Pgs.

213-223
I.

Chapter 9: Political Parties

II.

State and local parties A. The machine 1. Recruitment via tangible incentives 2. High degree of leadership control 3. Abuses a. Graduall controlled b reforms b. !ut machines continued ". !oth self#serving and public regarding $. %inning above all else !. Ideological parties 1. &rinciple above all else 2. 'suall outside (emocrats and Republicans 3. !ut some local reform clubs ". Reform clubs replaced b social movements ). Solidar groups 1. *ost common form of part organi+ation 2. *embers motivated b solidar incentives 3. Advantage, neither corrupt nor infle-ible ". (isadvantage, not ver hard .or/ing (. Sponsored parties 1. )reated or sustained b another organi+ation 2. 0-ample, (etroit (emocrats controlled b 'A% 3. 1ot ver common 0. &ersonal follo.ing 1. 0-amples, 2enned s3 )urle 3 Talmadges3 4ongs 2. 5iabilit toda affected b T5 and radio 3. Advantage, vote for the person ". (isadvantage, ta/es time to /no. the person The t.o#part s stem A. Rarit among nations toda !. 0venl balanced nationall 3 not locall ). %h such a permanent feature6 1. 0lectoral s stem, .inner#ta/e#all and pluralit s stem 2. 7pinions of voters, t.o broad coalitions 5II. *inor parties (. Ideological parties, comprehensive3 radical vie.8 most enduring 0-amples, Socialist3 )ommunist3 4ibertarian 0. 7ne#issue parties, address one concern3 avoid others 0-amples, 9ree Soil3 2no.#1othing3 &rohibition 9. 0conomic protest parties, regional3 oppose depressions 0-amples, Greenbac/3 &opulist G. 9actional parties, from split in a ma:or part 0-amples, !ull *oose3 Henr %allace3 American Independent H. *ovements not producing parties8 either slim chance of success or ma:or parties accommodate 0-amples, civil rights3 anti.ar3 labor I. 9actional parties have had greatest influence I. State and 4ocal &arties

It.er in each state part 3 but first3 the incentives that motivate people in a place to become active in a part organi+ation must be found.here each . in education3 income3 and sophistication3 their need for part .3 . that social movements are the >farm clubs? of the big#league Republicans and (emocrats3 the ma:or parties behave differentl than before3 .ere found to get around the la. 0-ample.ere interested in .n on offering gov.ever3 .s li/e the Hatch "ct of 1@3@ cut do. The opposite of a political machine is an i%eological party3 .inning.as the main concern of part organi+ation members. 'suall 3 ideological parties are third parties li/e the Socialist %or/ers or 4ibertarians.ith the New Yor C!stom Ho!se and the postal s stem becoming >re.ards for good service. the actual distribution of po.a s of maintaining that3 plus there .ere >reform clubs? that actuall sa.s .ere efficient . The old campaign machine is almost e-tinct3 but ne. 0-ample.1. iii.hen part machines . i. Since machines .hich e-ists count committees and sometimes3 cit 3 to.as huge voter turnout <even .ill consist of a state central committee3 belo. 2.t. Henry ". iv. .ers.hile part leaders have greatl reduced po.as curtailed3 as civil service reforms and la. i. i. internal factions abound . $. 9raud reigned supreme3 and the arrival of Italian and Irish immigrants made it easier to gain cheap support3 but graduall 3 fraud . &laces li/e Tammany Hall became famous for the political machines that operated there3 and the federal bureaucrac became in important source of :obs <incentive=3 .a s .est 4os Angeles machine gets lots of mone but also has a strong interest in issues3 especiall at a national level. a.elfare s stem san/.n3 and precinct committees. and maintain machines3 but as voters gre. 1o.t :obs in return for service or support. &ro#Republican Christian Coalition3 . i. some success against mainstream political groups3 but in the 1@CBs and DBs3 these >clubs? coalesced into more focused social movements3 based upon a sense of liberalism <(emocrats= or conservatism <Republicans=.? iii.s better to /no. In man cities3 ho. machines that use mone from donating individuals to /nit together man politicians are springing up more freAuentl .s of a candidate3 as long as he had the best chance of . In ever state there is a (emocratic and Republican state part organi+ed under state la. ii. . 3.here machines operated most heavil . A political machine is a part organi+ation that recruits members through the use of tangible incentives li/e :obs3 mone 3 and the chance to get high favors from the gov. ii. ". #a$man and Howar% &. 'erman.hich is ver conservative and pro#life. i.ith fraud= .t usuall care about the political vie. At one time3 patronage3 or the struggle over political :obs3 . In the 1@$Bs and CBs3 man of these groups .hich is all about principle3 spurns mone incentives3 and is usuall contentious and factionali+ed <li/e pro# and anti#abortionists=. &olitics reAuires organi+ation3 and machines .ere the >minor leagues?.inning3 the didn.

ystem3 because onl t.in all the votes of that state <see )linton in *issouri in 1@@2 or the 2BBB 0lection=.s in the 1st third of the centur and Rep. The traditional part organi+ation e-ists onl in about E states toda 3 usuall the old northeastern ones.ea/ or none-istent. i.hile 1e.o#&art S stem 1.S.S.ell3 even reviving after having been called politicall dead <(em. economic s stem3 the non#monarchial . i.e. This ma also be because of the fact that3 most of the time3 voters agree broadl enough to coalesce into t.hose members continue to .a of '.hat funded b the (nite% "!to #or ers union=..orld3 as man other nations have m!ltiparty systems3 but in the '. Some candidates form personal )ollowings3 made up of friends and famil 3 to ascend the political ladder <i. In 0ngland3 proportional representation is used. &eople . ii.on the presidenc Jthe 1ECB Republicans3 but b then3 the had virtuall replaced the d ing %higs an . iii.inner#ta/e#all s stem3 rather than a ma:orit s stem .ins in state and national elections3 but sponsored parties are still not common in the 'nited States. 3.II. To .ins.ide coalitions. A two-party system is rather rare in the .or/ and participate for sa/e of comrader and friendship.o states don..hich means that the . if a part gets 3$I of the vote3 its members sit in 3$I of the &arliament seats3 and this s stem has been tried in the '.o . *an of these solidar associations are old machines that bro/e do.t get more than half the votes in a state still can . 7n the state level3 though3 there is rarel balance <South used to be R0A44H (emocratic .s run is ver important8 pluralities ma/e it useless for an one to create3 . i.ho participate politicall :ust for fun respond to soli%ary incentives.s in 1@3Bs G CBs=.here political organi+ation is . the Republicans and (emocrats have balanced each other rather .ho didn.here candidates must get more than half the vote3 rather than :ust the most votes.a it.t been a successful group that has ob:ected to the '.ere Republican=3 but parties are less competitive here than in presidential contests or the national level. 0ngland and the (a/otas .S. the (emocratic &art in (etroit is sponsored3 led3 and some.n and . This ma be because of the s stem of elections3 since most states are based on a pl!rality3 or .t use the pluralit s stem3 and as a result3 a person . The T. The biggest e-ample of this is the +lectoral . 2. D. ii. In 9rance3 if no one gets the ma:orit 3 run#off elections are held until someone . There hasn.a . ". i. If an organi+ation that can sponsor a local part structure e-ists in a communit 3 a sponsore% party can occur <e-ample.S. i. Such groups are not corrupt or infle-ible3 but the are la+ . the *enne%y famil = and later tr to form them into ideological groups3 but to do this3 a prospective candidate must have an appealing personalit 3 a lot of friends3 andFor a big ban/ account. E. iv. i. C.in the presidenc <huge pri+e=3 a part must have broad support and broad ideas8 onl one third part has ever . @. life3 or the privati+ation of religion. The 'A% has been successful in carr ing (emocratic . (espite racial or sectional differences3 the s stem has prevailed3 . This strateg is often used .

t necessaril true because 9(R adopted Socialists ideas into the 1e. i.hen conditions improve.III.s surprising that there haven. i.ar protesters supported (emocrats8 labor unions have been .aloon &eag!e3 not the &rohibition &art .ith things. The !lac/s . 2. $. 0actional parties have split off of the Republicans andFor (emocrats. i.. .ith ideas that ma:or parties later adopt3 but this isn. *inor parties have carried several states in )ongressional elections or received a good chun/ of the popular vote in presidential elections <i.in3 but the certainl can form3 and there are four main t pes of minor parties. (eal because parts of his o.hich enabled #oo%row #ilson to . iii. Some sa that minor parties come up . -eorge #allace originall had to collect ""33BBB signatures to get on=3 but graduall 3 these la.re completel upset . It.ere ruled unconstitutional or repealed. Recentl 3 3oss Perot.as adopted from the "nti-. 3. +conomic-protest parties are usuall based in one region3 protest certain economic conditions3 and disappear . This is because direct primaries and national conventions have made it possible for dissident elements of a ma:or part to still have influence3 unless the .n part threatened to leave if he did not do so8 also3 prohibition .s 3e)orm Party4 or (nite% #e . ii.in the election=.hile anti.o ma:or parties. *inor parties m not . ". *inor &arties 1. iv. ii. 9or man ears3 state la.s .F the (em. sa 3 an all#!lac/ or all#%hite national part to ta/e a.%eological parties have outloo/s that are radicall different from that of established parties. the Pop!lists or +!gene 1e2s and the Socialists=3 but the seldom caused the defeat of a part that the hoped to split <e-ception. /ne-iss!e parties usuall sta focused on one issue3 li/e abortion3 slaver 3 or alcohol. (eal3 .ith the (emocrats after the 1e.a votes from one of the t.t been more minor parties3 as the )ivil Rights and the Anti#%ar movements of the 1@CBs failed to form a third part 3 as did the labor movement earlier in the centur . . Republicans and the >!ull *oose? &rogressives in 1@123 .e.s. The minor parties most successful in influencing the ma:or parties have been the factional parties3 since leaving a ma:or part for sa/e of an issue sensiti+es that issue.ere .ith the Republicans after the )ivil %ar and .e. ii.s made it ver difficult for a third part to get onto a presidential ballot <i.tan% "merica has been a strong 3rd part .

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