCB ?LB TGARGK, F?TGLE ? RMR?J K?QQ MD 90.0 IE, BMUL ? 60.0 QJMNC ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.37. 4FC AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC QJCB ?LB RFC QLMU GQ 0.100. (?) (MU KSAF UMPI GQ BMLC @W DPGARGML ?Q RFC QJCB KMTCQ 30.0 K ?JMLE RFC FGJJ? (@) (MU KSAF UMPI GQ BMLC @W RFC PMNC ML RFC QJCB GL RFGQ BGQR?LAC? (A) 7F?R GQ RFC UMPI BMLC @W RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC ML RFC QJCB? (B) 7F?R GQ RFC RMR?J UMPI BMLC?

41. 5QGLE CLCPEW AMLQGBCP?RGMLQ, A?JASJ?RC RFC ?TCP?EC DMPAC ? 60.0-IE QNPGLRCP CVCPRQ @?AIU?PB ML RFC RP?AI RM ?AACJCP?RC DPMK 2.00 RM 8.00 K/Q GL ? BGQR?LAC MD 25.0 K, GD FC CLAMSLRCPQ ? FC?BUGLB RF?R CVCPRQ ?L ?TCP?EC DMPAC MD 30.0 . ?E?GLQR FGK.

7.3

H7L?J7J?ED7B )EJ;DJ?7B ED;H=O

42. ! FWBPMCJCARPGA NMUCP D?AGJGRW (QCC F?=KH; 7.38) AMLTCPRQ RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MD U?RCP @CFGLB ? B?K RM CJCARPGA CLCPEW. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW PCJ?RGTC RM RFC ECLCP?RMPQ MD 13 3 ? J?IC MD TMJSKC 50.0 km ( mass = 5.0010 kg) , EGTCL RF?R RFC J?IC F?Q ?L ?TCP?EC FCGEFR MD 40.0 K ?@MTC RFC ECLCP?RMPQ? (@) #MKN?PC RFGQ UGRF RFC CLCPEW QRMPCB GL ? 9-KCE?RML DSQGML @MK@.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

259

F?TC ? RMR?J K?QQ MD 40.0 IE? %VNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GL RFC )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= ,JH7J;=?;I <EH ED;H=O.

7.5 'ED9EDI;HL7J?L; FEH9;I


50. ! 60.0-IE QIGCP UGRF ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 12.0 K/Q AM?QRQ SN ? 2.50-KFGEF PGQC ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.40. &GLB FCP DGL?J QNCCB ?R RFC RMN, EGTCL RF?R RFC AMCDDGAGCLR MD DPGARGML @CRUCCL FCP QIGQ ?LB RFC QLMU GQ 0.0800. ((GLR: &GLB RFC BGQR?LAC RP?TCJCB SN RFC GLAJGLC ?QQSKGLE ? QRP?GEFR-JGLC N?RF ?Q QFMUL GL RFC DGESPC.)

F?=KH; 7.38 (WBPMCJCARPGA D?AGJGRW (APCBGR: $CLGQ "CJCTGAF, 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

43. (?) (MU KSAF EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW (PCJ?RGTC RM RFC EPMSLB ML UFGAF GR GQ @SGJR) GQ QRMPCB GL RFC 'PC?R 0WP?KGB MD #FCMNQ, EGTCL RF?R GRQ 9 K?QQ GQ ?@MSR 7 10 kg ?LB GRQ ACLRCP MD K?QQ GQ 36.5 K ?@MTC RFC QSPPMSLBGLE EPMSLB? (@) (MU BMCQ RFGQ CLCPEW AMKN?PC UGRF RFC B?GJW DMMB GLR?IC MD ? NCPQML? 44. 3SNNMQC ? 350-E IMMI?@SPP? (? J?PEC IGLEDGQFCP @GPB) NGAIQ SN ? 75-E QL?IC ?LB P?GQCQ GR 2.5 K DPMK RFC EPMSLB RM ? @P?LAF. (?) (MU KSAF UMPI BGB RFC @GPB BM ML RFC QL?IC? (@) (MU KSAF UMPI BGB GR BM RM P?GQC GRQ MUL ACLRCP MD K?QQ RM RFC @P?LAF? 45. )L EN7CFB; 7.7, UC DMSLB RF?R RFC QNCCB MD ? PMJJCP AM?QRCP RF?R F?B BCQACLBCB 20.0 K U?Q MLJW QJGEFRJW EPC?RCP UFCL GR F?B ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 5.00 K/Q RF?L UFCL GR QR?PRCB DPMK PCQR. 4FGQ GKNJGCQ RF?R PE >> KE i . #MLDGPK RFGQ QR?RCKCLR @W R?IGLE RFC P?RGM MD PE RM

F?=KH; 7.40 4FC QIGCPtQ GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ N?PRG?JJW SQCB GL AM?QRGLE RM RFC RMN MD ? PGQC.

51. (?) (MU FGEF ? FGJJ A?L ? A?P AM?QR SN (CLEGLC BGQCLE?ECB) GD UMPI BMLC @W DPGARGML GQ LCEJGEG@JC ?LB GRQ GLGRG?J QNCCB GQ 110 IK/F? (@) )D, GL ?ARS?JGRW, ? 750-IE A?P UGRF ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 110 IK/F GQ M@QCPTCB RM AM?QR SN ? FGJJ RM ? FCGEFR 22.0 K ?@MTC GRQ QR?PRGLE NMGLR, FMU KSAF RFCPK?J CLCPEW U?Q ECLCP?RCB @W DPGARGML? (A) 7F?R GQ RFC ?TCP?EC DMPAC MD DPGARGML GD RFC FGJJ F?Q ? QJMNC 2.5 ?@MTC RFC FMPGXMLR?J?

7.6 CEDI;HL7J?ED E< ED;H=O


52. 5QGLE T?JSCQ DPMK -78B; 7.1, FMU K?LW $.! KMJCASJCQ AMSJB @C @PMICL @W RFC CLCPEW A?PPGCB @W ? QGLEJC CJCARPML GL RFC @C?K MD ?L MJBD?QFGMLCB 46 RS@C? (4FCQC CJCARPMLQ UCPC LMR B?LECPMSQ GL RFCKQCJTCQ, @SR RFCW BGB APC?RC B?LECPMSQ V P?WQ. ,?RCP KMBCJ RS@C 46Q F?B QFGCJBGLE RF?R ?@QMP@CB V P?WQ @CDMPC RFCW CQA?NCB ?LB CVNMQCB TGCUCPQ.) 53. 5QGLE CLCPEW AMLQGBCP?RGMLQ ?LB ?QQSKGLE LCEJGEG@JC ?GP PCQGQR?LAC, QFMU RF?R ? PMAI RFPMUL DPMK ? @PGBEC 20.0 K ?@MTC U?RCP UGRF ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 15.0 K/Q QRPGICQ RFC U?RCP UGRF ? QNCCB MD 24.8 K/Q GLBCNCLBCLR MD RFC BGPCARGML RFPMUL. 54. )D RFC CLCPEW GL DSQGML @MK@Q UCPC SQCB RM QSNNJW RFC CLCPEW LCCBQ MD RFC UMPJB, FMU K?LW MD RFC 9-KCE?RML T?PGCRW UMSJB @C LCCBCB DMP ? WC?PtQ QSNNJW MD CLCPEW (SQGLE B?R? DPMK -78B; 7.1)? 4FGQ GQ LMR ?Q D?PDCRAFCB ?Q GR K?W QMSLBrRFCPC ?PC RFMSQ?LBQ MD LSAJC?P @MK@Q, ?LB RFCGP CLCPEW A?L @C RP?NNCB GL SLBCPEPMSLB CVNJMQGMLQ ?LB AMLTCPRCB RM CJCARPGAGRW, ?Q L?RSP?J ECMRFCPK?J CLCPEW GQ. 55. (?) 5QC MD FWBPMECL DSQGML RM QSNNJW CLCPEW GQ ? BPC?K RF?R K?W @C PC?JGXCB GL RFC LCVR ACLRSPW. &SQGML UMSJB @C ? PCJ?RGTCJW AJC?L ?LB ?JKMQR JGKGRJCQQ QSNNJW MD CLCPEW, ?Q A?L @C QCCL DPMK -78B; 7.1. 4M GJJSQRP?RC RFGQ, A?JASJ?RC FMU K?LW WC?PQ RFC NPCQCLR CLCPEW LCCBQ MD RFC UMPJB AMSJB @C QSNNJGCB @W MLC KGJJGMLRF MD RFC MAC?LQt FWBPMECL DSQGML CLCPEW. (@) (MU BMCQ RFGQ RGKC AMKN?PC UGRF FGQRMPGA?JJW QGELGDGA?LR CTCLRQ, QSAF ?Q RFC BSP?RGML MD QR?@JC CAMLMKGA QWQRCKQ?

KE i . (.MRC RF?R K?QQ A?LACJQ.)

46. ! 100-E RMW A?P GQ NPMNCJJCB @W ? AMKNPCQQCB QNPGLE RF?R QR?PRQ GR KMTGLE. 4FC A?P DMJJMUQ RFC ASPTCB RP?AI GL F?=KH; 7.39. 3FMU RF?R RFC DGL?J QNCCB MD RFC RMW A?P GQ 0.687 K/Q GD GRQ GLGRG?J QNCCB GQ 2.00 K/Q ?LB GR AM?QRQ SN RFC DPGARGMLJCQQ QJMNC, E?GLGLE 0.180 K GL ?JRGRSBC.

F?=KH; 7.39 ! RMW A?P KMTCQ SN ? QJMNCB RP?AI. (APCBGR: ,CQXCI ,CQXAXWLQIG, &JGAIP)

47. )L ? BMULFGJJ QIG P?AC, QSPNPGQGLEJW, JGRRJC ?BT?LR?EC GQ E?GLCB @W ECRRGLE ? PSLLGLE QR?PR. (4FGQ GQ @CA?SQC RFC GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ QK?JJ AMKN?PCB UGRF RFC E?GL GL EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW ML CTCL QK?JJ FGJJQ.) 4M BCKMLQRP?RC RFGQ, DGLB RFC DGL?J QNCCB ?LB RFC RGKC R?ICL DMP ? QIGCP UFM QIGCQ 70.0 K ?JMLE ? 30 QJMNC LCEJCARGLE DPGARGML: (?) 3R?PRGLE DPMK PCQR. (@) 3R?PRGLE UGRF ?L GLGRG?J QNCCB MD 2.50 K/Q. (A) $MCQ RFC ?LQUCP QSPNPGQC WMS? $GQASQQ UFW GR GQ QRGJJ ?BT?LR?ECMSQ RM ECR ? PSLLGLE QR?PR GL TCPW AMKNCRGRGTC CTCLRQ.

7.7 )EM;H
56. 4FC #P?@ .C@SJ? (QCC F?=KH; 7.41) NSJQ?P GQ RFC PCKL?LR MD ? QSNCPLMT? RF?R MAASPPCB GL !.$. 1054. 5QGLE B?R? DPMK -78B; 7.3, A?JASJ?RC RFC ?NNPMVGK?RC D?ARMP @W UFGAF RFC NMUCP MSRNSR MD RFGQ ?QRPMLMKGA?J M@HCAR F?Q BCAJGLCB QGLAC GRQ CVNJMQGML.

7.4 CEDI;HL7J?L; FEH9;I 7D: )EJ;DJ?7B ED;H=O


48. !

5.0010 5-kg QS@U?W RP?GL GQ @PMSEFR RM ? QRMN DPMK ? QNCCB MD

0.500 K/Q GL 0.400 K @W ? J?PEC QNPGLE @SKNCP ?R RFC CLB MD GRQ RP?AI. 7F?R GQ RFC DMPAC AMLQR?LR k MD RFC QNPGLE? 49. ! NMEM QRGAI F?Q ? QNPGLE UGRF ? DMPAC AMLQR?LR MD 2.5010 4 N/m , UFGAF A?L @C AMKNPCQQCB 12.0 AK. 4M UF?R K?VGKSK FCGEFR A?L ? AFGJB HSKN ML RFC QRGAI SQGLE MLJW RFC CLCPEW GL RFC QNPGLE, GD RFC AFGJB ?LB QRGAI

260

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

66. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC ?T?GJ?@JC CLCPEW AMLRCLR, GL HMSJCQ, MD ? @?RRCPW RF?R MNCP?RCQ ? 2.00-7 CJCARPGA AJMAI DMP 18 KMLRFQ? (@) (MU JMLE A?L ? @?RRCPW RF?R A?L QSNNJW 8.0010 4 J PSL ? NMAICR A?JASJ?RMP RF?R AMLQSKCQ CLCPEW ?R RFC P?RC MD

1.0010 3 W ?

5 67. (?) (MU JMLE UMSJB GR R?IC ? 1.5010 -IE ?GPNJ?LC UGRF CLEGLCQ RF?R NPMBSAC 100 -7 MD NMUCP RM PC?AF ? QNCCB MD 250 K/Q ?LB ?L ?JRGRSBC MD 12.0 IK GD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC UCPC LCEJGEG@JC? (@) )D GR ?ARS?JJW R?ICQ 900 Q, UF?R GQ RFC NMUCP? (A) 'GTCL RFGQ NMUCP, UF?R GQ RFC ?TCP?EC DMPAC MD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GD RFC ?GPNJ?LC R?ICQ 1200 Q? ((GLR: 9MS KSQR DGLB RFC BGQR?LAC RFC NJ?LC RP?TCJQ GL 1200 Q ?QQSKGLE AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML.)

68. #?JASJ?RC RFC NMUCP MSRNSR LCCBCB DMP ? 950-IE A?P RM AJGK@ ? 2.00 QJMNC ?R ? AMLQR?LR 30.0 K/Q UFGJC CLAMSLRCPGLE UGLB PCQGQR?LAC ?LB DPGARGML RMR?JGLE 600 .. %VNJGAGRJW QFMU FMU WMS DMJJMU RFC QRCNQ GL RFC )HE8B;C-,EBL?D= ,JH7J;=?;I <EH ED;H=O. 69. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC NMUCP NCP QOS?PC KCRCP PC?AFGLE %?PRFtQ SNNCP ?RKMQNFCPC DPMK RFC 3SL. (4?IC RFC NMUCP MSRNSR MD RFC 3SL RM @C 4.0010 26 W.) (@) 0?PR MD RFGQ GQ ?@QMP@CB ?LB PCDJCARCB @W RFC
F?=KH; 7.41 #P?@ .C@SJ? (APCBGR: %3/, TG? 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

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kW h ? 60. ! J?PEC FMSQCFMJB ?GP AMLBGRGMLCP K?W AMLQSKC 15.0 I7 MD NMUCP. 7F?R GQ RFC AMQR MD MNCP?RGLE RFGQ ?GP AMLBGRGMLCP 3.00 F NCP B?W DMP 30.0 B GD RFC AMQR MD CJCARPGAGRW GQ $0.110 NCP kW h ? 61. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC ?TCP?EC NMUCP AMLQSKNRGML GL U?RRQ MD ?L ?NNJG?LAC RF?R SQCQ 5.00 kW h MD CLCPEW NCP B?W? (@) (MU K?LW HMSJCQ MD CLCPEW BMCQ RFGQ ?NNJG?LAC AMLQSKC GL ? WC?P? 62. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC ?TCP?EC SQCDSJ NMUCP MSRNSR MD ? NCPQML UFM BMCQ 6.0010 6 J MD SQCDSJ UMPI GL 8.00 F? (@) 7MPIGLE ?R RFGQ P?RC, FMU JMLE UGJJ GR R?IC RFGQ NCPQML RM JGDR 2000 IE MD @PGAIQ 1.50 K RM ? NJ?RDMPK? (7MPI BMLC RM JGDR FGQ @MBW A?L @C MKGRRCB @CA?SQC GR GQ LMR AMLQGBCPCB SQCDSJ MSRNSR FCPC.) 63. ! 500-IE BP?EQRCP ?AACJCP?RCQ DPMK PCQR RM ? DGL?J QNCCB MD 110 K/Q GL 400 K (?@MSR ? OS?PRCP MD ? KGJC) ?LB CLAMSLRCPQ ?L ?TCP?EC DPGARGML?J DMPAC MD 1200 .. 7F?R GQ GRQ ?TCP?EC NMUCP MSRNSR GL U?RRQ ?LB FMPQCNMUCP GD RFGQ R?ICQ 7.30 Q? 64. (?) (MU JMLE UGJJ GR R?IC ?L 850-IE A?P UGRF ? SQCDSJ NMUCP MSRNSR MD 40.0 FN (1 FN = 746 7) RM PC?AF ? QNCCB MD 15.0 K/Q, LCEJCARGLE DPGARGML? (@) (MU JMLE UGJJ RFGQ ?AACJCP?RGML R?IC GD RFC A?P ?JQM AJGK@Q ? 3.00-KFGEF FGJJ GL RFC NPMACQQ? 65. (?) &GLB RFC SQCDSJ NMUCP MSRNSR MD ?L CJCT?RMP KMRMP RF?R JGDRQ ? 2500-IE JM?B ? FCGEFR MD 35.0 K GL 12.0 Q, GD GR ?JQM GLAPC?QCQ RFC QNCCB DPMK PCQR RM 4.00 K/Q. .MRC RF?R RFC RMR?J K?QQ MD RFC AMSLRCP@?J?LACB QWQRCK GQ 10,000 IErQM RF?R MLJW 2500 IE GQ P?GQCB GL FCGEFR, @SR RFC DSJJ 10,000 IE GQ ?AACJCP?RCB. (@) 7F?R BMCQ GR AMQR, GD CJCARPGAGRW GQ $0.0900 NCP kW h ?

?RKMQNFCPC, QM RF?R ? K?VGKSK MD 1.30 kW/m 2 PC?AFCQ %?PRFtQ QSPD?AC. #?JASJ?RC RFC ?PC? GL km 2 MD QMJ?P CLCPEW AMJJCARMPQ LCCBCB RM

PCNJ?AC ?L CJCARPGA NMUCP NJ?LR RF?R ECLCP?RCQ 750 -7 GD RFC AMJJCARMPQ AMLTCPR ?L ?TCP?EC MD 2.00% MD RFC K?VGKSK NMUCP GLRM CJCARPGAGRW. (4FGQ QK?JJ AMLTCPQGML CDDGAGCLAW GQ BSC RM RFC BCTGACQ RFCKQCJTCQ, ?LB RFC D?AR RF?R RFC QSL GQ BGPCARJW MTCPFC?B MLJW @PGCDJW.) 7GRF RFC Q?KC ?QQSKNRGMLQ, UF?R ?PC? UMSJB @C LCCBCB RM KCCR RFC 5LGRCB 3R?RCQt 20 CLCPEW LCCBQ (1.0510 J)? !SQRP?JG?tQ CLCPEW LCCBQ

(5.410 18 J)? #FGL?tQ CLCPEW LCCBQ (6.310 19 J)? (4FCQC CLCPEW


AMLQSKNRGML T?JSCQ ?PC DPMK 2006.)

7.8 0EHA, ED;H=O, 7D: )EM;H ?D !KC7DI


70. (?) (MU JMLE A?L WMS P?NGBJW AJGK@ QR?GPQ (116/KGL) ML RFC 93.0 IA?J MD CLCPEW GL ? 10.0-E N?R MD @SRRCP? (@) (MU K?LW DJGEFRQ GQ RFGQ GD C?AF DJGEFR F?Q 16 QR?GPQ? 71. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC NMUCP MSRNSR GL U?RRQ ?LB FMPQCNMUCP MD ? 70.0-IE QNPGLRCP UFM ?AACJCP?RCQ DPMK PCQR RM 10.0 K/Q GL 3.00 Q? (@) #MLQGBCPGLE RFC ?KMSLR MD NMUCP ECLCP?RCB, BM WMS RFGLI ? UCJJ-RP?GLCB ?RFJCRC AMSJB BM RFGQ PCNCRGRGTCJW DMP JMLE NCPGMBQ MD RGKC? 72. #?JASJ?RC RFC NMUCP MSRNSR GL U?RRQ ?LB FMPQCNMUCP MD ? QFMR-NSRRCP UFM R?ICQ 1.20 Q RM ?AACJCP?RC RFC 7.27-IE QFMR DPMK PCQR RM 14.0 K/Q, UFGJC P?GQGLE GR 0.800 K. ($M LMR GLAJSBC RFC NMUCP NPMBSACB RM ?AACJCP?RC FGQ @MBW.)

F?=KH; 7.42 3FMR NSRRCP ?R RFC $MPLMAF (GEFJ?LB '?RFCPGLE GL 2007. (APCBGR: *MFL (?QJ?K, &JGAIP)

73. (?) 7F?R GQ RFC CDDGAGCLAW MD ?L MSR-MD-AMLBGRGML NPMDCQQMP UFM BMCQ 2.1010 5 J MD SQCDSJ UMPI UFGJC KCR?@MJGXGLE 500 IA?J MD DMMB CLCPEW? (@) (MU K?LW DMMB A?JMPGCQ UMSJB ? UCJJ-AMLBGRGMLCB ?RFJCRC KCR?@MJGXC GL BMGLE RFC Q?KC UMPI UGRF ?L CDDGAGCLAW MD 20%?

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

261

74. %LCPEW RF?R GQ LMR SRGJGXCB DMP UMPI MP FC?R RP?LQDCP GQ AMLTCPRCB RM RFC AFCKGA?J CLCPEW MD @MBW D?R AMLR?GLGLE ?@MSR 39 I*/E. (MU K?LW EP?KQ MD D?R UGJJ WMS E?GL GD WMS C?R 10,000 I* (?@MSR 2500 IA?J) MLC B?W ?LB BM LMRFGLE @SR QGR PCJ?VCB DMP 16.0 F ?LB QJCCN DMP RFC MRFCP 8.00 F? 5QC B?R? DPMK -78B; 7.5 DMP RFC CLCPEW AMLQSKNRGML P?RCQ MD RFCQC ?ARGTGRGCQ. 75. 5QGLE B?R? DPMK -78B; 7.5, A?JASJ?RC RFC B?GJW CLCPEW LCCBQ MD ? NCPQML UFM QJCCNQ DMP 7.00 F, U?JIQ DMP 2.00 F, ?RRCLBQ AJ?QQCQ DMP 4.00 F, AWAJCQ DMP 2.00 F, QGRQ PCJ?VCB DMP 3.00 F, ?LB QRSBGCQ DMP 6.00 F. (3RSBWGLE AMLQSKCQ CLCPEW ?R RFC Q?KC P?RC ?Q QGRRGLE GL AJ?QQ.) 76. 7F?R GQ RFC CDDGAGCLAW MD ? QS@HCAR ML ? RPC?BKGJJ UFM NSRQ MSR UMPI ?R RFC P?RC MD 100 7 UFGJC AMLQSKGLE MVWECL ?R RFC P?RC MD 2.00 ,/KGL? ((GLR: 3CC -78B; 7.5.) 77. 3FMTCJGLE QLMU A?L @C CVRPCKCJW R?VGLE @CA?SQC RFC ?PKQ F?TC QSAF ? JMU CDDGAGCLAW GL RFGQ ?ARGTGRW. 3SNNMQC ? NCPQML QFMTCJGLE ? DMMRN?RF KCR?@MJGXCQ DMMB ?R RFC P?RC MD 800 7. (?) 7F?R GQ FCP SQCDSJ NMUCP MSRNSR? (@) (MU JMLE UGJJ GR R?IC FCP RM JGDR 3000 IE MD QLMU 1.20 K? (4FGQ AMSJB @C RFC ?KMSLR MD FC?TW QLMU ML 20 K MD DMMRN?RF.) (A) (MU KSAF U?QRC FC?R RP?LQDCP GL IGJMHMSJCQ UGJJ QFC ECLCP?RC GL RFC NPMACQQ? 78. 6CPW J?PEC DMPACQ ?PC NPMBSACB GL HMGLRQ UFCL ? NCPQML HSKNQ DPMK QMKC FCGEFR RM RFC EPMSLB. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC NPMBSACB GD ?L 80.0-IE NCPQML HSKNQ DPMK ? 0.600qK-FGEF JCBEC ?LB J?LBQ QRGDDJW, AMKNPCQQGLE HMGLR K?RCPG?J 1.50 AK ?Q ? PCQSJR. ("C ACPR?GL RM GLAJSBC RFC UCGEFR MD RFC NCPQML.) (@) )L NP?ARGAC RFC ILCCQ @CLB ?JKMQR GLTMJSLR?PGJW RM FCJN CVRCLB RFC BGQR?LAC MTCP UFGAF WMS QRMN. #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC NPMBSACB GD RFC QRMNNGLE BGQR?LAC GQ 0.300 K. (A) #MKN?PC @MRF DMPACQ UGRF RFC UCGEFR MD RFC NCPQML. 79. *MEEGLE ML F?PB QSPD?ACQ UGRF GLQSDDGAGCLRJW N?BBCB QFMCQ NPMBSACQ J?PEC DMPACQ GL RFC DCCR ?LB JCEQ. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC LCCBCB RM QRMN RFC BMULU?PB KMRGML MD ? HMEECPtQ JCE, GD FGQ JCE F?Q ? K?QQ MD 13.0 IE, ? QNCCB MD 6.00 K/Q, ?LB QRMNQ GL ? BGQR?LAC MD 1.50 AK. ("C ACPR?GL RM GLAJSBC RFC UCGEFR MD RFC 75.0-IE HMEECPt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
F?=KH; 7.44

83. -MSLR?GL AJGK@CPQ A?PPW @MRRJCB MVWECL UFCL ?R TCPW FGEF ?JRGRSBCQ. (?) !QQSKGLE RF?R ? KMSLR?GL AJGK@CP SQCQ MVWECL ?R RUGAC RFC P?RC DMP AJGK@GLE 116 QR?GPQ NCP KGLSRC (@CA?SQC MD JMU ?GP RCKNCP?RSPC ?LB UGLBQ), A?JASJ?RC FMU K?LW JGRCPQ MD MVWECL ? AJGK@CP UMSJB LCCB DMP 10.0 F MD AJGK@GLE. (4FCQC ?PC JGRCPQ ?R QC? JCTCJ.) .MRC RF?R MLJW 40% MD RFC GLF?JCB MVWECL GQ SRGJGXCB; RFC PCQR GQ CVF?JCB. (@) (MU KSAF SQCDSJ UMPI BMCQ RFC AJGK@CP BM GD FC ?LB FGQ COSGNKCLR F?TC ? K?QQ MD 90.0 IE ?LB FC E?GLQ 1000 K MD ?JRGRSBC? (A) 7F?R GQ FGQ CDDGAGCLAW DMP RFC 10.0-F AJGK@? 84. 4FC ?UC-GLQNGPGLE 'PC?R 0WP?KGB MD #FCMNQ U?Q @SGJR KMPC RF?L 4500 WC?PQ ?EM. )RQ QOS?PC @?QC, MPGEGL?JJW 230 K ML ? QGBC, AMTCPCB 13.1 9 ?APCQ, ?LB GR U?Q 146 K FGEF, UGRF ? K?QQ MD ?@MSR 710 kg . (4FC NWP?KGBtQ BGKCLQGMLQ ?PC QJGEFRJW BGDDCPCLR RMB?W BSC RM OS?PPWGLE ?LB QMKC Q?EEGLE.) (GQRMPG?LQ CQRGK?RC RF?R 20,000 UMPICPQ QNCLR 20 WC?PQ RM AMLQRPSAR GR, UMPIGLE 12-FMSP B?WQ, 330 B?WQ NCP WC?P. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW QRMPCB GL RFC NWP?KGB, EGTCL GRQ ACLRCP MD K?QQ GQ ?R MLC-DMSPRF GRQ FCGEFR. (@) /LJW ? DP?ARGML MD RFC UMPICPQ JGDRCB @JMAIQ; KMQR UCPC GLTMJTCB GL QSNNMPR QCPTGACQ QSAF ?Q @SGJBGLE P?KNQ (QCC F?=KH; 7.45), @PGLEGLE DMMB ?LB U?RCP, ?LB F?SJGLE @JMAIQ RM RFC QGRC. #?JASJ?RC RFC CDDGAGCLAW MD RFC UMPICPQ UFM BGB RFC JGDRGLE, ?QQSKGLE RFCPC UCPC 1000 MD RFCK ?LB RFCW AMLQSKCB DMMB CLCPEW ?R RFC P?RC MD 300 IA?J/F. 7F?R BMCQ WMSP ?LQUCP GKNJW ?@MSR FMU KSAF MD RFCGP UMPI UCLR GLRM @JMAI-JGDRGLE, TCPQSQ FMU KSAF UMPI UCLR GLRM DPGARGML ?LB JGDRGLE ?LB JMUCPGLE RFCGP MUL @MBGCQ? (A) #?JASJ?RC RFC K?QQ MD DMMB RF?R F?B RM @C QSNNJGCB C?AF B?W, ?QQSKGLE RF?R RFC ?TCP?EC UMPICP PCOSGPCB 3600 IA?J NCP B?W ?LB RF?R RFCGP BGCR U?Q 5% NPMRCGL, 60% A?P@MFWBP?RC, ?LB 35% D?R. (4FCQC NPMNMPRGMLQ LCEJCAR RFC K?QQ MD @SJI ?LB LMLBGECQRG@JC K?RCPG?JQ AMLQSKCB.)

F?=KH; 7.45 !LAGCLR NWP?KGBQ UCPC NPM@?@JW AMLQRPSARCB SQGLE P?KNQ ?Q QGKNJC K?AFGLCQ. (APCBGR: &P?LAI -MLLGCP, 7GIGKCBG? #MKKMLQ)

85. (?) (MU JMLE A?L WMS NJ?W RCLLGQ ML RFC 800 I* (?@MSR 200 IA?J) MD CLCPEW GL ? A?LBW @?P? (@) $MCQ RFGQ QCCK JGIC ? JMLE RGKC? $GQASQQ UFW CVCPAGQC GQ LCACQQ?PW @SR K?W LMR @C QSDDGAGCLR RM A?SQC ? NCPQML RM JMQC UCGEFR.
F?=KH; 7.43 4FC $?CB?JSQ 88 GL DJGEFR. (APCBGR: .!3! NFMRM @W "C?QJCW)

82. 4FC QUGKKCP QFMUL GL F?=KH; 7.44 CVCPRQ ?L ?TCP?EC FMPGXMLR?J @?AIU?PB DMPAC MD 80.0 . UGRF FGQ ?PK BSPGLE C?AF 1.80 K JMLE QRPMIC. (?) 7F?R GQ FGQ UMPI MSRNSR GL C?AF QRPMIC? (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC NMUCP MSRNSR MD FGQ ?PKQ GD FC BMCQ 120 QRPMICQ NCP KGLSRC.

7.9 0EHB: ED;H=O .I;


86. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC DMPAC RFC UMK?L GL F?=KH; 7.46 CVCPRQ RM BM ? NSQF-SN ?R AMLQR?LR QNCCB, R?IGLE ?JJ B?R? RM @C ILMUL RM RFPCC BGEGRQ. (@) (MU KSAF UMPI BMCQ QFC BM GD FCP ACLRCP MD K?QQ PGQCQ 0.240 K? (A) 7F?R GQ FCP SQCDSJ NMUCP MSRNSR GD QFC BMCQ 25 NSQF-SNQ GL 1 KGL? (3FMSJB UMPI BMLC JMUCPGLE FCP @MBW @C GLAJSBCB? 3CC RFC BGQASQQGML MD SQCDSJ UMPI GL 0EHA, ED;H=O, 7D: )EM;H ?D !KC7DI.

262

#(!04%2 7 Y 7/2+, %.%2'9, !.$ %.%2'9 2%3/52#%3

SN. (4FGQ NMGLRQ RM ? DSLB?KCLR?JJW BGDDCPCLR NPMACQQ DMP BCQACLBGLE TCPQSQ AJGK@GLE QR?GPQ.) 94. CEDIJHK9J 2EKH (MD )HE8B;C #MLQGBCP FSK?LQ ECLCP?RGLE CJCARPGAGRW @W NCB?JGLE ? BCTGAC QGKGJ?P RM ? QR?RGML?PW @GAWAJC. #MLQRPSAR ? NPM@JCK GL UFGAF WMS BCRCPKGLC RFC LSK@CP MD NCMNJC GR UMSJB R?IC RM PCNJ?AC ? J?PEC CJCARPGA?J ECLCP?RGML D?AGJGRW. !KMLE RFC RFGLEQ RM AMLQGBCP ?PC RFC NMUCP MSRNSR RF?R GQ PC?QML?@JC SQGLE RFC JCEQ, PCQR RGKC, ?LB RFC LCCB DMP CJCARPGAGRW 24 FMSPQ NCP B?W. $GQASQQ RFC NP?ARGA?J GKNJGA?RGMLQ MD WMSP PCQSJRQ.
F?=KH; 7.46 &MPACQ GLTMJTCB GL BMGLE NSQF-SNQ. 4FC UMK?LtQ UCGEFR ?ARQ ?Q ? DMPAC CVCPRCB BMULU?PB ML FCP ACLRCP MD EP?TGRW (#').

95. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI ! 105-IE @?QICR@?JJ NJ?WCP APMSAFCQ BMUL 0.400 K UFGJC U?GRGLE RM HSKN. !DRCP CVCPRGLE ? DMPAC ML RFC DJMMP RFPMSEF RFGQ 0.400 K, FGQ DCCR JC?TC RFC DJMMP ?LB FGQ ACLRCP MD EP?TGRW PGQCQ 0.950 K ?@MTC GRQ LMPK?J QR?LBGLE CPCAR NMQGRGML. (?) 5QGLE CLCPEW AMLQGBCP?RGMLQ, A?JASJ?RC FGQ TCJMAGRW UFCL FC JC?TCQ RFC DJMMP. (@) 7F?R ?TCP?EC DMPAC BGB FC CVCPR ML RFC DJMMP? ($M LMR LCEJCAR RFC DMPAC RM QSNNMPR FGQ UCGEFR ?Q UCJJ ?Q RF?R RM ?AACJCP?RC FGK.) (A) 7F?R U?Q FGQ NMUCP MSRNSR BSPGLE RFC ?AACJCP?RGML NF?QC?

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tQ K?VGKSK P?LEC ML JCTCJ EPMSLB? 90. "DJ;=H7J;: CED9;FJI (?) 7F?R DMPAC KSQR @C QSNNJGCB @W ?L CJCT?RMP A?@JC RM NPMBSAC ?L ?AACJCP?RGML MD 0.800 m/s 2 ?E?GLQR ? 200-. DPGARGML?J DMPAC, GD RFC K?QQ MD RFC JM?BCB CJCT?RMP GQ 1500 IE? (@) (MU KSAF UMPI GQ BMLC @W RFC A?@JC GL JGDRGLE RFC CJCT?RMP 20.0 K? (A) 7F?R GQ RFC DGL?J QNCCB MD RFC CJCT?RMP GD GR QR?PRQ DPMK PCQR? (B) (MU KSAF UMPI UCLR GLRM RFCPK?J CLCPEW? 91. .DH;7IED78B; +;IKBJI ! A?P ?BTCPRGQCKCLR AJ?GKQ RF?R GRQ 900-IE A?P ?AACJCP?RCB DPMK PCQR RM 30.0 K/Q ?LB BPMTC 100 IK, E?GLGLE 3.00 IK GL ?JRGRSBC, ML 1.0 E?J MD E?QMJGLC. 4FC ?TCP?EC DMPAC MD DPGARGML GLAJSBGLE ?GP PCQGQR?LAC U?Q 700 .. !QQSKC ?JJ T?JSCQ ?PC ILMUL RM RFPCC QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ. (?) #?JASJ?RC RFC A?Pt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

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

263

,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

F?=KH; 8.1 %?AF PSE@W NJ?WCP F?Q EPC?R KMKCLRSK, UFGAF UGJJ ?DDCAR RFC MSRAMKC MD RFCGP AMJJGQGMLQ UGRF C?AF MRFCP ?LB RFC EPMSLB. (APCBGR: MXXXGC, &JGAIP)

,C?PLGLE /@HCARGTCQ
8.1. %?D;7H &EC;DJKC 7D: FEH9; 8.2. "CFKBI; 8.3. CEDI;HL7J?ED E< &EC;DJKC 8.4. EB7IJ?9 CEBB?I?EDI ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED 8.5. "D;B7IJ?9 CEBB?I?EDI ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED 8.6. CEBB?I?EDI E< )E?DJ &7II;I ?D -ME D?C;DI?EDI 8.7. "DJHE:K9J?ED JE +E9A;J )HEFKBI?ED

"DJHE:K9J?ED JE %?D;7H &EC;DJKC 7D: CEBB?I?EDI


7C SQC RFC RCPK KMKCLRSK GL T?PGMSQ U?WQ GL CTCPWB?W J?LES?EC, ?LB KMQR MD RFCQC U?WQ ?PC AMLQGQRCLR UGRF GRQ NPCAGQC QAGCLRGDGA BCDGLGRGML. 7C QNC?I MD QNMPRQ RC?KQ MP NMJGRGAG?LQ E?GLGLE ?LB K?GLR?GLGLE RFC KMKCLRSK RM UGL. 7C ?JQM PCAMELGXC RF?R KMKCLRSK F?Q QMKCRFGLE RM BM UGRF AMJJGQGMLQ. &MP CV?KNJC, JMMIGLE ?R RFC PSE@W NJ?WCPQ GL RFC NFMRMEP?NF AMJJGBGLE ?LB D?JJGLE RM RFC EPMSLB, UC CVNCAR RFCGP KMKCLR? RM F?TC EPC?R CDDCARQ GL RFC PCQSJRGLE AMJJGQGMLQ. 'CLCP?JJW, KMKCLRSK GKNJGCQ ? RCLBCLAW RM AMLRGLSC ML AMSPQCrRM KMTC GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGMLr?LB GQ ?QQMAG?RCB UGRF EPC?R K?QQ ?LB QNCCB. -MKCLRSK, JGIC CLCPEW, GQ GKNMPR?LR @CA?SQC GR GQ AMLQCPTCB. /LJW ? DCU NFWQGA?J OS?LRGRGCQ ?PC AMLQCPTCB GL L?RSPC, ?LB QRSBWGLE RFCK WGCJBQ DSLB?KCLR?J GLQGEFR GLRM FMU L?RSPC UMPIQ, ?Q UC QF?JJ QCC GL MSP QRSBW MD KMKCLRSK.

8.1 %?D;7H &EC;DJKC 7D: FEH9;


,GLC?P -MKCLRSK
4FC QAGCLRGDGA BCDGLGRGML MD JGLC?P KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQGQRCLR UGRF KMQR NCMNJCtQ GLRSGRGTC SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD KMKCLRSK: ? J?PEC, D?QR-KMTGLE M@HCAR F?Q EPC?RCP KMKCLRSK RF?L ? QK?JJCP, QJMUCP M@HCAR. %?D;7H CEC;DJKC GQ BCDGLCB ?Q RFC NPMBSAR MD ? QWQRCKtQ K?QQ KSJRGNJGCB @W GRQ TCJMAGRW. )L QWK@MJQ, JGLC?P KMKCLRSK GQ CVNPCQQCB ?Q

p = mv.

(8.1)

-MKCLRSK GQ BGPCARJW NPMNMPRGML?J RM RFC M@HCARtQ K?QQ ?LB ?JQM GRQ TCJMAGRW. 4FSQ RFC EPC?RCP ?L M@HCARtQ K?QQ MP RFC EPC?RCP GRQ TCJMAGRW, RFC EPC?RCP GRQ KMKCLRSK. -MKCLRSK p GQ ? TCARMP F?TGLE RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC TCJMAGRW v . 4FC 3) SLGR DMP KMKCLRSK GQ kg m/s . ,GLC?P -MKCLRSK ,GLC?P KMKCLRSK GQ BCDGLCB ?Q RFC NPMBSAR MD ? QWQRCKtQ K?QQ KSJRGNJGCB @W GRQ TCJMAGRW:

p = mv.

(8.2)

264

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

EN7CFB; 8.1 C7B9KB7J?D= &EC;DJKC: A FEEJ87BB )B7O;H 7D: 7 FEEJ87BB


(?) #?JASJ?RC RFC KMKCLRSK MD ? 110-IE DMMR@?JJ NJ?WCP PSLLGLE ?R 8.00 K/Q. (@) #MKN?PC RFC NJ?WCPtQ KMKCLRSK UGRF RFC KMKCLRSK MD ? F?PBRFPMUL 0.410-IE DMMR@?JJ RF?R F?Q ? QNCCB MD 25.0 K/Q. ,JH7J;=O .M GLDMPK?RGML GQ EGTCL PCE?PBGLE BGPCARGML, ?LB QM UC A?L A?JASJ?RC MLJW RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC KMKCLRSK,

p . (!Q SQS?J, ? QWK@MJ RF?R GQ GL

GR?JGAQ GQ ? K?ELGRSBC, UFCPC?Q MLC RF?R GQ GR?JGAGXCB, @MJBD?ACB, ?LB F?Q ?L ?PPMU GQ ? TCARMP.) )L @MRF N?PRQ MD RFGQ CV?KNJC, RFC K?ELGRSBC MD KMKCLRSK A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB BGPCARJW DPMK RFC BCDGLGRGML MD KMKCLRSK EGTCL GL RFC COS?RGML, UFGAF @CAMKCQ

p = mv
UFCL MLJW K?ELGRSBCQ ?PC AMLQGBCPCB. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) 4M BCRCPKGLC RFC KMKCLRSK MD RFC NJ?WCP, QS@QRGRSRC RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ DMP RFC NJ?WCPtQ K?QQ ?LB QNCCB GLRM RFC COS?RGML.
p player = 110 kg(8.00 m/s) = 880 kg m/s

(8.3)

(8.4)

,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) 4M BCRCPKGLC RFC KMKCLRSK MD RFC @?JJ, QS@QRGRSRC RFC ILMUL T?JSCQ DMP RFC @?JJtQ K?QQ ?LB QNCCB GLRM RFC COS?RGML.
p ball = 0.410 kg(25.0 m/s) = 10.3 kg m/s

(8.5)

4FC P?RGM MD RFC NJ?WCPtQ KMKCLRSK RM RF?R MD RFC @?JJ GQ

p player 880 p ball = 10.3 = 85.9.


D?I9KII?ED

(8.6)

!JRFMSEF RFC @?JJ F?Q EPC?RCP TCJMAGRW, RFC NJ?WCP F?Q ? KSAF EPC?RCP K?QQ. 4FSQ RFC KMKCLRSK MD RFC NJ?WCP GQ KSAF EPC?RCP RF?L RFC KMKCLRSK MD RFC DMMR@?JJ, ?Q WMS KGEFR ESCQQ. !Q ? PCQSJR, RFC NJ?WCPtQ KMRGML GQ MLJW QJGEFRJW ?DDCARCB GD FC A?RAFCQ RFC @?JJ. 7C QF?JJ OS?LRGDW UF?R F?NNCLQ GL QSAF AMJJGQGMLQ GL RCPKQ MD KMKCLRSK GL J?RCP QCARGMLQ.

-MKCLRSK ?LB .CURMLtQ 3CAMLB ,?U


4FC GKNMPR?LAC MD KMKCLRSK, SLJGIC RFC GKNMPR?LAC MD CLCPEW, U?Q PCAMELGXCB C?PJW GL RFC BCTCJMNKCLR MD AJ?QQGA?J NFWQGAQ. -MKCLRSK U?Q BCCKCB QM GKNMPR?LR RF?R GR U?Q A?JJCB RFC uOS?LRGRW MD KMRGML.v .CURML ?ARS?JJW QR?RCB FGQ I;9ED: B7M E< CEJ?ED GL RCPKQ MD KMKCLRSK: 4FC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC COS?JQ RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK MD ? QWQRCK BGTGBCB @W RFC RGKC MTCP UFGAF GR AF?LECQ. 5QGLE QWK@MJQ, RFGQ J?U GQ

F net =
UFCPC

p , t

(8.7)

F net GQ RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC, p GQ RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK, ?LB t GQ RFC AF?LEC GL RGKC.

.CURMLtQ 3CAMLB ,?U MD -MRGML GL 4CPKQ MD -MKCLRSK 4FC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC COS?JQ RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK MD ? QWQRCK BGTGBCB @W RFC RGKC MTCP UFGAF GR AF?LECQ.

F net =
-?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: &MPAC ?LB -MKCLRSK

p t

(8.8)

&MPAC ?LB KMKCLRSK ?PC GLRGK?RCJW PCJ?RCB. &MPAC ?ARGLE MTCP RGKC A?L AF?LEC KMKCLRSK, ?LB .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML, A?L @C QR?RCB GL GRQ KMQR @PM?BJW ?NNJGA?@JC DMPK GL RCPKQ MD KMKCLRSK. -MKCLRSK AMLRGLSCQ RM @C ? ICW AMLACNR GL RFC QRSBW MD ?RMKGA ?LB QS@?RMKGA N?PRGAJCQ GL OS?LRSK KCAF?LGAQ. 4FGQ QR?RCKCLR MD .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML GLAJSBCQ RFC KMPC D?KGJG?P LMRC RF?R RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK

p GQ EGTCL @W

F net =ma ?Q ? QNCAG?J A?QC. 7C A?L BCPGTC RFGQ DMPK ?Q DMJJMUQ. &GPQR,
(8.9)

p = mv.

)D RFC K?QQ MD RFC QWQRCK GQ AMLQR?LR, RFCL

(mv) = mv.
3M RF?R DMP AMLQR?LR K?QQ, .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML @CAMKCQ

(8.10)

F net =

p mv = . t t

(8.11)

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

265

"CA?SQC

v = a , UC ECR RFC D?KGJG?P COS?RGML t F net =ma


(8.12)

J;8A G;8 @4FF B9 G;8 FLFG8@ <F 6BAFG4AG. .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U MD KMRGML QR?RCB GL RCPKQ MD KMKCLRSK GQ KMPC ECLCP?JJW ?NNJGA?@JC @CA?SQC GR A?L @C ?NNJGCB RM QWQRCKQ UFCPC RFC K?QQ GQ AF?LEGLE, QSAF ?Q PMAICRQ, ?Q UCJJ ?Q RM QWQRCKQ MD AMLQR?LR K?QQ. 7C UGJJ AMLQGBCP QWQRCKQ UGRF T?PWGLE K?QQ GL QMKC BCR?GJ; FMUCTCP, RFC PCJ?RGMLQFGN @CRUCCL KMKCLRSK ?LB DMPAC PCK?GLQ SQCDSJ UFCL K?QQ GQ AMLQR?LR, QSAF ?Q GL RFC DMJJMUGLE CV?KNJC.

EN7CFB; 8.2 C7B9KB7J?D= FEH9;: /;DKI 0?BB?7CIX +79GK;J


$SPGLE RFC 2007 &PCLAF /NCL, 6CLSQ 7GJJG?KQ FGR RFC D?QRCQR PCAMPBCB QCPTC GL ? NPCKGCP UMKCLtQ K?RAF, PC?AFGLE ? QNCCB MD 58 K/Q (209 IK/ F). 7F?R GQ RFC ?TCP?EC DMPAC CVCPRCB ML RFC 0.057-IE RCLLGQ @?JJ @W 6CLSQ 7GJJG?KQt P?AOSCR, ?QQSKGLE RF?R RFC @?JJtQ QNCCB HSQR ?DRCP GKN?AR GQ 58 K/Q, RF?R RFC GLGRG?J FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC TCJMAGRW @CDMPC GKN?AR GQ LCEJGEG@JC, ?LB RF?R RFC @?JJ PCK?GLCB GL AMLR?AR UGRF RFC P?AOSCR DMP 5.0 KQ (KGJJGQCAMLBQ)? ,JH7J;=O 4FGQ NPM@JCK GLTMJTCQ MLJW MLC BGKCLQGML @CA?SQC RFC @?JJ QR?PRQ DPMK F?TGLE LM FMPGXMLR?J TCJMAGRW AMKNMLCLR @CDMPC GKN?AR. .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U QR?RCB GL RCPKQ MD KMKCLRSK GQ RFCL UPGRRCL ?Q

F net =

p . t

(8.13)

!Q LMRCB ?@MTC, UFCL K?QQ GQ AMLQR?LR, RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK GQ EGTCL @W

p = mv = m(v f v i).
)L RFGQ CV?KNJC, RFC TCJMAGRW HSQR ?DRCP GKN?AR ?LB RFC AF?LEC GL RGKC ?PC EGTCL; RFSQ, MLAC RFC DMPAC. ,EBKJ?ED 4M BCRCPKGLC RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK, QS@QRGRSRC RFC T?JSCQ DMP RFC GLGRG?J ?LB DGL?J TCJMAGRGCQ GLRM RFC COS?RGML ?@MTC.

(8.14)

p GQ A?JASJ?RCB, F net =

p A?L @C SQCB RM DGLB t

p = m(v f v i) = 0.057 kg(58 m/s 0 m/s) = 3.306 kg m/s 3.3 kg m/s


.MU RFC K?ELGRSBC MD RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC A?L BCRCPKGLCB @W SQGLE

(8.15)

F net =

p : t
(8.16)

F net =

p 3.306 kg m/s = t 5.010 3 s = 661 N 660 N,

UFCPC UC F?TC PCR?GLCB MLJW RUM QGELGDGA?LR DGESPCQ GL RFC DGL?J QRCN. D?I9KII?ED 4FGQ OS?LRGRW U?Q RFC ?TCP?EC DMPAC CVCPRCB @W 6CLSQ 7GJJG?KQt P?AOSCR ML RFC RCLLGQ @?JJ BSPGLE GRQ @PGCD GKN?AR (LMRC RF?R RFC @?JJ ?JQM CVNCPGCLACB RFC 0.56-. DMPAC MD EP?TGRW, @SR RF?R DMPAC U?Q LMR BSC RM RFC P?AOSCR). 4FGQ NPM@JCK AMSJB ?JQM @C QMJTCB @W DGPQR DGLBGLE RFC ?AACJCP?RGML ?LB RFCL SQGLE F net = ma , @SR MLC ?BBGRGML?J QRCN UMSJB @C PCOSGPCB AMKN?PCB UGRF RFC QRP?RCEW SQCB GL RFGQ CV?KNJC.

8.2 "CFKBI;
4FC CDDCAR MD ? DMPAC ML ?L M@HCAR BCNCLBQ ML FMU JMLE GR ?ARQ, ?Q UCJJ ?Q FMU EPC?R RFC DMPAC GQ. )L EN7CFB; 8.1, ? TCPW J?PEC DMPAC ?ARGLE DMP ? QFMPR RGKC F?B ? EPC?R CDDCAR ML RFC KMKCLRSK MD RFC RCLLGQ @?JJ. ! QK?JJ DMPAC AMSJB A?SQC RFC Q?KC 9>7D=; ?D CEC;DJKC, @SR GR UMSJB F?TC RM ?AR DMP ? KSAF JMLECP RGKC. &MP CV?KNJC, GD RFC @?JJ UCPC RFPMUL SNU?PB, RFC EP?TGR?RGML?J DMPAC (UFGAF GQ KSAF QK?JJCP RF?L RFC RCLLGQ P?AOSCRtQ DMPAC) UMSJB CTCLRS?JJW PCTCPQC RFC KMKCLRSK MD RFC @?JJ. 1S?LRGR?RGTCJW, RFC CDDCAR UC ?PC R?JIGLE ?@MSR GQ RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK p . "W PC?PP?LEGLE RFC COS?RGML

F net =

p RM @C t p = F nett,
(8.17)

UC A?L QCC FMU RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK COS?JQ RFC ?TCP?EC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC KSJRGNJGCB @W RFC RGKC RFGQ DMPAC ?ARQ. 4FC OS?LRGRW RFC L?KC ?CFKBI;. )KNSJQC GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK.

F net t GQ EGTCL

266

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

)KNSJQC: #F?LEC GL -MKCLRSK #F?LEC GL KMKCLRSK COS?JQ RFC ?TCP?EC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC KSJRGNJGCB @W RFC RGKC RFGQ DMPAC ?ARQ.

p = F nett
4FC OS?LRGRW

(8.18)

F net t GQ EGTCL RFC L?KC GKNSJQC.

4FCPC ?PC K?LW U?WQ GL UFGAF ?L SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD GKNSJQC A?L Q?TC JGTCQ, MP ?R JC?QR JGK@Q. 4FC B?QF@M?PB N?BBGLE GL ? A?P, ?LB ACPR?GLJW RFC ?GP@?EQ, ?JJMU RFC LCR DMPAC ML RFC MAASN?LRQ GL RFC A?P RM ?AR MTCP ? KSAF JMLECP RGKC UFCL RFCPC GQ ? QSBBCL QRMN. 4FC KMKCLRSK AF?LEC GQ RFC Q?KC DMP ?L MAASN?LR, UFCRFCP ?L ?GP @?E GQ BCNJMWCB MP LMR, @SR RFC DMPAC (RM @PGLE RFC MAASN?LR RM ? QRMN) UGJJ @C KSAF JCQQ GD GR ?ARQ MTCP ? J?PECP RGKC. #?PQ RMB?W F?TC K?LW NJ?QRGA AMKNMLCLRQ. /LC ?BT?LR?EC MD NJ?QRGAQ GQ RFCGP JGEFRCP UCGEFR, UFGAF PCQSJRQ GL @CRRCP E?Q KGJC?EC. !LMRFCP ?BT?LR?EC GQ RF?R ? A?P UGJJ APSKNJC GL ? AMJJGQGML, CQNCAG?JJW GL RFC CTCLR MD ? FC?B-ML AMJJGQGML. ! JMLECP AMJJGQGML RGKC KC?LQ RFC DMPAC ML RFC A?P UGJJ @C JCQQ. $C?RFQ BSPGLE A?P P?ACQ BCAPC?QCB BP?K?RGA?JJW UFCL RFC PGEGB DP?KCQ MD P?AGLE A?PQ UCPC PCNJ?ACB UGRF N?PRQ RF?R AMSJB APSKNJC MP AMJJ?NQC GL RFC CTCLR MD ?L ?AAGBCLR. "MLCQ GL ? @MBW UGJJ DP?ARSPC GD RFC DMPAC ML RFCK GQ RMM J?PEC. )D WMS HSKN MLRM RFC DJMMP DPMK ? R?@JC, RFC DMPAC ML WMSP JCEQ A?L @C GKKCLQC GD WMS J?LB QRGDD-JCEECB ML ? F?PB QSPD?AC. 2MJJGLE ML RFC EPMSLB ?DRCP HSKNGLE DPMK RFC R?@JC, MP J?LBGLE UGRF ? N?P?AFSRC, CVRCLBQ RFC RGKC MTCP UFGAF RFC DMPAC (ML WMS DPMK RFC EPMSLB) ?ARQ.

EN7CFB; 8.3 C7B9KB7J?D= &7=D?JK:;I E< "CFKBI;I: -ME B?BB?7H: B7BBI ,JH?A?D= 7 +?=?: 07BB
4UM GBCLRGA?J @GJJG?PB @?JJQ QRPGIC ? PGEGB U?JJ UGRF RFC Q?KC QNCCB, ?LB ?PC PCDJCARCB UGRFMSR ?LW AF?LEC MD QNCCB. 4FC DGPQR @?JJ QRPGICQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC U?JJ. 4FC QCAMLB @?JJ QRPGICQ RFC U?JJ ?R ?L ?LEJC MD 30 DPMK RFC NCPNCLBGASJ?P, ?LB @MSLACQ MDD ?R ?L ?LEJC MD 30 DPMK NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC U?JJ. (?) $CRCPKGLC RFC BGPCARGML MD RFC DMPAC ML RFC U?JJ BSC RM C?AF @?JJ. (@) #?JASJ?RC RFC P?RGM MD RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD GKNSJQCQ ML RFC RUM @?JJQ @W RFC U?JJ. ,JH7J;=O <EH (7) )L MPBCP RM BCRCPKGLC RFC DMPAC ML RFC U?JJ, AMLQGBCP RFC DMPAC ML RFC @?JJ BSC RM RFC U?JJ SQGLE .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U ?LB RFCL ?NNJW .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U RM BCRCPKGLC RFC BGPCARGML. !QQSKC RFC x -?VGQ RM @C LMPK?J RM RFC U?JJ ?LB RM @C NMQGRGTC GL RFC GLGRG?J BGPCARGML MD KMRGML. #FMMQC RFC -?VGQ RM @C ?JMLE RFC U?JJ GL RFC NJ?LC MD RFC QCAMLB @?JJtQ KMRGML. 4FC KMKCLRSK BGPCARGML ?LB RFC TCJMAGRW BGPCARGML ?PC RFC Q?KC. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) 4FC DGPQR @?JJ @MSLACQ BGPCARJW GLRM RFC U?JJ ?LB CVCPRQ ? DMPAC ML GR GL RFC +x BGPCARGML. 4FCPCDMPC RFC U?JJ CVCPRQ ? DMPAC ML RFC @?JJ GL RFC x BGPCARGML. 4FC QCAMLB @?JJ AMLRGLSCQ UGRF RFC Q?KC KMKCLRSK AMKNMLCLR GL RFC y BGPCARGML, @SR PCTCPQCQ GRQ x -AMKNMLCLR MD KMKCLRSK, ?Q QCCL @W QICRAFGLE ? BG?EP?K MD RFC ?LEJCQ GLTMJTCB ?LB ICCNGLE GL KGLB RFC NPMNMPRGML?JGRW @CRUCCL TCJMAGRW ?LB KMKCLRSK. 4FCQC AF?LECQ KC?L RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK DMP @MRF @?JJQ GQ GL RFC BGPCARGML. ,JH7J;=O <EH (8) #?JASJ?RC RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK DMP C?AF @?JJ, UFGAF GQ COS?J RM RFC GKNSJQC GKN?PRCB RM RFC @?JJ. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) ,CR

x BGPCARGML, QM RFC DMPAC MD RFC U?JJ ML C?AF @?JJ GQ ?JMLE RFC x

u @C RFC QNCCB MD C?AF @?JJ @CDMPC ?LB ?DRCP AMJJGQGML UGRF RFC U?JJ, ?LB m RFC K?QQ MD C?AF @?JJ. #FMMQC RFC x -?VGQ ?LB y -?VGQ ?Q p xi = mu; p yi = 0 p xf = mu; p yf = 0
(8.19) (8.20)

NPCTGMSQJW BCQAPG@CB, ?LB AMLQGBCP RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK MD RFC DGPQR @?JJ UFGAF QRPGICQ NCPNCLBGASJ?P RM RFC U?JJ.

)KNSJQC GQ RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK TCARMP. 4FCPCDMPC RFC COS?J RM XCPM. .MU AMLQGBCP RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK MD RFC QCAMLB @?JJ.

x -AMKNMLCLR MD GKNSJQC GQ COS?J RM 2mu ?LB RFC y -AMKNMLCLR MD GKNSJQC GQ

p xi = mu cos 30; p yi = mu sin 30 p xf = mu cos 30; p yf = mu sin 30


)R QFMSJB @C LMRCB FCPC RF?R UFGJC

(8.21) (8.22)

p x AF?LECQ QGEL ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML, p y BMCQ LMR. 4FCPCDMPC RFC x -AMKNMLCLR MD GKNSJQC GQ COS?J RM

2mu cos 30 ?LB RFC y -AMKNMLCLR MD GKNSJQC GQ COS?J RM XCPM.


4FC P?RGM MD RFC K?ELGRSBCQ MD RFC GKNSJQC GKN?PRCB RM RFC @?JJQ GQ

2mu = 2 = 1.155. 2mu cos 30 3


D?I9KII?ED 4FC BGPCARGML MD GKNSJQC ?LB DMPAC GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q GL RFC A?QC MD (?); GR GQ LMPK?J RM RFC U?JJ ?LB ?JMLE RFC LCE?RGTC .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U, RFC DMPAC ML RFC U?JJ BSC RM C?AF @?JJ GQ LMPK?J RM RFC U?JJ ?JMLE RFC NMQGRGTC x -BGPCARGML.

(8.23)

x -BGPCARGML. -?IGLE SQC MD

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

267

t . FBE68F 4E8 HFH4??L ABG 6BAFG4AG. &MPACQ T?PW AMLQGBCP?@JW CTCL BSPGLE RFC @PGCD RGKC GLRCPT?JQ AMLQGBCPCB. )R GQ, FMUCTCP, NMQQG@JC RM DGLB ?L ?TCP?EC CDDCARGTC DMPAC F eff RF?R NPMBSACQ RFC Q?KC
/SP BCDGLGRGML MD GKNSJQC GLAJSBCQ ?L ?QQSKNRGML RF?R RFC DMPAC GQ AMLQR?LR MTCP RFC RGKC GLRCPT?J PCQSJR ?Q RFC AMPPCQNMLBGLE RGKC-T?PWGLE DMPAC. F?=KH; 8.2 QFMUQ ? EP?NF MD UF?R ?L ?ARS?J DMPAC JMMIQ JGIC ?Q ? DSLARGML MD RGKC DMP ? @?JJ @MSLAGLE MDD RFC DJMMP. 4FC ?PC? SLBCP RFC ASPTC F?Q SLGRQ MD KMKCLRSK ?LB GQ COS?J RM RFC GKNSJQC MP AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK @CRUCCL RGKCQ t 1 ?LB t 2 . 4F?R ?PC? GQ COS?J RM RFC ?PC? GLQGBC RFC PCAR?LEJC @MSLBCB @W ?LB CDDCARGTC DMPACQ.

F eff , t 1 , ?LB t 2 . 4FSQ RFC GKNSJQCQ ?LB RFCGP CDDCARQ ?PC RFC Q?KC DMP @MRF RFC ?ARS?J

F?=KH; 8.2 ! EP?NF MD DMPAC TCPQSQ RGKC UGRF RGKC ?JMLE RFC ASPTCQ ?PC COS?J.

x -?VGQ ?LB DMPAC ?JMLE RFC y -?VGQ DMP ?L ?ARS?J DMPAC ?LB ?L COSGT?JCLR CDDCARGTC DMPAC. 4FC ?PC?Q SLBCP RFC RUM

-?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC )LTCQRGE?RGMLr(?LB -MTCKCLR ?LB )KNSJQC 4PW A?RAFGLE ? @?JJ UFGJC uEGTGLEv UGRF RFC @?JJ, NSJJGLE WMSP F?LBQ RMU?PB WMSP @MBW. 4FCL, RPW A?RAFGLE ? @?JJ UFGJC ICCNGLE WMSP F?LBQ QRGJJ. (GR U?RCP GL ? RS@ UGRF WMSP DSJJ N?JK. !DRCP RFC U?RCP F?Q QCRRJCB, FGR RFC U?RCP ?E?GL @W BGTGLE WMSP F?LB UGRF WMSP DGLECPQ DGPQR GLRM RFC U?RCP. (9MSP DSJJ N?JK PCNPCQCLRQ ? QUGKKCP BMGLE ? @CJJW DJMN ?LB WMSP BGTGLE F?LB PCNPCQCLRQ ? QUGKKCP BMGLE ? BGTC.) %VNJ?GL UF?R F?NNCLQ GL C?AF A?QC ?LB UFW. 7FGAF MPGCLR?RGMLQ UMSJB WMS ?BTGQC NCMNJC RM ?TMGB ?LB UFW? -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: #MLQR?LR &MPAC ?LB #MLQR?LR !AACJCP?RGML 4FC ?QQSKNRGML MD ? AMLQR?LR DMPAC GL RFC BCDGLGRGML MD GKNSJQC GQ ?L?JMEMSQ RM RFC ?QQSKNRGML MD ? AMLQR?LR ?AACJCP?RGML GL IGLCK?RGAQ. )L @MRF A?QCQ, L?RSPC GQ ?BCOS?RCJW BCQAPG@CB UGRFMSR RFC SQC MD A?JASJSQ.

8.3 CEDI;HL7J?ED E< &EC;DJKC


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rAMLQCPTGLE KMKCLRSKr@CA?SQC MD RFC DMPAC ?NNJGCB RM GR RFPMSEF RFC EM?JNMQR. "CA?SQC %?PRF GQ K?LW MPBCPQ MD K?ELGRSBC KMPC K?QQGTC RF?L RFC NJ?WCP, GRQ PCAMGJ GQ GKKC?QSP?@JW QK?JJ ?LB A?L @C LCEJCARCB GL ?LW NP?ARGA?J QCLQC, @SR GR GQ PC?J LCTCPRFCJCQQ. #MLQGBCP UF?R F?NNCLQ GD RFC K?QQCQ MD RUM AMJJGBGLE M@HCARQ ?PC KMPC QGKGJ?P RF?L RFC K?QQCQ MD ? DMMR@?JJ NJ?WCP ?LB %?PRFrDMP CV?KNJC, MLC A?P @SKNGLE GLRM ?LMRFCP, ?Q QFMUL GL F?=KH; 8.3. "MRF A?PQ ?PC AM?QRGLE GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML UFCL RFC JC?B A?P (J?@CJCB m 2) GQ @SKNCB @W RFC RP?GJGLE A?P (J?@CJCB

m 1). 4FC MLJW SL@?J?LACB DMPAC ML C?AF A?P GQ RFC DMPAC MD RFC AMJJGQGML. (!QQSKC RF?R RFC CDDCARQ BSC RM DPGARGML ?PC LCEJGEG@JC.) #?P 1

QJMUQ BMUL ?Q ? PCQSJR MD RFC AMJJGQGML, JMQGLE QMKC KMKCLRSK, UFGJC A?P 2 QNCCBQ SN ?LB E?GLQ QMKC KMKCLRSK. 7C QF?JJ LMU QFMU RF?R RFC RMR?J KMKCLRSK MD RFC RUM-A?P QWQRCK PCK?GLQ AMLQR?LR.

268

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

F?=KH; 8.3 ! A?P MD K?QQ ? TCJMAGRW MD

v 1

m1

KMTGLE UGRF ? TCJMAGRW MD

v1

@SKNQ GLRM ?LMRFCP A?P MD K?QQ

?LB RFC QCAMLB QNCCBQ SN RM ? TCJMAGRW MD

v 2 . 4FC KMKCLRSK MD C?AF A?P GQ AF?LECB, @SR RFC RMR?J KMKCLRSK p tot

m2

?LB TCJMAGRW

v2

RF?R GR GQ DMJJMUGLE. !Q ? PCQSJR, RFC DGPQR A?P QJMUQ BMUL RM MD RFC RUM A?PQ GQ RFC Q?KC @CDMPC

?LB ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML (GD WMS ?QQSKC DPGARGML GQ LCEJGEG@JC).

5QGLE RFC BCDGLGRGML MD GKNSJQC, RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK MD A?P 1 GQ EGTCL @W

p 1 = F 1t,
UFCPC AMJJGQGML RGKC GQ RFC Q?KC DMP @MRF A?PQ, @SR GR GQ MLJW RPSC DMP M@HCARQ RP?TCJGLE ?R MPBGL?PW QNCCBQ. 4FGQ ?QQSKNRGML KSQR @C KMBGDGCB DMP M@HCARQ RP?TCJJGLE LC?P RFC QNCCB MD JGEFR, UGRFMSR ?DDCARGLE RFC PCQSJR RF?R KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB. 3GKGJ?PJW, RFC AF?LEC GL KMKCLRSK MD A?P 2 GQ

(8.24)

F 1 GQ RFC DMPAC ML A?P 1 BSC RM A?P 2, ?LB t GQ RFC RGKC RFC DMPAC ?ARQ (RFC BSP?RGML MD RFC AMJJGQGML). )LRSGRGTCJW, GR QCCKQ M@TGMSQ RF?R RFC

p 2 = F 2t,
UFCPC J?U RF?R

(8.25)

F 2 GQ RFC DMPAC ML A?P 2 BSC RM A?P 1, ?LB UC ?QQSKC RFC BSP?RGML MD RFC AMJJGQGML t GQ RFC Q?KC DMP @MRF A?PQ. 7C ILMU DPMK .CURMLtQ RFGPB F 2 = F 1 , ?LB QM p 2 = F 1t = p 1.
(8.26)

4FSQ, RFC AF?LECQ GL KMKCLRSK ?PC COS?J ?LB MNNMQGRC, ?LB

p 1 + p 2 = 0.
"CA?SQC RFC AF?LECQ GL KMKCLRSK ?BB RM XCPM, RFC RMR?J KMKCLRSK MD RFC RUM-A?P QWQRCK GQ AMLQR?LR. 4F?R GQ,

(8.27)

p 1 + p 2 = p 1 + p 2,
UFCPC

p 1 + p 2 = constant,

(8.28) (8.29)

p 1 ?LB p 2 ?PC RFC KMKCLR? MD A?PQ 1 ?LB 2 ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML. (7C MDRCL SQC NPGKCQ RM BCLMRC RFC DGL?J QR?RC.)

4FGQ PCQSJRrRF?R KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCBrF?Q T?JGBGRW D?P @CWMLB RFC NPCACBGLE MLC-BGKCLQGML?J A?QC. )R A?L @C QGKGJ?PJW QFMUL RF?R RMR?J KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB DMP ?LW GQMJ?RCB QWQRCK, UGRF ?LW LSK@CP MD M@HCARQ GL GR. )L COS?RGML DMPK, RFC 9EDI;HL7J?ED E< CEC;DJKC FH?D9?FB; DMP ?L GQMJ?RCB QWQRCK GQ UPGRRCL

p tot = constant,
MP

(8.30)

p tot = p tot,
UFCPC

(8.31)

p tot GQ RFC RMR?J KMKCLRSK (RFC QSK MD RFC KMKCLR? MD RFC GLBGTGBS?J M@HCARQ GL RFC QWQRCK) ?LB p tot GQ RFC RMR?J KMKCLRSK QMKC RGKC J?RCP. (4FC RMR?J KMKCLRSK A?L @C QFMUL RM @C RFC KMKCLRSK MD RFC ACLRCP MD K?QQ MD RFC QWQRCK.) !L ?IEB7J;: IOIJ;C GQ BCDGLCB RM @C MLC DMP UFGAF RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ XCPM F net = 0.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

269

#MLQCPT?RGML MD -MKCLRSK 0PGLAGNJC

p tot = constant p tot = p tot (isolated system)

(8.32)

)QMJ?RCB 3WQRCK !L GQMJ?RCB QWQRCK GQ BCDGLCB RM @C MLC DMP UFGAF RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ XCPM

F net = 0 .

0CPF?NQ ?L C?QGCP U?W RM QCC RF?R KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB DMP ?L GQMJ?RCB QWQRCK GQ RM AMLQGBCP .CURMLtQ QCAMLB J?U GL RCPKQ MD KMKCLRSK,

F net =

p tot . &MP ?L GQMJ?RCB QWQRCK, F net = 0 ; RFSQ, p tot = 0 , ?LB p tot GQ AMLQR?LR. t

7C F?TC LMRCB RF?R RFC RFPCC JCLERF BGKCLQGMLQ GL L?RSPCr x ,

y , ?LB z r?PC GLBCNCLBCLR, ?LB GR GQ GLRCPCQRGLE RM LMRC RF?R KMKCLRSK A?L @C

AMLQCPTCB GL BGDDCPCLR U?WQ ?JMLE C?AF BGKCLQGML. &MP CV?KNJC, BSPGLE NPMHCARGJC KMRGML ?LB UFCPC ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC, KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB GL RFC FMPGXMLR?J BGPCARGML @CA?SQC FMPGXMLR?J DMPACQ ?PC XCPM ?LB KMKCLRSK GQ SLAF?LECB. "SR ?JMLE RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML, RFC LCR TCPRGA?J DMPAC GQ LMR XCPM ?LB RFC KMKCLRSK MD RFC NPMHCARGJC GQ LMR AMLQCPTCB. (3CC F?=KH; 8.4.) (MUCTCP, GD RFC KMKCLRSK MD RFC NPMHCARGJC-%?PRF QWQRCK GQ AMLQGBCPCB GL RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML, UC DGLB RF?R RFC RMR?J KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB.

F?=KH; 8.4 4FC FMPGXMLR?J AMKNMLCLR MD ? NPMHCARGJCtQ KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB GD ?GP PCQGQR?LAC GQ LCEJGEG@JC, CTCL GL RFGQ A?QC UFCPC ? QN?AC NPM@C QCN?P?RCQ. 4FC DMPACQ A?SQGLE RFC QCN?P?RGML ?PC GLRCPL?J RM RFC QWQRCK, QM RF?R RFC LCR CVRCPL?J FMPGXMLR?J DMPAC F x net GQ QRGJJ XCPM. 4FC TCPRGA?J AMKNMLCLR MD RFC KMKCLRSK GQ LMR AMLQCPTCB, @CA?SQC RFC LCR TCPRGA?J DMPAC

F y net

GQ LMR XCPM. )L RFC TCPRGA?J BGPCARGML, RFC QN?AC NPM@C-%?PRF QWQRCK LCCBQ RM @C AMLQGBCPCB ?LB UC DGLB RF?R RFC RMR?J KMKCLRSK GQ

AMLQCPTCB. 4FC ACLRCP MD K?QQ MD RFC QN?AC NPM@C R?ICQ RFC Q?KC N?RF GR UMSJB GD RFC QCN?P?RGML BGB LMR MAASP.

4FC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK NPGLAGNJC A?L @C ?NNJGCB RM QWQRCKQ ?Q BGDDCPCLR ?Q ? AMKCR QRPGIGLE %?PRF ?LB ? E?Q AMLR?GLGLE FSEC LSK@CPQ MD ?RMKQ ?LB KMJCASJCQ. #MLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK GQ TGMJ?RCB MLJW UFCL RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC GQ LMR XCPM. "SR ?LMRFCP J?PECP QWQRCK A?L ?JU?WQ @C AMLQGBCPCB GL UFGAF KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB @W QGKNJW GLAJSBGLE RFC QMSPAC MD RFC CVRCPL?J DMPAC. &MP CV?KNJC, GL RFC AMJJGQGML MD RUM A?PQ AMLQGBCPCB ?@MTC, RFC RUM-A?P QWQRCK AMLQCPTCQ KMKCLRSK UFGJC C?AF MLC-A?P QWQRCK BMCQ LMR. -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC )LTCQRGE?RGMLr$PMN MD 4CLLGQ "?JJ ?LB ? "?QICR@?JJ (MJB ? RCLLGQ @?JJ QGBC @W QGBC ?LB GL AMLR?AR UGRF ? @?QICR@?JJ. $PMN RFC @?JJQ RMECRFCP. ("C A?PCDSJ!) 7F?R F?NNCLQ? %VNJ?GL WMSP M@QCPT?RGMLQ. .MU FMJB RFC RCLLGQ @?JJ ?@MTC ?LB GL AMLR?AR UGRF RFC @?QICR@?JJ. 7F?R F?NNCLCB? %VNJ?GL WMSP M@QCPT?RGMLQ. 7F?R BM WMS RFGLI UGJJ F?NNCL GD RFC @?QICR@?JJ @?JJ GQ FCJB ?@MTC ?LB GL AMLR?AR UGRF RFC RCLLGQ @?JJ? -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC )LTCQRGE?RGMLr4UM 4CLLGQ "?JJQ GL ? "?JJGQRGA 4P?HCARMPW 4GC RUM RCLLGQ @?JJQ RMECRFCP UGRF ? QRPGLE ?@MSR ? DMMR JMLE. (MJB MLC @?JJ ?LB JCR RFC MRFCP F?LE BMUL ?LB RFPMU GR GL ? @?JJGQRGA RP?HCARMPW. %VNJ?GL WMSP M@QCPT?RGMLQ. .MU K?PI RFC ACLRCP MD RFC QRPGLE UGRF @PGEFR GLI MP ?RR?AF ? @PGEFRJW AMJMPCB QRGAICP RM GR ?LB RFPMU ?E?GL. 7F?R F?NNCLCB? %VNJ?GL WMSP M@QCPT?RGMLQ. 3MKC ?OS?RGA ?LGK?JQ QSAF ?Q HCJJWDGQF KMTC ?PMSLB @?QCB ML RFC NPGLAGNJCQ MD AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK. ! HCJJWDGQF DGJJQ GRQ SK@PCJJ? QCARGML UGRF U?RCP ?LB RFCL NSQFCQ RFC U?RCP MSR PCQSJRGLE GL KMRGML GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML RM RF?R MD RFC HCR MD U?RCP. 3OSGBQ NPMNCJ RFCKQCJTCQ GL ? QGKGJ?P K?LLCP @SR, GL AMLRP?QR UGRF HCJJWDGQF, ?PC ?@JC RM AMLRPMJ RFC BGPCARGML GL UFGAF RFCW KMTC @W ?GKGLE RFCGP LMXXJC DMPU?PB MP @?AIU?PB. 4WNGA?J QOSGBQ A?L KMTC ?R QNCCBQ MD 8 RM 12 IK/F. 4FC @?JJGQRMA?PBGMEP?NF ("#') U?Q ? BG?ELMQRGA RMMJ SQCB GL RFC QCAMLB F?JD MD RFC 20RF ACLRSPW RM QRSBW RFC QRPCLERF MD RFC FC?PR. !@MSR MLAC ? QCAMLB, WMSP FC?PR @C?RQ, DMPAGLE @JMMB GLRM RFC ?MPR?. ! DMPAC GL RFC MNNMQGRC BGPCARGML GQ CVCPRCB ML RFC PCQR MD WMSP @MBW (PCA?JJ .CURMLtQ RFGPB J?U). ! @?JJGQRMA?PBGMEP?NF GQ ? BCTGAC RF?R A?L KC?QSPC RFGQ PC?ARGML DMPAC. 4FGQ KC?QSPCKCLR GQ BMLC @W SQGLE ? QCLQMP (PCQRGLE ML RFC NCPQML) MP @W SQGLE ? KMTGLE R?@JC QSQNCLBCB DPMK RFC ACGJGLE. 4FGQ RCAFLGOSC A?L E?RFCP GLDMPK?RGML ML RFC QRPCLERF MD RFC FC?PR @C?R ?LB RFC TMJSKC MD

270

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

@JMMB N?QQGLE DPMK RFC FC?PR. (MUCTCP, RFC CJCARPMA?PBGMEP?K (%#' MP %+') ?LB RFC CAFMA?PBGMEP?K (A?PBG?A %#(/ MP %#(/; ? RCAFLGOSC RF?R SQCQ SJRP?QMSLB RM QCC ?L GK?EC MD RFC FC?PR) ?PC KMPC UGBCJW SQCB GL RFC NP?ARGAC MD A?PBGMJMEW. -?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: #MLQCPT?RGML MD -MKCLRSK ?LB #MJJGQGML #MLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK GQ OSGRC SQCDSJ GL BCQAPG@GLE AMJJGQGMLQ. -MKCLRSK GQ APSAG?J RM MSP SLBCPQR?LBGLE MD ?RMKGA ?LB QS@?RMKGA N?PRGAJCQ @CA?SQC KSAF MD UF?R UC ILMU ?@MSR RFCQC N?PRGAJCQ AMKCQ DPMK AMJJGQGML CVNCPGKCLRQ.

3S@?RMKGA #MJJGQGMLQ ?LB -MKCLRSK


4FC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK NPGLAGNJC LMR MLJW ?NNJGCQ RM RFC K?APMQAMNGA M@HCARQ, GR GQ ?JQM CQQCLRG?J RM MSP CVNJMP?RGMLQ MD ?RMKGA ?LB QS@?RMKGA N?PRGAJCQ. 'G?LR K?AFGLCQ FSPJ QS@?RMKGA N?PRGAJCQ ?R MLC ?LMRFCP, ?LB PCQC?PAFCPQ CT?JS?RC RFC PCQSJRQ @W ?QQSKGLE AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK (?KMLE MRFCP RFGLEQ). /L RFC QK?JJ QA?JC, UC DGLB RF?R N?PRGAJCQ ?LB RFCGP NPMNCPRGCQ ?PC GLTGQG@JC RM RFC L?ICB CWC @SR A?L @C KC?QSPCB UGRF MSP GLQRPSKCLRQ, ?LB KMBCJQ MD RFCQC QS@?RMKGA N?PRGAJCQ A?L @C AMLQRPSARCB RM BCQAPG@C RFC PCQSJRQ. -MKCLRSK GQ DMSLB RM @C ? NPMNCPRW MD ?JJ QS@?RMKGA N?PRGAJCQ GLAJSBGLE K?QQJCQQ N?PRGAJCQ QSAF ?Q NFMRMLQ RF?R AMKNMQC JGEFR. -MKCLRSK @CGLE ? NPMNCPRW MD N?PRGAJCQ FGLRQ RF?R KMKCLRSK K?W F?TC ?L GBCLRGRW @CWMLB RFC BCQAPGNRGML MD ?L M@HCARtQ K?QQ KSJRGNJGCB @W RFC M@HCARtQ TCJMAGRW. )LBCCB, KMKCLRSK PCJ?RCQ RM U?TC NPMNCPRGCQ ?LB NJ?WQ ? DSLB?KCLR?J PMJC GL UF?R KC?QSPCKCLRQ ?PC R?ICL ?LB FMU UC R?IC RFCQC KC?QSPCKCLRQ. &SPRFCPKMPC, UC DGLB RF?R RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK NPGLAGNJC GQ T?JGB UFCL AMLQGBCPGLE QWQRCKQ MD N?PRGAJCQ. 7C SQC RFGQ NPGLAGNJC RM ?L?JWXC RFC K?QQCQ ?LB MRFCP NPMNCPRGCQ MD NPCTGMSQJW SLBCRCARCB N?PRGAJCQ, QSAF ?Q RFC LSAJCSQ MD ?L ?RMK ?LB RFC CVGQRCLAC MD OS?PIQ RF?R K?IC SN N?PRGAJCQ MD LSAJCG. F?=KH; 8.5 @CJMU GJJSQRP?RCQ FMU ? N?PRGAJC QA?RRCPGLE @?AIU?PB DPMK ?LMRFCP GKNJGCQ RF?R GRQ R?PECR GQ K?QQGTC ?LB BCLQC. %VNCPGKCLRQ QCCIGLE CTGBCLAC RF?R GK7HAI K?IC SN NPMRMLQ (MLC RWNC MD N?PRGAJC RF?R K?ICQ SN LSAJCG) QA?RRCPCB FGEF-CLCPEW CJCARPMLQ MDD MD NPMRMLQ (LSAJCG MD FWBPMECL ?RMKQ). %JCARPMLQ MAA?QGML?JJW QA?RRCPCB QRP?GEFR @?AIU?PB GL ? K?LLCP RF?R GKNJGCB ? TCPW QK?JJ ?LB TCPW BCLQC N?PRGAJC K?ICQ SN RFC NPMRMLrRFGQ M@QCPT?RGML GQ AMLQGBCPCB LC?PJW BGPCAR CTGBCLAC MD OS?PIQ. 4FC ?L?JWQGQ U?Q @?QCB N?PRJW ML RFC Q?KC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK NPGLAGNJC RF?R UMPIQ QM UCJJ ML RFC J?PEC QA?JC.

F?=KH; 8.5 ! QS@?RMKGA N?PRGAJC QA?RRCPQ QRP?GEFR @?AIU?PB DPMK ? R?PECR N?PRGAJC. )L CVNCPGKCLRQ QCCIGLE CTGBCLAC DMP OS?PIQ, CJCARPMLQ UCPC M@QCPTCB RM MAA?QGML?JJW QA?RRCP QRP?GEFR @?AIU?PB DPMK ? NPMRML.

8.4 EB7IJ?9 CEBB?I?EDI ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED


,CR SQ AMLQGBCP T?PGMSQ RWNCQ MD RUM-M@HCAR AMJJGQGMLQ. 4FCQC AMJJGQGMLQ ?PC RFC C?QGCQR RM ?L?JWXC, ?LB RFCW GJJSQRP?RC K?LW MD RFC NFWQGA?J NPGLAGNJCQ GLTMJTCB GL AMJJGQGMLQ. 4FC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK NPGLAGNJC GQ TCPW SQCDSJ FCPC, ?LB GR A?L @C SQCB UFCLCTCP RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML ? QWQRCK GQ XCPM. 7C QR?PR UGRF RFC CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML MD RUM M@HCARQ KMTGLE ?JMLE RFC Q?KC JGLCr? MLC-BGKCLQGML?J NPM@JCK. !L ;B7IJ?9 9EBB?I?ED GQ MLC RF?R ?JQM AMLQCPTCQ GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW. "DJ;HD7B A?D;J?9 ;D;H=O GQ RFC QSK MD RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEGCQ MD RFC M@HCARQ GL RFC QWQRCK. F?=KH; 8.6 GJJSQRP?RCQ ?L CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML GL UFGAF GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?LB KMKCLRSK ?PC AMLQCPTCB. 4PSJW CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGMLQ A?L MLJW @C ?AFGCTCB UGRF QS@?RMKGA N?PRGAJCQ, QSAF ?Q CJCARPMLQ QRPGIGLE LSAJCG. -?APMQAMNGA AMJJGQGMLQ A?L @C TCPW LC?PJW, @SR LMR OSGRC, CJ?QRGArQMKC IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ ?JU?WQ AMLTCPRCB GLRM MRFCP DMPKQ MD CLCPEW QSAF ?Q FC?R RP?LQDCP BSC RM DPGARGML ?LB QMSLB. /LC K?APMQAMNGA AMJJGQGML RF?R GQ LC?PJW CJ?QRGA GQ RF?R MD RUM QRCCJ @JMAIQ ML GAC. !LMRFCP LC?PJW CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML GQ RF?R @CRUCCL RUM A?PRQ UGRF QNPGLE @SKNCPQ ML ?L ?GP RP?AI. )AW QSPD?ACQ ?LB ?GP RP?AIQ ?PC LC?PJW DPGARGMLJCQQ, KMPC PC?BGJW ?JJMUGLE LC?PJW CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGMLQ ML RFCK. %J?QRGA #MJJGQGML !L ;B7IJ?9 9EBB?I?ED GQ MLC RF?R AMLQCPTCQ GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW. )LRCPL?J +GLCRGA %LCPEW "DJ;HD7B A?D;J?9 ;D;H=O GQ RFC QSK MD RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEGCQ MD RFC M@HCARQ GL RFC QWQRCK.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

271

F?=KH; 8.6 !L CJ?QRGA MLC-BGKCLQGML?J RUM-M@HCAR AMJJGQGML. -MKCLRSK ?LB GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?PC AMLQCPTCB.

.MU, RM QMJTC NPM@JCKQ GLTMJTGLE MLC-BGKCLQGML?J CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGMLQ @CRUCCL RUM M@HCARQ UC A?L SQC RFC COS?RGMLQ DMP AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK ?LB AMLQCPT?RGML MD GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW. &GPQR, RFC COS?RGML DMP AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK DMP RUM M@HCARQ GL ? MLC-BGKCLQGML?J AMJJGQGML GQ
p 1 + p 2 = p 1+ p 2 F net = 0

(8.33)

MP
m 1 v 1 + m 2v 2 = m 1v 1 + m 2v 2 F net = 0,

(8.34)

UFCPC RFC NPGKCQ (') GLBGA?RC T?JSCQ ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML. "W BCDGLGRGML, ?L CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML AMLQCPTCQ GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW, ?LB QM RFC QSK MD IGLCRGA CLCPEGCQ @CDMPC RFC AMJJGQGML COS?JQ RFC QSK ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML. 4FSQ,

1 m v 2 + 1 m v 2 = 1 m v 2 + 1 m v 2 (two-object elastic collision) 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1


CVNPCQQCQ RFC COS?RGML DMP AMLQCPT?RGML MD GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GL ? MLC-BGKCLQGML?J AMJJGQGML.

(8.35)

EN7CFB; 8.4 C7B9KB7J?D= /;BE9?J?;I FEBBEM?D= 7D EB7IJ?9 CEBB?I?ED


#?JASJ?RC RFC TCJMAGRGCQ MD RUM M@HCARQ DMJJMUGLE ?L CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML, EGTCL RF?R

m 1 = 0.500 kg, m 2 = 3.50 kg, v 1 = 4.00 m/s, and v 2 = 0.


,JH7J;=O 7D: CED9;FJ

(8.36)

&GPQR, TGQS?JGXC UF?R RFC GLGRG?J AMLBGRGMLQ KC?Lr? QK?JJ M@HCAR QRPGICQ ? J?PECP M@HCAR RF?R GQ GLGRG?JJW ?R PCQR. 4FGQ QGRS?RGML GQ QJGEFRJW QGKNJCP RF?L RFC QGRS?RGML QFMUL GL F?=KH; 8.6 UFCPC @MRF M@HCARQ ?PC GLGRG?JJW KMTGLE. 7C ?PC ?QICB RM DGLB RUM SLILMULQ (RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRGCQ v 1 ?LB v 2 ). 4M DGLB RUM SLILMULQ, UC KSQR SQC RUM GLBCNCLBCLR COS?RGMLQ. "CA?SQC RFGQ AMJJGQGML GQ CJ?QRGA, UC A?L SQC RFC ?@MTC RUM COS?RGMLQ. "MRF A?L @C QGKNJGDGCB @W RFC D?AR RF?R M@HCAR 2 GQ GLGRG?JJW ?R PCQR, ?LB RFSQ v 2 = 0 . /LAC UC QGKNJGDW RFCQC COS?RGMLQ, UC AMK@GLC RFCK ?JEC@P?GA?JJW RM QMJTC DMP RFC SLILMULQ. ,EBKJ?ED &MP RFGQ NPM@JCK, LMRC RF?R

v 2 = 0 ?LB SQC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK. 4FSQ, p 1 = p 1 + p 2


(8.37)

MP

m 1 v 1 = m 1v 1 + m 2v 2.
5QGLE AMLQCPT?RGML MD GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?LB RF?R

(8.38)

v2 = 0 ,
(8.39)

1 m v 2 = 1 m v 2 + 1 m v 2. 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2

272

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

3MJTGLE RFC DGPQR COS?RGML (KMKCLRSK COS?RGML) DMP

v 2 , UC M@R?GL m v 2 = m 1 v v 1. 2 1
(8.40)

3S@QRGRSRGLE RFGQ CVNPCQQGML GLRM RFC QCAMLB COS?RGML (GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW COS?RGML) CJGKGL?RCQ RFC T?PG?@JC

v 2 , JC?TGLE MLJW v 1 ?Q ?L
(8.41)

SLILMUL (RFC ?JEC@P? GQ JCDR ?Q ?L CVCPAGQC DMP RFC PC?BCP). 4FCPC ?PC RUM QMJSRGMLQ RM ?LW OS?BP?RGA COS?RGML; GL RFGQ CV?KNJC, RFCW ?PC

v 1 = 4.00 m/s
?LB

v 1 = 3.00 m/s.

(8.42)

!Q LMRCB UFCL OS?BP?RGA COS?RGMLQ UCPC CLAMSLRCPCB GL C?PJGCP AF?NRCPQ, @MRF QMJSRGMLQ K?W MP K?W LMR @C KC?LGLEDSJ. )L RFGQ A?QC, RFC DGPQR QMJSRGML GQ RFC Q?KC ?Q RFC GLGRG?J AMLBGRGML. 4FC DGPQR QMJSRGML RFSQ PCNPCQCLRQ RFC QGRS?RGML @CDMPC RFC AMJJGQGML ?LB GQ BGQA?PBCB. 4FC QCAMLB QMJSRGML (v 1 = 3.00 m/s) GQ LCE?RGTC, KC?LGLE RF?R RFC DGPQR M@HCAR @MSLACQ @?AIU?PB. 7FCL RFGQ LCE?RGTC T?JSC MD v 1 GQ SQCB RM DGLB RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC QCAMLB M@HCAR ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML, UC ECR

m 0.500 kg v 2 = m 1 4.00 (3.00) m/s v v 1 = 3.50 kg 2 1


MP

(8.43)

v 2 = 1.00 m/s.
D?I9KII?ED

(8.44)

4FC PCQSJR MD RFGQ CV?KNJC GQ GLRSGRGTCJW PC?QML?@JC. ! QK?JJ M@HCAR QRPGICQ ? J?PECP MLC ?R PCQR ?LB @MSLACQ @?AIU?PB. 4FC J?PECP MLC GQ ILMAICB DMPU?PB, @SR UGRF ? JMU QNCCB. (4FGQ GQ JGIC ? AMKN?AR A?P @MSLAGLE @?AIU?PB MDD ? DSJJ-QGXC 356 RF?R GQ GLGRG?JJW ?R PCQR.) !Q ? AFCAI, RPW A?JASJ?RGLE RFC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW @CDMPC ?LB ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML. 9MS UGJJ QCC RF?R RFC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ SLAF?LECB ?R 4.00 *. !JQM AFCAI RFC RMR?J KMKCLRSK @CDMPC ?LB ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML; WMS UGJJ DGLB GR, RMM, GQ SLAF?LECB. 4FC COS?RGMLQ DMP AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK ?LB GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW ?Q UPGRRCL ?@MTC A?L @C SQCB RM BCQAPG@C ?LW MLC-BGKCLQGML?J CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML MD RUM M@HCARQ. 4FCQC COS?RGMLQ A?L @C CVRCLBCB RM KMPC M@HCARQ GD LCCBCB.

-?IGLE #MLLCARGMLQ: 4?IC-(MKC )LTCQRGE?RGMLr)AC #S@CQ ?LB %J?QRGA #MJJGQGML &GLB ? DCU GAC AS@CQ UFGAF ?PC ?@MSR RFC Q?KC QGXC ?LB ? QKMMRF IGRAFCL R?@JCRMN MP ? R?@JC UGRF ? EJ?QQ RMN. 0J?AC RFC GAC AS@CQ ML RFC QSPD?AC QCTCP?J ACLRGKCRCPQ ?U?W DPMK C?AF MRFCP. &JGAI MLC GAC AS@C RMU?PB ? QR?RGML?PW GAC AS@C ?LB M@QCPTC RFC N?RF ?LB TCJMAGRGCQ MD RFC GAC AS@CQ ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML. 4PW RM ?TMGB CBEC-ML AMJJGQGMLQ ?LB AMJJGQGMLQ UGRF PMR?RGLE GAC AS@CQ. (?TC WMS APC?RCB ?NNPMVGK?RCJW CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGMLQ? %VNJ?GL RFC QNCCBQ ?LB BGPCARGMLQ MD RFC GAC AS@CQ SQGLE KMKCLRSK. 0F%4 %VNJMP?RGMLQ: #MJJGQGML ,?@ )LTCQRGE?RC AMJJGQGMLQ ML ?L ?GP FMAICW R?@JC. 3CR SN WMSP MUL CVNCPGKCLRQ: T?PW RFC LSK@CP MD BGQAQ, K?QQCQ ?LB GLGRG?J AMLBGRGMLQ. )Q KMKCLRSK AMLQCPTCB? )Q IGLCRGA CLCPEW AMLQCPTCB? 6?PW RFC CJ?QRGAGRW ?LB QCC UF?R F?NNCLQ.

F?=KH; 8.7 CEBB?I?ED %78 (>JJF://9DN.EH=/9EDJ;DJ/C42163/1.3/9EBB?I?ED-B786;D.@7H)

8.5 "D;B7IJ?9 CEBB?I?EDI ?D (D; D?C;DI?ED


7C F?TC QCCL RF?R GL ?L CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML, GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ AMLQCPTCB. !L ?D;B7IJ?9 9EBB?I?ED GQ MLC GL UFGAF RFC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW AF?LECQ (GR GQ LMR AMLQCPTCB). 4FGQ J?AI MD AMLQCPT?RGML KC?LQ RF?R RFC DMPACQ @CRUCCL AMJJGBGLE M@HCARQ K?W PCKMTC MP ?BB GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW. 7MPI BMLC @W GLRCPL?J DMPACQ K?W AF?LEC RFC DMPKQ MD CLCPEW UGRFGL ? QWQRCK. &MP GLCJ?QRGA AMJJGQGMLQ, QSAF ?Q UFCL AMJJGBGLE M@HCARQ QRGAI RMECRFCP, RFGQ GLRCPL?J UMPI K?W RP?LQDMPK QMKC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GLRM FC?R RP?LQDCP. /P GR K?W AMLTCPR QRMPCB CLCPEW GLRM GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW, QSAF ?Q UFCL CVNJMBGLE @MJRQ QCN?P?RC ? Q?RCJJGRC DPMK GRQ J?SLAF TCFGAJC. )LCJ?QRGA #MJJGQGML !L GLCJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML GQ MLC GL UFGAF RFC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW AF?LECQ (GR GQ LMR AMLQCPTCB). F?=KH; 8.8 QFMUQ ?L CV?KNJC MD ?L GLCJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML. 4UM M@HCARQ RF?R F?TC COS?J K?QQCQ FC?B RMU?PB MLC ?LMRFCP ?R COS?J QNCCBQ ?LB RFCL QRGAI = mv 2 RMECRFCP. 4FCGP RMR?J GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ GLGRG?JJW 1 mv 2 + 1 mv 2 . 4FC RUM M@HCARQ AMKC RM PCQR ?DRCP QRGAIGLE RMECRFCP, AMLQCPTGLE

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

273

KMKCLRSK. "SR RFC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ XCPM ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML. ! AMJJGQGML GL UFGAF RFC M@HCARQ QRGAI RMECRFCP GQ QMKCRGKCQ A?JJCB ? F;H<;9JBO ?D;B7IJ?9 9EBB?I?ED @CA?SQC GR PCBSACQ GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW KMPC RF?L BMCQ ?LW MRFCP RWNC MD GLCJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML. )L D?AR, QSAF ? AMJJGQGML PCBSACQ GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW RM RFC KGLGKSK GR A?L F?TC UFGJC QRGJJ AMLQCPTGLE KMKCLRSK. 0CPDCARJW )LCJ?QRGA #MJJGQGML ! AMJJGQGML GL UFGAF RFC M@HCARQ QRGAI RMECRFCP GQ QMKCRGKCQ A?JJCB uNCPDCARJW GLCJ?QRGA.v

F?=KH; 8.8 !L GLCJ?QRGA MLC-BGKCLQGML?J RUM-M@HCAR AMJJGQGML. -MKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB, @SR GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ LMR AMLQCPTCB. (?) 4UM M@HCARQ MD COS?J K?QQ GLGRG?JJW FC?B BGPCARJW RMU?PB MLC ?LMRFCP ?R RFC Q?KC QNCCB. (@) 4FC M@HCARQ QRGAI RMECRFCP (? NCPDCARJW GLCJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML), ?LB QM RFCGP DGL?J TCJMAGRW GQ XCPM. 4FC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW MD RFC QWQRCK AF?LECQ GL ?LW GLCJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML ?LB GQ PCBSACB RM XCPM GL RFGQ CV?KNJC.

EN7CFB; 8.5 C7B9KB7J?D= /;BE9?JO 7D: C>7D=; ?D $?D;J?9 ED;H=O: "D;B7IJ?9 CEBB?I?ED E< 7 )K9A 7D: 7

E7B?;

(?) &GLB RFC PCAMGJ TCJMAGRW MD ? 70.0-IE GAC FMAICW EM?JGC, MPGEGL?JJW ?R PCQR, UFM A?RAFCQ ? 0.150-IE FMAICW NSAI QJ?NNCB ?R FGK ?R ? TCJMAGRW MD 35.0 K/Q. (@) (MU KSAF IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ JMQR BSPGLE RFC AMJJGQGML? !QQSKC DPGARGML @CRUCCL RFC GAC ?LB RFC NSAI-EM?JGC QWQRCK GQ LCEJGEG@JC. (3CC F?=KH; 8.9 )

F?=KH; 8.9 !L GAC FMAICW EM?JGC A?RAFCQ ? FMAICW NSAI ?LB PCAMGJQ @?AIU?PB. 4FC GLGRG?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW MD RFC NSAI GQ ?JKMQR CLRGPCJW AMLTCPRCB RM RFCPK?J CLCPEW ?LB QMSLB GL RFGQ GLCJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML.

,JH7J;=O -MKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB @CA?SQC RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML RFC NSAI-EM?JGC QWQRCK GQ XCPM. 7C A?L RFSQ SQC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK RM DGLB RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW MD RFC NSAI ?LB EM?JGC QWQRCK. .MRC RF?R RFC GLGRG?J TCJMAGRW MD RFC EM?JGC GQ XCPM ?LB RF?R RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW MD RFC NSAI ?LB EM?JGC ?PC RFC Q?KC. /LAC RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRW GQ DMSLB, RFC IGLCRGA CLCPEGCQ A?L @C A?JASJ?RCB @CDMPC ?LB ?DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML ?LB AMKN?PCB ?Q PCOSCQRCB. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (7) -MKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB @CA?SQC RFC LCR CVRCPL?J DMPAC ML RFC NSAI-EM?JGC QWQRCK GQ XCPM. #MLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK GQ

p 1 + p 2 = p 1 + p 2
MP

(8.45)

m 1 v 1 + m 2v 2 = m 1v 1 + m 2v 2.
"CA?SQC RFC EM?JGC GQ GLGRG?JJW ?R PCQR, UC ILMU v 2 = 0 . "CA?SQC RFC EM?JGC A?RAFCQ RFC NSAI, RFC DGL?J TCJMAGRGCQ ?PC COS?J, MP 4FSQ, RFC AMLQCPT?RGML MD KMKCLRSK COS?RGML QGKNJGDGCQ RM

(8.46)

v 1 = v 2 = v .
(8.47)

m 1 v 1 = (m 1 + m 2)v.
3MJTGLE DMP

v WGCJBQ

274

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

m v = m +1m v 1. 1 2
%LRCPGLE ILMUL T?JSCQ GL RFGQ COS?RGML, UC ECR

(8.48)

v =
D?I9KII?ED <EH (7)

0.150 kg (35.0 m/s) = 7.4810 2 m/s. 70.0 kg + 0.150 kg

(8.49)

4FGQ PCAMGJ TCJMAGRW GQ QK?JJ ?LB GL RFC Q?KC BGPCARGML ?Q RFC NSAItQ MPGEGL?J TCJMAGRW, ?Q UC KGEFR CVNCAR. ,EBKJ?ED <EH (8) "CDMPC RFC AMJJGQGML, RFC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW

KE int GQ GLGRG?JJW

KE int MD RFC QWQRCK GQ RF?R MD RFC FMAICW NSAI, @CA?SQC RFC EM?JGC GQ GLGRG?JJW ?R PCQR. 4FCPCDMPC,
(8.50)

2 KE int = 1 mv 2 = 1 0.150 kg(35.0 m/s) 2 2 = 91.9 J.

!DRCP RFC AMJJGQGML, RFC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ


2 2 m/s KE int = 1 (m + M )v 2 = 1 70.15 kg7.4810 2 2 = 0.196 J.

(8.51)

4FC AF?LEC GL GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ RFSQ

KE int KE int = 0.196 J 91.9 J = 91.7 J


UFCPC RFC KGLSQ QGEL GLBGA?RCQ RF?R RFC CLCPEW U?Q JMQR. D?I9KII?ED <EH (8) .C?PJW ?JJ MD RFC GLGRG?J GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ JMQR GL RFGQ NCPDCARJW GLCJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML.

(8.52)

KE int GQ KMQRJW AMLTCPRCB RM RFCPK?J CLCPEW ?LB QMSLB.

$SPGLE QMKC AMJJGQGMLQ, RFC M@HCARQ BM LMR QRGAI RMECRFCP ?LB JCQQ MD RFC GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW GQ PCKMTCBrQSAF ?Q F?NNCLQ GL KMQR ?SRMKM@GJC ?AAGBCLRQ. !JRCPL?RGTCJW, QRMPCB CLCPEW K?W @C AMLTCPRCB GLRM GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW BSPGLE ? AMJJGQGML. F?=KH; 8.10 QFMUQ ? MLC-BGKCLQGML?J CV?KNJC GL UFGAF RUM A?PRQ ML ?L ?GP RP?AI AMJJGBC, PCJC?QGLE NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW DPMK ? AMKNPCQQCB QNPGLE. EN7CFB; 8.6 BC?JQ UGRF B?R? DPMK QSAF ? AMJJGQGML.

F?=KH; 8.10 !L ?GP RP?AI GQ LC?PJW DPGARGMLJCQQ, QM RF?R KMKCLRSK GQ AMLQCPTCB. -MRGML GQ MLC-BGKCLQGML?J. )L RFGQ AMJJGQGML, CV?KGLCB GL EN7CFB; 8.6, RFC NMRCLRG?J CLCPEW MD ? AMKNPCQQCB QNPGLE GQ PCJC?QCB BSPGLE RFC AMJJGQGML ?LB GQ AMLTCPRCB RM GLRCPL?J IGLCRGA CLCPEW.

#MJJGQGMLQ ?PC N?PRGASJ?PJW GKNMPR?LR GL QNMPRQ ?LB RFC QNMPRGLE ?LB JCGQSPC GLBSQRPW SRGJGXCQ CJ?QRGA ?LB GLCJ?QRGA AMJJGQGMLQ. ,CR SQ JMMI @PGCDJW ?R RCLLGQ. 2CA?JJ RF?R GL ? AMJJGQGML, GR GQ KMKCLRSK ?LB LMR DMPAC RF?R GQ GKNMPR?LR. 3M, ? FC?TGCP RCLLGQ P?AOSCR UGJJ F?TC RFC ?BT?LR?EC MTCP ? JGEFRCP MLC. 4FGQ AMLAJSQGML ?JQM FMJBQ RPSC DMP MRFCP QNMPRQr? JGEFRUCGEFR @?R (QSAF ?Q ? QMDR@?JJ @?R) A?LLMR FGR ? F?PB@?JJ TCPW D?P.

4FGQ AMLRCLR GQ ?T?GJ?@JC DMP DPCC ?R FRRN://ALV.MPE/AMLRCLR/AMJ11406/1.7

#(!04%2 8 Y ,).%!2 -/-%.45- !.$ #/,,)3)/.3

275

4FC JMA?RGML MD RFC GKN?AR MD RFC RCLLGQ @?JJ ML RFC P?AOSCR GQ ?JQM GKNMPR?LR, ?Q GQ RFC N?PR MD RFC QRPMIC BSPGLE UFGAF RFC GKN?AR MAASPQ. ! QKMMRF KMRGML PCQSJRQ GL RFC K?VGKGXGLE MD RFC TCJMAGRW MD RFC @?JJ ?DRCP GKN?AR ?LB PCBSACQ QNMPRQ GLHSPGCQ QSAF ?Q RCLLGQ CJ@MU. ! RCLLGQ NJ?WCP RPGCQ RM FGR RFC @?JJ ML RFC uQUCCR QNMRv ML RFC P?AOSCR, UFCPC RFC TG@P?RGML ?LB GKN?AR ?PC KGLGKGXCB ?LB RFC @?JJ GQ ?@JC RM @C EGTCL KMPC TCJMAGRW. 3NMPRQ QAGCLAC ?LB RCAFLMJMEGCQ ?JQM SQC NFWQGAQ AMLACNRQ QSAF ?Q KMKCLRSK ?LB PMR?RGML?J KMRGML ?LB TG@P?RGMLQ.

4?IC-(MKC %VNCPGKCLRr"MSLAGLE MD 4CLLGQ "?JJ 1. &GLB ? P?AOSCR (? RCLLGQ, @?BKGLRML, MP MRFCP P?AOSCR UGJJ BM). 0J?AC RFC P?AOSCR ML RFC DJMMP ?LB QR?LB ML RFC F?LBJC. $PMN ? RCLLGQ @?JJ ML RFC QRPGLEQ DPMK ? KC?QSPCB FCGEFR. -C?QSPC FMU FGEF RFC @?JJ @MSLACQ. .MU ?QI ? DPGCLB RM FMJB RFC P?AOSCR DGPKJW @W RFC F?LBJC ?LB BPMN ? RCLLGQ @?JJ DPMK RFC Q?KC KC?QSPCB FCGEFR ?@MTC RFC P?AOSCR. -C?QSPC FMU FGEF RFC @?JJ @MSLACQ ?LB M@QCPTC UF?R F?NNCLQ RM WMSP DPGCLBtQ F?LB BSPGLE RFC AMJJGQGML. %VNJ?GL WMSP M@QCPT?RGMLQ ?LB KC?QSPCKCLRQ. 2. 4FC AMCDDGAGCLR MD PCQRGRSRGML (c) GQ ? KC?QSPC MD RFC CJ?QRGAGRW MD ? AMJJGQGML @CRUCCL ? @?JJ ?LB ?L M@HCAR, ?LB GQ BCDGLCB ?Q RFC P?RGM MD RFC QNCCBQ ?DRCP ?LB @CDMPC RFC AMJJGQGML. ! NCPDCARJW CJ?QRGA AMJJGQGML F?Q ? c MD 1. &MP ? @?JJ @MSLAGLE MDD RFC DJMMP (MP ? P?AOSCR ML RFC DJMMP), c A?L @C QFMUL RM @C c = (h / H ) 1 / 2 UFCPC h GQ RFC FCGEFR RM UFGAF R