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Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

Practical 4 Reading

Measuring and Comparing Species Diversity

Burgman M.A. & indenmayer D.B !1""#$ Conservation Biology for the Australian Environment. Surrey Beatty & Sons. C%apter & '%at s%ould (e conserved ) sections &.1*&.+.

,ntroduction
,n an earlier practical -e e.amined t%e di//iculties /aced -%en -e try to place individuals into separate ta.a0 or species0 (ased on t%eir morp%ology only. ,n t%is practical -e -ill loo1 at an e.ample0 -%ere -e use 2morp%ospecies3 o/ mot%s collected /rom t%ree islands0 to compare species diversity0 and t%en ma1e some recommendations a(out conservation priorities (ased on t%e comparison. !'%at is a morp%ospecies)$

Comparing Species Diversity Moths of SE Asia


,nverte(rates are /re4uently used as (iodiversity indicators (ecause0 ta.onomically t%ere are many species0 and ecologically (ecause o/ t%e variety o/ %a(itats0 nic%es and strategies t%ey utili5e. Some groups0 suc% as (eetles0 ants and mot%s and (utter/lies are also relatively easy to distinguis% into mor%ospecies using only e.ternal morp%ological c%aracteristics.

6%e 6as1
6%e mot%s in t%is practical come /rom t%e severely degraded islands o/ Pulau Sipadan, Pulau TalangTalang and Pulau edang! 6%ey %ave (een (roug%t to you (y Dr.Dale and you are going to use t%e di//erences in species diversity as t%e rational to prioriti5e restoration ecology programs /or t%e islands. 6%ere are many Diversity ,ndices -%ic% can (e calculated and compared 7 -e -ill use Simpson8s Diversity ,nde.. Read t%e e.planation at t%e end o/ t%is practical.

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

&

9irst0 you must sort all t%e mot%s into 2groups. :se c%aracteristics -%ic% all t%e
mot%s %ave in common0 (ut -%ose states vary. 9or e.ample0 relative antenna lengt% or ornimentation0 -ing colouration0 -ing mar1ings0 a(domen or t%ora. si5e or s%ape mig%t all (e use/ul c%aracters0 (ut num(er o/ legs is not; Si5e is also not a good c%aracteristic to use !-%y)$.

6%e 2operational ta.onomic units3 or <6:8s0 t%at you de/ine !t%e groups$ can (e
considered as separate 2species3. =ive eac% species a uni4ue name0 /or ease o/ discussion !t%is is -%at ta.onomists do$.

"irst, pic# a moth species, comapre all three islands at the same time, and
colour-in or mar# all the individuals you thin# $elong to the same group %species&! 6%en pic1 t%e ne.t mot% species and repeat t%e procedure0 untill all mot%s %ave (een assigned to a group.

Second, count ho' many individuals $elong to each species on each island
and enter t%e values into t%e ta(le provided.

6%en0 calculate species diversity /or eac% island using t%e Simpson inde. D. (ou
can do this $y hand, or you can use one of the calculators on the 'e$! 6%ere are instructions at t%e end on t%e practical. ,/ you use t%e online calculator you can also easily calculate species richness and evenness.

>our Report
>ou s%ould discuss t%e /ollo-ing points in an 2essay style3 report !a(out ?@@ -ords$. =ive a title0 (rie/ introduction0 and present a neat ta(le giving t%e ric%ness0 eveness and D values /or t%e mot% species0 and your priority /or conserving t%e t%ree islands. Re/erence your report .

'%at are t%e (asic A(uilding (loc1s8 or 2operational ta.onomic units3 o/ A(iodiversity8 ) E.plain.

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

Brie/ly e.plain -%at !1$ species ric%ness and !&$ species evenness mean. '%at -as t%e order o/ t%e islands0 /rom %ig%est to lo-est diversity) Co- did you ran1 t%e islands /or conservation) Did t%is /ollo- t%e diversity values) '%at ot%er /actors could you ta1e into account -%en determining conservation priority)

,/ -e do not %ave t%e resources to protect all species0 -%at criteria could -e use to decide -%ere to /ocus our conservation e//orts)

Due Date Check the Assessment Details File for the date. This report is worth 10% of your total mark.

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

Ta$le ). Dum(er o/ species and num(er o/ individuals o/ eac% species /or t%ree Malaysian ,slands. D E Simpson diversity inde.. P E priority ran1ing /or restorationF 1 most urgent0 BEleast urgent.

Species

Pulau Sipadan

Pulau 6alang

6alang* Pulau Redang

species ric%ness species evenness Simpson ,nde. !D$ Priority /or Conservation

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

:nderstanding Simpson8s Diversity ,nde.


6%ere are a num(er o/ good -e( sites -%ic% e.plain %o- to compare species diversity0 and some allo- you to use t%eir online calculator. %ttpGHH---.countrysidein/o.co.u1Hsimpsons.%tm %ttpGHH---.umanito(a.caHinstitutesHnaturalIresourcesH(iodiversityH(iodiversity.%tml

SimpsonJs Diversity ,nde. is a measure o/ diversity. ,n ecology0 it is o/ten used to 4uanti/y t%e (iodiversity o/ a %a(itat. ,t ta1es into account t%e num(er o/ species present0 as -ell as t%e a(undance o/ eac% species.

*iological Diversity - t%e great variety o/ li/e


Biological diversity can (e 4uanti/ied in many di//erent -ays. 6%e t-o main /actors ta1en into account -%en measuring diversity are richness and evenness. ichness is a measure of the num$er of different #inds of organisms present in a particular area! 9or e.ample0 species richness is the num$er of different species present . Co-ever0 diversity depends not only on ric%ness0 (ut also on evenness. Evenness compares the similarity of the population si+e of each of the species present!

)! ichness The num$er of species per sample is a measure of richness! The more species present in a sample, the ,richer, the sample! Species ric%ness as a measure on its o-n ta1es no account o/ t%e num(er o/ individuals o/ eac% species present. ,t gives as muc% -eig%t to t%ose species -%ic% %ave very /eindividuals as to t%ose -%ic% %ave many individuals. 6%us0 one daisy %as as muc% in/luence on t%e ric%ness o/ an area as 1@@@ (uttercups.

-! Evenness Evenness is a measure of the relative a$undance of the different species ma#ing up the richness of an area! 6o give an e.ample0 -e mig%t %ave sampled t-o di//erent /ields /or -ild/lo-ers. 6%e sample /rom t%e /irst /ield consists o/ B@@ daisies0 BB+ dandelions and B?+ (uttercups. 6%e sample /rom t%e second /ield comprises &@ daisies0 4" dandelions and "B1 (uttercups !see t%e ta(le (elo-$. Bot% samples %ave t%e same richness %. species& and the same total num$er of individuals %)///&! Co-ever0 t%e /irst sample %as more evenness t%an t%e second. 6%is is (ecause t%e total num(er o/ individuals in t%e sample is 4uite evenly distri(uted (et-een t%e t%ree species. ,n t%e second sample0 most o/ t%e

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

individuals are (uttercups0 -it% only a /e- daisies and dandelions present. Sample & is t%ere/ore considered to (e less diverse t%an sample 1.
Numbers of individuals Sample 1 Sample 2 300 20 335 49 3!5 931 1000 1000

Flower Species Daisy Dandelion Bu ercup "o al

A community dominated (y one or t-o species is considered to (e less diverse t%an one in -%ic% several di//erent species %ave a similar a(undance. As species ric%ness and evenness increase0 so diversity increases. SimpsonJs Diversity ,nde. is a measure o/ diversity -%ic% ta1es into account (ot% ric%ness and evenness. As t%e species diversity increases0 so does t%e value o/ Simpson8s Diversity ,nde. D.

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

Calculating Simpson0s Diversity 1nde2 online


Step )! og on to your computer and navigate to t%e /ollo-ing -e(site 7

%ttpGHH---.umanito(a.caHinstitutesHnaturalIresourcesH(iodiversityH(iodiversity.%tml >ou s%ould see t%e /ollo-ing screen.

Step -! Clic1 on t%e calculator s%o-n in 9igure 1 on t%e screen0 and t%e /ollo-ing screen s%ould appear.

Step .! ,n t%e on*screen data entry /orm0 type in t%e numer o/ individuals o/ eac% mot% species /ound on t%e t%e /irst island. 6%e values must (e separated (y a space. 6%is screen s%o-s and e.ample -it% seven speciesF t%e /irst one %as 1@ individuals and t%e sevent% species %as 1& individuals.

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

Step 3! Clic1 t%e 2calculate diversity3 (utton0 and a results (o. -ill appear li1e t%e one (elo-.

Step 4! ,n 6a(le 10 record t%e Simpson8s D value !& decimal places only$0 Species Ric%ness and S%annon8s Eveness value. 9rom t%e a(ove e.ample DE@.#&0 Ric%nessEK and EvennessE@."&. Step 5! Repeat t%e calculation /or t%e ot%er t-o islands.

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

"

Calculating the Simpson Diversity 1nde2 $y hand


6%is inde. is calculated as /ollo-sG

D E 1Hpi&
-%ere

pi

E t%e /ractional a(undance o/ t%e ith species on t%e island. 9or e.ample i/ you

%ad a sample o/ t-o species -it% + individuals o/ one species and # individuals o/ t%e ot%er species !a total o/ 1B individuals$ D 6 ) 7 %47).&- 8 %97).&-& 6 ) 7 %/!.9&- 8 %/!5-&-& 6 )7%/!4-& D 6 )!:so0 as t%e value o/ D increases0 so does t%e diversity.

Please note that you do not need to memorize how to do these calculations, but you do need to remember that there are quantitative measures of species diversity.

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

1@

Calculating t%e Simpson diversity inde. 7 an e.ample


Species
1. &. B. 4. total indiviuals Simpson inde. !D$

Pulau Sipadan
+ # " && &.#

Pulau 6alang
+ K & ? &@ B.?

6alang* Pulau Redang

Pulau Sipadan

D E 1H!!+H&&$& L !#H&&$& L !"H&&$&$ E 1H!@.&B$& L !@.B?$& L !@.41$&$ E 1H!@.@+ L @.1B L @.1K$ E 1H@.B+ D E &.#

Pulau 6alang*6alang

D E 1H!!+H&@$& L !KH&@$& L !&H&@$& L !?H&@$&$ E 1H!@.&+$& L !@.B+$& L !@.1@$& L !@.B@$&$ E 1H@.@? L @.1& L @.@1 L @.@1$ E 1H@.&# D E B.?

6%ere/ore0 as D E B.? is greater t%an D E &.# -e can say t%at Pulau 6alang* 6alang %as more mot% diversity t%an Pulau Sipadan.

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

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Mot%s o/ SE Asia

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

1&

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

1B

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

14

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

1+

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

1?

Ecosystems &Biodiversity

Measuring Species Diversity

1K