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Getting Started w/Social Media

Table Of Contents
Cultivation Theory Diffusion of Innovation Theory Marshall McLuhan - Tetrads Media Convergence Theory Niche Theory Uses & Gratification Theory

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Current Trends
Corporate Storytelling Crowdsourcing Gamification Geolocation Memes Quick Response (QR) Codes The Sharing Economy

Digital Design Tools & Social Media Management

Audio/Visual tools Dashboards & Tracking Social Media Time Management

Cross Cultural Design Social Media Interactivity Non-North American Social Media

Privacy, Laws, Copyright & Policy

Censorship Borders & Cloud Technology Copyright & Fair Use Data Collection & Use Privacy

Credits & Contact Info

Cultivation Theory Diffusion of Innovation Theory Impression Management Marshall McLuhan - Tetrads Media Convergence Theory Niche Theory Uses & Gratification Theory

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Cultivation Theory
"Cultivation theorists assert that heavy television use
often leads to an inability to distinguish the reality of television from objective reality." A social theory of long term effects of television Cultivation leaves people with a misperception of what is true in our world

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During cultural adaptation, the use of social networking sites affects immigrants interactions with the dominant cultures. Cultivation in a social media context is used as a tool!

Founded by: George Gerbner and Larry Gross

Research shows heavy television viewers are more likely to provide television answers to questions related to social reality and therefore are cultivated".

Online ethnic support groups help reduce negative emotions such as depression, stress and loneliness.

Increases in vulnerability result in increases in social media use Social Media helps aid in the adaptation process and maintain ties with homelands

Diffusion of Innovation
...the rate in which new technology or social ideas spread through society (Rogers, 1962). Diffusion - the spread of cultural elements from one area or group of people to others by contact Innovation - a new idea, device, or method - the act or process of introducing new ideas, devices, or methods When examining Diffusion of Innovation keep the following 3 thoughts in mind: What qualities does an innovation possess that helps it spread? Emphasis and importance of peer to peer conversation and networks Acknowledge and appreciate user differences

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The Diffusion of Innovation theory has the following 5 categories of adopters:

For more information on this topic visit Practically Speaking

Keywords: Diffusion, social media, analytics, marketing, innovation

Marshall McLuhan - Tetrads

Promotes people to become critical thinkers of social media and technology by asking these four questions. 4 Parts: 1) Enhancement - How does this device positively benefit my and societys life on a daily basis? 2) Retrieval - How can this device recover things that were once valuable to me? 3) Obsolescence - What technologies does this new one render obsolete? 4) Reversal - What problems will people or society face from this new device? Using The Tetrad allows us to think about how we use modern social media while paying attention to what might be lost from newly outmoded methods of communicating, such as phone calls or letter writing.

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McLuhans Tetrad

Ease of connecting people from long distances

Could weaken peoples face to face social skills


Postal system or landline phones become obsolete

Establish connections with people from the past

Keywords: Marshall McLuhan, tetrads, critical thinking

Media Convergence Theory

Traditional media was received from one source such as a television or a newspaper. Transmitted by companies that specialized in the one media type. Social media has turned media into a twoway conversation between providers and consumers. Consumers use social media to interact with the providers and fellow consumers. Media providers can provide new forms of content because of technology.

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Media convergence is the amalgamation of communications, technology, and digital data. Media convergence theory has been created by the advancement in technology, computer networking, and the shift to from analog to digital telecommunications. Media convergence enables nonprofit and social enterprises the to use several social media tools, to develop a relationship with supporters and consumers.

Today, large corporations have consolidated many companies of specialized media formats into one corporation.

For example, viewers can interact with a shows outcome by having sending comments or vote on an outcome.

Organizations utilize social media tools to become media providers and communicate their message. They are not limited to expensive advertising campaigns in traditional media.

Keywords: Media convergence, convergence culture, social media, digital media

Social Media Niche Theory

What is the niche theory? The theory focuses on groups with particular characteristics that make them relate. How does a niche theory apply to social media? 1) An individual or organization (interpersonal media) selects a particular audience 2) Once the audience is determined, they evaluate which niche best suits their organizations desires 3) Each social media platform can correlate with particular audiences/groups so a platform can be chosen in respect to the particular niche they represent 4) A social media plan can be made in concordance with those chosen platforms Examples of niches correlating with platforms: LinkedIn: Facebook: Twitter: Business niche, primarily a 18+ age group Personal basis, all age groups Personal/Business basis, all age groups, focus on advertisements
Keywords: Niche, audience, selected groups, interpersonal media

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Video Explanation

Uses & Gratification Theory

Uses and Gratification Theory Developed in 1944 expanded through 1974 Audience based analysis How does mass communication satisfy specific needs and affect the audience? Assumes people are not passive in their consumption of information via media Interaction via commenting/sharing Media services compete for viewer gratification Teens switching from Facebook to Instagram/Twitter Targeting a specific audience with social media can be very effective, if you know which U&G they are interested and attracted too. Formalizing this, the authors have identified 10 key areas that at their core attract consumers to social media.

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Click here to read more about the significance of UGT when applied to social media

Keywords: Uses and gratification, information consumption

Cross Cultural Design Social Media Interactivity Non-North American Social Media

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Cross Cultural Design

Here is an example of McDonalds applying cross cultural design to their Facebook pages: Notice the differences in style, color and imagery

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Cross cultural design is a marketing tactic used by companies to sell a desired image to the consumer via their website or social media outlet. Everyone receives messages differently which is why companies have begun to make changes to their marketing strategies based on cultural perceptions and preferences. Here is an example of Ford applying cross cultural design to their Facebook pages:

Canadian McDonalds

Indian McDonalds

Keys to cross cultural design: Know your product Know your audience Conduct user testing Watch out for distracting images

Canadian Ford

UK Ford Check out the video for more!

Key Words: Cross cultural, cultural perceptions, marketing strategies, social media marketing

Social Media Interactivity

Social media has allowed companies and consumers to interact like never before. Online social media platforms allow for interaction 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Companies primarily use social media to interact in 3 ways: Advertising (product announcements, sales and discounts, contests or promotions etc.) Marketing (promote buzz and reward customers etc.) Customer service Consumers interact with companies on social media to: Network & build relationships Glean rewards Inquire about services and products Express dissatisfaction Businesses that can adapt take advantage of social media as a part of their public relations strategy can set themselves apart from their competition. Consumers are becoming increasingly accustomed to a higher level of service - to the point of expecting it. LinkedIn offers a unique take on interactivity on social media, allowing for businesses to connect with other businesses. For more information, watch my YouTube presentation.
Keywords: Interactivity, companies, consumers, networking

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Non-N. American Social Media

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Likely all the websites that you visit are in English, but there many different foreign sites that you dont know about. Q-Zone is a Chinese Social Networking site, it features 623 million users (November 2013) and 150 million regular users. Making it possibly the largest Social Media Community in the world. VKontakte(VK) is a large European Social Media network, featuring 239 million users (January 2014). Its particularly popular with Russian-speaking users from many different countries, not just Russia. Users in Eastern Asian countries such as China, Japan, and South Korea have a strong interest in online games and so their Social Media platforms reflect this, focusing on Virtual Reality communities rather than text and picture sharing. Users in other countries, like India, use Social Media for Online Dating and Matchmaking, meaning they are more interested in meeting new people rather than keeping up with their regular friends The most important thing to remember when expanding a business or trying to target a specific demographic is that they may use a different platform and will not see your advertisements on Facebook or other English social media platforms

Current Trends
Corporate Storytelling Crowdsourcing Gamification Geolocation Memes Quick Response (QR) Codes The Sharing Economy

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Corporate Storytelling
Corporate storytelling conveys the culture of the company, captures the heart of the organization, and highlights products just to name a few benefits of this tried and true classic method. In her blog How to Use Digital Storytelling as your Social Media Secret Sauce author Shanna Mallon shares five key points: Show the human side Share your brands story Work narratives into updates Consecutive posts tell a broader story Use elements of storytelling Screenwriting coach Robert McKee, in Storytelling That Moves People, explains two persuasive methods: rhetoric and emotion.While rhetoric engages the brain, it leaves the heart untouched. The most powerful method of persuasion is emotion.

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Corporate storytelling must be authentic, including the grittiness of real life struggle. For storytelling principles refer to Storytelling That Moves People. Some topics that McKee discusses are: Compassion Skepticism Acknowledging the dark side Authenticity Key questions

Keywords: Corporate storytelling, McKee, digital storytelling

Crowd-Outsourcing (Howe, Wired Magazine, 2006) Crowd: experts, amateurs, volunteers, groups, etc. Benefits to initiator: low-cost, diversity of thought, accomplish goal/solve problem, raise funds Benefits to crowd: social contact, intellectual stimulation, passing time, give back to society, recognition, personal satisfaction in assisting good ideas to come to market, special benefits such as early access/discounts to new technology Examples: new technology, community planning, data gathering, information evaluation, find lost item/person/pet, fund charity/projects Problems: no contact between crowd & client resulting in unworkable solutions, participants skewed to low income/unemployed, unethical wage conditions especially in developing countries

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Image by Dbrabham (Own work)

Want to participate? Check here. Need more information? Check here.

Keywords: Crowd, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, cloud labor, distributed knowledge, crowd creativity

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Application of game design techniques to nongame experiences. Took off as a trend in 2010. Most commonly used in Singapore. Taking off in North America. Used for both educational and marketing purposes. Primary goal is to drive participation in users.

Examples: Facebook games generate traffic. Message boards have ranking systems. Badges encourage time investments. Leaderboards allow users to compete. Progress bars motivate users to submit content. Reward systems encourage microtransaction.

Educational Awareness

Marketing Awareness

Class Presentation
Keywords: Gamification, games, Facebook, leaderboards, reward systems

Penny Arcade TV

What is geolocation? When a location can be found through ways such as your IP address, your wireless network connection, which cell tower your phone is connected to, and by means of any device you have that may contain GPS hardware. Search 'where am I' on Google, and you will see your approximate location appear right in front of you. On social media People use geolocation everyday on Facebook, Twitter, and especially Foursquare when location services are switched ON. Location information tagged with images you post is known as a geotag. For profit SoLoMo is the new buzzword for marketers. Social, locationbased, and mobile marketing are all being transformed into one to acquire new customers.

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Businesses rely on geolocation to find and attract local customers.

HootSuite allows businesses to make geo-located searches. The search is filtered by distance and only social messages from potential customers that are nearby are shown. More information Video 3 Must-Have Geolocation Apps

Keywords: Geolocation, Foursquare, location services, SoLoMo


A unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols, or practices that can be

transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals, or other imitable phenomenathey self-replicate, mutate, and respond to selective pressures. ~ Gordon Graham (2002)

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Internet Memes: Do not involve random change and mutation over time like original idea of memes Deliberately altered by human creativity Quick to spread Can be unpredictable and volatile, lasting for years if popular, or only a month if not Can be used to pull attention to social media site if used when a particular Internet meme is popular Demonstrates that the group/individual is current with Internet trends

Ideas (eg. touch-screen phones) Melodies (eg. opening notes of Beethoven's 5th) Images (eg. the Mona Lisa and parodies) Catchphrases (eg. Ill be back. ~Terminator) Does not include physical objects Liable to mutate and evolve Changes arise from: Human error Refining existing memes Combinations to make new memes eg. chain letters Endurance of memes through evolution is similar to natural selection of genes


Keywords: Meme, Internet meme, trends, creativity, evolution

Quick Response (QR) Codes

Two-dimensional (horizontal/vertical) Uses 4 types of code Developed for Japans auto industry Link physical objects to electronic information Used for:

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Top 30 Code Uses by Ekatarina Walter (January 2013)

Keywords: Quick response code, QR code, Ekatarina Walter

Product tracking Item identification Document management Tourism information Product loyalty marketing Product labelling Business cards Secret messages Headstone memorials Treasure Hunt Games

The Sharing Economy

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Economic system built around the sharing of human and physical assets Enables distribution, sharing and reuse of excess capacity in goods and services

Collaborative Consumption: Share access rather than having individual ownership of products (purchase/maintain goods collectively) Mesh Economy: Sharing of talents, goods and services to reduce waste. Benefits: Reduce carbon footprint, save costs, increase feelings of well-being Issues: Gain profit without contributing to infrastructure of the economy, reliance on trust/human good will Sharing is the new buying (Owyang, 2014)

Keywords: Sharing Economy, collaborative consumption, mesh economy

Privacy, Laws, Copyright

Censorship Cloud Technology Across Borders Copyright & Fair Use Data Collection & Use Privacy

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Censorship is the control of information and ideas before it reaches the public by high authority, mainly governments. The information can be published in different forms, whether digital (electronics and internet) or hard copies of documents (books and videos).

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Types of Censorship: Internet Films Books Talk & Speech Media

Canadian regulations give a list of what things must be censored, and each country has different rules and regulations about their censorship policies. People selfcensor all the time; such restraint can be part of the price of rational dialogue.

The Internet is the biggest area that most of governments are concern about and they have developed many techniques and tools to control it. Arab springs played an important role in the Internet and was a powerful tool that allowed people to freely express their thoughts.

Keywords: Censorship, control, Arab spring, SOPA, freedom of speech

Borders & Cloud Technology

The term "cloud computing", coined by Larry Ellison, simply means storing and accessing data and programs over the Internet instead of your computer's hard drive Benefits of Using the Cloud Access your work in a country across the world

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Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FIPPA). This law governs records and publications from most public bodies in Canada and maintains the security of accessing them. Limitations of the Cloud Security of the cloud Technical issues (ex: no WiFi)

Almost unlimited storage capacity

Lower your company's IT expense. Traditional desktop software costs companies more financially

Prone to attack

Keywords: Cloud computing, the Cloud, FIPPA

Copyright & Fair Use

What is Copyright? It is a legal concept that grants the creator of an original work the rights to: Reproduce Display in public Create derivatives based on original work Distribute, sell, and rent

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Social Media Users & Fair Use Fair use is a doctrine that permits limited use of copyrighted material for specific reasons without acquiring permission from the rights holders. Question To ask when Using Fair Use Do you understand Canadian fair use? If not, do not try to use it Why are you using the content? Use only for reasons in the Canadian Copyright Act How much of the content are you using? Does it fit the limited criteria of fair use? Are you willing to have your content contested? Posting under fair use could lead to legal battles

How do copyrights work on social media? Social media sites all have you agree to their terms of service which share these common elements: Non-exclusive Transferrable Sublicensable Royalty Free Worldwide License

Keywords: Copyright, fair use, royalties, original works

Data Collection & Use

Data Collection: If you have any kind of social media profile you are already collecting information about your audience. You may want to be more strategic about how you analyse and use that information. Here are some of the traditional ways data is collected: o Surveys & Questionnaires o Administrative data o Interviews o Focus Groups o Observation o Case Study Data collection in social media All social media websites require some information about users when they sign up. Nevertheless, they continue to collect data from users during their use of their websites in order to improve the services they provide and offer users with ads of their interest.
Keywords: Data collection, quantitative, qualitative, data

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Definition of Privacy: Alan Westin, author of the seminal 1967 work (Privacy and Freedom) defined privacy as The desire of people to choose freely under what circumstances and to what extent they will expose themselves, their attitude and their behavior to others. With this information, you can find out:

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Personal networks: Relationships between people Interests: What people like Financial networks: Where people work Location: Through geo-location

Who wants to use your private information? Governments Surveillance Businesses Targeted advertising Attackers Identity theft Researchers Medical, behavioral, and social

Do we care about our online privacy? According to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) survey, 92% internet users are concerned about the misuse of their personal information online.

Privacy in Social Media:

Exposing Sensitive Information Online: Sometimes we are unaware of how much we expose sensitive information about ourselves. Our online activities leave data trails which can contain information about who we are. Examples of this are pictures, comments, tweets, Likes, etc.

Keywords: Online privacy, social media privacy, privacy tips, targeted advertising

Social Media Tools & Management

Audio/Visual Tools Dashboards & Tracking Social Media Time Management

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Audio/Visual Tools
Here are a list of tools that will enhance your content on social media platforms: Visual Tools: PicMonkey Image Editor Social Image Resizer Tool Cropping Tool Canva Design Software Canva Overview Video

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Audio Tools: SoundCloud Audio Distribution YouTube Audio/Video Distribution

Keywords: Audio, visual, creativity, PicMonkey, Social Image Resizer, Canva, SoundCloud, YouTube

Using Dashboards/Tracking

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Social media is growing rapidly due to the sophistication of technology. We now have a multitude of social media websites to choose from such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube and Tumblr. The sheer number of sites can make it very hard to keep up with all these social networks, especially for individuals or small businesses. Dashboards like HootSuite, Cyfe, and Sprout Social are examples of the many dashboards available to use to help keep track of updates on social media sites.
Keywords: Dashboards, social media tracking

Time Management
Time Management: the ability to use ones time effectively or productively, especially at work 4 social media time management tips Create a plane: focus on one or two platforms Use automation tools: schedule your posts or tweets Be consistent: post at least once a day Use a timer: set 30 minute limitations per day

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Social media time management tips for nonprofits Set goals: find out what is your intention to use social media as a venue Prioritize your work: do the important thing first, less important work later Use tools: use tools to organize your content Track your social media analytics: these numbers will help you to measure your success in reaching your goal. You will find out which platforms work best for you by looking at these numbers Delegate responsibility: spread out your work Know when to say no: weed out the less effective tools Plan ahead: take time at end of each day to outline what steps you need to take more forward

Terminology Promodoro technique: a popular time management method. In this method you have to finish a specific task within 25 minutes. Once finished, you can take a five minute break. After you finish four 25 minute tasks, then you can take a longer break.

80/20 Rule: 80% of your results come from 20% Keywords: Time management for social media, time management for nonprofits, NPECH, of your work

Project Developed by
Saleh Alanazi Mohammed Aldubaykil Aous Mohammed Almegrin Russell Arbuthnot Josh Brown Dan Delowsky Timo Francke Jon Friesen Mike Gill Davis Krell

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CMNS 316: Communicating for Social Media

Nuria Li Lindsay Lindholm Eric Meerstra Rowena Nichols Bernard Ofosu-Anim Jordain Perreault-Joyce Beth Scholes Sandy Sekhon Sophie Smith Julianna Yap
April 2014

Instructor: Marcella LaFever, Ph.D.;; @MLaFeverPhD