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Any accomplishment requires the effort of many people and there are no exceptions. First I thank head, for creating such an opportunity for the students to broaden their frame of skills. We are gratified with their efforts. My sincere gratitude also goes to my guide, who ha e helped us to perform isit and be familiar to the practical aspect and uses of theoretical knowledge and clarifying the career goals .We would like to thank who has pro ided me the greatest opportunity to perform internship. I am also grateful to all engineers of substation for pro iding good opportunity, without their support there will ha e differences in this task

All the participants were taken to !""k# $ubstation Mamidipally %field isit& and four field engineers separately engaged the delegates in batches to explain the following details' (&)esign of !""k# *&$witch gear

+&,ontrol room - .rotection /elays !&.ower 0ransformers 1&$,A)A $ystem 2&)ifferent 0ypes of ,ommunications used in .ower $ection

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distributionsystem. $ubstations transform oltage from high to low, or the re erse, or perform any of se eral other important functions. 3etween the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through se eral substations at different oltage le els. $ubstations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility, or may be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer. 4enerally substations are unattended, relying on $,A)A for remote super ision and control. A substation may include transformers to change oltage le els between high transmission oltages and lower distribution oltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission oltages. 0he word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became agrid. As central generation stations became larger, smaller generating plants were con erted to distribution stations, recei ing their energy supply from a larger plant instead of using their own generators. 0he first substations were connected to only one power station, where the generators were housed, and were subsidiaries of that power station.


$ubstations may be described by their oltage class, their applications within the power system, the method used to insulate most connections, and by the style and materials of the structures used. 0hese categories are not dis5oint6 to sol e a particular problem a transmission substation may include significant distribution functions, for example.

A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. the simplest case is where all transmission lines ha e the same oltage. in such cases, the substation contains high7 oltage switches that allow lines to be contened or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. A transmission station may ha e transformers to con ert between two transmission oltages, oltage control8power factor correction de ices such as capacitors, reactors orstatic #Ar compensators and equipment such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two ad5acent power systems

A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area.It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of power, so the distribution station reduces oltage to a le el suitable for local distribution. 0he input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or subtransmission lines. Input oltage may be, for example, ((1 k#, or whate er is common in the area. 0he output is a number of feeders. )istribution oltages are typically medium oltage, between *.! k# and ++ k# depending on the si9e of the area ser ed and the practices of the local utility. 0he feeders run along streets o erhead %or underground, in some cases& and power the distribution transformers at or near the customer

Important considerations in design'77: safety of personal equipment. 7: reliability and security.7: possibility to expand.7: ease in maintenance. 0he main issues facing a power engineer are reliability and cost. A good design attempts to strike a balance between these two, to achie e sufficient reliability without excessi e cost.

0he design should also allow expansion of the station, when required. $election of the location of a substation must consider many factors. $ufficient land area is required for installation of equipment with necessary clearances for electrical safety, and for access to maintain large apparatus such as transformers. Where land is costly, such as in urban areas, gas insulated switchgear may sa e money o erall. 0he site must ha e room for expansion due to load growth or planned transmission additions. ;n ironmental effects of the substation must be considered, such asdrainage, noise and road traffic effects. A grounding %earthing& system must be designed. 0he total ground potential rise, and the gradients in potential during a fault %called <touch< and <step< potentials&, must be calculated to protect passers7by during a short7circuit in the transmission system. 0he substation site must be reasonably central to the distribution area to be ser ed. 0he site must be secure from intrusion by passers7by, both to protect people from in5ury by electric shock or arcs, and to protect the electrical system from misoperation due to andalism. 0he first step in planning a substation layout is the preparation of a one7 line diagram, which shows in simplified form the switching and protection arrangement required, as well as the incoming supply lines and outgoing feeders or transmission lines. It is a usual practice by many electrical utilities to prepare one7line diagrams with principal elements %lines, switches, circuit breakers, transformers& arranged on the page similarly to the way the apparatus would be laid out in the actual station. In a common design, incoming lines ha e a disconnect switch and a circuit breaker. In some cases, the lines will not ha e both, with either a switch or a circuit breaker being all that is considered necessary. A disconnect switch is used to pro ide isolation, since it cannot interrupt load current. A circuit breaker is used as a protection de ice to interrupt fault currents automatically, and may be used to switch loads on and off, or to cut off a line when power is flowing in the =wrong= direction. When a large fault current flows through the circuit breaker, this is detected through the useofcurrent transformers. 0he magnitude of the current transformer outputs may be used to trip the circuit breaker resulting in a disconnection of the load supplied by the circuit break from the feeding point. 0his seeks to isolate the fault point from the rest of the system, and allow the rest of the system to continue operating with minimal impact.

3oth switches and circuit breakers may be operated locally %within the substation& or remotely from a super isory control center. >nce past the switching components, the lines of a gi en oltage connect to one or morebuses. 0hese are sets of busbars, usually in multiples of three, since three7 phase electrical power distribution is largely uni ersal around the world. 0he arrangement of switches, circuit breakers and buses used affects the cost and reliability of the substation. For important substations a ring bus, double bus, or so7called <breaker and a half< setup can be used. so that the failure of any one circuit breaker does not interrupt power to other circuits, and so that parts of the substation may be de7energi9ed for maintenance and repairs. $ubstations feeding only a single industrial load may ha e minimal switching pro isions, especially for small installations >nce ha ing established buses for the arious oltage le els, transformers may be connected between the oltage le els. 0hese will again ha e a circuit breaker, much like transmission lines, incase a transformer faults

$?3$0A0I>@ ,>M.>@;@0$'

;lectric $ubstations are the part of the power system and used for transferring power from generating points to load centers. $ome of the important components of substation are explained below'

#arious incoming and outgoing circuits are connected to busbars. 3usbars recei e power from incoming circuits and deli er power to outgoing circuits.

B#$ B%&$

$urge Arresters or Aightning Arresters discharge the o er oltage surges to earth and protect the equipment insulation from switching surges and lightning surges. $urge arresters are generally connected between phase conductor and ground. In a $ubstation surge arrester is located at the starting of the substation as seen from incoming transmission lines and is the first equipment of the substation. $urge arresters are also pro ided near the transformer terminals phase to ground. 0wo type of surge arresters are a ailable. (&4apped Arresters. *&4apless Binc CDE >xide arresters.

Aightning Arrester or $urge Arreseter

I$>AA0>/$ >/ )I$,>@@;,0I@4 $WI0,F;$'
Isolators are pro ided for isolation from li e parts for the purpose of maintenance. Isolators are located at either side of the circuit breaker. Isolators are operated under no load. Isolator does not ha e any rating for current breaking or current making. Isolators are interlocked with circuit breakers 0ypes of Isolators are 1,entral rotating, hori9ontal swing 2,entre73reak '#ertical swing 4.antograph type




;arth $witch is used to discharge the oltage on the circuit to the earth for safety. ;arth switch is mounted on the frame of the isolators. ;arth $witch is located for each incomer transmission line and each side of the busbar section

,?//;@0 0/A@$F>/M;/'
,urrent transformers are used for $tepping down current for measurement, protection and control. ,urrent transformers are of two types 1.rotecti e ,0 2Measuring ,0

#&&+,* T&%,$-(&.+&

#oltage transformers are used to step down the oltage for measurement, protection and control. #oltage transformers are of two types. 1;lectromagnetic type 2,apaciti e #0 located on the feeder side of the ,ircuit 3reaker.
V()*%/+ T&%,$-(&.+&

.utty is a generic term for a plastic material similar in texture to clay or dough typically used in domestic construction and repair as a sealant or filler. .ainter=s .utty is typically a linseed oil based product used for filling holes, minor cracks and defacements in wood only. .utties can also be made intumescent, in which case they are used for firestopping as well as for padding of electrical outlet boxes in fire7resistance rated drywall assemblies. In the latter case, hydrates in the putty produce an endothermic reaction to mitigate heat transfer to the unexposed side.

,I/,?I0 3/;AG;/'
,ircuit 3reaker is used for $witching during normal and abnormal operating conditions. It is used to interrupt the short circuit currents. It is used to interrupt short circuit currents. ,ircuit 3reaker operations include. 1,losing 2>pening

' Auto CDE reclosing ,ircuit 3reaker is located near e ery switching point and also located at the both ends of e ery protection 9one

.A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect anelectrical circuit from damage caused by o erload or short circuit . Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. ?nlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset %either manually or automatically& to resume normal operation. ,ircuit breakers are made in arying si9es, from small de ices that protect an indi idual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high oltage circuits feeding an entire city. ;lectrical power transmission networks are protected and controlled by high7 oltagebreakers. 0he definition of high voltage aries but in power transmission work is usually thought to be H*.1 k# or higher, according to a recent definition by the International ;lectro technical ,ommission %I;,&. Figh7 oltage breakers are nearly always solenoid7operated, with current sensing protecti e relays operated through current transformers. In substations the protecti e relay scheme can be complex, protecting equipment and buses from arious types of o erload or ground8earth fault. Figh7 oltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc.

3ulk oil â—Minimum oil ●Air blast ●#acuum ●$F2 $F2 ,ircuit 3reaker

.ower 0ransformers are used to step up or step CDE down a.c. oltages and to transfer electrical power from one oltage le el to another. 0ap changers are used for oltage control. 0ransformers range in si9e from thumbnail7si9ed units hidden in microphones to units weighing hundreds of tons used in the power grid. A wide range of transformer designs are used in electronic and electric power applications. 0ransformers are essential for the transmission, distribution, and utili9ation ofelectric power.

P(0+& T&%,$-(&.+&

$F?@0 /;A,0>/$'

$hunt /eactors are used for long ;F# transmission lines to control oltage during low CDE load period. $hunt reactors is also used to compensate shunt capacitance of transmission line during low load periods. ?sually $hunt reactors are unswitched.

$hunt /eactors 3ank

$F?@0 ,A.A,I0A@,;'
$hunt capacitors are used for compensating reacti e power of lagging power factor. $hunt ,apacitors are used for impro ing the power factor. It is also used for oltage control during hea y lagging power factor loads. $hunt ,apacitors are located at the recei ing stations and distribution substations. $hunt ,apacitors are switched in during hea y loads and switched CDE off during low loads.

$hunt ,apacitor 3ank



$eries ,apacitors are used for some long ;F# a.c lines to impro e power transferability. ,apacitors are located at the sending end 8 recei ing end of the lines. $eries ,apacitors are pro ided with by CDE pass circuit breaker and protecti e spark CDE gaps. $eries ,apacitors



$eries reactors are used to limit short CDE circuit current and to limit current surges associated with fluctuating loads. $eries reactors are located at the strategic locations such that the fault le els are reduced.

S+&1+$ R+%2*(&$



Aightning protection is used to protect substation equipment from direct lightning strokes. Aightning Masts are located at the outdoor yard. > erhead $hielding wires are used to co er entire outdoor yard.

Aightning Masts

Isolated .hase 3us $ystem pro ides connection between 4enerator and the main 0ransformer. It carries ery high currents.

Isolated .hase 3us )uct


@eutral 4rounding ;quipment are /esistors and reactors. 0hey are used to limit the short circuit current during ground fault. 0hey are connected between neutral point and ground.

neutral 4rounding resistor


Aine 0rap consists of Inducti e coil usually connected in the outdoor yard incoming line. Aine traps are usually mounted abo e ,apacitor #oltage 0ransformer %,#0& or on separate structure.

Wa e 0rap or Aine 0rap

?sed for Insulation purpose. )ifferent types of insulators are porcelain, 4lass, ;poxy. An Insulator is fundamental to aerial distribution of electricity. 0he function of Insulators is to separate high oltage conductors from earth.

0he materials and construction used must not only ha e high dielectric strength but be sufficiently mechanically strong to withstand the high loads exerted by the conductors in all en ironment conditions. 3ecause of their importance, Insulators must meet specific mechanical requirements and they must be reliable. 0he failure of a single insulator can cause the shutdown of a distribution line, creating disruption of .ower.

.orcelain Insulators



.ower ,ables are used to carry the power. 0hey are single core and three core. 0ypes of power cables are .# , insulated, IA.; insulated.

IA.; insulated .ower ,able



,ontrol ,ables are for protection, control and measurement etc.. 0hey are of low oltage and .#, insulated. ,ontrol ,ables are Multi core and $hielded.

IA.; insulated ,ontrol ,ables

$tation ;arthing $ystem includes ;arth Mat and ;arth electrodes placed below ground le el. 0hese ;arth Mat and ;arth electrode is connected to the equipment structures, neutral points for the purpose of ;quipment earthing and neutral point earthing. Function earthing system is to pro ide low resistance earthing for 1)ischarging currents from the surge arresters, o erhead shielding, earthing switches 2For equipment body earthing 'For safe touch potential and step potential in substation.

;arthing Mat



0o house arious measuring Instruments, control Instruments, .rotecti e relays. 0hey are located in air7conditioned building. ,ontrol ,ables are laid between $witchyard equipment and these panels. M;0;/I@4 ,>@0/>A M;0;/I@4

In the field of electric power distribution and transmission, a 3uchhol9 relay is a safety de ice mounted on some oil7filled power transformers and reactors, equipped with an external o erhead oil reser oir called a conservator. 0he 3uchhol9 /elay is used as a protecti e de ice sensiti e to the effects of dielectricfailure inside the equipment. >n a slow accumulation of gas, due perhaps to slight o erload, gas produced by decomposition of insulating oil accumulates in the top of the relay and forces the oil le el down. A float switch in the relay is used to initiate an alarm signal. )epending on design, a second float may also ser e to detect slow oil





.ower Aine ,arrier ,ommunication %.A,,& is a single channel communication system in which its channel %+"" to +!"" F9& is di ided into two parts i.e. speech band is generally kept +"" to *!""F9 or +"" to *"""F9 and rest is used as data band. )ue to narrow speech band in .A,,, oice of poor quality is a ailable in comparison to wideband communication system. In this system, signal tra els on the transmission line from one end to other end. 0ransmitter output %/adio Frequency signal& is fed to the transmission line through a ,oupling ,apacitor or ,#0. /F power output is in frequency band from H" GF9 to 1"" GF9. Inductors, called =Wa e 0raps= are used at the ends of the signals. .A,, is also used for line protection signal. .rotection signals are transmitted through .A,, system for tripping circuit breaker of other end of transmission line.

.ower system automation is composed of se eral tasks.



)ata acquisition refers to acquiring, or collecting, data. 0his data is collected in the form of measured analog current or oltage alues or the open or closed status of contact points. Acquired data can be used locally within the de ice collecting it, sent to another de ice in a substation, or sent from the substation to one or se eral databases for use by operators, engineers, planners, and administration./emote 0erminal ?nit %/0?& A remote terminal unit is an I;) that can be installed in a remote location, and acts as a termination point for field contacts. A dedicated pair of copper conductors is used to sense e ery contact and transducer alue. 0hese conductors originate at the power system de ice, are installed in trenches or o erhead cable trays, and are then terminated on panels within the /0?. 0he /0? can transfer collected data to other de ices and recei e data and control commands from other de ices. ?ser programmable /0?s are referred to as CDJsmart /0?s.CDK Meter A meter is an I;) that is used to create accurate measurements of power system current, oltage, and power alues. Metering alues such as demand and peak are sa ed within the meter to create historical information about the acti ity of the power system.

)igital fault recorder A digital fault recorder %)F/& is an I;) that records information about power system disturbances. It is capable of storing data in a digital format when triggered by conditions detected on the power system. Farmonics, frequency, and oltage are examples of data captured by )F/s. .rogrammable logic controller %.A,& A .rogrammable Aogic ,ontroller can be programmed to perform logical control. As with the /0?, a dedicated pair of copper conductors for each contact and transducer

alue is terminated on panels within the .A,.It is like a work7horse which work upon the command gi en by their master. .rotecti e relay A protecti e relay is an I;) designed to sense power system disturbances and automatically perform control actions on the I-, system and the power system to protect personnel and equipment. 0he relay has local termination so that the copper conductors for each contact do not ha e to be routed to a central termination panel associated with /0?

,omputer processes and personnel super ise, or monitor, the conditions and status of the power system using this acquired data. >perators and engineers monitor the information remotely on computer displays and graphical wall displays or locally, at the de ice, on front7panel displays and laptop computers.


,ontrol refers to sending command messages to a de ice to operate the I-, and power system de ices. 0raditional super isory control and data acquisition %$,A)A& systems rely on operators to super ise the system and initiate commands from an operator console on the master computer. Field personnel can also control de ices using front7 panel push buttons or a laptop computer. In addition, another task is power system integration, which is the act of communicating data to, from, or among I;)s in the I-, system and remote users. $ubstation integration refers to combining data from the I;)CDLs local to a substation so that there is a single point of contact in the substation for all of the I-, data. 0he power system automation processes rely on data acquisition6 .ower system super ision and power system control all working together in a coordinated automatic fashion. 0he commands are generated automatically and then transmitted in the same fashion as operator initiated commands.

0he $ubstation Automation $ystem %$A$& shall be installed to control and monitor all thesub7station equipment from remote control centre %/,,& as well as from local control centre. i& 0he $A$ shall contain at least the following main functional parts' CDM 3ay control Intelligence ;lectronic )e ices %I;) s& for control and monitoring. CDM$tation Fuman Machine Interface %FMI& CDM/edundant managed switched ;thernet CDMAocal Area @etwork communication infrastructure with hot standby. CDM.eripheral equipment like printers, display units, key boards, Mouse etc. ii&0he $A$ shall enable local station control ia ., by means of FMI and control software package, which shall contain an extensi e range of $,A)A functions. iii&0he $A$ shall include communication gateway, intelligent electronic de ices %I;)& for bay control and inter I;) communication infrastructure. 0he communication gateway shall facilitate the information flow with remote control centers. 0he bay le el intelligent electronic de ices %I;)& for protection and control shall pro ide the direct connection to the switchgear without the need of interposing components and perform control, protection, and monitoring functions. In $,A)A system measured alues, i.e. analogue %measured alue& data %MW, M#A/, #, F9 0ransformer tap position&, and >pen8,losed status information, i.e. digital data %,ircuit 3reakers8Isolators position i.e. on8off status&, are transmitted through

telecommunication channels to respecti e sub7A),s. For this purpose /emote 0erminal ?nits %/0?s& at !""G#,are used All ma5or functional areas of $,A)A except the =$uper isory ,ontrol8,ommand= function. 0he brief o er iew of ma5or =functional areas= of $,A)A system is as below' 1,ommunications 7 $ub7A),=s computer communicates with all /0? stations under its control, through a communication system. /0? polling, message formatting, polynomial checking and message retransmission on failure are the acti ities of =,ommunications= functional area. 2)ata .rocessing 7 After receipt of data through communication system it is processed. )ata process function has three sub7functions i.e. %i& Measurements, %ii& ,ounters and %iii& Indications. â—=Measurements = retrie ed from a /0? are con erted to engineering units and linearised, if necessary. 0he measurement are then placed in database and are checked against arious limits which if exceeded generate high or low limit alarms. 0he system has been set7up to collect =,ounters= at regular inter als' typically 1 or (" minutes. At the end of the hour the units is transferred into appropriate hour slot in a *!7 hour archi e8history. â—=Indications= are associated with status changes and protection. For those statuses that are not classified as =alarms=, logs the change on the appropriate printer and also enter it into a cyclic e ent list. For those statuses, which are defined as an =alarms= and the indication goes into alarm, an entry is made into the appropriate alarm list, as well as in the e ent list and an audible alarm is generated in the sub7A),. 1Alarm8; ent Aogging 7 0he alarm and e ent logging facilities are used by $,A)A data processing system. Alarms are grouped into different categories and are gi en different priorities. Nuality codes are assigned to the recently recei ed data for any =limit iolation= and =status changes=. Alarms are acknowledged from single line diagram %or alarm lists& on display terminal in A),s. 2Manual ;ntry 7 0here is a pro ision of manual entry of measured alues, counters and indications for the important sub7station8powerhouse, which are unco ered by an /0? or some problem is going on in its /0?, equipment, communication path, etc. 'A eraging of Measured #alues 7 As an option, the $,A)A system supports a eraging of all analogue measurements. 0ypically, the a eraging of measured alues o er a period of (1 minutes is stored to pro ide *! hours trend. 4Fistorical )ata /ecording %F)/& 7 0he F)/, i.e. =archi e=, subsystem maintains a history of selected system parameters o er a period of time. 0hese are sampled at a pre7 selected inter al and are placed in historical database. At the end of the day, the data is sa ed for later analysis and for report generation.

5Interacti e )atabase 4eneration 7 Facilities ha e been pro ided in such a way that an off7 line copy of the $,A)A database can be modified allowing the addition of new /0?s, pickup points and communication channels. 7$uper isory ,ontrol8/emote ,ommand 7 0his function enables the issue of =remote control= commands to the sub7station8powerhouse equipment e.g. circuit breaker trip command. 0hough, there is pro ision of this function in this system, yet it is not used in ?... As such, related8associated equipment ha e not been ordered. 8Fail7o er 7 A =Fail7o er= subsystem is also pro ided to secure and maintain a database of de ices and their backups. 0he state of the de ice is maintained indicating whether it is =on7line= or =failed=. 0here is a =backup= system, which maintains database on a backup computer and the system is duplicated.

it has a large and acti e =Mimic 3oard= in its ,ontrol room. 0his mimic board displays single line diagram of intra $tate transmission system i.e. grid network of !""G#, **"G# and sub7stations, transmission lines, thermal - hydro powerhouses. >utgoing feeders, shown in the mimic board, ha e =achie e= %A;) display& colored indications, of three different colors, to show the range of power flow at any moment i.e. =@ormal=, =@ominal= or =Maximum= of its line capacity. it=s transmission network is expanding rapidly and thereby number of /0?s is also increasing. For new substations and lines, displays in acti e and passi e forms are required to be made in the Mimic diagram. 3ut, Mimic 3oard has a limitation that it cannot incorporate8add large olume of displays for substations8power houses8transmission lines in =acti e= form due to space constraint and near future. Also in it, displays of single line diagrams of /0? sub7 stations8power house are iewed

For energy management of the power system, control personnel and application software engineers use $,A)A data a ailable in the database by using ;M$ software. 0he software functions are based on the ;nergy Management .latform %;M.&. All ser ers ha e =>pen #M$= operating system. All .ersonal ,omputers %.,s& ha e =Window @0= operating system. Important features are as below' 10he )ata 3ase ,ompiler pro ides a consistent source of data usable for the applications in an efficient form. 0he )ata 3ase ,ompiler does final checking for completeness and consistency of the entries for a specific application and prepares those special tables which are needed for the efficiency of specific application programs. 2/ecording of =$equence of ; ents= %$>;s& is the most inno ati e feature pro ided in this system. A /0? has the ability to accurately time tag status change and report this information to sub7A),. All /0?s in the system are =time synchroni9ed= with the master station. 4lobal .ositioning $ystem %4.$& system has been used at all sub A),s $A),. In the e ent of any tripping, sequence of e ents can be well established on time scale with a resolution of (" milliseconds. '@ormally, =Automatic 4eneration ,ontrol= %A4,& function issues control commands to generating plants using the concept of Area ,ontrol ;rror %A/;&. It is based on de iations in =standard frequency %1" F9&= and =scheduled area interchanges= from that of the =actual frequency= and =actual area interchanges=. 0he scope of A4, function for ?..0,A has been limited to open loop operation i.e. the software pro ides the desired correcti e actions for each plant, but the actual command are not issued. It is left to =$ystem ,ontrol >fficer= to take necessary action as di ided by A4, ,ontroller. In the e ent of una ailability of sufficient generation to satisfy the A4, requirement, the $ystem ,ontrol >fficer can enforce required quantum of load shedding.

4For =>peration $cheduling= the application software has =short7term= and =long7 term= =$ystem Aoad Forecasting= functions to assist dispatching ;ngineer8control >fficer in estimating the loads that are expected to exist for one to se eral days in ad ance. 0his function pro ides a scientific and logical way of scheduling of resources in a ery effecti e manner.

?nder =$hort7term Aoad Forecasting= function, application software engineers are able to forecast weekly peak demands and load duration cur es for se eral months into the future.

?nder =Aong70erm Aoad Forecasting= function, forecasting of monthly peak demands and load duration cur es for se eral years into the future can done for the use of =.ower $ystem .lanner=. 10he other functions like economic dispatch, reser e monitoring, production costing, inter system transactions scheduling, etc. are a ailable to guide $ystem ,ontrol >fficer to optimally use a ailable resources. 2.ower $ystem ,ontrol >fficer8Analyst would be able to use contingency analysis function to assess the impact of specified contingencies that would cause line %s& o erloads, abnormal oltages, and reacti e limit iolations. '0he ;M$ software system may ha e many other applications for use, which include network topology, performing of state estimation, optimal power flow %>.W& programme, stability programme, power flow displays, help and instructional displays, tabular displays, single line diagram displays, etc.



$ystem ,onfiguration description Aanguage %$,A& is the language and representation format specified by I;, 2(O1" for the configuration of electrical substation de ices. 0his includes representation of modeled data and communication ser ices specified by I;, 2(O1"CDE H CDEI standard documents. 0he complete $,A representation and its details are specified in I;, 2(O1"72 standard document. It includes data representation for substation de ice entities6 its associated functions represented as logical nodes, communication systems and capabilities. 0he complete representation of data as $,A enhances the different de ices of a substation to exchange the $,A files and to ha e a complete interoperability.