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Heart: 1.

Be able to describe and/or identify the microscopic anatomy of cardiac muscle and the structure of the heart, where the valves are, where and how the heart is oriented in the body, the function and structure of the pericardium. Location: near the midline of the thoracic cavity, in the mediastinum. 2/3 of the weight lies to the left. Apex is formed by the ventricle and the base is formed by atria. Pericardium: the membrane surrounds and protects the heart 1. The fibrous pericardium: tough, inelastic, dense irregular connective tissue Prevent overstretching of the heart, provides protection, and anchors the heart in the mediastinum. 2. The serous pericardium: Deeper, thinner and more delicate, double layer Visceral layer (inner) -> Pericardial fluid (pericardial cavity)-> Parietal layer (outer)

2. Know the path of blood flow through the heart and two circuits, the major blood supply to the heart, why are anastamoses important, what happens to cardiac muscle if blood supply is interrupted, and where you would normally find oxygenated vs. deoxygenated blood. 3. How is heart rate determined in the heart, what is the nervous innervations to the heart, which part(s) of the CNS and PNS have influence on the heart, what is the result of each. 4. Identify and describe the unique features of fetal heart structures and how they function to produce a different circulatory pattern in a fetus compared to an adult. What organs are being bypassed, why? What to the fetal structures become in the adult? 5. How does depolarization and AP generation in cardiac muscle differ from skeletal muscle, what ion movements are somewhat unique and how is the overall process different? Review the diagram in the book on the cardiac action potential. 6. Discuss what structures initiate and allow conduction of the AP through the heart, the order of them and how the speed of conduction is important for efficient pumping. 7. Be able to identify/describe/explain the events of the cardiac cycle, what is happening electrically, depolarization, repolarization, what ion channels open, what part of the heart is contracting or relaxing, what is meant by as isovolumetric contraction, when and why are the heart sounds produced. 8. Explain and/or identify the events of an ECG/ EKG, what is happening to the heart at each of the waves, segments, intervals. Blood Vessels: 1. Be able to describe vessel structure, the functions of each layer of the wall, the differences between the structures and functions of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. What is the purpose of the precapillary sphincters, venous valves? 2. Describe what features of elastic vs. muscular arteries allow for different functions; what three major factors keep blood moving back toward the heart through the circuits. 3. Describe how and where nutrient and gas exchange occurs, how O2 and CO2 are transported in the blood stream, what factors influence hemoglobin's 02 affinity

4. Explain the process of bulk flow, how does osmosis, diffusion or other methods of transport play into this, what factors determine whether there is a net movement of fluid into or out of the capillaries. 5. Define the terms: cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, pulse pressure, systemic vascular resistance, blood viscosity blood pressure, what are the normal BP ranges, what are the abnormal ranges. What factors contribute to changes in BP, both normal (nervous, hormonal) and abnormal? 6. Explain the major factors which contribute to systemic vascular resistance 7. What are the effects of the following hormones, how are they stimulated, where are they released from, where is their target organ: ANP, ADH, Aldosterone, Angiotensin, ACE, Renin, Epinephrine. 8. What drugs mimic or block the effects of the above hormones, what is their effect? 9. Know and be able to identify the major arteries and veins we discussed in class, the subclavian, the aortic arch, pulmonary vessels, carotids, etc, and what major parts each supplies (head? upper or lower limb, abdominal contents?) 10. What are the types of shock, causes of each? Explain how anaphylactic shock is treated Respiratory system: 1. Describe and be able to identify the major structures of the path of air into the lung, the bronchi, and the branches from it all the way to the alveoli. 2. What determines the surface tension and compliance of the lungs, what prevents the lungs from collapsing, 3. Define the terms: Total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, vital capacity, tidal volume. 4. How is pH regulated in the body? 5. Explain the autoregulatory repsonses of both the pulmonary and the system circulations with changing oxygen levels in the blood. 6. Explain what is yawning, sneezing, and coughing in terms of the activity in the respiratory system during each. 7. Explain the forces normally in action behind inspiration and expiration. 8. Identify/Describe the specific effects of smoking on the respiratory system