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Verb ta-form + bakari - I have just done something Bangohan o tabeta bakari desu - I have just eaten dinner

indicate a change that has taken place or will take place.become able to, become to Nihon ni kite kara kanji o kakeru ouni narimashita - I have become able to write kanji after I came here. Verb present short form + koto ni naru it has been decided!arranged thatdiscribe certain decision " it has been decided that# I will work in $ok o - $ok o de hataraku koto ni narimashita I can%t possibl ver strong sense of impossiblit &anjo no r ori wa ma'ui node totemo taberaremasen - I can%t possibl eat beause m girlfriend%s cook is nast taste it seems that Nihon-jin wa atama ga ii rashii - It seems that (apanese people are all smart verb te-form +te hajimete for the first time after V nihon ni kite hajimete sushi o tabeta - I ate )ushi for the first time after I came to (apan. Verb negative stem + naide - without doing, instead of doing amari nihon-go o benk o shinaide monku o iu gaijin wa afo da - $he foreigners who complain without stud ing much are asshole - ni otte - depends on... *i ni otte renshu shimasu - I pracrice depending on da

N, like.. , N, such as Natsu no ouna atsui hi - + hot da like summer Nihon-jin no ouna kakkoii hito - + cool gu like (apanese $he more!less - ,$he more!less ,se conditional form -ba-, short form +hodo $abereba taberu hodo futorimasu - $he more eat, the more u get fat N+ nothing but.. .atashi no kanojo wa beer bakari nonde iru - / 01 drinks nothing but beer ( X Y ) 2 is famous for 3 3 - noun or phrase &abukicho wa hentai de uumei - &abukicho is famous for it%s kink things Nihon-jin wa oku r oko suru no de uumei desu - $he (apanese people are famous for travelling a lot N+ starting with - , including 3ak u o hajime sumo, soccor nado ga nihon de ninki ga aru - In (apan, )tarting with baseball, sumo, socco etc are popular Nihon wa kurma o hajime game, anime,pc etc o ushutsu shiteiru t pe, -ic, -ical Nihon wa rekishiteki na kuni desu -(apan is a histrorical countr . +merica teki na tabemono wa humburger dake desu. + t pical +merican food is just humburger !"(# $ !"% Y is about the only X Igirisu r ori de taberareru no wa fish4chips kurai desu.- +bout the onl food in 5ngland I can eat is fish4chips &' If onl ou do.. Noun sae Verb ba Verb stem + sae sureba Verb te-form+saeireba 6kane sae areba shiawase desu. If onl I have much mone , I am happ

Ne sae sureba genki ni narimasu. If onl

ou sleep, 3ou will be better

)entece + hodo -" to the e7tent# e7press degree 5igo wa baka demo wakaru hodo kantan desu- 5nglish is so eas that even foolish ppl understand. (( )itubation is unchanged, as it is )hort form + mama /ado o aketa mama nemashita- I slept with the window open sono mama kite- come as ou are )*)* "take the trouble to# " taking the time to do# wa'awa'a rewrite shinakutemo ii desu o. wa'awa'a husband ni r ori o tukueu nowa taihen dakara restaurant ni ikimasho. verb vokitional form + to shitara - when I was about to do something 8ekake ou to shitara ame ga futta - .hen I was about to go out, it began to rain tabe ou to shitara teberarera - .hen I was about to eat him, I was eaten + verb ta-form + ta mono da - ,sed to Verb Nihon ni ita toki wa oku onna asobi o shita mono da - I used to pla around girls when I was in (apan 0aikoku ni ita tok verb stem + tate - " something was just done# 3aki tate no akitori wa oishii tsukuri tate no ie , N+gurai - N is the minimum level,degree etc, at least *iragana gurai kakenai gaijin wa komaru *umberger kurai tsukuremasu ' 6n the contrar diet o shisugiru to kaette futoru Nihon-go ga jo'u ni naru to kaette 5igo ga wakuru natta

-. N has its own.atashi ni wa .atashi no kangae ga aru - I have own idea Nihon ni wa Nihon nari no osa ga aru / Verb sten + ppoi, adj stem + ppoi, noun + ppoi somthing looks like, someone easil gets negative connotation 6nnna ppoi otoko wa kimoi - feminine bo is weird )aikin wasure pppi - recentl I feel forgetful 0" concerning, about +merica no B)5 ni kansuru mondaui - problem about +merican B)5 )ensou ni kansuru News - news about war (& !"#$%&'()*+,-./ ( 012345601745 89:;/ <=>?@ABC*9DE/ .FG;HD IJ)KALM.6.FGIJ*N;HD 1 2345 6 7 89 &2:5 "2;5 < => &' ? @

A B) " C D -D EF G H "I2JI5 82K5 9 < Grammar/Categories including type EN GR GR GR GR GR GR GR advanced ageru amari ' amari nai atto iu ma au 0akari * +, JP meaning !dvanced "opics to do something %or someone else not really not very- not much group # ex. checked # # # # $ & ( ). . . ). $ $ ) ) $ $ $

/n a %lash- 0e%ore one kno1s itin a 0link o% an eye- in no time- # %lash 0y- +time, %lies 2m- ver03together- mutually 4ust +4ust recently, / nothing 0ut # #

GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR

0eki casual Causative dai darou dasu dashite dashita de- ni- mae dearou dearu douse doushitemo e0a ga suru garu ha ' hakanai ha@u hodo ' hoshii hotondo houga

should do 2ru

# # # # #

. $ # 8 ); $ )8 ; 8 ; ' )$ 8 . ? & '# 8 )8 # (

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ ) $ ) $ $ $ $ $ ) ) $ ) $ $

Casual Patterns Casual Patterns and 5lang and 5lang !O"! #$% $& make- let +someone do something, 6 +%or casual 7uestions, is- 1ould 0e- pro0a0ly is9 isn:t it6

'()'*+) to pay- to place- to issue- to # stick out- to put %orth- to serve'*, OO& .! .*+/ P0 ( # Q% R 1. ' 2*% 13. +4 O4., 5 time and place prepositions at in on #

/ guess- 1onder- pro0a0ly- isn:t # it6 "o 0e- is +%ormal e7uivalent o% # $ <da=, a%ter all9 eventually9 at 0est a0solutely- surely- 0y all means- no matter 1hat- at any cost9 a%ter all i% # # #

to a%%ect the senses +to taste- to smell o%- to %eel like- to give # the sensation o% etc., !0 3seems +o% some0ody else:s emotions > desires, :ha +1a,: used to indicate contrast hopeless- %leeting- transient%ickle # # #

0elieve that it is so9 expect that # it is so9 it is supposed to 0e so to the extent o%9 to the extent that 39 +not as, 3 as 3 9 a0out <REA. 0akari9 kurai= N- to 1ant something +desirative, most o% / rarely +o%ten it:d 0e 0etter to do BB, 5uch and such an option is something # # # #

GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR

Co1 to 1rite a 6789: Japanese letter ; 5 Jaki ka shira. ka ' kadouka kai. kana kanousei kata kininaru konna koto ni naru kotonisuru kurai- gurai kureru madeni maeni mama marude BBBBBBB no you na mitai morau na na ' naa <S *=> # . %> #@ ABC 5 S@ D3@ D@ D( E=%)F= % +G, EH +TH , -

Grammar points %or 1riting in # Japanese Dalice- 0ad %eeling / 1onder i%...?! type o% 7uestion mark, 1hether- the 7uestion o% +su0 sentence 7uestion, 1hether- i% +! type o% 7uestion mark, / 1onder.. +Eased on 7uestion particle., Existence o% possi0ility ho1 to BBBBB- 1ay to BBBBBthinking a0out- concerned a0out- 1orried a0out such9 this9 like this9 such.....as this9 o% this kind it has 0een decided/arranged that Fecide to do something to the extent that9 so 3 that 3 almost 39 at least9 the only 39 rather than 3 # # # # # # # # # # # # #

$ $ $ ( )) $ ; ; # # )& ' ' ( )' ) # ( $ ? )' # ( ;

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ ) $ $ $ $ $ ) $ $ $ ) $ $ $

to give me- to do %or me- / 1as # given 0y BB<day- date- time- etc.=BB 0e%ore <action= as it is- leave as it is- +remain, unchanged # # # # # # # # #

BBBBB 4ust like- alike toI@ J,% K #@ #@ @)@#) looks like have someone do something %or you +particle used LMN na ad4ectives, 2ru- +negative command sentence ending particle, !dds emphasis sentence

@ GR GR nado naka- ue- shitaetc. nakere0a narimasen nanoni nara naru nasai nashi nihanshite nikagitte nikui ninaru nisuru ' nitotte nitsuite no da no ' no # noni ' passive polite rashii saseru #@. #O)# )#P) @. @QH@ !3 #@ @= @ @"% @* R*+ S+ E% @ ( + T%+ $ # # #HO#= H UUV*% =*% "!

ending particle9 Emphasi@es personal desires and etc. # ; . $ $

"alking a0out relative location # o% an o04ect must BBBB9 really should BBBBB9 it 1on:t do i% you don:t # BBBB. 0ut- although +contrastsurprising, i% # #

GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR

' ') )$ ' ; ' '' ); ; 8 ' )( ); ' 8 )# ; )$ $ ( &

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ ) $ ) ' $ $ $ $ ) $ $ $

Gsed much like the @ o% na # ad4ectives some1hat archaic. /n%ormal /mperative +re7uest %orm, 1ithout against- contrary to # # #

o% all the ... / especially / only / # 4ust /s di%%cult to do "o 0ecome "o decide on- to choose to9 %or regarding- a0out explanation # # # # # #

"urn a phrase ending in a ver0 # into a :noun phrase: 6 +sentence ending particle 7uestion, <H= in order to- to passive ver0 ending # # #

Polite Horm and 2er0 5tems # ?#()#( seem- look like- apparently- / heard make- let someone do something # #

GR GR GR

sekkaku shi shimau

!E * * +WX OYOZ , "hings that should 0e a certain 1ay ( O1 \%O* @QH@= @% 5ho1ing signs o% something

1ith e%%ort and 2te- +Fe%initely- completely <o%ten to ones regret= do 2,

# # #

; . #

$ $ $

GR

should

"hings that should 0e a certain 1ay ?[) )E) # =[

GR

should do/0etter to/ought to/have to

you should

GR

signs

5ho1ing signs o% something ?#))#] E 2arious 1ays to express similarity and hearsay?I )#J,%)#`)# `$)#=*%)#a % 5etexpressions or phrases 2m- Aooks like / hear that too9 too much9 excessively 2m- 1anting to do BBB /n order to- 0ecause o%- %or i%- 1hen +ver0 %orm, doing things like 2*ing +<ver0= te- connects t1o sentences,

GR

similar

^_

GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR

5onomama no koto0a sou sou ' sugiru tai tame tara tari suru %orm te tearu

` b ` ` (c ,% V ,= , ( %orm #+

# # # # # # # # # #

; . ? )) 8 ( ); & )$ 8

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

+* ++ 2te something has 0een dO+, purposely put into a state +*%Q @% ++e Qf%, you shouldn:t- one should not

GR

tehaikenai

)8

GR

teiru

2te +Continuing states+*% ++ experience- repetative events,/ # g, doing currently

'

GR GR GR

tekuru temiru tendency

+*E ++ 2te go- do something- and return W, +*J ++ to try +out, h, "endencies "endencies ?#i)#T T) =%

# # #

8 8 $

$ $ $

GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR

teshimau to to douyou toiukotodesune toki tokoro tokoro de toomou totemo 3 nai totomoni tsumoridatta tsu@ukeru ver0 stem * dasu/dashita 1a 1ake 1o ' 1o # 1okiita yasui yatto yo

+** 1ind up BBBBing- end up ++WXO+ BBBing- %inish BBBBing YO+Z, # jX %D (k +l m(k, #n D& D& +o OY, pqr +/#@% s t/$, ZQ 3'( #u [ #v #v vz%, {(% { #I +on 1hen, doing- i% the same 1ay as- as 1ell as your message is that ... 1hen place- time- occasion 0y the 1ay / think / 1ill +do, CanIt possi0ly

# # # # # # # # #

)# & ) ) # ; ? )$ ' )$ & ( ? # )' 8 8 )) . # 8

) $ $ $ ) $ $ ) $ ) ) ) $ ) $ $ $ $ ) ) $

as 1ell as9 1ith9 along 1ith9 at # the same time9 1hen9 as9 1hile / had the intention to do +0ut / didn:t, keep on doing ... 0egin/start... +adds emphasis, <%emale= meaning9 reason9 circumstances area passed through +wxy, +marks point o% departure, ' \y / heard easy to 2 %inally J +exclamation mark- add emphasis- denote ne1 # # # # # # # # # # #

in%ormation 0eing imparted, GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR GR yori yori ' yotei you youniiu youninaru youtosuru youtosuru- part // @uni 3tokoro +da, I I | I I I@ #I( #}( [ #D&+$, +o$OY$, than- rather than more BBBB 0e planning to do3 appearance- looks- seems 2- "o say to +do something, /ndicates a change 1hich has taken place or 1ill take place. "ry to do something- 0ut the nuance is that it 1as unsuccess%ul. # # # # # # # ( # # 8 ; ? # # ' ? $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

! voluntary action stopped 4ust # 0e%ore 0eing completed 1ithout / am a0out to / / 1as a0out to # #

~1I
! is more than E

/3(=
0ecause

i
1hile a condition holds

S @
0e concerned a0out K

S vTQ
to 0e care%ul o% K

.*+/
no matter 1hat

T%
accidentally

uu
to go out o% one:s 1ay

v *,=
1hen / 1as a0out to 2

+E=%$
K to the extent L

,+
5" 4ust done

&E#@%
not enough

!%
perhaps 0ecause

+=3@"%
try 2 ing

#*,D@%
nothing can 0e 0etter than 3

rI
as one 1ishes

#i
to tend to 3

,=
dis0elie% marking topic sentence

Ia.
really

#%@%
it must 0e

"(
as may 0e expected

@3+
things like 3

/
although

`H*+/
even so

#S
as %ar as9 as long as

] 6I
almost everyday

!%%
at most

@=
although

+
on the contrary

I@
to 0ecome like

5%%(
it is 0etter to

@E+%Q!3
must

+J
try

@=
contrast

*
reason

#+*
sense o% regret

,=
i%

#
1henever !- E.

@=
t1o 2 at same time

`(
looks like

?%`(
/ hear

@%
1ithout doing

1ithin !

~
i%

~
despite !

I@
like

5
1ay o% 2ing

@%$&
/ think it is the case that

*&
one is more 3 than the other

*+
as

,]
due to

1.
to the extent o% 5)

as it is

T
in other 1ords

+/
undenia0ly

%D
the interesting thing is

{
as expected

other than 3

w%3 N
stereotyped

@3 manage
to do

,3%+/
a%ter all

I1.
unless

#
1hen ing

^ Q
is connected to

A, B I
like ! or E

+)*/
on top o% 3

xc@%
0e nothing 0ut

/
together 1ith 3

O
in the middle o%

# A *+ B
it is not only ! 0ut E

#(H
given that

T@
is connected to

,%*+#@%
not very

/%
originally

#}Q N
at

#.
according to

#%uQ$
it means that 3

# _ *+
as opposed to 3

TT
in the process o%

#=%+
4udging %rom 3

#D@
it means that 3