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Acoustical and Vibration Analysis
Residual Stress Measurement, Strain Gauge Testing
Thermodynamic Testing
Data Acquisition, Software Design & Development
Testing Facilities, Instrumentation
Mechanical and Electronic Design engineering
SINT Technology srl  Via Giusti 229 – 50041 Calenzano (FI)  Italia
Tel. +39 055 8826302 – Fax +39 055 8826303 – info@sintechnology.com – www.sintechnology.com
VAT no. 04185870484 – Companies Register no. FI01755501 – Fully paidup registered capital € 39,000
Laboratory authorized by the Italian Ministry of Innovation, Universities and Research (Law 46/82, art. 4)
SYSTEM FOR MEASURING RESIDUAL STRESS
BY THE HOLEDRILLING METHOD
BACK CALCULATION MANUAL
Calenzano, Florence, Italy
RESTAN
SYSTEM FOR MEASURING RESIDUAL STRESS BY THE HOLEDRILLING METHOD
BACK CALCULATION MANUAL
EVALEng11
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT BY THE HOLE DRILLING METHOD ............... 4
1.1. Introduction .................................................................................................. 4
1.2. List of symbols ............................................................................................. 7
2. ASTM E83708: UNIFORM AND NONUNIFORM STRESS .......................................... 8
2.1. Introduction .................................................................................................. 8
2.2. ASTM E83708: uniform stress distribution .................................................. 9
2.2.1. Thin specimen .............................................................................................. 9
2.2.2. Thick specimen .......................................................................................... 10
2.2.3. Intermediate thickness specimen ............................................................... 11
2.2.4. ASTM E83708: uniform stress  Extension ............................................... 12
2.3. ASTM E 83708: nonuniform stress distribution ........................................ 13
2.3.1. Calculation method .................................................................................... 13
2.3.2. ASTM E83708: nonuniform stress  Extension ........................................ 14
3. INTEGRAL METHOD .................................................................................................. 16
3.1. Calculation method .................................................................................... 16
3.2. Integral method  Extension ....................................................................... 18
4. KOCKELMANN‟S METHOD ........................................................................................ 19
5. DESCRIPTION OF THE PUSHBUTTONS .................................................................. 22
6. METHODS OF STRAIN INTERPOLATION ON THE CALCULATION DOMAIN .......... 24
6.1. Polynomial Interpolation ............................................................................. 24
6.1.1. Method of optimizing the interpolant polynomial degree ............................ 24
6.2. No interpolation (None Selection) .............................................................. 25
7. STEP DISTRIBUTION ................................................................................................. 26
7.1. Constant Step Distribution ......................................................................... 26
7.2. Increasing Step Distribution ....................................................................... 27
7.3. Optimized Step Distribution ........................................................................ 27
8. DESCRIPTION OF THE CALCULATION METHODS .................................................. 28
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8.1. ASTM E83708 Method: Uniform Stress .................................................... 28
8.2. ASTM E83708 Method: NonUniform Stress ............................................ 29
8.3. Integral Method .......................................................................................... 30
8.4. Kockelmann‟s Method ................................................................................ 32
9. REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 34
Read this Operating and Maintenance Manual carefully before starting
to use the equipment.
Always keep this manual with the equipment.
Should you have any doubts or problems, contact the SINT Technology
technical support team (support@sintechnology.com).
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1. RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT BY THE HOLE
DRILLING METHOD
1.1. Introduction
Residual stresses can be present in any mechanical structure because of many
causes: they may be due to the technological process used to realize the component
(plastic deformation or welding), or could be caused by localized yielding of the
material, i.e. because of a sharp notch, or to a particular kind of surface treatment
like shot peening or surface hardening.
The residual stresses play the same role in the strength of a structure that common
mechanical stresses do but, while the stress due to external loads can be calculated
with a certain accuracy, the residual stresses are difficult to foresee, and therefore it
is very important to have a reliable method able to measure them directly in the
structure with a minimum damage for it.
That‟s what hole drilling method (HDM) comes for. Basically, the HDM consists in
drilling a small hole in the component material at the centre of a strain gauge rosette.
The residual stresses, because of the removed material, relax and the surface
strains can be measured by the strain gauges. Finally, a suitable mathematical
model evaluates the relaxed stress from the deformation measurements.
Currently, four main applications of the HDM exist in the Eval software: the ASTM
E83708, relating to constant through the thickness stress field, the ASTM E83708,
relating to nonuniform stress through the thickness, a method proposed by H.
Kockelmann based on strain ratio measurements and the Integral method relating to
variable through thickness stress (proposed by G. S. Schajer).
The main functions of the Eval software are the following:
 Best fit of strain values measured versus hole depth
 Calculation of residual stress
For each stage there is a standard procedure, which the software executes as
default, unless otherwise specified. Normally the default procedures are those
recommended.
With this system, a large number of depth increments can be achieved with high
accuracy making it possible to determine a curve of relieved strains through the use
of the test points.
Application of a calculation procedure for a better interpolation may serve to improve
the stability and quality of the end result. The minimum number of holedrilling
increments is 8, as indicated in Standard ASTM E83708 (for uniform stress
distribution in the depth). However, the best results are obtained with 40 or more. It
should, however, be noted that the minimum increment depth is 0.010 mm for
significant increments for measuring the strain values between one increment and
another.
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In the polynomial interpolation, the calculation of the best interpolation (best fit) of
the data is conditioned by determination of the polynomial coefficients, which is done
by the least squares method. It is also possible to select the degree of polynomial
interpolation for each set of data recorded for the three strains measured as a
function of hole depth. The software determines by default the best possible degree
of the interpolating polynomial through using the optimization procedure.
The software disposes of the following procedures for calculating residual stresses:
 Standard ASTM E83708: uniform stress
 Standard ASTM E83708: nonuniform stress
 Integral method
 Kockelmann method
The procedures have different fields of application and the following notes should be
taken into consideration in deciding which is the most appropriate method.
Uniform Stress Method [Standard ASTM E 83708]
This is the method described in standard ASTM E 83708, based on the assumption
that stresses do not vary with distance from the surface of the specimen. For this
reason, the method does not consider spatial resolution. Nevertheless, when
measured residual stresses are in fact uniform, this is the method to choose,
because it is the least sensitive to the effects of test errors.
NonUniform Stress Method [Standard ASTM E 83708]
This is the method described in standard ASTM E 83708, based on the assumption
that stresses vary with distance from the surface of the specimen. Therefore, the
spatial resolution is higher than with the other methods.
The numerical coefficients established by ASTM E 83708 are used for the
calculation. The maximum depth that the method can be used for is 0.5 times the
mean radius of the strain rosette used for the test.
The ASTM E 83708 standard establishes 20 acquisition depht steps in the first
millimeter, each one of 0.05 mm.
Integral Method
This method provides a separate residual stress analysis at every hole drilling depth
increment. The integral method should be chosen when residual stresses are
expected to vary significantly with depth; however, it also has the highest sensitivity
to test errors. This problem quickly gets worse when you try to raise the spatial
resolution increasing the depth increments.
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The numerical coefficients established by Schajer are used for the calculation. The
maximum depth that the method can be used for is 0.5 times the mean radius of the
strain rosette used for the test.
The system‟s software allows you to select the number and distribution of depth
increments, while in the NonUniform Stress Method these parameters are fixed by
the ASTM standard. The distribution may be constant or variable; the variable
distribution reduces sensitivity to error through an increment amplitude optimization
procedure. The option selected by default in the system is the optimized procedure.
Kockelmann method
This method uses the numerical coefficients calculated by Kockelmann and allows
you to reach a calculation depth equal to the hole diameter. It is a method which has
little sensitivity to the effects of test errors but it is valid only in a very particular case
of rosette diameter and hole diameter (d
m
/d
0
= 3).
Recently, also coefficients for different values of D/D
0
have been provided and
included in the Eval software.
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1.2. List of symbols
D
0
hole diameter
D rosette mean diameter
R
m
rosette mean radius
s specimen thickness
z hole depth
Z axial position in depth
h adimensional hole depth = z/R
m
H adimensional position in depth = Z/R
m
ç adimensional depth = Z/D
0
c
1
, c
2
, c
3
deformations measured by strain gauges 1,2,3
o
max
maximum principal stress
o
min
minimum principal stress
o angle of orientation of the main stress
o
11
normal stress in gauge 1 direction
o
33
normal stress in gauge 3 direction
o
13
shear stress on a surface normal to gauge 1 direction
 angle between gauge 1 and principal stress direction
P (o
33
+ o
11
) / 2
Q (o
33
 o
11
) / 2
T o
13
p (c
3
+ c
1
) / 2
q (c
3
 c
1
) / 2
t (c
3
+ c
1
 2c
2
) / 2
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2. ASTM E83708: UNIFORM AND NONUNIFORM STRESS
2.1. Introduction
ASTM E83708 ([1]) deals with the evaluation of both constant and not constant
residual stress field through the thickness of the specimen.
Despite the uniform stress condition does not occur very frequently (and it can be
verified only after drilling the hole), its historical background makes it worth to
dedicate an introduction to it. Moreover, whenever the condition required to identify
the stress field as constant are fulfilled, it can give a quite accurate result.
The nonuniform stress condition is very common and the calculation describes the
residual stress profile in the depth: the ASTM E83708 standard provides a static
calculation method where drilling and calculation parameters are provided.
The ASTM E83708 standard takes into consideration three different kinds of rosette
(fig. 2.1), indicated as kind A, B and C.
Fig. 2.1  Strain gauge rosettes used in ASTM E83708
Stress measurement specifications are given for small thickness specimens (s < 0.4
D) and thick specimens (s > 1.2 D), while suggestions are given for mid thickness
components, though measurements are less accurate in this case.
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2.2. ASTM E83708: uniform stress distribution
2.2.1. Thin specimen
The complete hole must be drilled through the thickness in one step and the strains
c
1
, c
2
, c
3
must be measured. Following, the combination of strains below must be
calculated:
( )
2
3 1
c c +
= p
( )
2
1 3
c c ÷
= q
( )
2
2
2 1 3
c c c ÷ +
= t
(2.1)
From the combination of strains (p, q and t), the combination of stresses must be
calculated as shown below:
) 1 ( 2
P
y
v
o o
+ ·
÷ =
+
=
a
Ep
x
b
Eq
y
÷ =
÷
=
2
Q
x
o o
b
Et
xy
÷ = =t T
(2.2)
where a
and b
are calibration constants defined in tab. 2A of the standard,
according to the rosette geometry used.
The maximum and minimum principal stress value are given by:
2 2
, T Q P
MIN MAX
+ ± = o o
(2.3)
The angle of the maximum principal stress β is given by the equation
1
:


.

\

÷
÷
=
Q
T
arctan
2
1

(2.4)
The value of the principal angle is defined by the table shown below, depending on
the minus/plus sign of T and Q.
Tab 2A – Value of the principal angle
1
Since the atan function is defined only for –90<<90, the right angle must be evaluated taking into
account the sign of t and q separately.
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2.2.2. Thick specimen
The hole must be drilled in 8 steps of 0.05 D partial depth each and the
measurements c
1
, c
2
, c
3
must be recorded.
For each drilling step, the strain combination (2.1) must be evaluated.
In order to check that the stress field is actually constant through thickness, a
suitable test is given:
1. identify the numerically larger set of strain combinations between p, q and t;
2. express p,q and t as a percentage of their values at 0.4 D;
3. plot these data versus h and these diagrams should fall within a ±3%
tolerance range with the diagram shown in fig. 2.2. Points that do not fall
within this tolerance are either measurement errors or due to non uniform
through thickness stresses.
Fig. 2.2  Uniform stress test
If the stress relieved is find out to be actually constant, the following stress
combinations must be evaluated:
( )
( )
¿
¿
·
·
+
÷
=
2
1
a
p a
E
P
v
( )
¿
¿
·
· ÷ =
2
b
q b
E Q
( )
¿
¿
·
· ÷ =
2
b
t b
E T
(2.5)
The maximum and minimum principal stresses can be evaluated as:
2 2
min max
, T Q P + ± = o o
(2.6)
The principal angle β can be evaluated using the same equation given in (2.4).
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WARNING: According to the standard ASTM E83708 for
intermediate hole the results are approximate.
2.2.3. Intermediate thickness specimen
Intermediate thickness specimens are not within the scope of ASTM E83708
standard, anyway some indications can be given when 0.4D<s<1.2D, in order to
achieve at least an approximate solution.
When dealing with intermediete thickness, the through hole procedure should be
followed and the calibration constant to be used must be evaluated as mean values
between through hole and blind hole given in tab. 2A of the standard.
The calculation method for intermediate thickness is the same of the thin specimen:
the only difference is in the calibration constants (a e b) that are used. ASTM E 837
08 standard doesn‟t give these values, so, for their determination it can be used the
equation below:
) 4 . 0 (
4 . 0 2 . 1
4 . 0 ,
, int
D s
D D
a a
a a
real
through D s blind
through s ermediate
· ÷ ·
· ÷ ·
÷
+ =
· =
(2.7)
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2.2.4. ASTM E83708: uniform stress  Extension
Calibration constants for blind and through hole in thick and thin specimens have
been evaluated by SINT Technology for all the types of strain gage rosettes
available on the market. The calculated calibration costants are helpful to increase
the precision of the residual stress evaluation with the EVAL software.
Tab. 2B – Calibration constants (ASTM E83708: uniform stress distribution)
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2.3. ASTM E 83708: nonuniform stress distribution
2.3.1. Calculation method
The hole must be drilled in 40 steps of 0.05 mm partial depth each and the
measurements c
1
, c
2
, c
3
must be recorded. Following, for each drilling step j, the
combination of strains below must be calculated:
2
) (
1 3 j
j
p
c c +
=
2
) (
1 3 j
j
q
c c ÷
=
2
) 2 (
2 1 3 j
j
t
c c c · ÷ +
=
(2.8)
From the combination of strains (p, q and t), the following combination of stresses
must be calculated for each drilling step:
p
E
P a
·
+
= ·
v 1
q E Q b
· = ·
t E T b
· = ·
(2.9)
The matricial system provides results for the values P
k
, Q
k
and T
k
. These values
depends on the residual stresses as shown in the equations below:
2
] ) ( ) [(
k x k y
k
P
o o +
=
2
] ) ( ) [(
k x k y
k
Q
o o ÷
=
k xy k
T ) (t =
(2.10)
Principal stresses and principal angle can be calculated by the following equations:
2 2
) ( , ) (
k k k k MIN k MAX
T Q P + ± = o o
(2.11)


.

\

÷
÷
=
k
k
k
Q
T
arctan
2
1

(2.12)
The value of the principal angle is defined by table 2A, depending on the minus/plus
sign of T and Q.
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2.3.2. ASTM E83708: nonuniform stress  Extension
Calibration constants for nonuniform stresses distribution have been evaluated by
SINT Technology for all the types of strain gage rosettes available on the market.
The calculated calibration costants are helpful to increase the precision of the
residual stress evaluation with the EVAL software.
Tab. 2C – Calibration constants (ASTM E83708: nonuniform stress distribution)
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3. INTEGRAL METHOD
3.1. Calculation method
Integral method for residual stress analysis was proposed by G. S. Schajer in 1988
([4], [5] and [6]) in order to overcome the limits of ASTM standard regarding the
constant stress field.
The system‟s software allows you to select number and distribution of the depth
increments, while in the NonUniform Stress Method these parameters are fixed by
the ASTM standard.
Using the equations (2.1) and (2.5), it can be shown that the evaluation of residual
stresses can be obtained by solving three separate integral equations like:
}
· ·
+
=
i
h
i i
dH H P h H A
E
h p
0
) ( ) , (
ˆ
1
) (
v
}
· · =
i
h
i i
dH H Q h H B
E
h q
0
) ( ) , (
ˆ
1
) (
}
· · =
i
h
i i
dH H T h H B
E
h t
0
) ( ) , (
ˆ
1
) (
(3.1)
where A
ˆ
and B
ˆ
are suitable influence functions for equibiaxial and shear stress
whose aim is to take into account the effect of the stress relieved at depth H of an h
depth hole on the strain gauges measurements.
G. S. Schajer didn‟t give the equations of A
ˆ
and B
ˆ
functions directly but, instead,
used a different approach, called “Integral Method”.
In this method, the contributions to the total measured strain relaxations of the
stresses at all depths are considered simultaneously.
In order to simplify the problem of residual stress evaluation, Schajer proposed that
the stress field could be described by means of stepwise functions whose value is
constant through the partial hole depths, in such a way that the integral equation
(3.1), could be easily evaluated, provided that the influence function integrals could
be calculated for each drilling step.
If this could be done, the (3.1)
2
assumes a discrete form as:
¿
=
= ·
+
i
j
j j i i
P a p
E
1
,
1 v
¿
=
= ·
i
j
j j i i
Q b q E
1
,
¿
=
= ·
i
j
j j i i
T b t E
1
,
(3.2)
2
In order to keep things simple, in the following it will be referred only the P component of stress, even
if the same considerations can be applied also to the shear stress components.
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with 1 s j s i s n
where n is the number of partial hole depths achieved during drilling stage and
j i
a
,
is
the strain relaxation due to a unit P stress within increment j of a hole iincrements
deep (fig. 3.1) and its relation with ) , (
ˆ
h H A is:
( )
}
÷
=
i
i
H
H
i j i
dH h H A a
1
,
ˆ
,
(3.3)
Fig. 3.1 – Coefficients physical meaning
The (3.2) is a linear system with a coefficientmatrix lower triangular, that can be
solved with forward substitution.
With the aid of FEM calculations, G.S. Schajer made a mesh of the function
( ) ( )
}
=
H
i
dH h H A h h A
0
,
ˆ
, (3.4)
from which it‟s easy to evaluate the
j i
a
,
coefficients
( ) ( )
i j i j j i
h H A h H A a , ,
1 , ÷
÷ = (3.5)
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With reference to strain gauge rosette MM 062RE, the functions A and B are
given for D
0
/D=0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, and h=0,0.05,..,0.50 (tab. 3A). Different values for
D
0
/D and h require interpolation of the given coefficients.
3.2. Integral method  Extension
Calibration constants for Integral Method application have been evaluated by SINT
Technology for all the types of strain gage rosettes available on the market. The
calculated calibration costants are helpful to increase the precision of the residual
stress evaluation with the EVAL software.
Tab. 3A  Schajer coefficients for MM 062RE rosette
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4. KOCKELMANN’S METHOD
This method, proposed by H. Kockelmann in 1993 [3], is based on the strain ratio
measured during the hole drilling.
Fig. 4.1 – Hole shape examples
Kockelmann proposed, in addition to the standard hole obtained by high speed mill,
a new hole shape to be obtained by electrochemical erosion (fig. 4.1).
Fig. 4.2 – Method description
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With reference to fig. 4.2, the method foresees a preliminary stage (to be realized
just once for every rosette kind) for an experimental/numerical evaluation of
calibration functions K
x
and K
y
, defined as
(4.1)
(4.2)
Where c
x
and c
y
are, respectively, the deformation measured by the strain gauge
oriented in the load direction and a 90°in a uniaxial loaded specimen.
As an example, Kockelmann supply the K
x
and K
y
functions for a HBM rosette, kind
1RY611,5/120S (fig. 4.3), and for d
m
/d
0
= 3.
After the calibration functions have been defined, the stress field can be calculated
in a general case by the application of the following relations:
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
a) Rosette HBM 1RY61
1,5/120S
b) Calibration functions
Fig. 4.3 – Kx and Ky function for HBM 1RY611,5/120S rosette
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Equations (4.3)(4.5) can be used in order to define the principal stresses and the
angle of orientation:
(4.6)
(7.7)
These values are obtained with the aid of the Mohr‟s circle.
As written above, Kockelmann supply the K
x
and K
y
functions for a particular HBM
rosette with D = 5.1 mm and for a particular hole diameter D
0
(D/D
0
= 3).
However, this method is valid for all the standard HBM rosettes in the RSM software,
since the key data are the same.
Recently, also coefficients for different values of D/D
0
have been provided and
inserted in the Eval software.
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5. DESCRIPTION OF THE PUSHBUTTONS
The main program appears on the display in the form shown in Fig. 6.1. The
following pushbuttons are used:
 Load Data: This button opens the dialog box from which the operator chooses
the data file to be analyzed.
 Mod./Exp.Data: Opens a dialog box from which the operator can modify the
previously loaded data. The modified data will be saved on file if the operator
presses “SAVE” to exit. If the operator presses “OK” the modified data will be
saved in memory only.
Fig. 5.1 – Residual Stress Evaluation Panel
 Export Stress Calc.: This pushbutton allows the user to export all stress
information displayed on the window. The format of the output file is
„spreadsheet‟ (text with „tab‟ separator). Export of stress information is available
for all calculation methods.
 Show/Hide Vectors: Show/Hide the window displaying the two vectors o
max
(direction of maximum stress), o
min
(direction of minimum stress) and their
angular position in respect to the strain gage.
 Print: This command starts printing the results of calculations of the selected
method.
 EXIT: This button interrupts execution of the program.
 Description: This field contains a brief description of the selected test retrieved
from the data file selected by the operator, which has previously been generated
through the “Residual Stress Measurement System” program. The user can
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modify the content of this field and save the changes made using the procedure
associated with the „Mod./Exp. Data” button.
 Date: Date of the selected test; it is retrieved from the data file selected by
operator. The user can modify the content of this field and save the changes
made using the procedure associated with the „Mod./Exp. Data” button.
 Material: The material code is retrieved from the data file selected by the
operator. The user can modify the content of this field and save the changes
made using the procedure associated with the „Mod./Exp. Data” button.
 Treatment: Description of material treatment retrieved from the data file selected
by the operator. The user can modify the content of this field and save the
changes made using the procedure associated with the „Mod./Exp. Data” button.
 Strain Gage: Designation of the type of strain gage rosette utilized, retrieved
from the data file selected by the operator.
 Type, A/B/C: Designation of the shape of strain gauge rosette utilized; retrieved
from the data file selected by the operator. The designation (A / B / C) is
assigned according to ASTM E 83708 [1].
 c interpolation / Poly order / Number of Steps / Step / Calc. depth: See
Chapter 6 and 7.
 Endmill Diam. [mm]: Shows the value of the hole diameter (retrieved from the
data file selected by the operator).
 E [N/mm
2
]: Modulus of elasticity of the material expressed in N/mm
2
(retrieved
from the data file selected by the operator).
 Eccentricity [mm]: Value of eccentricity in millimetres.
 Beta [°]: Angular direction of the eccentricity.
 v: Value of Poisson's ratio (retrieved from the data file selected by the operator).
 S.G. Radius [mm]: Value of the mean radius of the strain gage rosette utilized in
millimetres.
 Hole Diam. [mm]: Value of the hole diameter (retrieved from the data file
selected by the operator).
 Show / Hide Legend: This button shows/hides plot legend.
 Hole: Blind/Through: This function is visible only when the ASTM E83708
method is selected. It allows hole type selection. The user can choose between
„Blind‟ and „Through‟ hole (see Chapter 2 for details).
 Calc: Quick/Precise: This function is visible only when the ASTM E83708
method is selected: the user can choose between Quick and Precise calculation.
When „Quick‟ calculation is selected, „a‟ and „b‟ coefficients are calculated
evaluating strain distribution measured when the hole depth equals 0,4 times the
mean diameter of the strain gage. When „Precise‟ Calculation is selected, ASTM
„a‟ and „b‟ factors are coefficients from 0 to 0,4 Z/D.
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6. METHODS OF STRAIN INTERPOLATION ON THE
CALCULATION DOMAIN
In the Eval software, strains measured versus depth are interpolated on the
calculation domain in accordance with 2 distinct methodologies:
 Polynomial
 None
The fundamental principle followed in determining the strains on a different domain
from the measurement domain is that of using calculation functions that identify the
nearest interpolated points to the piecewiselinear obtained by joining the
measurement points. This principle pursues the objective of using a strain
distribution as near as possible to the measured distribution in calculating stresses.
Fig. 6.1  Interpolation of measured strains
6.1. Polynomial Interpolation
Polynomial interpolation is a regression on the quadratic minima with an nth degree
polynomial effected on the distribution of measured strain versus depth data.
The degree of the polynomial can be selected by the user and can be from 1 to 20,
or it can be identified by the software with an optimum polynomial automatic search
function.
6.1.1. Method of optimizing the interpolant polynomial degree
To identify the optimum interpolant polynomial degree one proceeds by calculating
the square deviation between the result of interpolation obtained with nth degree
polynomial regression and linear interpolation on the calculation domain.
The square deviation is calculated by variable polynomial degrees from 1 to 20 and
the polynomial degree that produces the smallest square deviation is taken as
optimal.
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Fig. 6.2 – Method of optimizing the interpolant polynomial degree
6.2. No interpolation (None Selection)
This method consists in evaluating strains on the measurement domain: by selecting
this method the calculation steps are set on „Original‟ by default and therefore no
regression or interpolation of the strains is applied.
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7. STEP DISTRIBUTION
The user can select the number of steps, the step distribution and the depth of
calculation of residual stresses (expressed also as a percentage of the mean radius
of the strain gage rosette).
The depth of calculation is related to the mean radius R
m
of the rosette used,
excluding the ASTM method for which stresses are constant through the thickness.
All calculation methods have a limit at a depth of 0.5 R
m
, where the function of
influence becomes almost equal to zero. For this reason, the best results are
obtained with a depth of 0.35 to 0.4 R
m
, which corresponds to a depth of 0.9 to 1.1
mm with standard rosettes (R
m
equal to approx. 2.5 mm).
The number of calculation steps does not have an actual limitation, apart from the
resolution of the instrument (approx. 10 micron); normally, however, good results are
achieved with 10 to 20 steps.
Fig. 7.1 – Selection and distribution of calculation steps
7.1. Constant Step Distribution
In the „Constant‟ mode, constant calculation steps throughout the depth of a hole
used for calculation are applied. The set calculation depth is subdivided into intervals
corresponding to:
Step N
Depth C
Step
_
_
=
(7.1)
where:
 C_Depth maximum calculation depth (normally derived as a percentage of
the maximum measurement depth)
 N_Step number of calculation steps
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Note: the point corresponding to null drilling is not considered in counting the
calculation steps.
7.2. Increasing Step Distribution
In the „Increasing‟ mode, a distribution corresponding to a cosinusoidal function
developed on ¼ of period is used. The depth as a function of the angular domain
can be expressed as:
( ) ( ) ( ) Depth C Depth
i i
_ cos 1 · ÷ = o o
(7.2)
where:
 C_Depth maximum calculation depth (normally derived as a
percentage of the maximum measurement depth)
 angle corresponding to the ith calculation step
 N_Step number of calculation steps
 i index of variable steps between 1 and N_Step
In this way, a distribution of calculation steps is achieved with a greater
concentration near the surface. The gradient of the function used progressively
increases as the depth increases.
7.3. Optimized Step Distribution
This option, which was solely developed for calculation by the integral method in
accordance with the procedure specified in the article: „Optimal selection of the
number of steps for calculation of variable stresses in a thickness using the method
of the integral equation‟ (D.Vangi, B.Zuccarello), is currently disenabled and should it
be selected „Constant‟ distribution is selected by default.
i
Step N
i
· · =
_
1
2
t
o
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8. DESCRIPTION OF THE CALCULATION METHODS
All the procedures for calculating stresses operate on a strain domain specified by
the operator which may be interpolated. One exception is the ASTM Method in which
the calculation steps are set by the standard.
The interpolation can be viewed in detail by selecting the option „Show Interpolation‟
in the window for selecting the calculation methods (Fig. 8.1).
Fig. 8.1 – Interpolated strains
8.1. ASTM E83708 Method: Uniform Stress
The “ASTM E83708: uniform stress” can be used to analyze uniform stress
conditions in isotropic elastic materials.
For further details on the procedure, refer to the standard [1] and Section 2.
The calculation procedure includes the first stage of finding the stress value with
blind hole / intermediate hole / through hole and quick / precise calculation options
(see Section 6, only for blind hole), and a second stage of verifying stress
distribution uniformity.
When „Quick‟ calculation is selected, „a‟ and „b‟ coefficients are calculated evaluating
strain distribution measured when the hole depth equals 0.4 times the mean
diameter of the strain gage. When „Precise‟ Calculation is selected, ASTM „a‟ and „b‟
factors are coefficients from 0 to 0.4 z/D.
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Fig. 8.2 – Calculation by the ASTM Method: uniform stress
8.2. ASTM E83708 Method: NonUniform Stress
The “ASTM E83708: nonuniform stress” can be used to analyze a not uniform
stress distribution in the depth of isotropic elastic materials.
For further details on the procedure, refer to the standard [1] and Section 2.
This calculation method is static because it‟s fixed by the standard, and so it‟s
impossible to set some evaluation parameters such as number of steps and
calculation depth.
The results show the residual stress profile in the depth: the left plot provides the
principal stress distribution in the depth, and the right plot provides the equivalent
stress by Von Mises and Tresca.
The button “Show vector” shows the direction of the principal angle in the depth.
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Fig. 8.3 – Calculation by the ASTM Method: nonuniform stress
8.3. Integral Method
The Integral calculation method has been developed following the indications of
Schajer ([4], [5] e [6]). This calculation is not set by the standard, and so in the right
window it‟s possible to change some evaluation parameters such as as number of
steps and calculation depth.
The following discussion is general and therefore applies also to other methods.
What changes is the way in which coefficients a
and b are calculated. This
calculation with the integral method has already been described in detail in Section
3.
The fundamental equations for strain used in the software are the following:
( )
( ) ( )
2
1 3
h h
h p
c c +
=
( )
( ) ( )
2
1 3
h h
h q
c c ÷
=
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 1 3
h h h
h t
c c c · ÷ +
=
where:
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m
R
z
h = = adimensional hole depth (referred to the mean radius of the rosette R
m
).
Whereas the following are used for stress:
( )
( ) ( )
2
1 3
H H
H P
o o +
=
( )
( ) ( )
2
1 3
H H
H Q
o o ÷
=
( ) ( ) H H T
13
t =
where:
m
R
Z
H = = adimensional depth from the surface (referred to the mean radius of the
rosette R
m
).
By means of the above transformations, the bond between measured strain and
stress, normally expressed in matrix form, can be split (and therefore considerably
simplified) into 3 separate equations, called bond equations:
( ) ( ) h p
E
H P a ·
+
= ·
v 1
( ) ( ) h q E H Q b · = ·
( ) ( ) h t E H T b · = ·
where a and b are the matrixes of influence that contain the coefficients
corresponding to the relaxation function for a blind hole on material with uniform
stress.
Matrixes a and b are determined by Schajer‟s matrixes, with interpolation on the
adimensional depth domain used for the calculation. Schajer‟s matrixes were
determined by a finite element calculation for a number of D
0
/D values as a function
of adimensional depth h (Section 3).
Solving the system of linear equations identified by the bond equations obtains the
distributions of the following variables:
P(H) Q(H) T(H)
which in turn make it possible to determine:
( ) ( ) ( ) H Q H P H ÷ =
1
o
( ) ( ) ( ) H Q H P H + =
3
o
( ) ( ) H T H =
13
t
and especially the principal stresses:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
H T H Q H P H s
x
+ + = (maximum stress)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
H T H Q H P H s
y
+ ÷ = (minimum stress)
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( )
( )
( )


.

\

=
H Q
H T
H arctan
2
1
 (maximum stress angle, measured from gauge 1 to the
maximum principal stress direction. The positive direction is the one that takes the
direction of gauge 1 to the direction of gauge 3).
Fig. 8.4 – Calculation by the Integral Method
8.4. Kockelmann’s Method
Kockelmann‟s method is based on the theory that there is a correlation function
between the strain derivative and the stress distribution, expressed as a function of
hole depth. The bond is formed by a pair of coefficients (K
x
and K
y
), calculated on a
simulation model, that relate stress and strain in accordance with the equations seen
in Section 4.
From these stress values it is then possible to calculate the principal stresses and
angle by using Mohr‟s Circle.
The K
x
and K
y
values are tabulated as a function of the adimensionalized depth of
hole z/D
0
and ratio D/D
0
. To simplify the calculation operations, the tables have been
approximated with polynomial functions expressed as a function of the
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adimensionalized depth. These polynomials are used in the calculation procedure to
find the values of K
x
and K
y
with the assigned D/D
0
, z and number of steps.
Fig. 8.5 – Calculation by Kockelmann‟s Method
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9. REFERENCES
[1] ASTM E 83708, “Standard Test Method for Determining Residual Stresses by
the HoleDrilling StrainGage Method”
[2] ASTM E 83701, “Standard Test Method for Determining Residual Stresses by
the HoleDrilling StrainGage Method”
[3] Schwarz, T., Kockelmann, H., “The holedrilling method  the best technique for
the experimental determination of residual stresses in many fields of
application”, MTB 29, 1993, Vol. no. 2, pages 3338
[4] Schajer, G. S., “Measurement of NonUniform Residual Stresses Using the
HoleDrilling Method. Part I  Stress Calculation Procedures”, Journal of
Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. no. 110, 1988, pages 338343
[5] Schajer, G. S., “Measurement of NonUniform Residual Stresses Using the
HoleDrilling Method. Part II  Practical Application of the Integral Method”,
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. no. 110, 1988, pages
344349
[6] Schajer, G. S., “Application of Finite Element Calculations to Residual Stress
Measurements”, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. no.
103, 1981, pages 157163
[7] Soete, W., and Vancrombrugge, R., “An Industrial Method for the
Determination of Residual Stresses”, Proceedings SESA, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1950,
pages 1728
[8] Kelsey, R. A., “Measuring NonUniform Residual Stresses by the Hole Drilling
Method”, Proceedings SESA, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1956, pages 181194.
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