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1, February 1991

183

Weryuan Xu Student M.IEEE Jose R. Marti Member, IEEE Department of Electrical Engineering University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada, V6T 1W5 Hermann W. Dommel Fellow, IEEE

ABSTRACT: Static compensators with thyristor-controlled reactors generate harmonics. Due to the voltage regulation characteristic of the compensator, the generated harmonics depend on unknown thyristor firing angles and the network load flow conditions. The inclusion of a load flow dependent firing angle determination in the multiphase harmonic load flow technique (MHLF) developed in a companion paper is described here. It uses a novel conduction angle adjustment scheme. This general and simple scheme can easily be used for the analysis of other nonlinear elements with control characteristics. Various case studies are presented to demonstrate the performance and application of the technique. Field test comparisons are included as well. KEYWORDS: harmonics ,net wBrk unbalanceq t at ic compensator, multiphase harmonic load flow.

3. The TCR conduction angles are adjusted iteratively in the solution process to fulfill the static compensator control characteristics for either balanced or unbalanced conditions.

This technique is general enough for the study of various unbalanced operating conditions, including the unbalance of lines or other network components, T C R firing angles, TCR reactors, etc.

1. INTRODUCTION

Static compensators with thyristor-controlled reactors (TCR) are an effective and reliable means for voltage regulation [l].These devices produce harmonics which must be assessed so that harmonic counter-measures can be properly designed. For operation with a known firing angle, the harmonic load flows caused by static compensators can easily be obtained for either balanced or unbalanced conditions with the multiphase harmonic load flow (MHLF) technique described in a companion paper [2]. The generated harmonics depend critically on the control characteristics of the compensator, however, which makes the firing angles dependent on the network load flow conditions and harmonic voltage distributions. In power electronic devices, it is typical that the firing angles and the generation of harmonics depend on the load flow conditions. To include this dependence, the MHLF technique is modified for the TCR as follows: 1. The nonlinear TCR is modelled as a Norton equivalent circuit at each harmonic frequency.

2. With these equivalent circuit.s, the overall harmonic load flow problem is solved with a multiphase fundamental frequency load flow and with a multiphase frequency scan solution.

For the purpose of voltage regulation, the reactive power generated or absorbed by the static compensator is automatically adjusted according to certain characteristics. The TCR conduction angle is therefore an unknown variable in the normal operation. A practical MHLF technique must be able to calculate the conduction angles and the corresponding harmonic distributions under any given load flow condition. 2.1 Control Characteristics The most common static compensator control characteristic is the linear voltage-current relationship shown in Figure 1 [l].It is realized through the proper design of the measurement, control and firing units. In the normal steady state, the conduction angle is automatically adjusted by the controller such that

A

~

network characteristic

90 'id 099-2 PWRS A pa,,er recommended and approved by t h e IEEE Power Syste:? Engineering Cominittee of the ICIE Power Engineering Society f o r presentation a t t h e IEJiZ/?ES 1990 Winter Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, February 4 - 8, 1990. Iianuscript submitted August 31, 1989; made a v a i l a b l e for p r i n t i n g .Deceriber 27, 1989.

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Ir,

0885-8950/91/0200-0183$01.00 0 1991 IEEE

184

where

V, is the positive sequence fundamental frequency voltage at the compensator bus,

curve [3]. The solution process is indicated in Figure 2(b), and can be expressed as

Ui+l

=a i

I, = (I,(sin(@, - $ 1 ) is the reactive component of 1 1 , K is the slope constant, I1is the positive sequence fundamental Gequency current injected into the network, and

ui +Ei , - &;-I

0i-l E;

where i is the iteration number. The complete solution of the TCR with both the conduction angle adjustment and the harmonic iteration can be summarized as follows, with further details described in [2]:

Step 1. Initialization.

It is assumed here that the characteristics are defined with respect to positive sequence quantities. The static compensator operates at the intersection of its control characteristic with the network characteristic, as shown in Figure 1. To include this constraint in the MHLF solution, a conduction angle adjustment scheme is developed, as described next.

2.2

Represent TCRs as Norton equivalent circuits with their parallel harmonic current sources set to zero. The equivalent circuits are computed for the given initial conduction angles. Step 2. Network solution. Replace the TCRs with the equivalent circuits and perform the multiphase fundamental frequency load flow solution and frequency scan. Step 3 . Conduction angle adjustment. Calculate the control error E for the particular load flow solution, and find the new conduction angle with the method depicted in Figure 2. Step 4. Norton equivalent circuit computation.

From the principle of the actual firing angle control, a control error can be defined as

By varying the conduction angles, as shown in Figure 2(a), the value of E can be obtained as a function of U (Figure 2(b)). The correct conduction angle which meets the static compensator control characteristic is the one corresponding to e = 0 on the curve. To determine this angle, the secant method is applied to the E - U

Recompute the TCR equivalent circuits with the newly obtained conduction angles and the TCR terminal voltage conditions.

Step 5 . Convergence check.

If the new Norton equivalent circuits are sufficiently close to the previous ones, the solution has converged. Otherwise, return to Step 2.

This conduction angle adjustment scheme is much simpler than the one developed in reference [4]. It does not require the estimation of network characteristics and resembles closely the actual voltage regulating process of the static compensator [l]. Other compensator configurations and control characteristics can be analyzed in a similar way. The only difference would be in the computation of the control error of Eq. (2).

~~

Ir L

7

3. CONVERGENCE PROPERTIES

0

To analyze the convergence property of the MHLF technique with static compensators, both the iteration process for the harmonic components and the adjustment of TCR conduction angles must be considered. In the iterative solution for harmonic components, no convergence difficulties have been experienced. This is partly due to the low pass filter effects of the TCR. Because of these effects, the harmonic voltage changes at the TCR terminal do not influence the equivalent harmonic currents significantly. Secondly, the network harmonic characteristic as a passive impedance and the T C R as a harmonic current source with a large impedance in parallel also improve the convergence performance. The iterative process for one particular harmonic is illustrated in Figure 3. It can also be seen from this figure that the convergence may be slowed down if a harmonic voltage resonance occurs (the network line becomes more steep). As for the solution at fundamental frequency, the Norton equivalent circuit can represent the TCR more accurately compared with a simpler current source representation. This also helps the convergence.

185

representations [5].The MHLF program converged without difficulty for this case. Both measured and computed waveforms are plotted in Figure 5. The simulated results agree well with the measured ones, if one considers the fact that the system data and the load flow conditions are only an approximation for the real operating conditions.

Figure 3: Iteration of harmonic component. The iteration for the conduction angle is simply a single variable problem when there is only one static compensator in the network. Generally, the correct conduction angle can easily be obtained by the secant method. The direct solution of the conduction angle from the E - U curve of Figure 2 avoids the convergence difficulties of the simpler approach of reference [4]. If there are more compensators in the network, the interactions among the conduction angles are reflected on the network line, which represents the equivalent network impedance seen from each compensator location. These interactions are not strong since the reactive power generated by one Compensator is not much iofluenced by the reactive power of a compensator somewhere else in the system. Consequently, the convergence performance of the E - U iteration is not significantly affected by the presence of other compensators. (a) compensator Y- side C phase current

"7:

t

4w

0.

za

SECONDS

n ZJ

To illustrate the performance and application of the MHLF program for power systems with static compensators, various cases were studied. Whenever possible, simulation results were compared with field test measurements.

4.1 Field Test Comuarisons

-------

MHLF simulation

4.2 Investigation of Non-characteristic Harmonics Under ideally balanced operating conditions, the triple order harmonics from the TCR's are filtered by the delta connection, and the 5th, 7th, 17th and 19th harmonics from the two secondary windings are cancelled by each other due to the wye-delta transformer connection. In practice, there always exists some degree of unbalance in the system. Consequently, these and other noncharacteristic harmonics will appear at the compensator bus.

To evaluate the penetration of these harmonics into the network, three typical unbalanced conditions were investigated for the compensatoF of Figure 4. In all these studies, an individual phase firing angle control scheme was assumed.

TransAlta Utilities Corporation has a static compensator installed near Calgary. This compensator consists of six TCR units as shown in Figure 4. Field test measurements were available for balanced operation [5] and used to compare against simulated results. The case with the capacitor banks disconnected at a condudion angle of 39.8" was chosen. The TransAlta Utilities Corporation system was modelled as a 21 bus network with three-phase 240kV NETWORK

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TCR

TSC

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filters fiiters

T T

TT T

iith i i t h 2 i r d

TSC

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TCR

To study the effects of voltage unbalances, it is assumed that the volt age at the compensator bus contains a negative sequence component, but that no harmonics are present in the voltage. The ratio of the negative to the positive sequence voltage ( v , / V p ) is used to define the degree of voltage unbalance. Only the magnitude of the ratio is important. The relative phase angle between positive and negative sequence voltages had no effect on the harmonic spectrum. Figure 6 illustrates the percentage of harmonic currents as a function of the voltage unbalance. This percentage is defined as the ratio of the harmonic current to the positive sequence fundamental frequency current component. A conduction angle of 120" was selected since it results in the largest 3rd harmonic generation of the TCR [I].

186

100

3rd Harmonic1

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W

loo

A: Positive Sequence

6 \ "

I E

io

A: Positive Sequence

5. E

3

0 1

0

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1

I""

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1 0

60

120

1 0

1 B: Negative Sequence

3 B: Negative Sequence

0.01 0

1

60

120

180

Figure 6: Harmonic current injection as a function of the compensator bus voltage unbalance.

Figure 7: Harmonic current injection as a function of conduction angle.

1. The non-characteristic harmonic injection is proportional to the terminal voltage unbalance. Both negative and positive sequence harmonic currents are present. These harmonics are insensitive to the'relative phase angle between the positive and negative sequence components of the fundamental frequency voltage.

2. The harmonic cancellation scheme of the three-winding transformer is still effective for the cancellation of the 5th and 7th harmonics. Further studies showed that this scheme also effectively cancels the negative sequence 3rd harmonic and the positive sequence 9th harmonic.

3. The percentage of 3rd harmonic injection is very high in the test case, because of a third harmonic current resonance in the coinpensator network. If the shunt capacitors are removed, the resonance disappears and the third harmonic injections become very small (approldmately 2%).

(2)

For a variety of reasons, it is not always possible to have identicd firing angles for all six TCR's in the compensator of Figure 4. Differences of 2" to 3" are generally regarded as acceptable. T o assess the impact of such firing angle asymmetry, it is assumed that only one TCR (phase A, delta side) has different conduction angles, changing from 115" to 125", while the other five TCR's have a fixed conduction angle of 120". The rest of the system is assumed to be balanced. Figure 8 demonstrates the effects of firirig angle asyminetry on the positive and negative sequence harmonic current injections.

(3) Effects of the TCR reactor unbalance

With the conduction angle changed from 0" to 180" and a voltage unbalance of 2%, the percentage of harmonic current injections is plotted in Figure 7. These figures confirm the previous observations and indicate that 120" is the worst case.

Another possible unbalance which cannot be complet,ely eliminated is the difference in the reactance values of the six TCR reactors. A manufacturing tolerance of 2% to 5% is typical. The impact of this unbalance is assessed by assuming that only one TCR reactance (Phase-A, delta side) is different between -5% to 595, while the other TCR reactances are identical. The rest of the system is balanced. The percentage magnitudes of the positive and negative sequence harmonic currents with respect to various

187

50

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100

A: Positive Sequence

A: Positive Sequence

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10

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0

Z

5

4

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115

120

125

-5

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9th Hormonic

7

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120

125

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Figure 8: Hannonic cutrent injection as a function of firing asymmetry. degrees of reactor unbalance are plotted in Figure 9. The results obtained with the firing angle asymmetry and TCR reactor unbalance suggest that: 1. Both asymmetrical conditions can result in noticeable noncharacteristic harmonic current injections. The harmonics caused by reactor unbalance are proportional to the degree of unbalance, while those by firing asymmetry are only approximately linear with respect to the degree of asymmetry. 2. The transformer connection is not very effective in cancelling the 5th and 7th harmonic currents caused by firing asymmetry. But this cancellation scheme is still useful in the case of reactor unbalance.

3. As expected, the third harmonic current resonance also appears in these cases. However, the positive and negative sequence components are of the same order in both unbalance conditions. This is caused by the unsuccessful cancellation of the negative sequence third harmonic current.

Figure 9 Harmonic current injection as a function of TCR reactor unbalance. 4.3 Harmonic Load Flow Solutions In practice, it is likely that several unbalanced conditions occur at the same time. The MBLF program is well suited for such studies, because it allows the modelling of various unbalance conditions, together with static compensator control characteristics. Such studies were made with the following examples: 1. The 21 bus TransAlta Utilities Corporation system with one static compensator [5].

2. A 9 bus system, which is a reduced equivalent circuit of the above system. The I l t h , 13th and 23rd harmonic filters were removed in this case.

3. A modified IEEE 14 bus (three-phase) test system [ 6 ] ,with two static compensators. Each compensator is assumed to have one two-winding transformer with one TCR set. There are no filters present in this case.

In all non-characteristic harmonic tests, there are no zero sequence harmonic currents in the 20kV and 240kV buses because of the TCR delta connection.

In these studies, a l l systems are represented in three-phase form. The unbalances are caused by transmission lines, loads, equivalent source voltages and TCR reactances. The TCR conduction angles are adjusted by the program t o satisfy the control characteristics. Solutions were obtained up to the 15th harmonic.

188

(1) Voltage harmonic spectrum. The harmonic voltage spectra at the compensator bus are shown in Figure 10. Figure 11 shows the harmonic spectra of the bus voltage where the TCR's are connected. The results are presented in the form of symmetrical components, in percent of the fundamental frequency positive sequence voltage. Note that a non-characteristic 3rd harmonic voltage is observable at the compensator bus for all test systems, with magnitudes larger than those of the characteristic harmonics. The 5th and 7th harmonic voltage are nearly zero at the compensator bus for the first two examples due to the transformer harmonic cancellation scheme. The 11th and 13th harmonics are present in the second system, because there are no filters to alleviate them. For the last system, more apparent harmonic distortions are observed due to the absence of filters and harmonic cancellations. All test results indicate that the positive and negative sequence harmonic voltages are nearlyof the same order of magnitude, even though the fundamental frequency component of the compensator bus voltage has only about 1%unbalance.

(2) Current harmonic spectrum. The harmonic current injections into the network at the compensator bus are shown in Figure 12 as positive, negative and zero sequence values in percent based on lOOMVA and rated voltage 240kV. The current distortion is found to be larger than that of the voltage. Similar observations have been reported in field measurements. Again, there is a significant amount of non-characteristic harmonic current injections. For all test cases, the harmonic currents are severely unbalanced, with the same order of magnitude in the positive and negative sequence Components.

2.0

Y

5.0-

Legend

E POS. SEOUENCE NEG. SEQUENCE I D ZERO SEPUENCE

91.0

2

h

=0.0

5.0

HARMONIC ORDER

s

COMPENSATOR-1

5.0

HARMONIC ORDER

COMPENSATOR-2

2.5

s =

1

HARMONIC ORDER

0.0

HARMONIC -ORDER

HARMONIC ORDER

HARMONIC ORDER

l l the Convergence of the MHLF technique was excellent for a test cases. Less than 10 iterations were needed to obtain solutions with an accuracy of lo-' p.u. The results are summarized in Table 1, along with the total computer CPU time on a VAX-11/750.

COMPENSATOR-2

HARMONIC ORDER

HARMONIC ORDER

Table 1: Convergence behaviour of the MHLF technique. system-1 system-2 system-3 maximum update of the TCR equivalent current sources 0.52253 0.64732 0.06643 0.26561 0.01906 0.01850 0.00527 0.00637 0.04164 0.00016 0.01893 0.01231 0.00001 0.00251 0.00506 0.00098 0.00147 0.00027 0.00026 0.00012 0.00011 0.00006 0.00001 30.8.42 96.69 265.79

3

Y

s

SYSTEM-1

Legend

POS. SEOUENCE E 2 NEG. SEOUENCE ZERO SEOUENCE

U2

ea

51

S O

SYSTEMQ

A

1 5 9 1 3

13

HARMONIC ORDER

HARMONIC ORDER

,

CPU(s)

HARMONIC ORDER

HARMONIC ORDER

For these test cases, the TCR conduction angles were automatically adjusted by the program. The convergence characteristics of the adjustment process are plotted in Figure 13. The conduction angles converge to the final value in only five iterations. Examination of Table 1 and Figure 13 suggests that the conduction angles converge first. Once the correct conduction angles are obtained, the harmonic iterative process converges in about 3

189

1801

Calgary, Alberta and to B.C. Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, B.C. for providing the data of the test systems and the field measurements. 7. REFERENCES

[SYSTEM-3 COMPENSATOR-2 /

1001 I

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~

____ ........

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

_..-I

I

I

W. Xu, J.R. Marti and H.W. Dommel A Multiphase Harmonic Load Flow Solution Technique, Paper submitted for IEEE PES Winter Meeting 1990.

D.M. Young and R.T. Gregory, A Survey of Numerical Mathematics, vol. I, Reading, Massachusetts: AddisonWesley Publishing Company, 1972.

b

0

4 6 NUMBER OF ITERATIONS

t,o 5 iterations. An initial conduction angle of 150 was selected in

W. Xu and H.W. Dommel Computation of Steady-State Harmonics of Static Var Compensators, Proc. of the Third International Conference on Harmonics in Power Systems, Nashville, IN, Oct. 1988, pp. 239-245.

Substation Standards and Performance, TransAlta Utilities Corporation, Part I - Data Related to the 240kV Southern Alberta Transmission Network and Langdon Substation, Part I1 - Results of Field Measurements of Steady-State Voltage and Current Harmonics for Various SVC Operating Conditions, Internal Report, TransAlta Utilities Corp., Feb. 1986. L.L. Freris and A.M. Sasson, Investigation of the Load Flow Problem, Pruc. IEE, vol. 115, pp.1459-1470, Oct. 1968.

all examples. To speed up the iteration, it is possible to compute an approximate conduction angle from the fundamental frequency component only in an initialization run. This angle could then be used as an initial guess for the harmonic load flow solutions.

5 . CONCLUSIONS

A niultiphase harmonic load flow (MHLF) technique has been developed and used to analyze the unbalanced harmonic load flows caused by static compensators. The control characteristics are included in the MHLF solution with an efficient conduction angle adjustment scheme, which is very general and simple. It can be used for other nonlinear elements and other control characteristics as well. The MHLF technique has been tested with a number of static compensator test cases. Good convergence behaviour was observed in all cases. The major observations from the case studies can be summarized as follows: 1. Both the simulation results and the measurements show that there are significant harmonic distortions inside the compensator system. The non-characteristic harmonics caused by unbalanced operation are also significant in some cases.

2. The non-characteristic harmonic current injections are generally proportional to the degree of unbalance in the conipensator bus voltage, TCR reactances, and firing angles.

a B.Eng. degree from Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, China in 1982 and a M.Sc. degree from the University of Saskatchewan,

Saskatoon, Canada in 1985. At present, he is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of British Columbia.

Jose R. Marti (M71) was born in Spain in 1948. He received a M.E. degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1974 and a Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of British Columbia in 1981. From 1970 to 1972 he worked for industry. In 1974-77 and 1981-84 he taught power system analysis at Central University of Venezuela. Since 1984 he has been with the University of British Columbia.

3. The ha.rmonic components are more sensitive to unbalanced conditions than the fundamental frequency components.

4. The waveform distortions in the network are low in properly designed static compensator systems. In particular, the harmonic cancellation scheme with a three-winding transformer connection is quite effective in most unbalanced cases.

Hermann W. Dommel was born in Germany in 1933. He received the Dip1.-Ing. and Dr.-Ing. degrees in electrical engineering from the Technical University, Munich, Germany, in 1959 and 1962 respectively. From 1959 to 1966 he was with the Technical University, Munich, and from 1966 to 1973 with Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. Since July 1973 he has been with the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Dr. Dommel is a Fellow of IEEE and a registered professional engineer in British Columbia, Canada.

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The financial assistance of the System Engineering Division

of B.C. Hydro and Power Authority is gratefully acknowledged.

190

DISCUSSION G.P. CHRISTOFORIDIS, A . P . MELIOPOULOS, Georgia Institute of Technology. The paper presents the

inclusion of the control model of a Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) in the multiphase load f l o w (MHLF). The MHLF is described in a companion paper. The proposed method of inclusion of the control model is based on iterating between an MHLF solution and the computation of a control error until a specified constraint (desired fundamental frequency voltage at compensator bus) is satisfied. It appears to us that the solution method may be unnecessarily inefficient. The alternative would be to include the voltage constraint in' the fundamental frequency load flow constraints. In this case, the efficiency of the overall solution could be improved. The authors comments would be appreciated. Manuscript received February 22, 1990.

tion which may be used in many situations. One possible a p plication which has not been thoroughly researched, because of the lack of adequate software, is to restore geometrical balance in addition to providing voltage support. This is achieved by operating TCRs in an unbalanced manner. The multiphase harmonic load flow presented by the authors seems entirely suitable for analysing the extra burden imposed by some amount of triplen harmonic currents e s c a p ing the TCR delta connection. Have the authors investigated this problem? If so, have any of the networks required additional filtering equipment? The authors' reply would be most appreciated.

Manuscript received February 20, 1990.

authors are to be commended for this well prepared paper and for furthering the modelling of power system harmonics. The pioneering work of Heydt et a1 has been extended to the more realistic, phase frame of reference, where network imbalances can be represented. The new TCR model presented by the authors in a companion paper has also been included and applied to actual calculations. Equally important is the comparison of measured and simulated results. Static compensation presents an attractive means of alleviating a wide range of problems encountered in modern power systems. It provides an adaptable form of compensa-

Wenyuan Xu, Jose Marti, and Hermann W. Dommel: The authors would like to thank Dr. Acha and Drs. Christoforidis and Meliopoulos for their interest in the paper and pertinent comments. D r .Acha suggests a very interesting application of static compensators to restore geometric balance in a multiphase system, in addition to providing voltage compensation. The developed MHLF program provides an effective tool for studying thi5 possibility. Another problem of practical importance, as noted by Dr. Acha, is the effect of third harmonic currents leaking out from delta-connected TCR's. The MHLF program is also suitable for the analysis of this situation. Unfortunately, we have not yet had the opportunity to perform this type of studies. Regarding Dr. Christoforidis and Professor Meliopoulos question, we are not aware of possible limitations on the modeling of nonlinear devices as harmonic Norton equivalent circuits. In the worst case, one could always represent the nonlinear device as a voltage dependent harmonic current source (Norton equivalent circuit with infinite impedance). This current source could be determined, for example, by a time-domain simulations with given distorted terminal voltage conditions. We have not yet included in our program models for three-phase converter bridges. The modeling of this important equipment is currently under investigation.

Manuscript received April 12, 1990.

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