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By the end of the session, participants will be able to: Determine the steps for selection of PPE Identify the suitable PPE
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Protecting Employees from Workplace Hazards

Employers must protect employees from workplace hazards such as machines, hazardous substances, and dangerous work procedures that can cause injury Employers must:

Use all feasible engineering and work practice controls to eliminate and reduce hazards Then use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) if these controls do not eliminate the hazards.
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Remember, PPE is the last level of Copyright@NIOSH 2009 control!

USE OF APPROVED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (REG.16) When Impracticable application of other control measures As an interim measure Complementary to other control measures

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Engineering Controls (contd)

Examples . . .

Initial design specifications Substitute less harmful material Change process Enclose process Isolate process Ventilation
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Work Practice Controls (contd)

Examples . . .

Use of wet methods to suppress dust Personal hygiene Housekeeping and maintenance Job rotation of workers

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Duties of employer: Establishment of issuance, maintenance, inspection and training procedures Implementation of the procedures

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Examples of PPE

Eye - safety glasses, goggles Face - face shields Head - hard hats Feet - safety shoes Hands and arms - gloves Bodies - vests Hearing - earplugs, earmuffs

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Approved PPE must be: Suitable Fit the employees Sufficient supply Readily available Does not adversely effect health
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Establishing a PPE Program

Sets out procedures for selecting, providing and using PPE as part of an employers routine operation First -- assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of PPE Once the proper PPE has been selected, the employer must provide training to each employee who is required to use PPE
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Employees required to use PPE must be trained to know at least the following: When PPE is necessary What type of PPE is necessary How to properly put on, take off, adjust, and wear Limitations of the PPE Proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal

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What are some of the causes of eye injuries?

Dust and other flying particles, such as metal shavings or sawdust Molten metal that might splash Acids and other caustic liquid chemicals that might splash Blood and other potentially infectious body fluids that might splash, spray, or splatter Intense light such as that created by welding and lasers
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Selection Criteria Match the protective device to the hazard Fitting eye protection Performance specification

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Safety Spectacles

Most widely used type of eye protection Made with metal/plastic safety frames stronger and more resistant to impact and heat Most operations require side shields Available both prescription and nonprescription Wide variety of lens coatings for special work situations.

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More protection than safety glasses More protection in situations when encounter splashing liquids, fumes, vapors, powders, dusts, and mists Protect eyes, eye sockets, and the facial area immediately surrounding the eyes from impact, dust, and splashes Some goggles fit over corrective lenses

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Face Shields

Protect the face from nuisance dusts and potential splashes or sprays of hazardous liquids Often used around operations which expose to molten metal, chemical splashes, or flying particles Face shields alone are NOT considered adequate eye protection. Wear safety glasses or goggles for added protection. Do not protect employees from impact hazards Can be used while wearing a hard hat.
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Welding Shields
Protect eyes from burns caused by infrared or intense radiant light, and protect face and eyes from flying sparks, metal spatter, and slag chips produced during welding, brazing, soldering, and cutting.

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Laser Safety Goggles

Protect eyes from intense concentrations of light produced by lasers.

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Contact Lenses

Do not wear while using a full face respirator. Wear with caution in areas where there exposed to fumes, dusts, powders, vapors, chemical splashes, molten metals, or intense heat, light or glare. Some chemicals can react with contacts and cause permanent injury.
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Head Protection

How much force can the helmet stand ??

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What are some of the causes of head injuries?

Falling objects Bumping head against fixed objects, such as exposed pipes or beams Contact with exposed electrical conductors

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Classes of Hard Hats

Class A General service (e.g., mining, building construction, shipbuilding, lumbering, and manufacturing) Good impact protection but limited voltage protection Class B Electrical work Protect against falling objects and high-voltage shock and burns Class C Designed for comfort, offer limited protection Protects heads that may bump against fixed objects, but do not protect against falling objects or electrical shock
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Hearing Protection

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Examples of Hearing Protectors

Earmuffs Earplugs Canal Caps

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Foot Protection

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What are some of the causes of foot injuries?

Heavy objects such as barrels or tools that might roll onto or fall on employees feet Sharp objects such as nails or spikes that might pierce the soles or uppers of ordinary shoes Molten metal that might splash on feet Hot or wet surfaces Slippery surfaces

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Safety Shoes

Have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles that protect against hot surfaces common in roofing, paving, and hot metal industries Some have metal insoles to protect against puncture wounds May be designed to be electrically conductive for use in explosive atmospheres, or nonconductive to protect from workplace electrical hazards

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Metatarsal Guards
A part of the shoes or strapped to the outside of shoes to protect the instep from impact and compression.

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Hand Protection

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What are some of the hand injuries you need to guard against?

Burns Bruises Abrasions Cuts Punctures Fractures Amputations Chemical Exposures

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Types of Gloves
Norfoil laminate resists permeation and breakthrough by an array of toxic/hazardous chemicals.

Butyl provides the highest permeation resistance to gas or water vapors; frequently used for ketones (M.E.K., Acetone) and esters (Amyl Acetate, Ethyl Acetate).
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Types of Gloves (contd)

Viton is highly resistant to permeation by chlorinated and aromatic solvents.

Nitrile provides protection against a wide variety of solvents, harsh chemicals, fats and petroleum products and also provides excellent resistance to cuts, snags, punctures and abrasions.
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Types of Gloves (contd)

Kevlar protects against cuts,
slashes, and abrasion.

Stainless steel mesh protects

against cuts and lacerations.

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Body Protection

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What are some of the causes of body injuries?

Intense heat Splashes of hot metals and other hot liquids Impacts from tools, machinery, and materials Cuts Hazardous chemicals Contact with potentially infectious materials, like blood Radiation
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Body Protection
Cooling Vest Sleeves and Apron

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Body Protection
Coveralls Full Body Suit

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Types of Chemical Protective Clothing

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Levels of Protection

Level A Encapsulating suit, SCBA Level B Chemical protective suit, SCBA Level C Chemical protective suit, negative pressure respirator Level D Regular Work Clothes
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Encapsulating suit, SCBA

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Chemical protective suit, SCBA

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Chemical protective suit, negative pressure respirator

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Ways of exposure

Penetration Process by which chemical moves through holes or essential openings Permeation Process by which chemical moves through protective material on a molecular level Degradation negative change in one or more physical properties of a protective material caused by contact with a chemical Direct deposition 44 / 87 Copyright@NIOSH 2009


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SELECTION CRITERIA Chemical state and properties Environmental conditions Resistance to physical stress Contact location Design and construction
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Latex disposable gloves are used to protect hands from germs and bacteria
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Vinyl and neoprene gloves protect hands against toxic chemicals

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Other Protective Measures

Water Repellent Creams - to protect hands from caustic chemicals Solvent-Repellent Creams - to protect hands from solvents, oils, and other organic chemicals Sunscreens- protect skin from the damaging effects of the sun. Vanishing Creams- protect skin against mild acids, and make cleaning up easier WARNING: Never substitute a barrier cream when gloves can be used
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Butyl footwear protects against most ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, acids, salts, and alkalies.
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PVC footwear protects feet against moisture and improves traction

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Vinyl footwear resists solvents, acids, alkalies, salts, water, grease, and blood.
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Nitrile footwear resists animal fats, oils, and chemicals. Copyright@NIOSH 2009

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Latex/Rubber footwear resists chemicals and provides extra traction on slippery surfaces.
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Respiratory Hazards

IDLH environments Gas and vapor contaminants Oxygen deficiency Non-IDLH environments Gas and vapor contaminants Particulate contaminant
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IDLH Concentrations

Established to ensure that a worker can escape from a given contaminated environment in the event of a failure of the respiratory protection equipment Concentration above which may be fatal or Worker cannot escape without permanent health damage IDLH values published by NIOSH and ACGIH
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Problems with the use of respirators

obtaining adequate fit may be difficult respirator may interfere with communication. respirator may interfere with line of sight and wear of glasses. respirator wear may increase fatigue, workers may tire more easily. some workers may not wear respirators for medical reasons.

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When Are Respirators Used?

While other controls are being installed or implemented During maintenance or repair When other controls are not feasible. During emergencies

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Selection Factors
Workplace hazards Physical characteristics of the work area Physical demands of the work Respirator capabilities and limitations

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Types of Respirators

Air Purifying Tight fitting mouth bit half/full face Loose fitting hood helmet suit

Air Supplying

Airline Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Combination

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Air-Purifying Respirators

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Tight Fitting Covering

Quarter Mask

Half Mask

Full Face

Mouthpiece /Nose Clamp

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Loose Fitting Covering

Full Body Suit Helmet


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Air-Purifying Respirators

APRs CANNOT be used in : oxygen-deficient atmosphere <19.5% O2 IDLH atmosphere above maximum use concentration no approved cartridges

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Air-Purifying Respirators
Filtering Facepiece

dust mask Particulate Filter ChemicalCartridge/Canister Combination

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Particulate Filter Classes

Aerosol Type DOP Minimum NaCl DOP il Efficiency Non-Oil (1 sO O i l hift use) 95.00% 99.00% 99.97% N95 N99 N100 R9 5 R9 9 R100 P 95 P 99 P 100

NaCl = sodium chloride. DOP oil = dioctylphthalate.

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N : Not resistant to oil R : Resistant to oil P : oil Proof

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Particulate Filter Selection

If no oil particles are present, use any series (N, R, or P)

N for Not resistant to oil R for Resistant to oil P for oil Proof

If oil particles are present, use only R or P series If oil particles are present and the filter is to be used for more than one work shift, use only P series Selection of filter efficiency (i.e., 95%, 99%, or 99.97%) depends on how much filter leakage can be accepted.
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Gas/Vapor Removing Respirators

Adsorption - organic Color Code vapors White - acid gases Absorption - acid vapors Black - organic Catalysis - oxidizable gases vapors Green ammonia Yellow - acid gases / organic vapors Magenta - HEPA (P100) Gray - low efficiency particulate (N95)

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Cartridge/Canister Selection and Replacement

Cartridge/Canister Selection
Type of contaminant Is approved cartridge available Service life of cartridge

Cartridge/Canister Replacement
Particulate removing Increased breathing resistance Gas/vapor removing End of service life indicator Manufacturer information Professional judgment

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Atmosphere Supplying Respirators

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Atmosphere Supplying Respirators

Use Grade D breathing air ANSI G-7.1-1989 Normal oxygen content 3 5 mg/m condensed hydrocarbon contamination 10 ppm CO No pronounced odor 1,000 ppm CO2
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Atmosphere Supplying Respirators

Airline respirator
300 feet maximum distance ONLY for non-IDLH atmospheres, except with escape bottle

Positive-Pressure Demand Mode Use in IDLH Atmospheres Escape-Only Respirator

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Respiratory Protection Program Elements

Respirator selection Fit testing Medical evaluations Use (Routine & Emergency) Maintaining respirators Proper air quality User training Program evaluation
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Toxicity of chemical Match the level of risk Physicochemical properties Physical and chemical properties Nature of work Not hinder efficiency of control equipment Not potential for other risk Adaptability Adapted to work capacity and capability of worker Route of entry Copyright@NIOSH 2009 Prevent entry through probable route

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Degree of Protection (DP)

Expected workplace level of respiratory protection that would be provided by a properly functioning respirator DP = conc. Outside / conc. Inside

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Respiratory Protection

Single use, dust 5 Quarter-Mask ..5 Half-Mask ..10 Supplied air, hood or helmet, cont. flow .25 Full-face with high efficiency filter ..50 Air-line, full face piece, demand ..50 Air-line, tight face piece, cont. flow .50 SCBA, tight face piece, demand ...50 Air-line, half mask, pressure demand .1000 Air-line, full face mask, pressure demand ..2000 SCBA, full face, pressure demand .10000
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User Seal Check

Positive Pressure Check

Negative Pressure Check

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Respirator Sealing Problems

Facial hair Dentures / orthodontia Weight loss / gain Facial scars Glasses / goggles / prescription eyewear

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Respirator Fit Testing

ALL tight-fitting facepieces Use same make, model & size of respirator Frequency Initially and annually Change in make or size Changes in employees physical condition Employee determines fit is unacceptable
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Qualitative Fit Testing (QLFT)

Fit Test Exercise Normal breathing Deep breathing Turn the head from side to side Nod the head up and down Talk out loud (Rainbow passage) Grimace (not for QLFT) Bend over or jog in place Normal breathing

Test Material Use

Isoamyl Acetate Irritant Smoke Sodium Saccharin Bittrex

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Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT)

An assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.

Photometric aerosol measurement Condensation Nuclei Counter (PortaCount) Controlled Negative Pressure

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Medical Evaluation
Fitness to wear the selected respirator Consult with facility or regional occupational medicine group for guidance

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Regular inspection Periodic testing and examination Immediate repair

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Users Prior to initial use Annually thereafter Classroom and hands on

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Training Elements

Explanation of need for respirator and respiratory hazards Instruction to inform supervisor of problems Discussion of engineering and administrative controls in use Why and how respirator was selected Operation, capabilities & limitations of respirator Inspection, donning & doffing Requirement to pass fit test Cleaning, maintenance & storage Emergency procedures
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Respirators should only be used when other control measures are not adequately effective or during emergencies Respirator categories Air-purifying Air-supplying Degree of protection vary with respirator category and type Air-purifying respirators cannot be used in an IDLH environment All tight-fitting respirators should be fit tested prior to use Respirator users should be trained on use and Copyright@NIOSH 2009 87 / 87 limitations

Key Points

Employers must implement a PPE program where they:

Assess the workplace for hazards Use engineering and work practice controls to eliminate or reduce hazards before using PPE Select appropriate PPE to protect employees from hazards that cannot be eliminated Inform employees why the PPE is necessary and when it must be worn Train employees how to use and care for their PPE and how to recognize deterioration and failure Require employees to wear selected PPE in the workplace

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