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NASA TT F16170
WIND ENGINES AND WIND INSTALLATIONS Ye. M. Fateyev
N7522904 6 1 7 0) WIND ENGINES AND WIND (NASATTF1 INSTALLATIONS (Kanner (Leo) Associates) 391 p HC $10.25 CSCL 10A Unclas

G3/44
20751.
Translation of 'Vetrodvigateli i Vetroustanovki , Moscow, State Publishing House of Agricultural Litr" c ~r' erature, 1948, pp 1544
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20546 MARCH 1975
STANDARD TITLE PAGE 1. 4. Report No. Title and Subtitle 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
NASA TT F16170
WIND ENGINES AND WIND
5. 6.
Report Date
March 1975
INSTALLATIONS
7. Author(s)
Performing Organization Code
8.
Performing Organization Report No.
Ye. M. Fateyev, Doctor of Technical Science
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
10. Work Unit No.
NASw2481
11. Contract or Grant No.
Leo Kanner Associates,
California 94063
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Redwood City,
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Translation
D.C. 20546
National Aeronautics and Space Adminis
tration,
15.
Washington,
Supplementary Notes
Translation of "Vetrodvigateli i Vetroustanovki", Moscow, State Publishing House of Agricultural Literature, 1948, pp 1544
16. Abstract A comprehensive theoretical treatment of aerodynamics
precedes the description of wind engines and wind installations. Wind tunnels, the aeordynamic characteristics of wind engines, towers and related equipment, used for testing wind engines, are described in detail. Three methods of adjustment of wind engines to the wind are described, as are several ways for regulating the number of revolutions and the power of wind engines. A chapter on wind engine design ends the first part of the book. Under the heading "Wind Installations," wind energy, anemographs, wind engines working with piston an centrifugal pumps and with various agricultural machines are described. Windmills and windpower stations are discussed. The book ends with a chapter on installation and maintenance of wind engines.
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UnclassifiedUnlimited
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386,.
NASAHQ
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1. Development of Wind Utilization 2. Utilization of Wind Engines in Agriculture PART I. WIND ENGINES CHAPTER 1. BRIEF OUTLINE OF AERODYNAMICS 6 6 10 19 1 3
3. The Air and its Properties 4. The Continuity Equation. The Bernoulli Equation 5. The Concept of Turbulent Motion
6. Viscosity
7. The Law of Similarity 8. The Border Layer and the Turbulence CHAPTER 2. MAIN CONCEPTS OF EXPERIMENTAL AERODYNAMICS 9. Axes of Coordinates and Aerodynamic Coefficients 10. Determination of Aerodynamic Coefficients. Lilientals
28
30 33 38 38
Polar 11. Induced Drag of the Wing 12. N. E. Zhukovskiy's Theorem on the Lifting Force of the Wing 13. Transition from oneeWing Span to Another CHAPTER 3. SYSTEMS OF WIND ENGINES 14. Classification of Wind Engines According to the Principle of Their Operation 15. Advandages and Disadvantages of Various Systems of Wind Engines CHAPTER 4. THEORY OF THE IDEAL WIND ENGINE 16. The Classical Theory of the Ideal Wind Engine 17. The Theory of the Ideal Wind Engine of Prof. G. Kh. Sabinin CHAPTER 5. THE THEORY OF THE REAL WIND ENGINE OF PROF. G. KH. SABININ
40 43 46 52 58 58 65 68 68 72 82
18. Work of the Elementary Blades of the Wind Wheel. First Equation of Relation 82 19. Second Equation of Relation 86 20. Moment and Power of the Whole Wind Engine 88 21. Losses of Wind Engines 90 22. Aerodynamic Analysis of the Wind Wheel 93 23. Calculation of the Performance of the Wind Wheel 97 24. The Profiles "Espero" and Their Construction 101 CHAPTER 6. EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND ENGINES 107 25. Method for Obtaining the Experimental Characteristics 107 26. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wind Engines 116
27. Experimental Testing of the Theory of Wind Engines CHAPTER 7. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF WIND ENGINES 28. Equipment of Towers for the Testing of Wind Engines 29. Correspondence Between the Performance of the Wind Engine and Its Model CHAPTER 8. ADJUSTMENT OF THE WIND ENGINES TO THE WIND
121 125 125 129 133 133 141 143 145 146 154 154 160 162 163 164 176 181 181 196 197 200 202
30. Adjustment by Means of the Tail 31. Adjustment by Means of Windroses 32. Adjustment by Disposition of the WindDriven Wheel Behind the Tower CHAPTER 9. REGULATION OF THE NUMBER OF REVOLUTIONS AND OF THE POWER OF WIND ENGINES 33. Regulation by Removing the WindDriven Wheel from the Wind 34. Regulation by Decreasing the Area of the Wings 35. Regulation by Rotation of the Blade or Part of it Around the Axis of the Flap 36. Regulation by Means of Air Brakes CHAPTER 10. WIND ENGINE DESIGN
37. MultiBladed Wind Engines) 38. Rapid (SparselyBladed) Wind Engines 39. Weight of the Wind Engine CHAPTER 11. CALCULATION OF THE STRENGTH OF WIND ENGINES 40. Wind Load on the Wings and Calculations of the Strength of the Wings 41. The Wing Load on the Tail and on the Regulating Lateral Blade 42. Calculation of the Head of the Wind Engine 43. The Gyroscopic Moment of the WindDriven Wheel 44. The Power of Wind Engines PART TWO WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS CHAPTER 12. THE WIND AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY
212 212 214 232 235 242 242 258
45. The Origin of the Wind 46. Principal Magnitudes Which Characterize the Wind From the Energetic Viewpoint 47. The Energy of the Wind ,48. Accumulation of the Wind Energy CHAPTER 13. CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND POWER UNITS 49. Pdrf6rmnance of Wind Engines and. of Piston Pumps 50. Operation of Wind Engines with Centrifugal Pumps
51. Operation of Wind Engines with Millstones and Agricultural Machines 278 CHAPTER 14. 52. 53. 54. 55. WINDDRIVEN PUMP INSTALLATIONS 293 293 299 301 307 311 318 318 319 322 324 334 340 341 345 347 WindDriven Pump Installations for Water Supply Water Tanks and Water Towers in Wind Pump Installations Standard Designs of Wind Pump Installations Experience with Exploitation of Wind Pump Installations for Water Supply in Agriculture 56. WindDriven Irrigation Installations CHAPTER 15. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. WINDMILLS
Types of Windmills Technical Characteristics of Windmills Increasing the Power of Old Windmills The New Type of Windmill Performance Characteristics of Windmills WIND POWER STATIONS
CHAPTER 16.
62. Types of Generators for Operation With Wind Engine and Voltage Regulator 63. Wind Charging Units 64. LowPower Wind Power Stations 65. Parallel Operation of Wind Power Stations in a General Circuit with Large Thermic Stations and Hydropower3 Stations 66. Experimental Testing of the Operation of Wind Power Stations Connected Parallel in the Circuit 67. HighPower Power Stations Connected in Parallel 68. Brief Data on Foreig Wind Power Stations CHAPTER 17. BRIEF DATA ON THE INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE OF WIND ENGINES 69. Installation of a LowPower Wind Engine, from 1 to 15 hp 70. Maintenance and Servicing of Wind Engines 71. Safety Measures During Installation and Servicing of Wind Engines REFERENCES
348 352 359 365 371 371 375 378 382
Siii
WIND ENGINES AND WIND INSTALLATIONS
Ye. M. Fateyev Doctor of Technical Sciences
Introduction /3*
1.
Development of Wind Utilization
In our country,the energy of the wind has been widely utilized for a long time, mainly in the rural flourmill industry. The namge of windmills reached 200,000 and in some large villages,there were up to 80 flour mills. These were wooden mills manufactured by the local farmers which had ,an average power of approximately '" 5 hp ',as a rule; rarely large windmills were found with a diameter of the wheel of 2024 meters, and a power of 1520, hp.,In such a manner, the homemade mills had an average established power The average annual production of such a of 1,000,000 hp. mill amounted to around 8500,,hp hours;ccooemquently; ,all the
existing mills produced 170 0 million p. urs mer year., ' Considering that the specific output of a mill was kg/per hp hour, we find that all the windmills of Russia ground around S 34 million tons,or 2 billion pood of grain per year. s was based merely on the practical The construction of windcing experience of many years. The foreme:h taught the future generations not from books,but from their practical work. The development of engineering by the end of the nineteenth century has made it possible to create a new type of wind engine, with automatic adjustment to the wind and with control of the number of revolutions. The mass production of multiblade windmotors of metallic construction started to developi , The development of aviation, the enormous success of which is due to the true creator of modern aerodynamics, the renowned Russian scientist N. Ye. Zhukovskiy, created the conditions for solving anew
he theoretical problems of utilization of wind energy. In 1914/4
1918, N. Ye. Zhukovskiy., and hi s distiples, who are now ,eminent scIin' tists in the ISS ,V. P. 'Vetchinkin, G. Kh. Sabinin, G. FR.'Proskura and others, eadratedfor the first time the theory of wind engines. The theory and experimental testing of airplane wing and propeller/ has been applied to the study of phenomena, taking place during the passage of the air flow,.through the winddriven:wheel.iIn t he :USSR; in the Central AerodynamiclInstitute, the Central Wind Energy Institute and in the All Union IMstitite for Mechanization and * Numbers in the margin indicate pagination in the foreign text. 1
Electrification of Agriculture, several original theoretical and experimental studies have been performed on wind engines and winddriven installations which t.odate *6rm the basis of thed.,evelopmenit of(, Soviet wind technology. At the same time an expansion is observed in the field of application of wind engines intthe national economy. In addition to flourmill industry and water supply, they are used for a wider mechanization in agriculture, for example, for the preparation of forage in animal husbandry, the irrigation of fields and vegetable cultures, the lighting of villages, etc. In the Soviet Union,' wind installations have found wide application and are acquiring a growing importance. The favorable wind conditions of the South, which is characterized by high annual averages of wind velocity, make it possible to use the adjustable B12 wind engine, which gives completely uniform current voltage, and meets the demands of, electrical energy. The energy of the wind can be utilized almost everywhere; therefore, it has special importance among the other sources of energy. Wind utilization in the USSR ."has been regarded as an important State problem. As early as 1918, Vi. I. Lenin considered itit imperative to instruct the Acadamy of Sciencestto include in its plan of reorganization of the industry and fdr the,econ.omical development/5 of Russia,among other problems, water power and wind engines in genA eral, and their application to agriculture in particular. The 18th Congress of the VKP, in its resolution based on the reportofof Comrade V. M. Molotov indicated: "TObdevelop(' more extensively the construction of small winddrivenel9trosttions for
purposes' of fuel,,economy."
"To developu widely the construction of small kolkhoz hydrostations, wind power and gas generator ,..,elbctro6installations based
on local fuel."
"To organize mass production of wind engines."
2
The' law on the fiveyear plan for iestorattontand development of national economy in the USSR in the years 19461 9 5 0 says: "To ensure mass construction in rural localities of small hydroelectrostations,,wind stations and thermalelectrostations with portable steam 'and gas generator engines., V~ I. Lenin, "Outline of the plan of ' V. scientific and technical works" Sochinenya [works], Vol. XXII, 1931, p. 232 21 VKP (b) in . resolutions and decisions of congresses, confer
ences and jlenums//" of'Tsk, 2
pat
2, '1941I pp' 735739
. It is not accidental that the grinding of seeds in wiidmills 3 ... A wind engine with a power during a season( )up to 1520 hp"if~ting the of 15. in those periods when boiArrigatiomaris required.!'of the complex measMechanization of water lifting ures in the campaign for high crops. The drying of swampy landgS.7 USSR is for the transport of water. especially with regard to small parcels with vegetable cultures and fields ~ i ta where the. ntt ti igorou.may in several cases solve quite sag.but.nas long as there is wind. it is possible to supply the farm with water by means of the energy of the wind. The utilization of wind energy. sch'edue "oft'watering~i. Here there is no need for storage battery installations. . it is most advantageous and conWith the aid of a water tower venient to utilize wind engines.t It is advisable to combine the' work of the wind engine.j can irrigate wte' p to' . with a container for the storage of water for one or two days. in irrigationnsystems .obtained from deep holesand. meets with serious difficulties due to the lack of local energy resources. with some other kind of work. In such a manner it is possible to liberate completely man still widely used power. all the time. /6 wells.everywhere and not only in dry years.wind installations have received massive development in the agriculture...2.iacase in'which windengines vhave been most wc6nverIiientiyj used in agriculture. the wind engine accumulates the energy of the wind in the form of lifted water. Here. the utilization of winddriven installations is the most accessible method for themechanization of water lifting. Utilization of Wind Engines in Agriculture The energy of the wind is utilized in various branches of the national economy. i. electrical lighting or grinding.aas far as irrigation is concerned. In the area of water supply. the engine can operate and pump up the water from the drainage system. ' 'V'g bl e c u l t u r e s 'requireartificial irrigationalmost. wind engines can be conveniently utilized for lifting the water to a height of 4 to 20:~meters.ffor example. By pumping up the water into the reservoir.0 mn i .' hP. /.isfactorily the task of mechanization of irrigation. The wind engines acquire an extreme importance inthe water supply of animal husbandryin the steppe . I':i . nor for the daily presnce of man in order to start and stop the wind engine.' regions where water is mainly.which in many places of the . Irrigation is one of the main parts . The agriculture of Holland is very much indebted to the work of wind engines which transformed swampy lands into fertile fields. Here.
windmills allow for a fairly complete utilization of wind energy. of oil cakes. around 1.. an enormous amount of fuel is being saved. cutting of silo and washing of root crops. the possibility of performing the grinding in the stock:. such as grinding of seeds and of oil cake. This type of work.3 millions of tons of a nominal 7000calorie fuel would have to be used yearly. makes it possible for the wind engine to operate all the time. By using wind engines for this kind of work. as long as there is wind./8 ting energy in order to obtain a constant voltage current and to ensure the supply of electrical energy on calm days.5 billions If the same amount of grinding were to of pood of grain per year. a serious handicap in the utilization of wind energy for electrification. be performed with common engines. Complications may arise only when preparing root crops on calm days. makes it possible to utilize the energy of the wind in almost all kinds of agricultural work and fo'r lighting. especially in those regions where the annual average wind speed is below 5 m/sec. can be performed in stock. In this case. can obviously be efficiently utilized parallel with other electrostations. The windmills in the USSR.has its history of many centuries. on the average. as wind charging units encounter no difficulties due to the inconsistency of the wind in the course of time. since the processing of seeds. make a fairly cumbersome process of production which should be mechanized entirely. The electrification of the agriculture by means of wind engines forms an essential task. Large wind electrostations.it is completely unnecessary to store energy. has a highly flexible schedule of loading. around 2. windmills played the /7 most important role. and of straw. radio and automobile transportation. and should find wide app'ication. and at the same time both railway and animal transport are freed of the transportation of this fuel. However. since one has in reserve horsedrawn actuators. The utilization of windmills encounters no difficulties in ithis respect. while quite cumbersome. can grind. The operation of wind engines with generators. the utilization of lowpower windmills. In addition. However. Long ago. 4I . can be performed anytime during the day. The preparation of forage for animal husbandry. The charging of storage batteries for electrical lighting. such as therial and hydraulic. is the necessity of accumula.in the rural flour mill industry. Consequently. In such a manner. ranging from 100 to 1000vWt. the energy accumulates in the product of the flour mill industry itself. one can always ensure the work of machines for the preparation of root crops.
The above presented list of the main branches of agriculture w where wind engines are widely and successfully utilized shows the importance and the significance in the development of wind utilization in our socialist economy. Wind installations are used abroad for various agricultural works. above 4 m/sec. 5 . and is about 10 times cheaper than the work of horsedrawn gear.accessible to the abilities and means of the k. the cost of production of wind engines is lower than the cost of production of thermal engines under identical conditions. In those regions where the annual average wind speed is kolkhozes. The cost of operation of wind power units is not higher than the cost of operation of thermal and hydraulic engines. winddriven pump installations have gained the widest distribution. Mechanization of agricultural work by means of wind energy is quite simple and is. The wind engines produced for this purpose are of the multiblade type and are geared to a piston pump.
thevppresencee of devices nsuring the operation of wind engines at high wind speeds.is convenient'for utilization and to work withia highoutput' coefficient of wind energy. 6 . Aerodynamics can be divided into theoretical and experimental. are engines which transform the energy of_llthe wind' injto mechanical work. Theoretical aerodynamics is based on the laws of mechanics applied ' to gaslike bodies. 4.rational exploitation. BRIEF OUTLINE OF AERODYNAMICS [551 /12 The Air and its Properties The air blanket surrounding the Earth is called the Earth's atmosphere.. approximately constant power and a limited number of revolutions. which are based on aerodynamics ..engines 1. WIND ENGINES Wind engines.? air movement and the action of air on the bodies which come inr. it is known that meteorites catch fire at the height of 200300 km. with ian.the science studying . from 300 to 750 km. however. The complexity of scientific and practical problems of utilization of wind energy by means of wind engines. 3. :. the study df the energy problems related to wind.. The main section of wind technology is the theory and experimental investigation of wind engines. the theory and experimenta i nvestigation of wind engines. The inconstancy and rarity of this energy determine the construction features of wind . : ' We shall be concerned with aerodynamics only insofar as it isdirecty related to. the construction of wind installations and their . is pi@ently a technical discipline called wind technology. This phenomenon attestst {o to the fact that the Earth's atmosphere has an upper limit of no less than 300 km. 3. experimental aerodynamics is based on test's Performed in wind tunnels' and under :atur6.Kof wihd engine s. 2.PART I. 2. the construction of effective wind engines. while the Northern Lights are observed at even greater altitudes. The height of the upper limit of the atmosphere has not been established. the awkwardness of wind engines at somewhat higher values of power..l'c6dnditi6is'T. contact with it.which. .< CHAPTER 1. The main task of wind technology is to create wind engines and wind installations which are capable of providing amotive fbrce . Wind technology can be divided into the following parts: 1. the 4tud .
In such a manner...99 Argon. Ne 0. placement of layers. the upper layer of the atmosphere has not been studied 'i) by various yet and any conclusions about it..02 20. Hydrogen99..to the Earth by radio. flow of the air takes place In such a manner..6s state were expounded.. the average annual altitude of the troposphere changes from 8 kmat.at a height of 10kiim..the poles to 17 km at the equator.layer of the atmospherewith ajthickness of 20 km The highest altitude reabhed by some sounding has been investigat'ed. Helium0. topography and thermal changes of the Earth.My comparing with observed phenomenait of nature as for example. It is convenient to consider The it equal to anaverage of 11 km at a latitude of 500 to 600... The chemical composition of the stratosphere air has not For been determined as yet. precipitation falls. Hydrogen H 295... according to Henfry. the stratosphere is studied by Prof.5 5 Investigations of the stratosphere are performed by means of sounding balloons which contain recording meteorological instruments. u' 7 .volume are: Nitrogen N 2 2. Oxygen0.94 Carbon dioxide.. which automatically transmit the readings of the instruments.He and insignificant amount((.N 2 78.31.( louds')nor fog'g the temperature is.whene theivertical dlouds are formed. there are merely assumptions about it.Ar 0.C0 2 0. By weight. is characterized by the fact that there is almost no vertical dis.... Until today.58. ....0067 mm Hgand at the height of 140 km: Nitrogen0.03 Oxygen.... Helium He1..... the air contains 23162% oxygen and 76.00o40 mmi Hg...the troposphere is in a state and the wind blows.0004 Helium.... is called troposphere. The stratosphere.03 Neon.USSR means of radio sounding balloons. the composition of the air in the troposphere is quite homogeneous. Oxygen 020. by In the . With the change in latitude..95.t races) of krypton and xenon..The troposphere....11./13 The winds are characterized by great constancy. water vapor H 2 00.. The lower layer of the atmosphere up to an altitude of about 11 km.8% . This is .other gases..84 and overall! pressure ' 0.. a s a result of which. the brightness of twilight.... tages by. balloons is 37 km while the height reached by man equals 22 km. Molchanov. Thelilayers of the atmosphere situated above the The state of the stratosphere troposphere form the stratosphere.04. water vapor 0.. investigators on the basis of theoretical assumptions . a. Dry air contains in percentage by volume: Nitrogen. influence the state of the troposphere. there are neithe)S.0012 0..15.01... of constant agitation of its layers.. the percenexample..... as well as solar radiation..'almoSt consttant and equals5'. dveral pressure 0.
the standard temperature is convened at 200 C. In measuring the air pressure by barometer. the temperature is taIen taken. this pressure equals: p0 10 333 ir/I= 1. kg/cm2 .The composition of the air remains unchanged. The normal temperature t of the air in the TJSSR is assumed to be equal to 150 C.to ah altitude of about 22 km. in other countries. I In aerodynamics it is convenient to measure the pressure in kilograms per square meters (kg/m2 ).e. at sea level. The zero of the absolute temperature is' 2730 below the zero of the Celsius scale. The elasticity of the air is manifested in the Air pressure. the magnitude of the pressure is expressed in mm Hg. but the excess pressure over the atmospherid one: p' = pp where po is the atmospheric pressure. The pressure it exerts on the bodies which come in contact with it.'which equals ..i. Air temperature. we obtain: T = 273+t. which is called the absolute temperature. equals: po = 760 mm Hg In the technical system of measurement. Denoting the absolute temperature by T. 8 j . up .033i kg/cm 2 The unit of pressure in tebhnical calculations is:'the atm6' sphere. The temperature of the air is usually measured in degrees Celsius.just like near the surface of the Earth. :14 hence: Often it is not the absolute pressure of the atmosphere which is used in calculations. In thermal calculations. The normal pressure of the atmosphere measured by a barometer. pressure of the air on a body is perpendicular to its surface and is the limit of the ratio of the pressure AP to the area AF: p=im' .P dP .iin absolute degrees.
' to 1500C and a pressure B = 760 mm Hg. P. g =. the temperature troposphere per km of increase in altitude H ::=11 km. the value of the air density near the Earth equals: /15 Under other conditions.the density equals: . y is the specific weight of the air. while 6. 2S' (3) H < 11 km.5H..'of the& Earth.than 11 km is tT = 15 0 6. are calculated according to Galle's formula: P e (5) where H is the altitude in kilometers.: q:sec i where.lower than 11 km is equal to: P7= PO ( 542'i (2) The mass density of the air in the Vicihity.. one can use an approximate formula: P?= Po2) I (4a) where H is the altitude in kilometers.9181leration of the force of gravity. The mass density in the troposphere at an altitude of is determined accordingto the formula: H '1 (4) For rapid calculations of the mass density in the region of the troposphere.The temperature in theitroposphere at altitudes .25. Of:. 9 .lbwer . The pressure and mass density of the air at altitudesaabove 11 km.5 is the average annual change in.the (1) The pressure at altitudes. is the acce At a temperature <.
u.'which the fluid forms:a round'a. then the pattern of the flow line is also constant.the flow lines.of the fluid in movement.fluid. The flow lines.elocityin a'given paft lof the field.the whole flow can be regarded as being composed of individual jets. A socalled velocity field is formed around the body. one has to consider the conThe flow line is a cepts of flow lineS.. In such a way. throughout the space occupied or in a part of it. etc. When an air stream flows around a body. is called nonsteady state. Since the flow lines have.cases: are' similar. poin at1 a givenmoment. which are drawn through all'ithe points of a smalland simple closed contour in the region occupied by the fluid. Ihnstdying theflow of air around bodies. The Continuity Equation. den sity. The totality ofaall the drawings yields the pattern of . in the vicinity of the body. the fluid can neither go in nor out through imaginary walls of the tube. In studying the velocity field.thedirect'ionof the velocities in all points. since the forces operatingrin both:. Line to which the vector of veloctItyof thefluidis tangent'inh every. and the stream tube can be represented as rigid underi' steady stat e movement conditions. the velocity of the particles at a distance from the body are similar everywhere.the velocity of each particle at various points in the stream will be different both in magnitude and in direction. Their frequency characterizes the magnitude~ 6f the v. the movement is ekamihed i ndependently of whether the body movBs in' the air or whetherthe air moves around an immobile. stay constant in time for any point in space. the velocity.4. 10 /16 The totality of the flow lines is sometimes called the field of . The fluid flowing in this tube is called a jet which cannot mix with the neighboring jet. Such a movement is called steady state. The Bernoulli Equation The velocity field in the vicinity of a streamlined'body3' ~ . flow. pressure.body. this illustrates the pattern of the velocities in any given moment in time in a space filled with . The movement where the velocity changes in the course of time.. If during the movement of a fluid. Each particle of the powder floating on the surface of the fluid >will leave on the photographic film a trace in the form of a drawing. is called elementary stream tube. The part of the fluid limited by the flow lines.each such jet can be represented as being isolated from the mass of the fluid and consequently.body can be reproduced if a small grain of powder is th own on the surface of a fluid.
one second is equal to Mkg sec At the same time a'mass of :fluid passes through secti'on II. /17 t~reamitlibe Under conditions of steady state. Let us distinguishin thgenera flow of the tube.in . Fig. p = and equation (6) can be written in 1 the following form: .The Continuity Equation.. We can therefore write: '. density. can neither increase nor examined sector. and velocity of the fluid particles in the section.A F.::Behrnoulli's equationtis the law of conservation of energy applied to a jet of fluid in steady state movem .decrease. Fr"rbWs Secti6nsI land II ( Fig. p V p2 F pCo nst1 or (6) . 1) the continuity equation 11 . mi = m 1 2 = m = Const. 1).. 2 p 2 P2 F V F2V 2 = Const.. there would be a change in pressure.ht. For a noncomppessible fluid.and let us make two cross sections I and II perThe mass of fluid passpendicular to the axis of the tube (Fig. the size of which equals: where: mmass pdensity Farea of the cross section df the Vvelocity through the section. the flow AB. 1: Stream tube Bernoulli's equation. ing through section lin. 1 Expression (6) is called the continuity equation ofta'i ljet. the mass of fluid:'in the limited by I and II. (7)  Z2 o This expression represents the volumetric flow rate of the tube and shows that the volume of fluid coming i.the tube must equal the volume of the fluid leaving the tube per unit time. Otherwise.
a column of fluid Vldt.krk performed by the particles of the fluid on their pathway atithe left of section I. avelocity.il. The mass of fluid entering through section I brings a supply of energy which.0.e.In the time dt. equalingthe :.'to the stream tube through section I is composed of the kinetic energy./18 The volume of this column equals F Vldt. ptential energy of the pressure of thefluid. and I equaling:. Its volume equals . . During the same time. PlF 1 V 1 dt = mdt.passing through the section I in time dt. This work equals:thU P 1 F 1 V dt (a) where pF I is the pressure on the column of fluid'. Multiplying and dividing expression (a) by pl. for example. count'" ing_6Yfrom any level. must b be constant between the sections I and II. The potential energy of the weight equals: ZlGdt. 0 . 12 . passes through section 1. the massiof fluid movingmwith. while Vldt is thepatih which this column has to cross in posiit:on tion I. The height Zl is called the level height.a column of fluid V dt passes through the section:lII. This fluid is at a height Z 1 . The total supply of energy . since the weight of the fluid G = mg. potential energy of the weight which equals the potential work of thi the fluid crossing section I. density of the fluid at the left of section I. Z1 Gdt = Zlmgdt.: wel^ obtain: where: pl pj  pressure. by multiplying this volume by the mass densitywe obtain the mass. according to the law of conservation of energy.F 2 V 2 dt and its mass: P 2 F 2 V 2 dt = mdt.Jith/section F 1 .
" Summing up the energy for sections I and II. . should equal the corresponding sumo. '" In the case of flow of a fluid without friction losses and losses of heat through the walls of the tube. the sum of the energies of the flow through section I .equation of the energy balanoe': /20 13 .'the The potential energy of the pressure: .throughl section II. flowing through section II. By the same. * The potential energy of the weight: The potential thermal energy: Ut Z 2 mgdt.mgdt. which could be assigned the" magnitude K..e. than the incoming energAv should equal the Outgoing one plus the losses K.i.'liie. Ulmgdt. for an elastic fluid. If mechanical (friction) and heat losses of energy take place in the region between the sections I and II.. one has to' /19 take into consideration the internal thermal energy brought along by the mass mdt through section I in the tube.mdt.of energies. tude is dependent on the temperature of the gas. It is knowlffrom thermodynamics that the internal energy of the gas U. and consequently.interhal energy.r'method one can find the energy of the fluid: :kinetic energy. The internal energy crossing section I will equal:. gas. we obtain the . Since the mechanical equivalent of heat is A= cai the internal energy in kgmwill equal ... is usually Its magniexpressed in calories per kilogram weight of the gas. will be different in different sections through the stream tube.
thenwecould multii5ly equationq (9) by y and 14 . In this equation gpl = Yl. 29 y Z  piezometric height. denoting the losses through Ke. The Bernbuil{ equation for a noncompressible fluid is derived Since for a noncompressible fluid. T1ia= and U= U\. we finally obtain: V 2 p2 U. t 1 the weight Dividing all the terms of this equation by mgdt of the flowing fluid. I (9) Most practical problems aresolved . level.i ..Z +  + +z.. KI .mV mV 2 2 dt + p. (8) Expression (8) represents the general form of the Bernou l_.. S +.=Const. After dividing the terms of the given equation by:the~eight mgt. equation for any fluid including gases. dynamic pressure. /21 but per meter of fluid. U.+ +.of. from the general equation (8). equation (8) can be rewritten in the following form: I pTi i.. we obtained a linear dimension in meters. gp 2 = Y2.not per kg. therefore.by means of this equation..height. they are called heights: velocity heig .Zmg _L'. .Zmgd U 2 mgdt = _ .de+ . +. " " mdt +. height of losses. we obtain: + f! . If the equation of the balance were to beexessed. All the terms of eqcat'ien(9) have a linear dimension.mdt Z.
The point K. Ac" cording to. we can find the pressure at this For sections I and II we have: point.Bernoulli's equation. 2: a body 2: Flow Flow around around since F 2 is very large by comparison with dF 1 . where V 2 = 0. we can write: Fig. we thenebtain .ip. Vpp .. If we draw an infinitely small contour abc in section I (Fig.and are called: pV 2 2 dynamic pressure. the ratio dF 1 over F 2 tends to zero and consequently V2 also tends to zero. 2 Pi i . arelusually 'examined.a simple expression of the Bernoulli equation which is constantly applied in theoretical aerodynamics.'cons6qubntly Z::is veryslamall. The sum of all the terms in the Bernoulli equation is called total head. which in moderna~plane.are very large. yZ ..Z". 2.i. y .:. 2).pressure of the losses..Let us assume that there is a flow with velocity V 1 around a certain body.horizOntal. of an infinitely small cress section which becomes wider and wider as it approaches the body and receives a finite section around the body since the letter has finite dimensions.static pressure or hydrodynamic pressure. If the equation of Bernoulli.obtanl. is talled the 'critical point.hydrstatic pressure. 2  P 15 15 .. d 1 (9a) sure The terms of this equation receive:: the dimensions of presg' /mj 2 .. Comparing the small level height Z and the losses c with the ternms V 2 /2g. S_ F ' a Based on the equation of contin/22 uity of the jet (7) for sections I and II.. we obtain a jet.then flows Which are nearly:. Z and c can be1 disregarded since they are small. PI't=jp 2 " =cnst (10) The pressure in the critical poiht. Fig. is applied to air..
Cavitation. The.'.:(11) +P In such a manner the:cpressure at the critical point is the highest to be found in the flow around a body. The discontinuity of a flowing fluid which is accqmpanied by.e. Let us write the Bernoulli equation for a large reservoir.gative .hangesinto tensile stress. 16 .to zero. when Zl = 0. due to friction in the reservoir can be i. the pressure . V 1 = 0. i. 12) through the :pipe This velocity will be mihiiirlm&l . The discontinuity of the flow takes place when the pressure of the fluid becomes ne. passing through a section of the sets in. and we obtain:: /23 hence: P.when sucked out will be. tubesituated. 2 pressure p'2.e. atmospheric pressure.. The velocity of motion of the water india large reservoir is which has a very small if compared with the rate V 2 in the pip 6 smal1cross. section and therefore it can be taken eqaUll. bel.4n the reservoir!.aw:!the vwater level.a.Hence: Since at the critical point V 2 Pa= 0. close to' which the water is the water level in the reservoir.e. then. 2 wevshall have: = 0 and pl = P0. in this moment.~ The usual fluids can not withstand anytensile Stres ' and tear up.)he highest velocity V 2 will be seen at the pressure 1fllowing equatidn.holds: P2 = 0. the formation of gaps filled with vapor and gases to be found in the fluid is called cavitation.from and let which the water is being sucked out by means of a pipe. inderithe'se coriditions.=Po.ki yz the smaller the This equation shows that the larger .= J/2z + )..i.losses disregarded as they are small. i.the Hence the limiting velocity of the water in the be: pipe would V.plane . '. us observe the velocity of the water in the tube at which cavitation If we take L. i.
the Bernoulli equation (8) becomes [551: 2 UV J" (13) For airjk = 1. Fig. one deals with high velocities. nst . Since ain the critical point V 2 = 0.~ 2(12a) For wateryY= 1000 kg/me. On the basis of this law. po = 10330 kg/m 2 and g = 9.81 m/sec. Substituting these values in equation (12a). :@ee ptV p.41. let us write equation (13)for this point. • 3= 14. to use equation (8).has.81. jet.cavitation may set in. Formulat(12) is applicable only at low temperatures. "therefore.gI  o F P (14) Pressureof the' gas in.the discontinuity in the fluid is facilitated d by the elasticity of its vapor. and one can neglect the losses 5 in the can be written in the following form: 2 ~z_Sv z (a) 17 . one cannot disregard in Bernoulli's equation the terms containing the value of the internal energy of the gasl and /24 In most cases of the aviation practice. V " .e. above 100 m/sec. this equation 1 = Z2 . one ..9. 2 represents a jet which approaches the body in critical point k.when the air has no time to exchange heat with the body around which it flows. and consequently the processeotakhs place adiabatically i.we obtain: V2 2... At high velocities. where k is the adiabatic exponent. The equation of Bernoulli for gases.15 m/sec. At high temperatures. At this rate of motion of the water. and cavitation sets in at a much lower rate.In this case: V=.the'critical point. and consequently we can write: 2g.
1113]: (15) hence S gkp" T or a 2gkp 'r Introducing a into equation(b).Ma.4S. p. merely on the initial pressure and on the imachinumber..i. ") (b) The formula of the velocity of the sound is well known from physics [1.By dividing this equation to kpl and multiplying by ki and y.kp (k .. the pressure of the gas in the critical point depends.e. k 1 2 =i . In order to solve the problem. regard: to Vl/ai.Twhile neglecting the terms of the higher order with. let us make the following transformation of I. . we obtain: tion Let us change the right hand side of this equation using equa(15) for the velocity of the sound and substituting.we obtain: P1 = (1. assuming that(Vl/a<l.equation (17): T [ (a) Let us expound the right part of this equation into a series according to thebinomial theorum ..olving the equation for p 2 /l. we obtain: S . By substituting this number in equation (16) and s. to find the velocity at 'which a correction has to be introduced for the compressibility of the air.205M4)3. we obtain: V2 A " . instead 18 .(  * (16) The ratio of the velocity of the gas V in any point to the /25 velocity of the sound k in the same point is called the Mach number . . (17) In such a manner.
605 Mach number At sound velocity . TABLE 1 Velocity of flow 1 a..is : the relationship:between . The presented calculation shows that at velocities below 100 m/secsof'eth6 flow.913 ii0. This motion can be observed in nature in the form of which sometimes appear in quiet weather or in the tLubulentdustprsb form of powerful whirlwinds or typhoons. Oncomp 0.P.foa steam engine. Considering the series of velocities.333 iso oo 0.cora. = (18) Comparing this equation with equation (11) for a noncompressible fluid. compressible noncompressible was obtained by dividing equation :( 1) by equation (i8). . the effect of the compressibility of the air on the pressure in the examined point is insignificant. 3).the pressures ' of a nrbncompressible and a campressible fluid. the lesser th@fdVifference in pressure between the compressible and noncompressible flow in the chosen point.3 5. let usi. The most intensive turbulent motion is formed behirid a body which moves in a fluid. Vhbrtexes appear also in the form of rings'which can be observed in the exhaust of internal combustion engines iforabove. 5'.seewhat1.(7 093 0.5o too 0.. It follows that the smaller the velocity of the flow by comparison with the velocity of the sound..(FiR.436 . S noncomressibe . a ship or a motoriboat (Fig. its value k pl/ P 1 +pT.0 8 7 where the ratio (p. 19 .= 339TA :i %=P 1 dIAo mpressible compressible ssibl 0. V 1 . for example. The Concept of Turbulent Motion Turbulent motion is the movement of fluid in a region wh1cift~1filed with whirls.of a 2 . we see that these two equations differ in the term 27in the right hand side of equation (18)_. 2.' the pipe 6. 1 in equation 1(b): 9' 1 12p BI Hence: P. 4).Ofthe body in a quiet flow.
fapid:. then. 5. If we were to fill this box with smoke. In order for the experiment to be successful. 3. In its rotary motion. a water column is formed.set ina. smoke in the form of similar rings from their mouth. the pulley twists around a column of air. The smoke from the pipes of steam engines sometimes emerges '1: in the form of rings. A vat filled with water is placed at the distance of 3 m under the pulley. rotary motion. After some time. which extends from the level of the water to the center of the pulley. in the form of a /28 thin string.the water. in the experiments on the formation of vortexlike rings. 4: Vortex formation behind the propeller of a motorboat. As a result of the lower pressure in the middle of the newly formed vqr(tex. as a result of knocks produced by means of a small hammer on tie rear wall. the water should be slightly heated.Demonstration of the vortexes and their properties.. An air flow is obtained as a result of It 20 . we see that neighboring parts of the ring act on each point inside it and. The experiment for the formation of a:vortex can be performed by means of the instrument illustrated in Fig. S Fig. In calm air the vbortexlike rings Fig. vortexlike rings Wulicome out through the front Some smokers can let out wall. Another interesting experiment pn' the formation of turbulent rings can be performed by means of the instrument illustrated in Fig. theni . therefore. If an impeller is introduced along the long axis of a container filled with water and . which is a wooden box. A hollow pul'ley v~with several plane radial partitions which however do not reach the axis. [8].begins to raise and is set inarotary motion as we$ll. is known from the theory of turbulent motion that the vortex and the velocity field are in4 terdependent. while the front wall has a round opening. subject to a general cyclic. the ring flies rapidly in. the air. movement. 6. The rear wall of the box is formed by an elastic membrane. is set in rapid rotational motion by means of a machine. Under the pullyy the turbulent string consists of very small drops which are thrown in all directions by the partitions of the pulley. The typhoon or whirlwind have their own movement. /27 a turbulent column is obtained inside the vessel.Aand the surrounding fluid is.
Point A can be assumed to be at a distance S from the initial point 0 along the curve. the fluid will have a certain velocity V. s 2 2. According to Helmholz. the first. The example demonstrates the extreme complexity of turbulent motion. Let us draw an arbitrary line OABC through a flowing ideal fluid (Fig. then the rear ring is sucked up by the leading one. elastic bottom Key: 2. 7).n 21 . 6: mation of vortexlike rings lar velocities.'kof the change of velocity with the change of radias. after which they again change places. linear law. Fig.only from the we shall alpoint of view of their experimental'applCation. In thesame'luid particle the radii can rotate with different angular velocities. is compressed and passes: inLater it widensland runs ahead of side it. 6 : the air inside the ring moves forward as a result of which the vortexlike /29 ring carries with it a certain volume of air.. This volume of air forms the atmosphere of the ring. nlo . In order to study the'. If two vortexlike rings are released in succession from the instrument illustrated in Fig.as illustrated in the right side of ~i :. 5: Instrument for the formation of vortexes. becomes deformed and rotates. The particles of the rotating solid obey a. a few special magnitudes and concepts are introi~ichJKform the theoremscof aeroduced. which is expressed by the formula: V lYnpyroe S Fig. 6. = wr. fluid is called ideal nohcompressible. In presenting the main concepts of aerodynamics. motion of a fluid. the relationshipsh~betweenwh dynamics. Such a . I The rotation of a fluid is essentially different from the rotation of a solid body.  where w is the angular velocity of rotatiohKfhile r is the radius. The . ways consider only noncompressible fluids without friction.this. the fluid particle moves forward with the rate6of fits center of gravity. different both in mag1.8aeBso~c The particles of the fluid can rotate with various anguInstrument for the forFig. vortexlike ring: nitude and in size. In any point A of this line. The velocity flow.
ve~lcity Fig. Multiplying.the sign of the integral along a closed contour. 8). If the contour were to be circumvented in the reverse change as well. Let us single out in a flowing fluid a closed contour withtthe circumference S (Fig. the sign wbuid Fig."along the line OABC. where V s is the tangential component of the velocity flow. i.projection of the velocity of the fluid to the tangent in point A of element dS. The dimensioniof the velocity flow is m 2 sec The velocity circulation. and let us project the velocity of the flow V to the direction of the tangent to this point.positiVe direction ofoithe tangent and the velocity by/31 the receiving formula can be reWritten in the following = V dS= V c::s'od5. . .. 22 .the:p ogjtio Vs of this velocity by the element dS.the velocity flow along the curve: SI~i(19a) dS. ds \ Adding up all the elementary velocityo flows on the closed contour.: city flow dri along this d=V .the fluid will have a certain velocity V. multipliedpbyiBthe element dS. direction. where Vcost = V s . 8: The velecity circulation in a closed contour 9 (Fig. we obtain the velocity circulation: dS. dS with point: A. ids L Circulation Fig. 8). In any (.e. point of this contour.' (20) where . gives) then elementary flow:: d = VdS. 7: of the velocity alongside a contour (19) Addingupsall the elementary velocity flows. Let us single out on this curve the /30 element. we obtain the veloelement.. form: Denoting the angle between the 1.The projection of the velocity V in point A of element dS to the tangent of the curve through this point.magnitude S can be considered to be positive in the direction of the arrow 7 and negative in the opposite direction. The velocity flow in a closed contour is called the velocity circulation. . we obtain.
We can see from equation (19)athatethe concept of circulation is analogous to the concept of the work of force along any path dS. The dimension of circulation is E 2 sec 1. Velocity potential. The velocity potential is defined as the function of space 4(x,y,z), the detivative of which in any direction gives the projection of velocity V to this direction: VS= a(a)
Equation (a:) :givesurthe partial derivative since function 4 depends upon three coordinates of space and time. The flow wi'thh the velocity potential is called potential flow. If a fixed contour is represented in space, then instead of the partial derivative,the full derivative is written: P1 (b) hence:
d = V,dS. (c)
Integrating once in the limits from point A to point B (Fig. 7.) i obtain and again along the whole closed contour (Fig. 8), we the following two equalities:
A
 ?
VsS. =
AB',
(21)
i.e. the potential difference for two points is equal to the velocity flow along any line uniting these points:,
A
A
VdS=0, vA
(21a)
i.e. in the case of a singlevalued velocityyiptential of flow, the velocity circulation for any closed contour equals 0. Consequently, in order to solve the problem whether there is a potential flow in any particular case, it is sufficient to prove/32 that the circulation r on any contour is or is not equal to 0. ,Baic theorems, about vortexes. In analyzing the motionof particle, in any plane which passes through its center of gravity, the concept of the average angular velocity of rotation is used. In order to determine the velocity of rotation of a fluid in point A (9), a .plane.;pp is passed through this point, the contour k is drawn ".'and the magnitude of.'the circulation r along the contour is determined. Therefore the projection of the average velocity of rotation of the fluid in point A relative to the normal to the area, is the following magnitude: (22)
23
The smaller the contour taken, the more accurate will the expression be, and in the limiting case we obtain: ) dr
Aor
(22a)
or
idl'=2d ,2
a= 2wda.
(22b)
The derivative wde is called the flow of ? the vortex through the area , do;, it is analogous to the flow rate Vda.
By rotating the area in all directions around point A, one can find the situation in which w will have aui;maximum value. The maghnituideoYf w and its direction determine i the vorticity of the fluid in point A. The.Vctor w is called the vorticity vector. In order to study turbulent motion, several concepts are introduced about the component elements of turbulent motion, which facilitate the formulation of its laws.. (Fig 10) is the line to which The vortex line, the Vector of turbulent velocity of the fluid is tangent in eac7io6int' at a given moment. The surface. ,to .which>the ,Vector,. ofotubulent 'at a given moment, velocity of the fluid is tangeht ineach point is called the vortex surface (Fig. 10) /33 ng rte:x ! eslpa That part of the fluid.. which is Oimittedibthee; through all the points of some small,simple closed contour in the area occupied by the fluid, is called vortex tube. The fluid confined in the vortex tube is called vortex filament. If w were to be taken as velocity,then the vortex tube can be The considered similar to a jet of fluid with a cross section do. derivative 6do is called, as : said above, the vortex flow through the area do. In such a manner formula (22b) shows that the velocity circulation in an infinitely small contour ,is equal to twice the vortex flow through the area confined by this contour. It should be mentioned that Helmholtz calls the derivative wda the stress .rof the vortex filament [8]. Stokes theorem. Breaking down an arbitrary surface S, confined by the contour K, (Fig. 11) into infinately small areas,which can be considered plane, this following formula can be written for each of/34 them: dr = 2wda
The vector of of the the average angular velocity
24
l8expB R
Adding ub. these expressions for all the elementary areas, we obtain:
W2
17 aU T /
S./B
xe
/gles,
npea
./
2 A
Py;.
\OHTryp
/HP
Bxpeoa3.,
2'
.
each internal side of the rectantwo circulations in opposite directions are found which innul each other. After reduction and as a result of the add
It
can be seen in Fig.
11 that on
ition, in the left part only the derivative V dS is left behind, which is related to the element of the contour K. The :"sum
Fig. 10:
The vortex line,
the vortex surface and the
vortexitube Key: 1. vortex line 2. contour
of,. the sedePivatives :.'7
gives the circulation of the velocity along' ontour K.. =
V o2
(23)
3. vortex surface
4. vortex tube o. i.e. the circulation of the velocity on any contour equals twice thecerallIflow of the vortex through any area confined by
this contour.
ki
Fig. 11:
t
According ,to
write: dS2
formula 20, we can also (24)
The contour
of the surface
The integral of the area is represented in the right hand side of formula (24), while the integral of the contour is shown in the left hand side. We should note that both the surface and the contour K do not necessarily
have to be plane. The Helmholtz theorem. If we single out on the vortex surface a closed coourFig(12), then we shall have w = 0 in any point on the surface. This can be seen from the fact that the vector w is tangent to the given surface. ' (it can be lateral to the surface of the vortex tube) and the vortex flow through it equals 0,wwhibh according to theStoks theorem givesr = 0, i.e. the velocity circulation on the contour lying on the vortex surface equals 0. i4
If we .drw the
contour'' shown
in the 'right 'hand side
'
of Fig. 12, on the surface of the vortex tube with infinitely small distances (14 and 58, then the velocity circulation on this contour will be equal to 0 as shown above (Fig. 12, left). The circulation on the section 1234 on the contour equals Fr while on the.
25
section 5678 it equas r2; on the portions 51 and 48 the velocity 35 flows are equal but have opposite directions. Consequently if we in denote the circulation in the direction. 123487651 by r,. the direction 12341 by r4 . by r 5 in:lt.h,direction 87658 and by r6 in the direction 85678, we obtain:
hence:
F,
r
r,
In such a manner the velocity circulation on the contour confined
2 z.
" 1
by the vortex tube is constant
throughout its length.
According to equation (22):
B
Fig. 12: The closed contour on the vortex surface and the contour on the surface of the vortex tube
consequently,:)if r is constant, then the vector w should be continuousthroughout the space of fluid flow if we neglect the special cases a = 0 and a = m.
Hence, we obtain the Helmholtz the vortex filament cantheorem: not end suddenly in the fluid; either they extend to infinity or they close into rings or else they lean against the surface of the fluid (Fig. 13).
If in afluid!with nonturbulent .'f lw,, a vorVortex strings., tex region is formed, which is confined by a vortex surface in the shape of ',a tube of finite thickness, then such a tube is called '/36 The whirlwind observed in nature represents a vortex string., kind of vortex string'. of huge dimensions. The simplestype .of vortex st,r.ing% ,, (Fig. 14)'are the uniformly turbulent strings,> in which w is constant inside each section; w can have a different value in ano.ther, se,ction. v.~l,; I The flow inside the strength is turbulent while outside it, it is not. Any contour inside the vortex gives a circulation r, which
is equal, according to Stokes theorm,to twice the vortex flow
through the area confined by the contour. The contour lying outside the vortex string'. has a
Fig. 13: 26
The shape of vortexes
velocity circulation equal to zero . since no vortex flow can pass through it.,According to equation 21a, the condition E = 0 indicates
that a velocity potential 4 exists in the flow, consequently the flow has a velocity potential, while the flow outside the vortex string inside the string has no potential. Hence, the expression "potential flow" which means nonvortex flow in aerodynamics. Since the vortex flow wda is not equal to while zero and exists only inside the string, will flow vortex the it, it equals zero outside be equal to the flow inside the string .',regardless of the size and shape of the contour. Consequently, the circulation r existing around the/37 r vortex string'. can be taken as a measure of its strength. The velocity circulation in any contour confined by the vortex string.. ,is constant and independent of the magnitude and shape of the 14: The vortex Fig. contour. This can be seen from the fact that ist.nvg.ox strig. regardless of how we draw the contour, the same, vortex flow will pass through it,,which'is , theorem to:.:' Stokes equal,according to
Fr== 2swd3CaCnst.
(24a)
The velocity field appearing in the vicinity of the vortex string'. )is related to its, circulation. ' ,Let ,us findlthe' velo,' city field in the simplest, infinite linear string' I with a cireendi If. asection with" ap'area. p is draw culation r (Fig. 15). then, we note cular tothe axis (of the,string, that the rate of : ' flow of the fluid particles at equal distances from the axis, will be equal. Let us draw a circle passing through The velocity point A with.';the center on 'the axis of the string. in point A, will be constant and tangent V elicited by the string. of '.'the yelocity "' to the surface, consequently the projection will be equal to the velocity itself, i.e. V,=V= Cons The velocity circulation on thisvsurface will be equal to:
f==,ds
hence:
Vf dS
V2,rJ
v
(25)
In such a manner, the particles of the fluid surrounding the vortex string , move with veilocities which are inversely related 'The direction of to their distance from the axis of the string.. these velocities coincides with the direction of rotation of the string.
w = Const and the string Inside the simplest vortex string, radius r, can be obtained /38 at velocity The body. rotates like a solid by the usual formula:, V = wr,

27
i.e. V will change in a linear fashion. The highest velocity is obtained on the surface ofthestring.The flow lines, both outside and inform a circle. Outside we shall find a velocity side the string be no potential but no rotating particles, while inside there will velocity potential but there willbe rotating.particles. .r 6. Viscosity
"A
p
B
Fig. 15: The velocity field of a vortex string
The da6iVations made in Sectio.n 5 refer mainly to an ideal fluid, where no internal forces or friction operate. In reality all real fluids have forces of internal Therefriction which are called viscosity. formulas presented above fore,almost all the for the ideal fluid 'are only approximate The phyfor the case of a viscous fluid. in the lies viscosity of sical importance fricinside of appearance of forces fluid flowing a in layers tion between the moveirregular the by which are produced ment of its molecules.
The forces of viscosity tend, to retard the rapidly moving parts In a viscous fluid, the vortexes are gradually resorbed of the fluid. and disappear. However, the viscosity can also create vortexes. The strongest vortex formation is observed near the surface of the body On the surface of the body itself, the around which there is a flow. fluid is immobile,as it adheres to the body. At even a small distance from the body, the fluid acquires a large velocity which equals the velocity of the flow. The thin layer adhering to the surface of the body where the velocity which differs growth in velocity takes place from zero to the is u by 1% from the velocity of the potential flow around the body produces which viscosity, of result a As layer. border the called and tangential forces, the fluid in this layer is strongly turbulent therefore, issomethies,called the layer of surface turbulence. If we single out two elementary The viscosity coefficient. 16) with the distance between them (Fig. layer theborder' in areas dS /39 being '6y then the increase in velocity during the passage from one by magnitude this Dividing 'y. )aV/ay equal will other the area to velocity gradient ay, we obtain aV/ay. This magnitude is called the along the normal to the surface of the body. Since the velocities between the areas are different, a force appears between them which is tangent to the surfaces' and is produced by the viscosity of the fluid. This force will 'depend on the velocity gradient and on the area dS: 2dS. (26)
28
v6, d /~"
In this..equation, i is called the coefficient of viscosity.
DviditgA,
t
the force dx to the area dS,
will obtain the stress, of the force of vis
S/cosity
Fig. 16: The interaction between layers due to viscosity
which is equal to:
=
go
(27)
This..stress:, acts alo.ng the surfaces and is called tangential stress.
The dimension of the viscosity coefficient p is obtained from formula (27):

gsec/ _
For the sake of convenience in comparing the viscosity forces, which depend on p, with the forces of inertia which depend. 'on the mass density p, the concept kinematic coefficient of viscosity,v is introduced: (28) We can see that the dimension of Y is the same as in circulation or velocity, flow.
The magnitude of the coefficient p and v for air at t = 150 and B = 760 mm Hg has"the following values:
o= 1, 82106.
/40
V
i.45.o..
2
..*

or ' V.i45cm /sec.
v for other atmosThe kinematic coefficient of viscosity'. pheric conditions can be found from the graph of L. Prandtl, which is presented in Fig. 17; on the abscissa the temperature is represented in degrees C, while on the ordinate the coefficient,, of kinematic viscosity in cm2 per second. The coefficient of kinematic viscosity for water at 150 is:
V=. L 1.164104.9,81
'
2
The ratio of the kinematic viscosities of air and water equals:
29
The similarity of model and~enature is expressed in the proportionality of all the linear dimensions of model and nature and in the equality of the corresponding angles. atmospheric pressure mm Hg Conclusions on the flying properties of the airplane.. Analogically the scale of viscosity.7..of small models of this machine..k=vJ] and k' The magnitudes with the index refer to the model. 56]. 0. dynamic similarity.ri SI A 1 _Criteria i0 of similarity.time. on the effectiveness of wind wheels in wind. the ratio of densities. The linear scale . I. tunnel tests .. ' . either complete or in part. For example. of force called the main scale of the phenomena. velocity and force is thel y following: . cm 2 per second 2.. . 17: Graph for the determination of the coefficeht of kinematicoiviscosity of the air Key: i.in two :similar points of compara7 able phenomenanis called the scale of densities: . are based on the law ofoaero.kl. they appear tobecoAstat throughout the space where tie comparable phenomena takeK place. are in identical relation in L O.kt are The main feature of these scales consists in the fact that in observing their similarities. etc. 30 . Those 76 phenomena: in aerodynamics ar*e called similar. then the similar factor in the model will be equal to:: Analogically we determine the scale of force. in which all the 'character. density. Fig..any point in space [55. The ratio of similar dimensions of model and nature isccalled the model scale and is expressed by the relationship: This means that if a section in nature is equal to 1. 7 The Law of Similarity 0i$. kR and of time ./41 j istics homogeneous physical magnitude.
magnitudes .e. Viscosity or elasticity of the environment. This magnitude has an exrIemely important role in solving problems of aero.all'their compatible points.~ounts 'fora certain these of one of the authors.and aerodynamics. let us say.il /42 If not all speaks about approximate o ipartial similarity. Under normal conditions.We can formulate the following. it is sufficient to observe the consistency of the scale of. and it is not necessary to have consistency of the scale of all physical magnitudes. It is sufficient to observe the approximate or partial similarity for using the aerodynamic coefficient :'in solving many pracThis means tical tasks. the kinematic viscosity /for air is: 31 .od'f orientation but also on a number of abstract. ~he scales fulfill this condition. i.'numbers which have been These numbers are called criteria determined by various scientists.. in two phenomena. one can obtain approximate similarity.law of aerodynamic similaritv. the factor which aTfects In observing theequality of a certain number of criteria /in model and in nature. or of the force of the weight. Inmodern wind technology. 1 and 11 are the linear dimensions of nature and model v and v 1 are the coefficients of kinematic Viscosity' The Reynolds number (Rd) evalutes the forces of viscosity which retards the motion of the fluid. after we presented the concept about the scales of phenomena: two phenomena are called similar if identical scale are obtained for+ uni orm.. . then one . as well as for obtaining these'coefficients. that.in. which play in each individual case the most important role. Recent investigations have shown that the aerodynamic coefficient depends not only on the shape of the body and the angles. (29) Ma=K = =KConst.c. Each flow. These numbers have the following expressions: Re = o Const. for example. (30) where V and Vl are the velocities of the flow. by the first letters of the names denoted are they and of similarity numbers a. etc. the following criteria of similarity are used: The criterion of Reynolds (Re) which evaluates the vicosity of the fluid andoffMach (Ma)'which evaluates the elasticity of the fluid. in the wind tunnel and in the real airplane.
It is impossible to reach such a velocity in the wind tunnel. iby "the same factor 'a's nature. i.consequently. 2. VIR1' V1 = Const we have: From the equation where k1 = i 1/ is linear case. 3.e. In such:ia manner in testing the model in the wind tunnel. in 'han smaller are model the linear dimensions of the The fulfillment of this requirement in testing airplane models meets with great difficulty since the velocity of airplanes to date exceeds 10'm/sec. model and nature must be geometrically similar.As a matter of fact. The transition from model to nature. in order to obtain a'similarity of phenomena 'for a model at a scale of 1/10. In addition. In the given case. where . the velocity V 1 in the model should be greater '' than the velocity V in nature.330 m/sec. one would have to obtain in the model a 'flow velocity equal to 1000 m/sec. the following equality holds: VI Q =V1 (31) The derivative V9"is called the characteristic of the experiment which is used instead of Re in the case of the same v for model and nature. similarity will be observed if the velocity in 0 and Pl = a a the wind tunnel will be taken equal to: Ti v I V= V. the following conditions have to be fulfilled in order to obtain similarity in the presence of viscosity forces: 1. the effect of the /44 number of Mach will be predominant: 32 . In such a manner. is similar for model and nature. In those cases when the kinematic coefficient of viscosity. the Reynolds number for air is: Re= V /43 69 000 V. the orientation of model and nature with regard to the flow should be similar. since the power for the creation of the flow would have to be several hundred of thousands hp. the similarity would be destroyed due to the elasticity of the air which strongly affects the flow around bodies already at a velocity similar to that of the sound . model and nature should have identical Reynold's numbers. at such velocities.
for the wing: Re we see on the graph in Fig. 2.r . and were represented in the form of diagrams as the one shown This diagram shows that in Fig. Hence it can be concluded that in /45 testing models. The Border Layer :. rpy6aTl JapT 3 aT<y I 01 01e1 2 ' " . Re = 440. 18: ficient of resistance of a numsphere inrelation tothe ber of Reynolds.000 and above. The turbulent' layer of.' 19). established .. as was' shown in Sec. has to be obtained. that the smallest resistance is obtained at Assuming He Reynold's numbers starting with 300. bodies is larger. 000. cpecarried T~atunnels  J 6e pe HK' . . Key: 1.Reynold's number which is larger than a certain magnitude. It has been .. 18. For ex.. while with the increase in V 1 L1 the resistance decreasesand it stays practically constant at a certain value of V 1 1 . flow and are extended 'irregular turbulent tails (see Fig. sized airplanes. ample. ..:. wind tunnels of.o. Rx tube tube tube tube Tl with grid Tlwithout grid T closed NKl Interesting experiments were out at.iQarried away with the general. the airflow in the immediate vicinity of the body. 6.In order to obtain satisfactory results in the experiments with airplane models.I "' I  12 . 3. 4.'TsAGI in various wind with sphees of various dimensions. 33 . The obtainedcurves:'ofresistance wei e ' reconstructed fromrbeing dependent on the velocity of the flow o being dependent on the number of Reynolds. 18. and the Turbulence During the flow of an object in the air.and' vortexes 'are !formed. as Re>310 5 the coefficient of resistance stays practically constant.. border layer.. coefficient of resistance of. the air layers in the immediate vicinity of the surface of the body are retarded due to the viscosity of.a . 8. th . is' call'ed the. the fluid.3Tp 0 . J. . Thdse levortexes are. 7 3 Change in the coefFig. 5. the coefficient of resistance R x changes markedly for all experimental curves at Reynold's numbers Re3"*10 5 . high pressure or of gigantic dimenThe latter make it possible to fly naturalsions are constructed. we obtalh: " >Re 440 000 hence: V> ni 00 V 1l1 1 > 3m. or the layer of surface turbulence.lc.experimentally' that 'at lo w ' Reynold's numbers.
numbers of Rey nolds . c 1L a /. //46 A clear distinction between the border layer and the.flows!in the in the form border layer. it. while the body role. .. Such a of nonmixing layers. 19.it passes into a strongly churnli ing. below) and let. of As a result inertia.The rabcda = V 2 bc However V 2 is larger than V 1 the flow is turbulent. . this number increases on a certain length 1 k. direction of the flow velocity.V 1 ad = ad (V 2 .V 1 ). . where X is the distance of the measured thidkflows.ab lished that in the case of flow around a plate with a length Z.. . according to this sides ad and bc have the contour. the laminarflow is obtained only for small When numbers of Reynolds. =ad pendicular to.. consequently. situated parallel to the flow. Investigations have est. laminar. the flow V.to the velocity of the flow. 19. 0..behind the forming away carried are and twisted in vortex rings. ness from the leading edge of the body around which the air v. while the sides cd and ab are perthe circulation will be equal to: Since be. ness of the layer a changes depending on X according to a parabolic law. At snall.*HH c /. called is flow . below). 19: The border layer Key: 1."(Fig. . and r does not equal The flow outside the turbulentlaytr can be considered potential The main role in the border layer [see equations (21) and (21a)]. Fig. t he fluid'. the forces of is played by the forces of viscosity and partly by the fluid are of particles the vicosity.! Inorp. but later . The thickness of the border layer may be taken to be the distance the a from the surface of the body where the velocity differs from thickthe Theoretically velocity of the potential current by 1%. the border layer remains ilaminar.. the velocity circulation. the lesser play viscosity of forces a turbulent tail. let us take the contour abed (Fig./ v2 '  I 77/'.In order tQdeonstrate 'thevorticitycofthis layer. external of surface the on 0 from increases the velocity flow does not exist: the body. at a distance from the body. by' flow is : laminar is "determined' The length on which the the8iritical number: Re34 4s500= 'ok 314 . 20).'state which is called turbulent (Fig. us calculate.
the laminar part would be considerably diminished. of . 'result of this. For example. . For normal air.6efficient of resistance of the plate is larger in the turbulent layer than in the laminar one. if instead ' an initial turbulence around the of the'Taminar flow. The coefficientodgresi:stance reaches Rx = 0. ther'ewas plate illustrated in Fig. Examples of such bodies are a plate situated 'and other along the flow. The decrease in J . At'this mo:.the border layer starts to formed on the side.48. Fig. 22a vortexes behind a sphere which is surrounded by flowing air. from laminar to turbulent flow.I the magitude of the coefficient of {esistance takes place at the same time with the :transitio. etc.= 4 5000 /47 v . 22c)..4510 V. 21a). since the c. S. (sphere. a high pressure is formed7' both in front and behind. while a negative pressure is In the next moment . )(Fig. the laminar part of the border layer can be entirely absent.). illustrate the flow of the air around a sphere immediately after the transition from a state of rest to a state of movement. then as known from the experiment. the resistance in the turbulent flow can be smaller than in the laminariflow. as a resultofthe facti. the flow is disrupted at (Fig. plate perpendicular to the flow. . The the surface of the sphere and formsivortexes (Fig. air ships bodies which have a good aerodynamic shape.he r'sistance of the plate increases under such conditions.a At large initial turbulence. we obtain: ' 485000..the border layer of the sphere. 22b. c shows several consecutive stages of formation of/48 Fig. 20.Hence the length of the laminar part will equal:'. flow from the region with high pressure to the region with low presas a. 35 . mentthe flow takes place without any disturbance.'that turbulence has a strong effect on the border layer of bodies surrounded by the flow. b. /50 pressure behind the sphere becomes negative which causes large resistance.035 The initial turbulence of the flow changes sharply :athe magniThis takes place tude of the coefficient obtained in wind tunnels. near the middle section a collision sure. In the case of bodies in which (Fig.1. the resistance depends mainly on pressure. Fig. . However. 22 a. 21b. the increase in turbulence increasesithe coefficient 'of resistance only in such bodies where the main part of resistance is formed by friction and not by pressure. airfrom laminar to turbulent flow ship placed across the flow. takes place between this flow and the layer flowing in the front As a result of the collision. wings.c). 7.
23 71Xd 0.e 3 aone 0....o44 lutionairslip Rectangular aI XbT 7 i 1._  0.  U Round plate  i c2 ". . evoplate .)several bodies4 co 04 0U 0 Eo ..4 7 R loo sphere 'hemi I 3 " " " Cylindr 084 a '9 yi0.TABLE 2: THE COEFFICTENTJOF HEAD RESISTANCE R FOR SEVERAL BODIES The coefficient of head resistance Rx for .3 2 I solpere i c  It 4  0.. S  0.4 it"h 0 1 22 rounded top 4  Eiiipsoid" of. . ..63 0.7 op G'36 36 . ..
< I. obtained and the coefficient of fact a smallerpotehtiail . 37 .adiantis spite head resistance decreases down to a value of Rx = 0. The turbulent flow in the border" layer can' be inc eas'e'd.Reynold.J0.ly 50%. " Rx for head resistance of the authos coefficient the 2 presents a few Table bodies which were obtained by various in investgatiosphere on the If flow around bodies. If the flow around the sphere takes place at large numbers of In .4then the border layer passes into the turbulent state. the fact that the friction at the surface of the sphere is higher. decreases the coefficient of resistance pyapproxtimat. this case the disruption of the border layer takes place at a point Due to this situated farther than in the case of the laminar layer. this by making a ring out of wire aon the front side of the sphere. '4q b   positions in the fl6w..
the axis OY is directed in the plane of symmetry of the model. XZ ..or an isolated wing. In testing .23 illustrates the disposition of the three systems of coordinates in relationnto the model." in the airplane. In the terrestrial system of coordinatesone of the1. The axe's of coordinate. Figa.axes'. while in the airship. the flow coordinates are truly coincidental with the terrestrial axes of the wind tunnel.upwards. OX0 and OZ o are disposed in the horizontal plane. Axes of Coordinatesand Aerodynamic Coefficidnt s Three systems of coordinates are used in experimental aeroterrestrial. flow. it is parallel to the center core of the upper wing. the plane X1Z is called the main plane.. while the other Vertically usually OYo.Korigin /of these axes of coordinates is: usually placed in a point which corresponds to the center of gravity of thdenatural airplane.coordinates system o. dynamics.which is perpendicular to the axis OX 1 . In the flow system of coordinatesthe axisnOX is directed along a vector of unperturbed flow velocity V. The plane X 1 Y 1 is called the plane of symmetry. The axis OX 1 which is called the long axis. it is the axis of the lifting force. or in any arbitrary point. The planes formed by the axes of coordinatesare called XY plane of the flow. it runs parellelitolits4ajis.v. is directed in the plane of symmetry of the model. the vector V represents the velocity of the flow.and YZ frontal ' plane.plane of sliding. This . at 'its lead ing edge. are called related ax!s of coordinatesor model coordinates. MAIN CONCEPTS OF EXPERIMENTAL AERODYNAMICS /51 9.and related. . The axis OY 1 is called normal axis. while the dotted line shows the direction of 38 .. which during the experiment are considered to be Closely 'related with the model.CHAPTER 2. the axis OZ (lateral) is disposed perpendicularly to the axes OX and OY. is directed'two. The OZ axis is called the transversal axis and it is directed perpendicularly to the axis OX 1 and OY 1 . The origin of the coordinate axes of flow for airplane and airship models is placed at the center of gravity of the machines represented by these models wh&filel. /52 The.the flow in wind tunnels.whilethe plane Y 1 Z is the transversal plane. and it is passed in the plane of symmetry of the model.off : is used mainly for setting up wind tunnels and for certain models used in the latter.
. will change. according to the flow axe:s of coordinatesp.sqLC= C. :. By rotating the wing around the OZ axis.. c. 23: Coordinate systems Key: 1.(33) Yc c By resolving.Sq =CS E. Yawing moment: n31C.SSqL =C USL vS C SqL==CS . 24: Resofutfionof the coefficient CR acates of flow note:Here the coefficients Cx. \ . and is noted by a.= .coefficient of lifting force.we obtain: Rolling moment: =C. 24. 24): Head resistance: y Lifting force: Lateral force: X=G. acting on the body around which the flow takes place.the wing chor'd. C z denote: Cx . that the/54 force R and the coefficient CR are the resultants of the corresponding compon cording to the coordin ie: ents. the moments according to the axe's of coordinates.oefficients. the angle between the vector of the flow of velocity Z and the of the wing X 1 Z..XSL . It can be seen from Fig.S PY' (32) Cy Sq=s / Fig. the model is replaced by nature with the aid of aerodynamic coefficients.coefficient of lateral force. Fig. to break down into components. . leaneapssne sooTO Splane .cforce R. c = ... YY=C Z Sq=CS V CSq=C.coefficient of head resistance. This angle is called the true angle of attack. Cy .. Cy.. C z .e.. In solving practical tasks.. These coefficients are expressed in abstract numbers. (34) Pitching moment: . direction of flow /53 It is convenient for practical purposes.both the total aerodynamic. . and the corresponding coefficient CR as a result of which the following is obtained (Fig. Force and moment aerodynamic .
As a result of a experimental investigationsoof the flow of air around bodiessin wind tunnels. Cmy and Cmz are the coefficients of the moments and are nondimensional numbers. (36) where S is the area of the wings or another characteristic area of the body. . Coefficient of the resistance force: Coefficient of the lifting force: s /55 (37) 2 Coefficient of the lateral force: The corresponding moment coefficients are: S'LF 2 2 2 C S'L' Ina==i 2 S'L (38) The indexes refer to the magnitudes corresponding to the model. = . In such a manner.s J (40) S40. Liliental's Polar.=.SLF. 40 . Cm is called the coefficient of the total aerodynamic moment. The forces acting on a certain construction are calculated usihg the following coefficients: Resistance force: Lifting Force: Lateral Force: The moments:: X=CS S 2 2 2 ( (39) J' ' z=. aerodynamic coefficients are obtained whibh can be expressed by the following formulas: c x.and L is the conditional length.SL  . ..C. the.The resultant or *: total moment: er e Vm1'C were Cmx .basicformula of aerodynamics for the moment can be written in the following form: .SL e 't M. 10. Determihati6bn of Aerodynamic Coefficients. ..
. I Characteristics of the Fig. of the projection of the area of the body on a plane perpendicular to the direction of air flow. the name of the scientist who suggested this method of illustration of the relationship). I .. 26: Liliental's curve i E ll.Cx in a rectangular with system of th crdinates of of coordinates. the magcoordinates system of rectangular is marked in nitude of the angle of attak C value The 26).e.: X= c "R uS = S 41 2 LfnS 41 . . the values Cy and Cx corresponding to For each angle of Iattack and C x = f(a)are introduced into the = f(a) Cy characteristics the Cy .!' efficient of the resultant forces of twisting resistance. 'than marking on the curve of the o.Cx. therefore. (Fig.. arbitrary ually determined by means of the following equation: shape is us/56 where F is the surface of the midsection of the body. relation to he angle of attack a intHe. Thiedimensiohal magriitude'of the forces can be obtained from Liliental's curve by multiplying each coefficient by the measured area S and the dynamic pressure pV 2 /2. . i. are called aeroThe dynamic characteristics. S' S'7 I i H ~H. the co !and 0. degrees ' x is several PCA times smaller than Cy. . The curve characterizing the aerodynamic properties of the wings in general. Liliental s polar..:.The action of the fdrce on a body of .obtfained flow is called the curve or polar (according to of Liliental.. 25. The change in the aerodynamic coefficients C Cx Cm in. circular of the profile of a finite span wing are shown in Fig. curve illustrating the relations Sand Sflow . marking anglesof attack at 'which . it is convened' to take the scale for Cx five times larger too 13 o10 for Cy. 25: coefficients C .  A U i ." these coefficients were'. R.'"For each point.4 The line drawn from the origin of the coordinate 0 to any point M on the curve of Liliental marked in the same scale C and C x gives the sector OM which is equal to 0. Construction of the polar is performed in the following manner:/57 a.e. C. and Cm of the wing obtained during circular of Cy .1 C Fig. i.
center of the effort of s'ail area. Cg is expressed in percent of the chord df the wing b. % If the origin of the coordinatesis in point 0 near the leading edge of the wing. is: 1. THe total resultant passes through the center of pressure. was cre" ated in relation with the study of stability in the symnetric'. the center of pressure is called the point in which the total aerodynamic force intersects the axis OX of the body. i.The vector CR makes the angle e with the axis of the abscissa. 27). then Cy and C pass through the origin of the coordinates. (42) The ratio Cy/Cx is called the lift drag ratiov The reverse ratio U y . The location of the center of pressure is determined by the coordinate xl and is found at the point of intersection of the total aerodynamic force R withthe axis OX ('Fig. The center of pressure is expressed by a nondimensional magnitude since the ratio X 1 to the chord of the wing or the length of the body in general. Therefore. 43) The best values of lift drag ratios to date are around K = 22. The center of pressureY The concept center of pressure or /58 in the old terminology.Y( is called the reverse lift drag ratio.: pressure Determin. (44) For the wing.b c.e. 27. This ratiou:is called the coefficient of the center of pressure.( (Fig.: CO=. the tangent of which is equal to tar 1 =.flowaround objects.. atibn)jof the center of jP. consequently the moment of the aerodynamic forces relative y _R to the center of pressure should be equal to zero under conditions of equilibrium: M=CS o ~bCS X  hence: or Fig. 27).b 1L '=C 42 . x_ .
Induced Drag of the Wing The resistance force of an infinite span wing appears as a result of thefrictbineof air against the surface and as a result of the breakdown of the flow. up . which acts on the flow and deflects its direction the angle of aack 'a by a magnitude of aa.For small angles of attack. The vortex line or a whole system of vortex lines whiih pass along the wing span.C' Cy. for a wing of finite span. to d~ecrease so The lifting This angle is called the angle of indidence <(Fig. as they are not connected with the wing at its tips. This sheet is unstable and soon after it leaves the wing. 43 . in addition to Profile drag. Fig.). In the case of a finite span wing. In a viscous and appear extinguish fluid. The coefficientsof the moment.eaded by turbulent strings which are scattered away from the wing. consequently/59 this equation can be rewritten in the. C.: C. and the increased pressure under it. 30). general flow and are drawn into vortex strings which go to infinity((Fig. are called bound vortexes.. 29). = (C. depends on the state of the surface and on the shape of the wing profile. Key: 1. are carried away with the.e. These vortexes. 28: Vortexes starting at a finite span wing form behind the wing the vortex sheet. These vortexes are dragged withthe flow and they N1 II . it twists into two vortex strings (Fig. i. following Form: (r44a) The magnitudesC m and Cy are known from the flow. iiThe vortex strings running away from the wing elicit! the vertical velocity W.=f 0) 11.to a = 20.Cmandof the center of pressure conCg are illustrated in the form of curveson the same graph which tains the curvesof Liliental: Cm as a function of Cy and Cg as a function of a. the mass of the airEnear the face end of the wing. The magnitude of this force of resistance. Vortex sheet form behind the wing the vortex sheet. from finite at a certain distance as a result of friction. 28). As a result of a diminished pressure above the wing. these strings will the wing. This force is called profile drag. there appear other resistances. will /60 tend to go upward and twist into vortexes. consequently doefficient Cg can be determined with their aid according to formula (44a).
is determined by means of the formula: . j. e.the aspect ratio..A Consequently.. W in equation (45) we obtain in radians I. a o 57. the smaller the angle of incidence of'the flow and the larger the true angle of 'attack )a. With the change in the direction of the lifting force.n w S. the angle of incidence of the flow near the wing will have the following value in degrees: . It taken be can V velocity resulting therefore the 1 to be equal to the velocity of the flow V. at a given Cy.. (46) where X is the ratio of the length lof the wing ' to its width b.. r.force of the wing changes by a magnitude equal to the angle of incidence of the flow As as compared to.:.e. 5 .. .. 29: Vortex strings startingat the tips'of a finite wing of span.3 =57. . i.nce of the vertical velocity W. or in degrees: AO C (48) (49) a =57. (50) We can see that. Qi which is called the induced /61 The angle of incidence has a small value.tga=A a /) taking the_angle and its tangents as e qual. an additional resistance force appears 'drag. W. . = V and the angle of incidence of the flow can be calculated in radians. 5 7 . c .. thel.'according to the formula: Fig.235.6uld take. 44 .3P. dueto their small value.: Graphic illusFig.O. Substituting the value (47) and is called the relative. the larger thevalue bf . i.it._. 30: tration of the induc6d' drag.3"=18. direction which . in the abse. It is knows from the theory of induction that the average velocity of the slant flow.ingaspan or the aspect ratio.
In order to obtain the complete picture characterizing the given wing profile. .(52a) (52a) We can see from equation (53) that the coefficient of the induced drag is equal to:the C IS. a wing of inX which consists the wing profile shape and dimen The curve Ci of the induced drag is represented on Liliental's curve in the form of a parabola. the curve C .is subjecttotheihead resistance of:: 1. and consec. . 45 . under conditions of air flow finite span the latter. 2.= Y tgaz= \ (52) 762 Since: then: but. In such a manner. 30.Aa.e.In such a manner. i. 35). the profile drag X . i. then the truel angle will be smaller than a. (51) For an infinite span wing.a and the curve K = C /Cx of the lift drag ratio are drawn on te same diagram (Sec. if the flow dashes over a finite span wing at an : angle of attacks . The magnitude of the induced.'. quently Ac = 0. Q. 13. 1rig. the top of which is at the origin of the coordinates and is called the parabola of the induced "drag.drag can be found in Fig. which depends only on and on the friction of the ir .against its iurface. the induced.: aj = a . drag Qi which depends on the sions of the wing in the plane: i (54) ove. consequently: 2 ".e.: Cti = X is equal to infinity.
31b).velocity circulation Vo. which is 6pposite to theoirculation. N. and let us draw around the axis of this vortex a 46 . 31a: Distribution witha force. Zhukcvskiy suggested to replace in various calculations. and since velocity circulation exists also around a vortex ri: :. When the air flowssadbound the wing.K bound vortexes. lifting portion below the Fig.. and an increasedpressure below it. 31a: Distribution Fig. p . suggested . computations: of propellers and wi wings of airplanes. Yur'ye. a decrease in pressure i' obtained above the wing. string. is higher than the velocity at a distance from the wing and is lower under V: the wing. It has the following simple expression: and wind cFig wing. E. E. E. Let us replace the wing by the bound vortex of a string with circulation r.. 31b: Velocity Y==J'V 0 J (55) where Y is a force perpendicular to the velocity V o and acting on a wing sector of length k. The /63 pattern of distribution of pressure above and below the wing is shown N" Fig.12. Zhukoiskiy's Theorem on the Lifting Force of the Wing. to the(side B. of pressure above and of pressure above and Velocity circulation exists. 31a.h the following demonstration:. around a<wing with'a lifting force. this means that the velocity of the jets flowin directly under the wing. The direction of the flow Y is obtained according to the following rule: the velocity vector should be turned at a right angle . the wing by a e bundle of vortexes which were called by him. N.velocity of unperturbed flow. Zhukovskiy's formula of the lifting force of the wing of an infinite span. finds wide utilization in laboratory investigations. ventilators engines. N. /64 for this theorem. On t1c R On the basis of Bernoulli's theorem for a noncompressible fluid. S.then the portion of the contour above the wing will have a higher velocity of flow than the negative flow in the that This indicates wing. equal to the circulation in the vi:ciity of the wing..mass density r . aN>. If we draw a contour around the wing (Fig.
P= "P = 1 Pi1'OI ( 2V Vsillp V sin . length k and a radius R whieh is very large by comparison l :ththe dimensions of the wing (Fig. this vortex string. Zhukovskiy's Fig.is situated with reference to the surface.of the cylinder at.direction and. V h .cylinder with. the resulting velocity is:  Vr= V Vt . . 32: theores constant throughout while Vk(is theorem also constant and. the overall . flow for the distant pointwill be equivalent to the fbbrce around the wing. Sin p. along the tangents to the cylinder. Let us find this force. E. the following equation can be written: ( /' or'VV V (a) The velocity V is the geometrical sum of the velocities of the forward mov. P. let 'us repre sent .F 21*Ov.developed by an element of the cylinder with a length on the generating line k 47 . 1 Applying Bernoulli's theorem to any jet of air which intersects the cylinder. The velocity V o N. we obtain equation:(b). equ"l tb. being' idirected .~ . ~" is variable . V o and the velocity Vk . Substituting the value V 2 in equation (a).a forward. .:flow. I S.f~ Assuming that the element. In the velocity field caused by. wing is equal to the fdrce acting on the cylinder detail.an angle 4. It is composed of the forces of pressure acting on the surface of this cylinder and of 'the resulting amount of movement which is carried into the cylinder and out of it per second. 32). The fbrcre acting on the . Let us now find what pressures are obtained on the surface of the cylinder.2V  ( Let us now pass to calculation of the lifting force.2V v cos (90'fi since: cos (90 we can write: V 2 /65 2 i)= si. caused by the vortex. ing flow.
P)dS cs (90 . Projecting the force acting on this element on the axis OY. the elementary mass per second is: dm p. (P .V * o sin dz. Consequently: d = d48nl cus = pl RTJ:T cos 48 .e. The perpendicular velocity Vn is obtained only on account of the velocity V o and equals V o cos q. Consequently.Rsin :'?. Consequently: '= plv e.dp= = plToVkF sin 2pdd. o The first integral equals since: n.~. we obtain: SdY. The component of the velocity Vo gives no projection in this direction rojection will be obtained only from the velocity Vk and will equal Vk cos 4.1lRV2 sin ody... 2 y Ip= IRY~.. perpendicular to the velocity V 6 . then: In addition to the forces of pressure. i.and a circumference of length Rd .j2FVJsin )lRsin .P). the cylinder is also subjected to pulse forces. or: dYpz(Vi . the elementary pulse lift dYm. Let us first find the amount of motion carried in through the same element of the cylinder with an area: dS=11IRd.dS V= = plRVcsd The amount of movement carried by this mass in the direction of axis OY. dy j1RY sin The total lifting force is obtained by adding up all the elementary forces. the second equals 0. its area is: dS = 1Rdp The pressure on this element equals (Po . (Po . will be equal to. Let us find the mass per second.for the calculations of which we have to /66 find the total increment in the amount of motion of the fluid in the direction of the axis OY. The tangential component of the velocity V k gives no projection perpendicular to the element of the surface.
E. the fluid acquires a velocity which is directed downward. i. this plane intersects the the direction of : vortex strings(I . Zhukovskiy's theorem. creation in the fluid of a certain amount of movement. This can be seen. perpendicular to velocity of the flow.e. = prvo.of the cylinder. a similar derivationto the one suggested by N. i/e. Zhukoyskiyifformulated his theorem in the following way: force acting on an infinite span wing is equal to the denfluid multiplied by the circulation. Y"' The total magnitude of the lifting force will be equal to: . are equal. + Y.II). Consequently. the force of the head resistance near a wing in an ideal fluid equals zero. the amount of movement in the fluid coming in and leaving through these elements. N.from the fact that the velocity in the left and right hand side elements. E. can be calculated by means of the formula (25): i7R (25) Between the vortexes. no force of pressure is obtained on the axis OX. in the direction of the axis OX.The total pulse force is obtained as a result' of adding up all 22 .= pIRVJV r.pulse. we obtain: 1'. relative to the axis OY of the cylinder are equal. Therefore. the pressures will also be e equal.by the velocity of infinity and by the length of a detailed portion of the The direction of the force is obtained by turning the velocity vector a6t a right angle in the direction opposite to the circulation. 49 . For a wing of finite span with vortex strings behind it.R. Let us draw a plane at a distance from a wing. V cos ld.the elementary. and we obtain the picture illustrated in These vortexes create velocities around themselves which Fig. It should be noted that the force of resistance in the case of such a flow equals 0.= Y.forces. (55) We see that half of the force was obtained on account of the pressure and the other half on account of the. consequently. 33.e. Y. lRVoi Replacing Vk by its value r/2. can be done by an approximate method (56).. in /67 the same way. a part of the fluid i. As a result of this.= .Z The lifting sity of the the flow at wing.
the action of a finite span wing on the of fluid around it :consists in the fact. equals: V = = os rcos . The vertical component of the velocity elicited in point A. fiuid which is confined that the' part of ' receives an increment in vortexes the between the amount of movement in the vertical direction. the total incrementin the amount of movement for this part of the fluid equals 0.the amount of movement in this/68 direction. 33. 33) by the left vortex. One can see from the figure. Consequently.=.it"generally' amount of vertical movement from an adjacent is equal to the amount : which vortex of movement received from: . receives an it can be shown that . 1. receives an increment in. that: 50 .fluid which is situated outside the vortexes. 33: Induced'drag caused byvortexes behind the wing. where p equals the angle indicated in Fig. dz' Fig. by the wingn downward. Edy Iflow ivy i that part situated between the vortexes. while the fluid presses on the wing from below.a distant vortex i and may have an opposite direction. din VpdZdy. o The amount of movement in the parallelepiped which has a length in the direction of the flight equal to 1. can be written in the following manner: V. Here dm p  mass of the p4rallelepiped mass density of the air .causing a lifting force which is equal to the increment in the amount of movement of the displaced mass per unit time. then the wing presses on it from above. If a certain mass of air m is displaced . vortex Key: strings. xpeFsw ry r7/1 . (Fig. Thus. Let us see what is the 'value of the amount of movement created by one vortex in an infinitely narrow strip with a weight and length equal to one unit in the direction of the flight.:a height dy and a width dz. With regard to the part of the . Noting that: we obtain: V.A T .
Consequently. = Y. their action adds up in the region between them and the amount of movement of this strip doubles and becomes equal to pr dZ. Substituting the value of S in equation (32). b51 51 . in order to obtain the total amount of movement we have to addiupohonly those strips which lie between the vortexes. we obtain the expression of N. we find: 2M = 21I=pr dz =ri This expression gives the amount of movement along the vertical of all the strips with width Z and 'a length equal to unity iftf the direction of the flight. In solving practical problems 'related to the calculation of velocity circulation around the wing. the amount of movement along the vertical equals zero. . Substituting V in the previous equation. .passes through the examined plane per second. the amount of movement would be.'An air colhumn 'With a length equal not to one. we obtain: Y = C.Substituting this expression in: the precediftigformula. Zhukovskiy's theorem: prVY. then: . but to V.the same. Thus. outside. for "all strips wiwitha. Since we are dealing with two vortexes. two equations are used: the theoretical formula (55) of N. Consequently. E. The lifting forcecuof the wing is equal to the amount of movement per second. E.a : similar width dZ. S = bt where b is the weight of the wing and Y: is the span. the amount of movement in the whole stf'ip which has a width dZ. we obtain: /69 Let us denote dM. ZhukoVskiy:( and the formula of experimental aerodynamics: Y /70 WCS 2(32) For a rectangular wing. The equation of relation. This expression shows that dM does not depend on the coordinate Y. where the vortexes act in the opposite direction.
Further. the Liliental polar has to be recalculated from a finite span to an infinite one. i. V=. the distance between the Liliental polar X = 5 and the parabola of the induced drag X = 5 is shifted to the left up the ordinate axis. This recalculation is performed graphically. which is performed graphically. Trndsitioh from one Wing Span to Another In practice one has to replot the Liliental polar obtained in the wind tunnel for a wing with aspectrratior. The opening of the angle of attack a has to be laid out on the new Liliental p[uo polar. i. the induced drag is taken into consideration. we obtain the curve of profile resistance. 13. 34). the characteristic of the profile resistance which is at the same time the Liliental polar for an infinite span wing is obtained. Uniting the obtained points by a dotted line (Fig. the curve Cyis drawn in relation to a for X = 5 of the profile under discussion (Fig. 34) the result of the calculation.3 (50) 52 . when utilized for the wingsvof wind engines. Laying out in the diagram (Fig. the flows are calculated to an infinite span and in the process of the design. 1 and construct another polar for a wing with a new aspect ratio X 2 or for a wing with infinite span. according to the formula of the flow islant: Aa ==57 . In practice. 341 left).e. Let us assume that we have Liliental's polar for a wing with an aspect ratio X = 5 which has to be reconstructed to infinite span X = . profile resistance Cp in relation to Cy. this construction can be done as follows: by means of the opening of the compass. This subtraction is done by means of the parabola of induced drag for X = 5 which is constructed according to formula (54) depending on Cy.The lifting force calculated by means of equation (55) (theoretical) should be equal to the lifting force obtained by the experimental formula. Since the induced drag of the wing with an infinite span equals zero. In the aerodynamic design of wind engines. hence: 2 I(56) Equation (56) is called the equation of relation as it gives the relation between the experimental magnitude Cy and the theoretical r. by subtracting the induced drag C: of the given wing from the head resistance Cxowe obtain the profile resistance Cp. Along with the Liliental polar for an infinite span. Since the characteristics of the profiles obtained in the wind tunnel are plotted for wings of finite span.e.
Fig. The prdi'hathes.0..and 4 and 1i 35. is shown by a dotted line with an 2.p J I 7 2 no._". by means of the 6B' tained curve Cy .the drag.:(EFig... by the i magnitude:  (57) In this case one calculates on Liliental's curve not the total of . co . parabola. Key: 1.a or A = .but by the difference in the flow slant between the two cases. In the transition from one finite span of the wing with an aspect ratio..cd' to thedownwash angle Va. 35 .I. which can be used for wings of wind engines.= 5' angles on the Liliental curve.c 1 11 pa6oa . The slant of the flow is represented by a straight line OA which is constructed in the same scale as the angles of attack on the abscissa.Ci C. II..e.. 'Fig. i. III.defiles are given in Table 4 [54].Xj to another finite span A2 .. 'and IV. The graphic illustration of the characteristics of these profiles is ajlvc given in Fig.span to another is performed by means of two curves of the characteristics of curve. . the wings profile .apa The magnitude of the flow slant /72 'plotted . the flow slant is calculated for a certain value. . 34). Further.) Further. 341) . c=c. 53 .. but the difference between the induceddrags induced'..w.Liliental's curve and the Cy Table$3 presents the numeric values of the aerodynamic characteristics of profiles.1of the proA certain profile is chosen. two wings with aspect ratio.of induced' course of the determination of the drag .. the curve Cy .a is shifted not by the whole value of the flow slant as in the case A = .. I . a ' a.on 'the graph. In Tables3..ha g. 34: The shift of Liliental's thespan opening of the angles of atfrom to one wing curve =5 tack are placed on Liliental's nother polar which has previously been The constructed on the left. Liliental'spor arrow (Fig. the number of profiles correspond to the number of experimental series in the given laboratory. for example Cy = 1. which corresponds C Cp. N(58) We can see that the recalculation from a wing with.c. pending on the construction of the wind wheels:.is my. of 1 l and A 2 : . .. a'b' etc.o " c ..curve C is for which purpose each = Sdawn at A nue of Cy is shifted to the left by a corresponding segment ab.
30 10.73 91)0 fa% I .80 54.73 0.34 1.46 .00 53.'0 139320 2.61 600 2.60 17.50 33.09 0.20 24.55 50 7.20 91.0 1.71) 6 9 5.24 7.30 1.j 100 13.70 10.909 II.(i60 15 14.0 18 17:50 42.40 120.02 c 2.61 12 .14 .20 1.0 36. 1.20 29.03 1.00) 98.60 40.00 24.82 36.57 2.74 5.40 .20 126.30 21.80 23.0.00 97.20 12.20 34.76 4.20 14.40 3.211 37.56 24.74 2.2 20.42 3.00 13.00 1.160 20.03 0 .00 4.71) 33. '111 .80 90.2.20 125. .00 C.60 35.03 42 .60 13.70 lpo wer 3.80 40.2 0 1.40 TABLE 4: Ib of ORDINATES' FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF PROFILES Number of Profile.50 8.20 68.70 4.20 31.20 c 2.00 51 p ilow 'pe.80 c 4.60 11.O0 119 to.80 47. Profile 730 MAI c.75 112.80 6 4 .00 21.40 34.58 2.80 24.40 5.19 0.40 27.20 5.00 119. j 2.50 118100 13300 141:00 14300 41 :'.50 076 2.40 18.50 14. e i er 1 pet0ow Iw low 295 2 4t .73 7.6' 4.20 12 10.70 .5 to' t5 20 19 ..60 1.3030 1.0 91.8 13.40 20.60 46.40 81.1i6 1.'low 0 .6ti 122.00 23..00 47.60 0 0 .18 21.73 5 281 471 000 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11o 56 0 0 0 0 0 ( 0 5.50 11.22 1.3 l.60 5.55 1.01 10o.0 120.20 a 1 2 4 6 3 10 12 14 1t 18 20 cx 1.00 74.34 1.00 fi550 7950 90.20 10 7.the length of the rdinate in % ord profilf 0 1.80 27.ti) 11.00 261.40 115.7:300 8.40 )60.46 3.36 27. .80  18..10 721 oper 3.20 1.9 5.60 14.42 1.00 .20 87.s1. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROFILES OF.43 2.20 130.80 8.iO 7.40 09.30 9. 0 0 10 66 (0 6.Profile 'TsAGI " 909 m Profile 910 TsAGI ' .46 60.88 .75 0.8 0.56 9.81 .20 110. 1.00 16.00 .41 31.86 12.30 0.20 40.66 6.50 128.~0 1 6.2 0 2 4 S 9 12 15 17 18 19 20 28.40 21.57 12.06 24.j 11.40 6 7.80 32.00 0.04 7.20 30.43 1.'80 4 2. i Ih . 600 9:5 005 8.41 3.30 434n i19 21.65 12.20 21.01 .FINITE SPAN WINGS .40 22.30 41) cA) 6) 70 80 00 9.50 74.98 1.96 29. 16.44 4.00 10 1. 22 10ia 1.801 10 .250.30 43'0) 20 22 23.90 .24 11.20 :3i.20 39.22 6.00 126.183 27.54 13.60  1.17 0 0. 5(3 .38 33. 2.53 3.'5 4. 0.90 41.00 1.o14 4.20 11. ' o0800 10 0 0 10.12 0 0.60 2 2.0 :1 i" 8s..20 "1 2.40 17.00 93.44 83 5 3:20 7 014 13.00 I Profile 796 MAI * aI C" I Cx 10 a I 82. 5.25 2.7 5.00 127.50 4 4 1 24 1. 9.40 3.20 17.80 95.50 2.80 8 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 I 31.03 13.00 14.40 0.7 12.80 20.40 25.00 12'.TABLE 3.00 0.86 t 10.06 13.
1 ope. P909 1 .C 1 *' 1160 140  CHt 1 7 3 14 0 v: IS 0  I I     14 _ _10 0 Ill' Il 1 a 4 o 1 9 110 1 0 Io 16) 7 0 C0l010 [Legend illegible] Key: I. Profile 55 .
6 using the above profile for wind wheels. and through them.0. is drawn On the same graph.. span wing the opening of the compass. I Ci.=14. a==3o. whereCx and Ci have to be takenat. let us calculate Ci for various values of Cy.Ci.. tie drag. Cy and Cxat. 35 .Since the induced.es Cy and rL on the graph up to the axis of the ordinate.370 ". By means of these two curves. 7 Ci 0 E!=0. 34. the left of the dotted curve Cp 56 . Fig.0637C .0.the.=0..or by shifting segment taken between the curv. Thise reconstruction has to be done accordingi~sto Fig. 4c  let us draw Liliental's curve. o 4 _ the parabola of C.0337. 36: Graphic representation of the characteristics of an in(example). 0. a=0 .2052 = 0.01370.03371. .=0.715 . curve ' .0337 0. 3 L o ( no 20i 42 8 2 Is 20 t / ix i. =0.007i15 I ) C.0028ithe scale af the ga hi C. the characteristics of the/7 selected profile have to be reconstructed for the characteristics of an infinite span. finite span wing finite (example).46521=0.IV of the profile 796 with an aspect ratio X = 5 to 'an infinite span and X = Recalculation is done using the above presented method. By means of equation (54). the characteristics presented in Fig.336 2 =0.IV. let us construct the curve of the profile resistance 0 8' 10*12* If ___done Fig. =0.. Let us recalculate.200 a= 2O. drag of the:wing is calculated in the aeroformulas. .correspond.800 I The points obtained for C i /77 are 1plotted on the graph in S. the magnitudes of which are written in Table 3.07800 C =7. C. C . C .0 0.thecorthe responding Cy.. by means of This pl6tting is done on the graph to (X = m).e. 36. LL L 20o 1 The plotting of the point is either by recalculation using equations Cp = C x . = 0. C.. in dynamic design of windwTwheels by means of . . Example.0337. F ing anglesa which are given in ig. . 35 .
3 ..65 = 5. let us plot ini the. The magnitude of this angle at C = 1.. a2.3iC=573 V5 5 . By shifting the curve (X = 5) to the left by the magnitude of the segment al. we obtain the curve of Cy(X = =).0 is equal to: 5 7 .infinite span wing as an exercise. which is given in Fig. The segment in the scale of the angles on the abscissa for angle Aa = 3. a. and let us construct the downward angle .62 x 3.an. a 2 etc. 35 .650 is equal to 1.. against C = 100 and through its end we draw the oblique lie Aa passing t hrough the origin. It is suggested to do the recalculation of the other characteristics presented in Fig. 35 to . This segment is laid 'out on the horizontal t6 the left ofaxis C .. is shown on the graph by means of dotted lines. cUr've Cy(\ = 5) .IV.92 mm.a. The size of the angleson Liliental's curve plotted for infinite span Cp(X = ).Further.right hand side of theligraph. which is shown by the dotted curve. /78 57 .
(74 FFTT RapidityilK is the ratio of the circular velocity of the bladel' end. SYSTEMS OF WIND ENGINES /79 Classification of Wind Engines According to the Principle of Their Operation The existing systems of wind engines can be divided into three catagories according to the type of construction of their wheel and it position in the wind stream. 37: Diagrams of the wheels in winged wind engines: 1 .( (FiR. 14. 2.comprises wind engines which are multibladed low speed with a rapidity Zn 2 . 38). According to Gost 265644. Zn13. Group 2 . to the velocity of the wing: =* 4 (59) Fig. They can be divided into groups according to the type of their construction: Rotating in which the nonoperational blades are either covered with a screen or are situated with their arms against the wind. the plane of rotation is perpendicular to the direction of the wind and consequently the /80 axis of the wind wheel is parallel to the flow. 3.wind engines which are sparsely bladed and rapid.egory comprises systems of wind engines which have a vertical axis of rotation of the winged wheel. 58 . (Fig. The second cat. winged wind engines are divided Sinlthree groups.wind engines which are sparsely bladed low speed and of simple woodmetal construction comprising windmills with a rapidity Zn> 2 . The first category includes those wind engines in which the wind wheel is situated in the vertical plane. Group 1 . 37). depending on the type of wind wheels and on their rapidity. and 4 sparsely bladed wind wheels. Group 3 .CHAPTER 3. Such wind engines are called winged.multibladed wing wheel.
the energy of the wind changes proportionally to the cube of its velocity. 38: Diagram of the bythe wind. With regard to the above presented class sifications let us examine the main principles of operation of the wind forces elicited by  / wind engines. 59 . The mass of air flowing through crosssection F with a velocity V is equal to: /82 m=pFV. There are in existehce other types of wind engines as well. To the third category belonga those wind engines which operate by the principle of the watermill wheel and are called drum type.Rotor type Savonius wind engines (Fig. for example. 39: The rotor type is determined by the product of the force wind engine P by the velocity V: T = PV. The work per second or the power T Fig. as. ' cross section Fig. Work of the 'surface acted on. they have not received practical application and have remained in the realm of suggestions of their inventors. /i. 39). in wind engines of the rotatory type. however. we obtain: hence. the axis of /81 rotation is horizontal and perpendicular to the direction of the wind (Fig. S 'I Let us see what is the percentage of wind energy which can be transformed int use .teamwith F possesses kinetic energy which is deterrotating wind engine mined by the expression: mV. ' 72 (60) . ful work by a surface situated perpendicularly to the direction of the wind and moving in the same direction. (61) Substituting in the expression of the kinetic energy pFV instead of m. A wind . 40). In these wind engines.
41). equals: Fig. Due to its retardation by.(V. the work under these conditionswill equal the product of the force by the velocity U.U (c) substituting the value of Ppifrhomtequation (b) into equation (a). . Asa resultofthe:. S I "I T = PxU. but with a corresponding increase in the velocity of its displacement.: /83 drum type wind wheel. the surface..U)2 After transformationswe obtain: 0V V (63) 60 .11. i. of . equals:. equal to:: W= V . with which the surface F is displaced.(vJUU _ C.e. the surface is displaced in the direction of the flow with a certain velocity U (Fig.a <large force at low speed of displacement of the working surface. Let us determine the ratio of the work produced by a moving surface and expressed by equation (d) to the energy of the wind stream which has a cross section equal to the surface.e. i. (a) while Px is the drag. or contrarily on account of a small force and consequently a small surface.:  J=: Cy.which according to equation (41). we obtain: F(d) The energy of the wind flow dashing over this surface. p=CF (VU) P. action of this force. Fig.The same work can be obtained either on account. the air flow is dammed and will flow around it and produce a pressure with a force Px. (b) In this case the wind dashes over the surface with a relative velocity which is . 41: Action of the windf'force on the surface. 40: Diagram of the Let us assume that surface F is situated perpendicularly to the direction of the wind. as determined by equation (62).
Examining the curve.1 (6 3a) iis maximal. and substituting these values in equation (63a). 0 In solvring this equation with regard to e.:)ie. we obtain the Plotting the calculated characteristic curve of the power for sufface F which works with drag/ (Fig. we shall make the.two roots: el = 1/3 and e 2 = 1. In order to find the value of the velocity U at which ma :imum C is obtained. the then the work of the wind also equals zero.the coefficient C receives its maximum value. it follows that the value of the velocity U is confined within the limitsU = 0 and U = V/. a e = 1 E:?= 0.4Ce. at which derivative of the equation (639) equal to zero: = CZ . which we shall now determine.The magnitude C is called the 'output coefficient of the wind energy. If the velocity of displacement of the surface equals zero. figures on the graph. first /84 In order to find e. U = 0. surface is displaced with the velocity of the wind. (64) Such a result is obtained on the basis of the following argument. we obtain. will also be equal to zero. the surface has to move with a velocity: U = 1/3V.. then the work. in order to obtain maximal E. Denoting the ratio U/V by e and substituting in equation (63). 42). let us find at what ratio U/V is this maximum obtained. let us give various values to the ratio of the velocity of displacement of the surface to the velocity of the wing from 0 to: . Consequently we have to take: In such a manner. velocity of displacement of the surface in the direction of the wind i.16 48 1 61 . we obtain: E= a(1 e)2 e. 3ei4e 1t 2 = 0.3Ce Hence: .At a certain value of the velocity U. which the work is performed. If U = V. .. we see that the maximum value: /85 ==0. We can see grom equation (63) that depends on the. Since there is no drag on account of :v.
equals about 1. Work of the wind wheel in . 42: istics of the ideal .are attached to the horizontal shaft. and gener. cannot be more than: 0. the maximum output coefficie of the wind energy under conditions of the work of the surface" with drag. as opposed which we exto the direct impact The amined in the previous case. The angles ¢ and a deterThe mine to a significant extent the effectiveness of the wings.. which is called the angle of attack.. The wing of the wind wheel is made of the flap a and the blade b which in such a manner that it forms with the is attached to the flap .(Fig. 43.192 max = 0148130 n i. . Winged wind wind.192 0. velocity the wind. slightly askew impact under condi N a Sr  tions of movement on the blade. u=O a . 43). according to Table 1. winged)wind engines. force R is distributed between the forces Px and P forces Px produce a pressure inithe direction of the wind which is called head pressure.e. The number of the wings in modern wind engines vanes from 2 to 24. of the. _. of a wheels doperate on :acount '. The forces Py act in the plane y .y of the rotation of the wind wheel and create a torque.. and with a force R. 62 . / Py Construction diaFig.consequently we can write 0.. .e. perpendicularly to the direction of the wind velocity./86 ally does not exceed 2 4. Character30 Fig. This angle is called the plane of rotation a certain angle rigging angle of the blade.30. 44a).c Eof Ir! I JtThe U ±s obtained when the velocity of displacement of the surface amounts to 1/3. construction of such a wheel is shown in Fig. of3: the uto din gram of the winged wind wheel The wings.output icoeffidient' of the wind energy by a surface displaced in the direction of the coefficient of the head resistance C x for surfaces situated perpendicularito the wind flow. An air stream with a relative velocity W dashes over its elemen under an angle a. The (Fig. i. when /a y ae As c.192...
direction of rotation from the axis of rotation of the winged wheel. oti( its surface. it reaches 46r. bgraphic representation of the relative stream'. in high performance models. surrounds the cylinder and again closes up behind it. one must recall the force elicited on a cylinder which rotates in the air stream. If the cylinder is situated in the flow of an ideal fluid. two critical points A and B are obtained. a certain value of the angle of attack a. where the velocities are eaual to 0. then we obtain conditions under which almost all the elements of the A blade with a blade operate6with the same maximal lifting force.a. Consequently. variable rig.The maximum forces which cause the rotation of the .g angle q assumes the shape of . Sopa'e~a anpaene. In view of the fact that the /87 SSI oI 0 circular velocity is not uniform along the. 44b). For example.( Concerning the lifting force of the rotating cylinder. the relative velocity W of the flow dashing over the blade.. the angle of the slope of the relative stream to the surface of the blade. In front of and behind the cylinder.propeller surface. 'At the same time the angle of attack a decreases and at a certain circular velocity wR. ensure a high output doefficient of the wind ' energy.e. length of the wing. perpendicular to its... The work of the wind in this case can be performed on account of this force. situated at various radiLnof the wind wheel. and of a width corresponding to the given rapidity.e 1 wheel. The correct rigging angles of the blade under conditions of inadequate liftdrag ratio. not all the elements of the wing.. where w is the angular velocity. direction. dashing over the elements of the blade. In addition to the above described two principles of the work of the wind during its action on the surface. i. also increases. so that the most convenient angle of attack a is maintained more or less constant. are obtained at. Key: 1. 44: adiagram of action of the forces of the air stream on an element of theb:lade. but rather increases as its elements are farther away 3 b Fig. then the filament dashing over the cylinde issubdivided. this angle becomes negative (Fig. .If we decrease the angle p ofr ach element of the blade as it becomes removed from the axis of rotation.)have maximaa lifting force. 63 .
E. 'a velocity. Using Bernoulli's equation for the range of the flow outside the border Fig. while below formation of the it. i. large combined are subtracted Examining the spectrum of the stream lines around the cylinder (Fig. Zhukov.then it will drag with it particles of the fluid situated /88 the closest to the walls of the cylinder. the velocities of both flows add up and give. perpendicular to the flow. the coefficyent of the head drag on the ratio.(Fig. on the contrary they are disposed very sparsely .surrounding a v6rtex strings Th'.while below. while in points C and D.below the cylinder. 45: Diagram of flow of the latter will be coincident with the flow of. on U/V o . 8). and a . 46: Diagram of layer. the velocities will be maximal and equal between themselves. is equal to: Since the lifting force is proportional to the circulation r.. it depends to a large extent on the ratio of the circular velocity of the cylinder U to the velocity of the main stream Vo. which acts on the cylinder from above and . main flow surrounding the cylinder and another which is induced by the. Under conditions of a clockwise rotation of the movement of the main flow from the left to the right 46). are the Cy and Cx of these curves are shown in figures 4748. Experimental curves showing the dependence of C . in the airstream. cylinder.the velocities of the two flows and give a comparatively small resultant velocity. If a' cylinder placed in the air stream rotates around its own axis.an increase. /89 64 . we see that above the cylinder a decrease in pressure takes place. where U is the circular velocity of the rotating cylinder and V is the velocity of.rotatiOn of the cylinder. which is the linder at rest. which is analogdus to7the flw . 4 5 ).skiy's theorem (equation 55). the coefficient of the lifting force. Fig. while.:' an air the direction of rotation of the cylinder.and upward (Fig. U/V. stream around a cyThus we obtain two flows.e. we see that the stream lines above the cylinder are disposed very closely. One:.* : in the particular case of N. This phenomenon causes force lifting force on a cylinder rotating P. 46). the stream. and of Cx.velocity of this flow'decreases as the distance from the cylinder o _ increases (see Sec. The magnitude of this force.
were suggested in 1925. without Since the drag of the cylindersis extremely high. while on the other 2 side. the experiments performed at that did not give positive results.side of the axis of rotation. the force obtained in the Key: 11 with ring plane of rotation creates the torque of the 2. As a result of this. rather small.as compared to the liftingi'force.The airblast cylinders had discs at each end. 48: The polar of of the stream on them is. telatter can not give an adequate effect on the whole.*. d 1 I.is extremely complicated as compared to the winged wind wheel. without ring wind wheel.71 where F = dl. their liftdrag ratio is very low. result of this. 1/3. 47.. or else the arms of the blades. 47: Fig. the wind wheel the best ratio will be atasingle'distance of the section of the /90 cylinder from the axis of the winged wheel. S15.on' . receives its maximall value around 7.calculated accordingr to the formula: F1 14 2 FPV I 4 AP4. the pressure Fig. Key: 1. however.of the value . In rotating wind engines. it meets'either the screen covering those blades which go against the wind. f(U/V) accordy ftime ing to flow. the circular velocity of displacement of thecylinders in the plane 6f. However. An analogous phenomenon takes S.. the construction of the winged wheel with the rotating cylinder near the axis of the flap. .e. in the case of the wing. As a the rotor of Fig. which were called rings. as a result of<'which.rotatiobnof' Consequently changes proportionally td its radius. 47: Character .T r its length. if they are 2 4 " c revolving. i. It is known from experiments. Advandages and Disadvantages of Various Systems of Wind Engines Wind engines of the second and third catg gories (rotating and drum type) are distinguished by a very simple diagram of the work of the wind wheel. C9. The first engines with rotating cylinders iinstead of blades. that in the best case the liftdrag ratio of cylinders at a certain ration of circular velocity to the velocity of the airstream. the airstream dashing over the wind wheel presses on the blades On. The presence of rings in the cylinderI considerably increased the lifting force. diameter of the cylinder. 65 . However. Fig.
and does not exceed 10% . which considerably increases its weight per unit of the established power of the wind engines. the magnitude of which equals for a blade oriented in the direction of the wind. where: CR U the coefficient of the force P.) The torque of the wind 'wheel is the difference between the torque of these forces. are small by comparison to the dimensions. if they are covered with a screen (Figt.place in drum type wind engines. as in the. The dimensions of the utilized part df the wind stream (the markedoff surface). Since the working blades'of the wing are displaced in the direction of the airstream. The blades of the opposite side of the wind wheel. in rotating wind engines. the velocity of displacement of the blades.F. it is always in the working position from whatever side the wind blows. such a wind engine . are subjected to a drag. Fp is the lateral surface of drag of the arms. in the case of rotating wind engines.utpUt epp fcient_ <J of wind energy is rather low. However. can be increased by improving the surfaces and the combination. due to elaborate construction. 66 .dgory). of their dispositioh in the wind stream.: 1. the position of the wind wheel in the wind stream is more favorable. a special device is needed in order to adjust the wind wheel to the wind with each change of its direction.e. However. prevents the development of large revolutions. under the most favorable conditions. The <output coefficient ' of wind energy. the :. of the wheel itself. as determined by experimental investigations. 2. but does so in succession.becomes more complicated than the winged engine. which is /91 equal to:P If they go with the armstto the wind: PdC.winged type (the first cat. the wind 'load does not act simultan" eously on all blades. 38). C'x is the coefficient of the drag. i. In drum type wind engines. 3. since the surfaces cannot move faster than the wind. resultffrom the principle of disposition of the working surfaces of the wind wheel in the wind stream.'P(V + M (here. acting in the direction of rotation. The movement of the surfaces of the wind wheel. As a result. The main shortcomings of rotating and drum type wind engines. As a result. each blade is subjected to a discontinuous load. in the direction of the wind.
the output coefficient of wind energy by the Savonius type wind engines. the wind wheel also rotates in a horizontal plane. the possibility of constructing them at high power (above 1000 hp in unIt ). Those drags which were airstream around the found in rotating wind engines. 5 = 18%. The plants in exclusively winged USSR andjn other countries. Therefore. the wind wheel creates the lowest damming to thewird stream The wind stream which is directed as shown in figure 49. free of the above' of rotating and drum type wind engines. As confirmed by both theory and practice to a considerable extent. glides. all these one are the main advantages of winged engines of these categories. 49: Diagram of creates an additional force which sets the the movement of the rotors in motion. Savonius type wind engine (Fig. winged wind engines are enumerated shortcomings The good aerodynamic properties of winged wind engines. 67 . here. 39). they have now found widest distribution. Therefore. The highest output i c6efficient of wind energy. but the flow through the markedofff' surface takes place quite differently than in the rotating and drum type wind en. which it surrounds and the Fig. In the given case. the relatively light weight perunit power. is approximately twice higher than in the rotating enginesr. was found with the Savonius model rotor in a wind tunnel. past the convex surface a and acts with full force on surface b. are not Svniustype found rotor./92 gines. manufacture to date wind engines.In the.
and the circulation along the blade is constant. N. Sabinin and academician G. 16.:equals 0. the angular . on the basis of the theory of the ideal screw propeller. elaborated the theory of "Windmill NEZh" where he derived the output 1coefficient of 'the' windenergy. From the point of view of the practical application. G. 2. the theory of the ideal wind engine was elaborated more completely by Prof.time. Ideal wind engine is called the wind wheel in which: 1. Zhukovskiy. again in our country.as shown by curve I in Fig. 50. in section CC'. 4.' coefficient of~the wind energy for anideal wind'engine. F.behind._ard.bythe'. the velocity will be V 2 = V . The Classical Theory of the Ideal Wind Engine /9. as a result of which the velocity of the stream decreases as the distance to the wind engine for.some'tiime dTinshes the wind engine 1. the velocity of the airstream on the wind wheel is constant throughout the markedoff area of the wind engine. Proskura. In the section BB'.him. Vetchinkin.engine [7]. the velocity . . The theory of the ideal oWind engine of Prof.Vl. Sabinin. Kh. the axis of rotation is parallel to the velocity of the wings..v2 The rotating wind wheel.593. It establishes that the maximal coefficient of utilization of the wind energy by an ideal wind engine is equal to 0.theoutput. 68 . first elaborated in 1914 by V. In 1920.velocity tends to infinity. E. E.of the winged wheel will be V 1 := V . P. the pressure of the air p increases as the distance to the wind engine decreases. is a classical theory.CHAPTER 4: THEORY OF THE IDEAL WIND ENGINE /93 The theory of the ideal wind engine was.687.damming'effect. 50). At the same. by Prof. G. while at a certain distance behind the wind engine. Analogous theories _were later elaborated. 3. according to . N. he established the concept of the of windei energy by the ideal wind encoefficient output gine. Zhukovskiy. In this work. the profile drag of the wing equals zero. Prof. there is an infinitely large number of blades of small widths.. Kh. creates a. 5.4 Let us represent a uniform wind stream dashing over an ideal wind wheel with a velocity Vacross section AA' (Fig.
(Vv. of thA/95 the wind in front of the wind engine.vl). . The loss in velocity_ behind the ideal wind engine. (b) The energy T 1 . can be determined by means of Bernoulli's equation: A .v 2 ) 2 /2. a certain negative the markedoff. &C VI PO The kinetic energy. it is m(V .m(Vv. we obtain: consequently: . approaches 0 as the distance from the wind engine increases.is'formed.: of the jet passing through the markedoff ._: pressure Po . .  . (c) The head pressure P is equal to. equals mV 2 /2. area. t VVI 2  Since p2<Po. the normal pressure is restored (curve III). 50: air flow through wind wheel (a) Transforming the right hand side of equation (a). i.P2. it can be obtained as useful work: T. while behind the wind engine. (d) 69 .(curve II). V>V 2.=m.e.area. .e. P = mv 2 Substituting the value Of P in the equation (c).: TT =p.). we obtain T1=mv. S Po Characteristics of Fig. and it decreases markedly during the passage through Behind the wind engine. which asymptotically._T.(V .(v . can be expressed as the product of the force of pressure of the wind T. perceive'dby the wind wheel. the increment in the movement i. IrThe difference between these energies is spent on the wind wheel and in the absence'of losses. i.e. by the velocity in the plane bf the wind engine.
V1 = or: T ' •e..=2. =/ (65) velocity in the of loss section of the wind wheel..' i Let us transform this equation: P P(V~ )S2 (66) (2 .(V ) =mv.V 2 P 2 is callrdthie coefficient of loading per The expression 2P/Fp..Comparing equations (b) and (d).V markedooff area or the coefficient of frontal pressure. but wind engine. and is denoted 2P by the B. 14.e.: B Fp. (67) 70 . A mass of air m. Taking the ratio of the work per second. t'he amount of which per second equals: m.v 1 ) to that energy of the wiid which would correspond to a cross section equal to the area markedoff by the wind engine: we obtain the idealik output. while the total the loss on account of the wind The equality (65) shows that the airstream takes place not only in the also at a certain distance behind the loss in velocity is twice larger than wheel. r'_ pF172 pFV3' which corresponds with the equation (62) ind Sec. "io0efficient of the wind energy . i.(V ). passes through markedoff' area F of the wind /96 wheel. perceivedI by the ideal wind wheel: T 1 = P(V .= PFVj (61) Substituting the value of the air mass into the expression of wheel. we find that: hence: mv. we obthe kinetic energy of the wing in front of the wind tain: .
12e =0. 2 /97 4 3e4ei hence: =0. 4 (V. the plane of the wind wheel: In suchaa manner.i willihhave the Let us determine the value of e. The loss of velocity in the plane of the wind wheel equals 1/3 of the velocity of the wind: 3.f the wind behind the wind wheel is twice larger than the loss in the velocity of the wind in _. iF'pFl(VV)v (Vv)2 and denoting vl/V = e.Substituting in this equation. '.) 2V. coefficient 1. . let us take the first derivative. The maximum output ideal wind wheel equals Ei = 0.v. In such a manner. Solving this equation. the following main assumptions can be derived from the classical theory of the ideal wind engine. ____ 4(V .a.888. 71 .V.t 1 ) v 2 =4e (1 .) vt __(68) Proceeding in the same way 0it Fp(YV. The total loss in the velocity . we obtain after reduction: B=2pF (W .of 7 9 wind energy of the 2. make it equal to 0. we find that 5 has its maximal value when e = 1/3.) 2v.e) . but = From equation (66) let us find B.888. the velocity of the wind behind the wind wheel amounts to 1/3 of the velocity of the wind in front of the wind wheel. the coefficient of loading per markedoff area at maximal Ei: B=4(11 =0.e.v) V3 t equation (66)...593. 4 (VV we obtain for  v) (V .maximal value. at which .i. . The coefficient of loading per markedoff area of the wind wheel equals B = 0. 4. = 416e .: and or: . For this purpose. (69) The ratio vl/V = e is called the drag coefficient.
. of propeller screw resultsfrom the turbulent theory of the the inside contour closed any the circulation around Zhukovskiy: turbunot is flow the drifting stream equals 0. Insuch"a manner./98 Assuming the drag coefficient e = vl/V varies in the limits from 0 to. tensity. Sabinin The difference between this theory: and former theories.' l).' /9'9 As the distance from the wind engine grows. the pulse of the force is calculated according to the turbulent solenoid in that place where it has assumed a steady state.surface gradually passes into a cylindrical surface. section Whichis larger" cross of. they are inversely proportional to the number of blades and to the' angular velocity of rotation.as was assumed by the previous theories.0 S 0.360 0.. Sabinin. the flow lines forming a bottle shaped surface AA'BB'CC'. the boundary .57 0. As a consequence of the conditions accepted for determining the the axial veideal wind engine (Sec. which we shall call "bounidary. dash over the wind Let us draw through' the circle desengine as shown in Fig. as(d there is only a pressure jump. and The tip losses are equal to 0. 16).8 334 0. the 72 . 50. consisting of a series vortex .'stream which is. which start off atthe tips.we obtain the following: which stream. Kh.7 1 0. 60036 0 0 17. The circulation in the plane of'. N. Thatpt'~the.of the blades rand are wound. in the shape of a coil with infinitely small pitch on the surface of the division ('ig. the of section Idcities are constahtni throughout the E. is a surface of division formed of an infinitely thin vortex layer.1 and calculating by means. "0 1. Let a homogeneous flow with a velocity V. The Theory of the Ideal Wind Engine of Prof".stnjhnigssof infinitely low in. lent and the tangential velocities are equal to 0.2 1 0 1333!016 0.640 0.001 960 1. and consequently. Kh. which is situated behind the wind engine.53 0.&f of G. The vortex layer of the solenoid.the area in the cylindrical part has an axial force and the the wheel. coefficient . can be schmatically represented as consisting of a series of vortex/strings%. consists fact that in determining the axial force of pressure of the the in stream on the wind wheel.surface.. will be somewhat larger. of eauation (66) and (68). cylindrical shape. The boundary surface BB'CC'. and not at the time of its formaSince the solenoid tion.'wind energy.324 0.120.30 0 0.512 0.000 0.G. we obtain the following values for coef'ficient Ei and B: I " B 0.1 0. than the area markedoff by the wind .output .:2521 0. enclosed in the boundary surface is called working flow. rotation of the wind engine equals 0. according to the theory .. the surface of the division is a vortex solenoid.. cribed by the tips~of the blades.
velocity of the flow equals V vvD where v 1 is the velocity caused by the vortex selonoid at its end. iftweimagine that the vortelx rotates like a solid body. Assuming that at a sufficient distance Fig.diameter of which equals the thickness of the vortex layer. infinitely far from the wind engine. Since the solenoid is carried by the flow with" the velocity V. the vortex solenoid assumes a cylindrical shape and drifts into infinity. Kh.layer. The velocity of the flow outside the cylindrical part of the solenoid will be V. the markedoff area is Fl.B'. the velocity in the cylindrical part of the solenoid amounts to V . the flow has a velocity V and a surface F" In the section B . :absolute velocity of the solenoid will be 73 . The velocities de. In a section A .crease toward the'center 'of the vortex. Such an infinitely thin vortex layer requires no formation of energy.ar ' i. while the velocities caused by the solenoids are directed intthe reverse direction with respect to the velocity of the flow.in the plane of the wind wheel. equal to v 2 /2. Sabinin to be equal to half the velocity caused by the solenoid inside it. where v 2 is the velocity caused by the solenoid at a sufficient distance from the wind engine. flow through the wind wheel. since the solenoid causes no velocity in the external flow.C'.A'. 51: Formation of a vortex solenoid behind the wind wheel. since its kinetic energy is infinitely smalleas a result of the infinitely small mass of the layer. /100 Figure 52 represents the diagram of. The deformation of the flow caused by the ideal wind engine results in the application of velocities produced by the vortex solenoids on a homogeneous flow. the axial . The increase in the amount of movement of the fluid caused by the wind engine equals the amount of movement caused by the newly formed cylindrical part of the solenoid. thej.v 2 . we obtain that the streams both inside and outside the solenoid are parallel and the pressures are constant in all the points of the flow which are sufficiently removed fromtthe wind engine. The velocity of movement of an infinitely long vortex solenoid with respect to the flow. ipe. from the wind engine. while its maximal velocities are finite. The external particlesof such a vortexhave a velocity which is similar to the velocity of 'the adjacent nonturbulent . G.. infinitely far away from the wind engine. h:. In the section C . has been assumed by Prof.&' .
v2/2 . according to equation (19).'would be ab (V .v 2 .. the circulation at the side where these sides intersect the vortex solenoid is also equal to 0 since the vortex layer is infinitely thin while the circular velocity of rotation of the particles of the finite. Diagram of the flow Iu Fig. . for which purpose let us describe a rectangular contour *". direction perpendicular 74 . . The circulation throughout the contour will vortex layer 'oi"s be: vv v2 ab (V  V v. the circulation along the sideslc and da will be equal to 0. since the velocity V .) dV. abcd in such a manner that its sides ab and cd will be parallel [ I C' ' to the axis of the stream. let us use the following theorem. since: T= the circulation along the contour abcd will equal: ab V The circulation per unit length of the solenoid will be: = \ (a) Let us calculate the pulse of the force required for the formation of the vortex solenoid and for this purpose. while the sides bc and da will be perpendicular to it (Fig. The pulse of the force PAt required for the formation of the vortex ring. 52). Let us determine the circulation of the velocity of the VuZ V" P vortex solenoid per unit of its length. equals the area of the vortex ring F multiplied by the circulation of the velocity r around the vortex and multiplied by the density of the fluid p: (b) Here the pulse of the force is in to the plane of the vortex ring.v 2 is parallel to ab.SIc VvI F FI S V . The circulation along cdwill be cdV. the circulation on the side ab. this is the velocity/101 of formation of the vortex solenoid.v2). 52: Going around the contour in am o' "o:f the a:irstream through the wind whee . since thesesides are perpendicular to the velocity V and V .a'. clockwise direction.
while the whole first term i e. we obtain: Let us transform this equation by representing it in the form of two components: P=[pF. On the basis of equations (c) and (d).If we were to break down the splen6idint elementary rings with /102 a length along the axis of the solenoid of dz. N (c) where dr is the circulation of the velocity of one ring. It cannot be broken down tottwo factors so that a certain mass of fluid would correspond to one factor. (V . .. according to equation (a) equals V2. instead of r its value v 2 . reducing equation (e) by lower dt and substituting in it.. The force pulse for the formation of ahsingle vortex ring of the solenoid amounts to: pF dI... The second term is in its dimension the same increment in the amount of movement per unit time. Therefore. ._ but: _ (f) f is the circulation of the velocity per unit length of the solenoid. Througkthe markedoff area per unit ttime. F 2 'is the area of the cross section of the cylindrical part of the solenoid.sum will amount to: P F2( d' ' (e) Let us rewrite this equation in the following manner: .d.Pd pF. ( (70) The expression in the square brackets of the first term in the right hand side of the equation is the mass of the air passing .(Vv.) v+pF . Since the length of the solenoid increases in time dt by: over the same interval of time. the following rings are formed: V (d) The pulse of the force and the wind enginenin term dt will be humerically equal to the sum of the pulses required for the formation of the vortex rings appearing during the same time.: '_ . which. this. is the increment in the amount of movement of this mass which we shall denote by ml. while a certain velocity which would be /103 75 . then per unit length of solenoid there will be 1/dz vortex rings.
crdss. Equation (70a) can be rewritten in the following manner: (71) The sum (ml + m 2 ) is called the drag. since we do not know the characteristics of that process in which the formation of the amount of movement represented by takes place. lenoid will extend from the wind engine to the section bb and have In such a manner. 76 . For the sake of convenience in subsequent reasoning. The expression Let us note that: is called the bound mass and is noted by m 2 .v 2 /2)At. since in its physical essence. in the plane of rotation of the wind engine AA and out:. In such a manner. 7 the sphere of influence of the wind engine. the length of the a length of (V . equation the frontal pressure (71) can be formulated in the following way: caused by the flow on the wind engines. where the law of formation of function m and v is not known!itoius. integral: pF. would correspond to the second factor. 2 dm.bb will be filled with the air sucked by the This mass of air is the bound mass.'. equals the product of the drag mass by the velocity of the traction with opposite sign. The particles of the air which in the beginning are situated inside the markedoff area and represent the beginning of the stream passing through the wind engine.mass. and assume a position A'A'. The diagram of the formation of the bound mass m2 is shown in Fig.e. let us multiply and divide this expression. 53. and assume the position CC. solenoid from the end bb. pF2(V  ju. by v 2 : P=J IPP2 VM V3 V3 1 (70a) The fraction in the square brackets cannot be reduced by v 2 . The particles of the airstream which in the first moment are situated /014 . the solenoid cc . move to a distance side vAt after a certain interval of time At. the second term of equation (70). solenoid formed during the time At will be longer by v 2 /2At than The part of the column of fluid passing throughtthe wind engine.the sameCfor all particles of this mass.the numerator of this fraction is an . while velocity v 2 is called the velocity of traction. i.v 2 )At after a In this minute the vortex sotime At.a distance(V .
Formation of the bound " p!" V..l. In reality.. n )V2 = P (V ... calculated by the velocity of the traction [32]: m 2 .m its movement the solenoid breaks down to individual vortex wings which gradually extinguish. (ml + m2). 2 /. we obtain: Vl =2(V )v. 2: yiZd.:carried by the flow in the form of kinetic energy: . the energy. (a) Substituting in the equation (a) the value. but the amount of movement caused by them will be preserved. in equation (b). Let us write the balance of the energy of the air flowing through the wind wheel per second(. is used for the formation of the bound mass. The layer of fluid with a ringedshapedsection enclosed be:L tween the surfaces ommccnn and aa bb. and dividing by.. which is hatched in Fig. _ (a 2 ~ .(V. .+(V . mV22 (b) Substituting the values of ml and m 2 .=2 The losses related to the formation of the bound mass.P=(. LL . tv.S.2 ==?F 2 V.v (. 53: mass. The energy impartedbythl flow /105 equals : the energy perc'eived by the wind engine: P (  ).==pF. V2 =2 (V tv 2 2 ) j+'?77 ±+ . and v2 is crement in the velocity mass or the velocity of the sothe inof this traction. form: The equation of the balance of energy will have the following . bb. 1 where the expression in square bracketsis the mass of air confined in the section of lenoid cc.2 r) 1m. . the increment in the amount of movement of the mass over the time At can be written: and PF. and related per unit time: (V2_Fig. 53 and forms the walls of the bottle.. In : reality.v 2 . obtain: Sm. the phenomenon is not as simple" 1.
V).v (c) Solving equation (c) relative to v 2 .) +v. is given by the theorm: The mass of fluid dragged by the wind engine or by its ggrtd.grid. 78 . Let us use equation (71). (73) Setting the expression F/F 1 and F 2 /F 1 .VI= 2(V 'v). and is equal to the volume corresponding to the area markedoff in the flow. we obtain: 2. Let us write the equation of the flow assuming that a flow with a velocity V dashes over a wind engine staying in one place (Fig. 50): J FVF. + (V + V. we find: /106 1+ i I (72) This is the first velocity relation which differs from the analogous one in the classical theory. we obtain:  V V or.(Vv)=F2(Vvo) hence: and I v 1 V Substituting from equation (72). multiplied by the density of the fluid. divide both its parts by v2 and re.[PF(Vv)] V Substituting the value of v 2 from equation (72) and F 2 from equation (73). (74) i. does not depend on the conditions of the wind engine and on the pemeability.+(vv. reducing: F =+ . the value v 2 /V. of the . +m. The markedoffdarea is the arithmetical average of the areas of the working stream in front of and behind the wind engine. 2  .e. we obtain: i _F./107 place ml and m 2 by their values: m. Determination of the magnitude of the drag mass (ml + m 2 ).
16).e). we obtain: 49 B' where: 'consequently: . is obtained from equation (71).. (75) The frontal pressure on the wind engine. Substitutingthe value v 2 from equation (72). e. +m.after reduction. substituting the value m i + m 2 from equation (75): P=(i+" 1 2 ) V=FV V2 . e = e. (77a) B'= 4 Taking into consideration equation (77). we obtain: dd ) (I + ee)2 79 . or: K 4 .? K_ 2 pF 1 Vv 2 (77) or: B'=2'. equal to: T=P(V? Substituting the value P from equation (78). Assuming that the first derivative of expression (79) is equal to zero. we obtain: m. e (79) (79a) SE B' (1. we obtain: The coefficient of utilization of the wind energy is equal to: T after reduction: . according to equation/108 (in Sec.P "FPK" F.1J (76) ) The load on the markedoff area is: '.= pFV =Const. we obtain that the frontal pressure P is equal to: 4e V FB' V(78) :Pp z ' P2" " I "/ The power of the shaft of the wind engine is.
/110 v 2 = 2v 1 . Sabinin. .172.687 '! In order to compare the two theories. 1 /V at T . TABLE 5 Total velocity of thewind lost behind the wind wheel..4 1 : 0. as in . 54 shows the depen/109 dence of C on the function v 1 /V.087. 1.Ij i. Kh. (max ax. According to the classical theory. 4G87. let us present the main assumption of the classical theory and of the theory G. o.333 Maximals. Coefficient Drag coLoad B oeflloading effi6ient at max on the of te airMiAkeddtfstream surface B _v v.4O. the loss in the velocity of the wind behind the wind wheel equals twice the loss in the velocity of the wing in the plane of the wind engine. Sabinin. characteristic magnitudes of the ideal wind wheel obtained according to the classical theory of N..4.e. i. H.e..414 . .E.0.the c lassical.'theory. Fig.hence: e=1 +F'=o. (81) Table 5 presents for the sake of comparison.. we obtain: Em. 80 . _j (80) The load on the markedoff :area Bm4 amounts to: = 1. Sabinin <. 0.Zhukovskiy and according to the theory G. =4*0.333.i888 0593 2. In conclusion.41 em_. Substituting the value e in equation (79).0. omax tpu coefficieit 1of the wind energy Emax Classical theory Theory of G.414 i 0. Kh. the maximum of C is obtained when: V 1 0 ' 41 ij and not 0.
4 .possible to biild a wind engine With a ifinitely large number of blades' which would make an infinitely large. tween the output coefficient . Sabinin. of revolutions and works with losses. m =v Fig.EAccording r0 0.5 to the theory of G. which has a finite number of blades (from 1 to 24). we are dealing with a real wind ideal wind engine. It isnot . According to the theory of Prof. Sabinin. 2 0 0. Kh. dumber of revolutions and would work without losses. . of wind energy and v l/V. The axial pressure according to the classical theory. practice. V =Cons . the decrease if the velocity of the wind behind the wind engine. makes a finite number. in addition to the mass of air flowing through the area markedoff by the wind wheel. 81 . e0 z2 2. where: . is taken into The axial pressure equal : P (m 1) The mass dragged by the wind engine equals: t rmri+mz=F. engine. as in the case of the In reality. 1 consideration. In.5 0O6 07 Qo8 . the mass of air m2 sucked into the vortex solenoid from the surrounding stream. is expressed by the relation: V 2v 0.
G. di Elementary annular 82 . that the difference between the pressure on both sides of the winged wheel acting on the area of the wing. SABININ 18. which is obtained from the intersection of the area markedoff by the elementary jet. which form two bottle The fluid enclosed between shaped surfaces ABC.~ . dashing over an element of the blade. Let us draw the flow lines through all the points of both surfaces. is perceived by the elementary blades. Work of the Elementary Blades of the Wind Wheel. Fig. Let us break down the force dR. On the basis of this assumpti6ni.the lifting force of the wing wI perpendicular to the flow.x axis in the plane 6f its rotation. which are called elementary blades (Fig.axis .the drag force of the wing (head drag of the wing)l:directed along the flow.we can/ll2 write the first equation of relation: 2Trdr(pip. THE THEORY OF THE REAL WIND ENGINE OF PROF. Let us assume. these surfaces is called elementary ring jet.the number of blades of the winged wheel.)=i(dYcoS"± S (82) F/ where Y . 55). . X .the angle between the plane of rotation of the winged wheel and the direction of the air flow dashing over the wing.CHAPTER 5. First Equation/ll1 of Relation. / S. A'B'C' (Fig. V .direction of the velocity of the relative flow. . acting on the elementary blade. Let us single out 'in )the blades of the wind wheel. while the x .c' In order to determine the direction of the forces acting on the elementary blade. 57. a II/ Fig. where the Z is directed along the axis of the wind wheel. the winged surface dF = 2rdr.direction of the wind velocity. i .c . 56: jet. This ring cuts sections with the length dr <in the wings. 56). KH. as is commonly done in analysis theories. 55: Elementary blades singled out in the wind wheel. W . two concentric circles with radii r and r + dr. let us draw its section in Fig. " .
spameaMin P CP B .. and dY.__dx . directed perpendicular to the flow. can be expressed as follows: Key: 1. The force dX induces the drag dY induces the circular effort of the wing" of the wing element. element which is called lifting force.into two forces: dX. which is composed geometric:ally of the velocity of the wind V and the circular velocity wr. In addition. Ocb aeTPUKOACae . axis of the wind wheel 2. Since the law of the change of velocity is unknown. we can write on the basis of equation (76): (87) 83 . in Sec.9 (83) where V 1 = V . the forces dY and dX an element of the blade. (85) 'dX= bdr J fM. 57: Diagram of the velocities of an air flow dashg over . but with a relative velocity W. acting in the direction of the flow. The velocity of the flow dashing over an element of the blade /113 in a relative motion is equal to: Yr SW= T ( 0. This velocity has an opposite direction to the torque. we can assume ae a first approximation that it is equal to: z z. its magnitude is taken as the average for the whole region in which. the air flow dashes over the winged wheel not with the velocity of the wind V. plane of rotation 3.this v •(84) According to equation (39) /114 Fig. 10.. where w is the angular velocity and r is the distance of the blade element from the axis of rotation of the winged wheel.vl is the velocity of the wind in the plane of the wind engine. the bblade s'oerate. where b is the width of the blade element on the choid . Asua result of the rotation of the winged wheel in the plane x :&x.y no apaea Hanpaense . direction of rotation 2dt=~bdr2. I reality this velocity is equal to zero in front of the wind wheel and to u 2 immediately behind it. The velocity ul is obtained as a reaction of the torque developed by the blades.
t~ d.. we obtain equation:  P2 their values in equation (8 2 H' sin 2nrdrpVv.=  S(V v V .)2.. Adding up the projections of the forces of the blade .) + . \ can be rewritten in equation (83) v l. On the basis of Figat. From equation (89) we have: or :Ol .57 . (95) This equation is called the equation of relation. it relates the width of the blade and the coefficient of the lifting force with .) _ .q (v .) =(Vor: and knowing that Vl = V following way: JA ").Substituting for dY. we obtain the 84 ..(93) (94)/115 + " ""+ rever'se'lift drag ratio and substitute them in equation (88): . we can denote: . bdrC Lcos(brC M 2lrQ c (88) after reductions.V e_ .irV. .v1) .z= i . dX and pi (82). o (r .v' 1 ( ' 2"  Introducing into this equation e = vl/V. 1 Iv= /(v . = ibc (V.. foi mati. we obtain: ibC =8r + (t. =&(89) V _D which is called the number of relative modules. we obtain: or: 4 rVv 2 =ibCWV cos ('1 tg ). and replacing v2 by its value from equation (72). (+. (91) (92) = ..on ofthe flow characterized by magnitude e. (Vv .eiement on the tangent to the circle on which it moves...4. t__ (Pg o) Let us substitute: ..
circular effort developed by the elementary blade: dQ ibdr 2. (97) The moment relative to the axis of the wind engine is equal: /116 dM= dQr= 4 irdrp . i Dividing the work per second of the elementary blades by this energy. we obtain: dQ = ibdr . Multiplying and dividing the expression (100) by (1 . we can wfite equation coefficient '. is equal to: dTo= 2adr y. V(98) e I t' (98) The work of the elementary blades per second is: +"e P I +L 7ci (99) The energy per second at a distance from the wind engine. . . we obtain the elementary 'out'pt' coefficient ibf''the wind enetgy: 4rdr e V3e!=Hl! hence: T 4e:.1 ) 2 +21 dQ 4rdrp  V2 . ' the wind energy.4ritX e X (+ e) zdrp (V . sin.+7 e (100) (1oo) z:. we obtain: dQ = . enclosed in the flow. _ 2rdr K \I+o. Substituting the value of W. the cross section area of which is determined by the area :of'theringmarkedoff by the elementary blade.of output where: ' (101) i S + I (102) 85 .e) we obtain: l*141 Since the expression le 1 ed/l + 6 represents the ideal ..and cos B and introducing Cx = PCy.(Csin cos .(V v )2 (1 .)z CI (96) Substituting the value ibCy from equation (95) and reducing.
to the moment of the amount of movem'ent acquired It is assumed by the elementary jet dragged with the wind wheel. (59) The number of modules of the blade element per radius h equals: z= .) 2ur. the bound mass also takes part.of the ele: In the case of a large number of modules one can consider with some approximation: and then: J " (102a) /117 Let us remember that the number of modules or rapidity of the wind engine. that in this process. since otherwise the theory of Helmholtzabout 'ivortex: preservatiBn would..wind engine with a known rapidity Z. is the ratio of the circular velocity of the blade 'tip to the velocity of the kind. Second Equation of Relation The moment relative to the axis of the wind engine of the aerodynamic forces acting on the elementary blade..is called the relative mentary wind engine. The second equation of relation is derived from Fig. not hold (Fig. 57. 13). @ffTThncy. can be expressed: z~ where R is the radius of the wind wheel. is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. i(dYsin dXcos )r=d(m + m.. (103) The number of modules for any radius h of the. S . ~(104) 19. (105) 86 .
' (105a) Substituting in this equation sin B and cos B .t + we Iind the relation between zu V V . in equation (105).. V' V e 7 u It Substituting the value ul/V from equation (106): '  . we obtain: ibdr (C. let us find the ratio. + n. uj/V. v r .but: d(m..11e " 8 ! '  (110) 87 .i~ tc .rdr 2 2. from equation (95). =  e)2 1_ z) (106) Substituting the value ibCy/87r.Ccos I)V r= 2.their values from equation (91) and (92) and reducingg.+e  Transforming equation (89). we obtain: ib C.+.by :. . we obtain: .) 2.r. or V I V.rrdrpV. and z: 'P U . (75 (75) Substituting the values of dY and dX from equations (85) and (86). and the value of d(ml = m 2 ) from equation (75). " i _U+o * (108) (109) : z = ZUe) Let us solve this equation relative t' z . sin . C /118 =8nru = Cx/C from equation (94) and W 2 = (V Substituting 2 (1 + z u) from equation x(9). we obtain: v (t+e) (tI  (z+)Vi i+z After reduction we obtain: ' U v  + • (107) zi.)z 2 ."1 l+ l) 2 From this equation. for which purpose we divide the right and left part by 8&TrV and we replace the ratio vl/V by its value e.t.
.Since p has usually a small value. if one 88 . (112) a. 20. according to the diagram Cy and C x for the given profile.. Further. The diagram C and C x is used for this purpose. i+M=dM V'd to" o (113) This moment is expressed in abstract numbers and is denoted /120 by M.35. as well as of the shape of the wing profile.which was constructed. using equation (95). equations (109) and (110) can be simplified. The right and left part of equation (113) is divided by 3 pV 2 /2 and the expression r = rR I/R is introduced which is called the relative radius: V2 8 i(114) tics. for the most convenient angle of attack. which was constructed for the given profile.afd R is the distance from the axis of the wind engine to the edge of the blade. the number of the relative modules zu is found. Equation (114) is basic for calculating the moment characteris6 It can be used with variable values of e along r. the following is obtained: p = Cx/Cy. the total width of the blade ib is found: 8 e i Finally.(109a) 1+ 1+ e 4 __+ _ 2_ 14_ _. Assuming that e varies between 0128 and 0. Moment and Power of the Whole Wind Engine The moment of the whole wind engine is obtained by integrating equation (98) from r 0 tolQR. takiigg = 0: /1199 Z" _ e)1e . e. . (103) and (110) make it possible to do a complete aerodynamic calculation of the wind wheel for the given wR and V. the rigging angle of the blade € with radius r is determined: Cy is found from the diagram Cy cn the basis of/experimental data. were r 0 is the distance from the axis of the wind engine to the origin of the blade. ((1  _ (110a) Equations (95).s. Substituting the values of z. and v in equation (110).
assumes that the elementary jets do not influence each other. and since from equation (114) the moment is equal to: Sn (114a) the power developed by the wind engine can be written as follows: _2 (122) Substituting here Z = wR/V.  (115) This integral can be solved if the torsion of the jet is neglected.and the relative number of modules zu from equation (89) can be expressed as follows: z. we obtain: T=K8(122a) 89 .. one can write: Sz". we obtain: (117) /121 dr dra z = (119) With a series of transformations made for equation (115) and neglecting the small value_ 2 and z 3u 0 /Z 3 u. (. we obtain: I(= (It 'e)Z.I /i from (116). Consequently. L1 ). which is permissible in rapid wind engines. we can take ul = 0.= v vv. which is acceptable in practice under conditions of smooth changes of e. instead of w = ZV/R. e can be written outside the sign of the integral: S!_ r2dr. ie (116) For the edge of the blade.vDividing equation (116) by (117). For a wind engine with a constant e along the radius. we obtain: 3 R R 7 \ (120) Substituting the value of zu ie "±Z3 [G (121) The power developed by the wind engine is equal to the Mw.
cboeff energy E.drag.(Sec. the part which was not accounted for is expressed by the formula t126): T z (126) 90 .. 21. 1.'f i6d' counted for by deriving the ideal outpit. of :t'hse losses was: aciicientt .i then:  ( i  f\ (125) In deriving this equation. Losses of Wind Engines The losses of wind engines can be divided into four groups [351. We shall "deal with the correction for losses below. and the tors:ion of the drifting jet was taken equal to 0.A p.art. Consequently. 21). the outp'ut coefficient' of wind' ven6rgy ' calculated according to formula (124).tip of the blade. which occur due to the formation of vortexes starting at the blade tip. we obtain: ST 4.Replacing M by its value from equation (121). no consideration was given to the losses which occur as a result of the formation of vortexes which startI off at the . is considerably! higher than the one which can be obtained in practice..__e (Z R SRR 2 (123) Dividing the power of the wind engine by the energy of the output/ coefficient : 6of' the" flow per second. /122 wind energy: = p(124 I Since: 4 .. Bladetip losses. These losses are determined on the. . which is permissible in rapid wind engines. basis of the theory of induced. we obtain the .
substituting the values of these 91 . t . .by the friction of the air/123 jet against the surface of the wing and depend si'olely on the profile of the blades. drag which.e.blade of length dr. let us transform this equation: d ( 4rdre ( + Z2) I/ 7z Z") dTp= ( . we obtain: Y 5 e (t e)2 /124 1 The profile losses at the bladef tip e~jist . [1 . and Since af." "R2  (2 V1A~~ je. (127) where C is the doefficient of the profile drag which is equal to span. in the form of flp ".J dLz .i 17 3 (. As a result of integrating._ (V  Substituting the value (i1 2) V 1 +:.e) zdz SdTp a 41 dT .caused. at a radius r of the wind engine. we obtain the profile losses for the whole wind engine: 17. Substituting the value ibCy from equation (95). " 2Z' where ii' = C/Cy is the average value for the whole blade.with zu: .: Cx for R wing of infinite Cp Cx Since Cx/Cy = or C. Profile losses which are. i. ' .:thus approximately taken into account.= ibCLdr C= C .2. we obtain: dT.e)( e)  p P = ? + .=C C which is equal to @7 and in equation (127).e ) (V  Let us substitute: PY dr dz. equals: dT= iCbdr y '. and let us neglect p in the denominator as being a small value by comparison . The power absorbed by the profile drag of the elementary . . "is . Integrating in the limi 0 to Z.
. on the basis of equations P ju 2. Substituting the value u 2 ' 2U. Since. Losses due to incomplete utilization of the whole markedoff area are accounted for by the relation: .3( (128) 3. "'"in the elementary jets . V . _ (2TrdrpV) i(129) .dimensionless. which is average for the whole radius r.pression losses in a .2a_ (130) we obtain: Placing the constants outside the sign of the integral andreplacing n by some value ru. we obtain: / e. we obtain: R 2U dr   = rR 2 .e /125 t V V consequently: 1e hence: or:r. J. . 4.106)aand (102): _ t" e  if e)i+ / U r.Z. 2 In Deriving both parts of this equality by the power of the ideal wind engine: T.expressions in the given equation and deriving the latter by exwe obtain the final formula for the profile T. we obtain the abstract magnitude for the losses due to the torsion of the jet behind the wind engine: e R (131) 4. S To R . The losses due to torsion of the jet behind the. V .= _ in_equation (12_9).'form: R 2 + . (129) Let us replace in the given expression u 2 by its value which is equal to 2ul. (.I 92 .wind engine are equal to the kinetic energy of the tangential velocities of the The magnitude of these losses is obtained by intetwisting jetbs grating the kinetic energy from the tangential velocities of all the limits ro to R.
The . we find that the relative efficiency n of:. where a temperature t = 150 C and atmospheric pressure BO = 760 mm/Hg. 1.I we obtain the real wind engin. ° 2. (the:. E = Ei . .output_ 'coefficient of <the.e. The velocity of the wind V at which the wind engine should develop this power. 58. r(132) Dividing the right and the left part of this equation by the expression of the wind energy '.: . rr \T Tj T T. 4. The power N in hp which has to be obtained from the wind 2. Tp T. wind energy for the given type of wind engine.f. which is obtained by dividing equation (62) by 75 and wind energy 5. the _ iwind energy for the ( : (133) Since according to equation (101).oftput 2 . The number of modules or rapidity Z of the wind engine at the maximum . of' the coefficient multiplying by the :.'wind energy E.:the Wind Wheel. coefficht .T.The useful power developed by the wind engine is obtained by subtracting all the losseSfrcathe power of the ideal wind engine: ' .output i. by determining the diameter of the The analysxs is started wind wheel D.: (135) . Aerodynamic Analysis:. output cioefficient .!of . ...the wind engine euals i S (134) 22. 3. T'  Dividing by Ti we obtain: T TE R /126 Hence: \ ae .of. The diagram of the construction of a fourblade wind wheel is The following data are required for theinalysis given in Fig.the mass density of the air is taken at p==o0.o3wa(nc. 93 .'. based on the equation of the power of the wind engine in hp units.:. engine.
58: wheel. : . which is determined by formula 3.150 and BO = 760 mm/Hg. expressed in relation to the area marked off by the wind wheel of any type. 2. Introducing this correction into the equation of the power. Since.Substituting the value p = 0. • (136) Fo. Diagram of the wind wheel.xHOcT. (see chapt. for the conditions t . . for a winged wind engine. 'D=  / X (139) Key: 1. IX). blade Fl markedoff For another tenperature t and pressure B. if the number of revolutions of the wind wheel n is known: hence: n = F (140) 94 ..Taer~a 2 nose. 58) The power of the winged wind engine can be expressed in relation to its diameter D. the power should be determined for the corresponding mass density p. the markedoff area F (Fig. is usually taken as being equal to 8 . The number of modules Z is easily assumed or determined. z  "_ (139a) The velocity of the wind V at which the wind wheel should develope! the power given in the analysis. we B 288 273+1 ) N obtain: and correspondingly the diameter of the wind wheel will be equal to: 3v V'" . 0t 25 FV 0FY 275F~. • .125 in equation (135). .F T=. equals: n= y ______ Fig. i orOOOOS3s N (137) The power of the wind engine /128 in kW is written as follows: kWt (138) t The diameter of the windwhe'6 for the given power in hp units. equals: .m/sec.14. we obtain/127 the power of the wind engine.785 D.
59) which is set up for the given example.5 I I I S.. on the basis of construction considerations and experimental data.40. Towards the bush. 95 . Column 1 presents the radiiof the cross sections of the blade in relative units r/R. the values of Cy.3. (128).a~out. a aT. a is introduced. serial number upper lower from therChord ! corrected to the obliqueness and angle of attack. where b is the width of the blade. Consequently C is determined by means bfequations (126). e =0. In columns 1517. p and b are introduced on the basis of the diagram of values Cy and as a function of a (Fig. . In columns 610. 0. After the selection of the profile.  720 ' to 'blade represents the data for a certain cross section of the with radius r = r/R.1 b to 0. 25. then equation (110) should be used. 6 1 c.'151b. oig. their number and the . 2.35 b near the flap axis.. ~ o. putf officientl of wind energy =4e\ is determined. Key: i. (131) and (133). The computation i!able. the angle of 8o 4o 4 ~ 0 a . reaching in wind engines with rotatory blades 0.l. z u is computed by means of formula (110a).. for example. 4 o .0. 0. Scomputation 06 1 I I/ . o. b..0 3 4 . 030 . Tabler. Np a'p1.Further. The first contains the mulasaccording is line in Table/132 partial forto which the performed. wherefrom.e is plotted. 5. and the rigging angle of the blade =8 (ais calculated. The blade tip should have a profile of a thickness of 6 = 0. 59: Curve for the determination of C and p in relation to a.0 ~ + i 0 In the first columns: in Table 6. and the Ide. the thickness of the profile 6 increases. _ 0. In order to solve the equation which determines the shape of the blade.ymeans of byL~I 1114. 3. . 0. 4. 3 the table with the figures. Each horizontal line in ia L.of wind energy areegiven by several values of the drag coefficient e.7 is then set up where the m6in formulas are presented in the upper part.out'put coefficient. the e corresponding to max is chosen. if great accuracy is desired.Ir S6 .2 b to 0. the thickness of the blade profile is selected. /129 and the curve of the relationship E . the expression ib C /R is computed In columns (95).35.
73.=0.6.614 .6.50 2. L 1 ( 3. the thickness of the blade.1 1. JL .52 231g . " . ' 1 51 1/5 0 .. Assuming the number of blades is i. =0. 8 3.=06.30 .35 3.034 0 0.1350." 2(l) +z 8I ( +! (+e) V )arc ) .674M20 .0750.10 ..3 3 0.5 (1.37 0.618 0.40 . Z=3.0 0. and Cy is found.3g .045 2. . 6 j i. b is found:( cb (141) Finding the value for b.036 we Analogically T.=.016 0.017 ..~ + 5) 1.42 II3.4.075 2 0. Analogically we find 7.0790.. of b _=_rc 3.07. 'findV iz 0 113 435 12 + :+.7..133 Analogically we..047 n!es /5 ' 1/5 .00)= =0.034)= 041 e =0.478 '637(10. 0 20.674 e=0. L + (1+. =0. 31g L .467 TjTp" 8  1/ 11 . : i=0.5 .3 0 1 11 3 0.52 5.G7i (10.40% 130.2 3 .3 SI1 42 2. e i+= e ( e=0.6' 0.5 "==2z2 S. 0. 1 O :. 13 14 i ct_ : z S r i + i 2.c cy .=0.942 1.066 0.614 3.510 0._ L 1 20j 20".06 2.5 1. (1 0.3.: J'1.6 0.8 2.3 .3.035 0030' 0. "Number jProfilj 4 0.70 i1./.TABLE 6. 7 5..646 = (t0.35 i=4 S =4 ' .055 6O 2~ 0 2)' J8' 36 12o4' .*143 1. 3.04. 5 _! 3+ 3 5 3 1 3U 2.2. 1023 . 3) A3.:L .5 0 35 + 35 3(1035. ( =0. the finite value Cy is calculated: '. (142) 96 . 026 + 5.36.53 1..046 0'.13' O .5 0. 0. . ' attack corresponding to the smallest v is calculated by means of the diagram (Fig. *20 07 t. 1.) S r.4S 1 + e)(t Y .02 r 1.52 .016 .025 0.~ 09 3J"3'01 1t 1 1.=o.0850i 580036)=0.304 0. 59).c b=R__ __ R (ibCY] C +bC y ctgrz i 1 21 3 2(1e) 1 4 to t i78 'i CJ 1 12 1.=n0026 =0.614 4. 0.os =0.39 0.08. e=0.03 0. 1.0.5 .050 :15' J' 0.23..5.07' 2 2.508I 0. COMPUTATION OF THE MODEL OF A WIND ENGINE I D=f.040.0 ind: X= I Zu X. 23...687 t.02 1.55 0.
where the characteristics for each section of the blade are calculated in the horizontal line.e. columm 2 .the rigging angles of the blades.According to the diagram (Fig. the width of the blade for any section can be found assuming it has the shape of a trapezoid: where n is the number of sections of the blade.5. In this table an example of calculation is presented foraAblade windgE wheel with D = 0.the angles of attack. a thicker profile 6/b = 0.3 to 0. Cy is also chosen large since otherwise the 'width of the blade would have to be excessively large. In sections 26.thestrength of the flap.. these are discussed in more detail. In this case. In this section.1s takeh in order to increase. here we shall present the method of calculation df the performance of a wind wheel. 23.35 . For the sake of convenience in calculations. .:output coefficient 5:t' of. Column 1 comprises the radii of the sections.3 no 2. P.computations are done also for the cross section r = 0. /133 k is the serial number of the section counting from the tip~ of the blade. and they are intfoduced into the columns 11. Such .. 1. then increasing the thickness makes it necessary to recalculate starting with the llth column of Table 6. as an independent argument. and then P and a from the curve (Fig. Also determining b. i. Calculation of the Performance of the Wind Wheel The performance of abwind engineis the dependence of the relaIrv tive moment of the wind wheel M and of the. as a result of constructional/elaborations the thickness proves to be insufficient. p and a. theoretically. is taken equal to: b.36 m and a number of modules Z = 3. 12 and 5 of Table 6. column13 .2 of the blade. The characteristics are calculated for each section of the blade. the 97 . column 4 . These characteristics are necessary in order to find the main parameters of the wind wheel. 27 and 29. The width of the blades at the level of the bush. corresponding to the value C are found.0 1 (143) Determining the width of the blade at the tip and at the bush.the total width of the blade in an abstract form. 59). If. 59) and finally. Cy is found by means of equation (142). an example is presented in Table 7. the flap of the wing cannot be placed in the contour of the profile. 1the'wind energy E on the number of modules Z.
95:6 0.77 3. not aways diagrams C for testing the profiles are available for all the angles o attack.97 0. TABLE 7. 5.57 23.20.021. However.02i0.4.0140 ..03.2 0 02 4 28709 t.057 0.4.0059 0.032 4.2 0.27M 5 0.2'j 02 1.68 0.)2 4..347 0.03 0.97.53 "93 261 2.07.934 0.2 40.. 30 2.6 1.i33 193 1.28:)0 0. .1 0.2 1 + 2 5. 0 1 1 i.0 15 i 13 0 1 8 1 1 1. on page 97.727 3.77 2.674 0.340 0.30" 4 0u.  Z=3 8 .880 0.89 2.40 0.330 3.01f.:540 0'821 07.950 6.0295 0.30 9:7 0251 72 "9371.233.98 5 0. 11.28 0.7 63 5. 272 2.12 .3 1110 y 1.23i 0 117 1.70 5..10 '1 7.2 t53 00b)3' 1120 ' 127.1d. 0.04 1705 1. 118s 57l00 6'20 0.: 12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 1U 14 15 1 17 18 19 20 e21 22 + i .36 81.3.0 . 0.078 0.70 3.6 4 1.835 0. 1.26 0:161 0. 000 970 7.23 7 1.9 1.41.3 0.:.77 1: 1. 5 4 .19 10 0.3 43 3 2 2. 3. 21. 605 0.0696 1.0323 0.066 p 414 .855 0.11 3 28 0. St 920.2170 0.04 1000 0.15.895 79i )0 .9 1./15 0.26 i17 0. 1.030 0.303 0.513 1.13 0. 0 21 .18 6.058 2.058 0.071 0. 0 275 2.2.4 0(.7.295 0.25"3 0. 2030 0.201 5..80 1.97 13 1.9 2.043 3.0M2!i 00501 0. The formulas. in this case.55 2. 530 0 .730 i 24. 2 .00928 0. 1 2.62 0.907 0.+ ) I+ +82= ib .95 5.957 0.50 8.13 0 0 0 22 0.234 032 0.2 330T 0.48 S 23 0.070 0 0!2 6.67..67 4.037 10 t 2 3 .3 .10.6.016 3.670 51 :7 4.3 205 16' 1.70 236 .550.3810 0 110 .25 194 3.7 0 4.0121 0. PERFORMANCE OF A WIND ENGINE _D=0.53 I 0".320'I 3.414 2.5 7.43 4.81410 2 1 + 2 16J4 I '4.91 4:.030 7. 00 0 7 6 10 4q.70 0.33 0. 57 (16.933 1 .2 3.9t5 03 . 2.3 2. i=i. )2 7.3 4 000 0. 3 4 .833 0.0 03 2.4 025 0.1990 1 .6 8 1 12.1.0 9 5.9056 0.390 34851 2.42 0 540 5.: 0.360 0.4 .5 4. 012 0 1"I 0.084 0.5 0.10 ' 0.1"7 0.0 1.050 0.217 . .8.23 4.918 2 753 188 3.8 1.0503 2. In order to obtain the full performance.3110 6 370 .0311 3.001 0.028 0.0487 0 1.078 0061 :.1' 0. 0 11.23 5..3 32 3 300' 2 S 2123 2. and up to a = 90 . 17.12 4..7 563 5.110 19. one has to limit oneself to the construction of a part of the characteristics up to the angles of attack corresponding to Cy = max.4) 123 1.833 1.98 52.013 0.00 3 2410 2.25) 04232089 2 0.773 0.030 9 32 30.0 2. 008 9 0021 0.0i4 3.21 5.050 0057 6.0 0.2 0. 5 0.7 0.4 .25 12 12.5 2 4.9541 0(.1340 01940 0.0 0.2! 4.23 0.3989 2.14 35 .8 3.3000 0.6) 0 0.123 I t'195 0.23 11 0. .1. 08313 02230 3 .0.978 O.9' :.57 5.22 0.925 0.21fi '''2720 . 0.10 137 0. 022 0.t3 'O1 i733 37.91 00 S39.81  6 12. I. .107 5.97 7.23 2.172 08 2 !0.884 4 290 3.19 I.01 5.023 0." j3. + 2 6 6.953 2.89 0. 5 .59 4.4 1130 +12 2 02 016 07 S 1 I0o *0007 10 33. z.048 2:307 0.0 0.73 4.01144 00.20 0. 'iuz.value of the angles is given in whole degrees.099 11.' 58 0 168 0 .09 2.000 3.2.11 1 s 162 2. by means of which the calculation is performed are presented in the same table in the corresponding columns.330 442 0.901 0.037 0.'6 6 SJ . 0 6.138 0.60 681 0857 0.84 0.932 .19 0 0 0036 0.013 (3 0 7 0..07 98 . 5.20 2.0192 0.037 0. This part of the characteristics is in fact the working part which is the most interesting.252 12 14 0323 0. the angles a have to be taken starting with the angle at which C is very small or equal to 0.24003 4.93 0.48 0. 0 4 ( 189 '7.33 0.500 I:305 1 054 0. 0 . 0.6 18. 17. . 22 0. 7 71.092 1..8 .352 0.91..0A 4.
). the expression is calculated from formula (95) and the magnitude of e is ~i I determined. 61) is in fact a solution of the integral of aeTpflK' 0= . elementary characteristics of the moments of the wind engine the equation (115). In such a manner.. which can be plotted using a small number of points. the magnitudes of the moment along the bladefare obtained. here the number of the modules from columns 22 (Table 7) are plotted on the abscissa. the intersection of which with the 'curve gives the magnitude' of the moments for all the sectibns. while on theordinate .+ a.0 = R.The first three columns containithe initial data characterizing/13 6 the shape of a wind engine. the inflow . This is done graphically from the curve which expresses the functional dependence ofth above. Transferring these values to the graph (Fig. the number of modules related to the blade tip is calculated. The characteristics of the abstradt moments for each section arelotted'from /137 the calculated data (Fig. 99 . the diagram of the distribution of the moment along the bla&d&. 61).the Abstrat moment for each eiement of the blade from column 18. then its height in the ordinate scale would express the magnitude of moment. In columns 913. the specific moment is calculated in anabstract form by means of:. Key: 1..2 to r = 1. If the given area were replaced fy an isometric §quare.Z=3 In the last four columns 1923. which are found from the curve plotted for the given profile. 61 corresponds to a certain number of modules Z.. 60). o. is drawn for the given number of modules.expressionhon e. 2 I ! Fig. 60 the ordinate . The area circumscribed by the abscissa and the curve of the moment is equal to the integral taken between the limits F = 0. the base of which would be equal to r = 1.teHToe i=4. for this purpose. In columns 1418.0. In columns 48 the angles of attacka are calculated. the number of the relative modules and of the magnitude Cy and 9. the graph (Fig. in Fig. Subsequently. 60: Characteristics of the abstractimoment for each section of the wing.i " (145) / 6m p_\e prtlwKH fS i. Each curve in Fig.is plotted.lo 0.
. ion: x. 1t e /1+ g. If we express these losses by the moment of the losses. 62.the number acmodules. we obtain the/138 moment of the l!adevftip losses: (146) Since: Then: Dividing this moment by the express: . Key: 1.. 4c of o. 100 .' ' The calculation of M. °o0. . 61: the labstract moment along the bladehin relation to Z. i =34. 62.14ro M V j2 Z (1)47) Si . paxe. 62. we obtain the aerodynamic performance of the entire wind engine.o_ Z=ment izr Change in Fig.in an abstract .i blade.i "i /o _ Substituting here the value of Tfrom equation (126) and Ej from equation (79). the moment of /139 the blade tip losses of tAis wind engine. . ( form: i .< . __. we obtain curVe II of the characteristic of the moment which accounts for the bladetip losses and is in such a manner the final characteristic of the moment.__ _ ala4o . _ . ___.j.e 0. 62: Calculated aerodynamiccharacterof the whole istics : ..o=.Za.plotted on the basis of equation 04510 _ 1= 5s= S . tip Dividing the power Tj of the losses by the angular velocity.'b'oB  ( 5 0. the blade tip below curve I in Fig. distribution of the moment of the . 61. and on the abs<:in scissa . By setting out in the losses scale of the moment.:..< .r 0a5 Hna 4. shown in Fig. a Zo4 zThe / Plotting on the ordinate the height of the squarestaken in Fig. i+T . we obtain: 2 __ _ . then we can substract them from the theoretical moand correct the characteristics.Zcr I we obt ain it. characteristics of the moment in Fig.1.. is done in Table 8.2 (115) which does not take into account the tip losses.
TABLE 8. CALCULATION OF THE MOMENT OF THE BLADE TIP LOSSES (EQUATION 148)
3
__
' 7n
I
2,50,23
.0.634
I0.426 00248
,0
0.0. 87
3j0.26
4 .285
0.543
0.397
5 0.28
6 0.27 7 0.26
0.315
0.265 0.228
0. "22 0.t23
9, 134
0.112 . 0.098
0.323 0.0072 )0 0.231. 3 . 0,8 0 .0 '9
0,153 0:0363,0 0,7 0 .130 0.033201 0
Multiplying the value of the moment M by the corresponding magnitude of the number of modules Z, we obtain the output coefficient o, of the wind energy E = MZ. This coefficient,when plotted on the same graph, gives the characteristic of the power of the wind .engine shown by,a dotted curve(Fig. 62).
24.
The Profiles"Espero'"
and Their Construction.
The profile of the wing plays a most important role in obtaining a high efficiency 'K. of the wind wheel. Numerous profiles of wings are utilized in the practice; among them, an important place is occupied by the "Esperb" profile. This profile was elaborated on atitTs AGI by engineer B. V. Korostelev, who named it "Espero". A series of the eprofileswas tested in the wind tunnel of Ts AGI at velocities of the airstream of approximately 30 m/sec. The angles of attack were taken from a = 14o to a = 900. The dimensions of /140 the handle wer@ 750 x 150 mm. The obtained results were calculated for an infinite span and are presented in the form of graphsin Fig. 63, 64. Fig. 63 gives the value of C as a function of a = 140 up,to a = 100, while Fig. 64  for angYes a = 100 to a = 900. On the abscissa, the thicknesses of the profile in fractions pf the chord: are plotted, while on the ordinate  the coefficients of the lifting force of the wing :c,_= /V . Each thick curve corresponds to a certain angle of attack a in the given period. The angles a are denoted at the end of the corresponding curve. The thinner curves which intersect:ithe thick 0 ones' 1 represent.' the curve a, p = const. i.e. each curve corresponds to a given p of the series. The value of P is shown in the middle of the curve. The curve Cy and P are constructed for a profile thickness of 6/b = 0.1 to 0.5.
101
Example 1.
___
Find C
and p for a profile
C
"ioattack
"Espero" with thickness 0.21 at an angle of = 10. Solution. On the abscissa we find the point 6/b = 0.21;startig.from it,' we go along a vertical line until the intersection with the thick/curve denoted 10o and we calculate the magnitude of the ordinate on the left scale; it will be equal to Cy = 0.827.
03
Fig. 65: "ispero"
Profile for the
thickness
/b
=
0.,
0.2, and 0.3.
The magnitude of p is found by interpolating visually the distance of the point (6/b = 0.21; C = 0.827) from the nearest The un= 0. 0 1 and p = 0.015. thin curve known p is found to be equal to p = 0.012.
Using the graph 64, it should be kept in mind that the area circumscribed between the curve a = 10 and a = 280, gives the values of Cy and p rather inaccurately, since this region corresponds to the /142 angles of attack at which the jet is disrupted and forms vortexes. Fig. 65 givestthe profile "E'spero" for a thickness 6/b = 0.1; 0.2 and 0.3, while Fig. 66 presents two graphs by means of which an "Espero" profile of any thickness can be constructed. On the abscissa,, the thicknesses of the profile expressed in fractions of the chord ,! n i of each curveIs for the absc'issa ofthe profile whiChis' i n idi i cated..tthe ordinatejof the head of the graph  a givesthe resentqd.The left profile for the abscissa from 0 to 0.3; the first graph  b gives the ordinatesof the tail for the abscissas from 0.4 to 1.0. The plotThe ting of the profile is done in the following manner (Fig. 67). axes of the coordinatesare plotted, and thevalues of abscissas bb
tainedby!multiplying Ithe length of the profile chord o'f'the 'proj cted
wing by the number at the end of the curve are plotted on the,~bscis,sa Example 2. Find the ordinate of the profile of the proj'ected blade with a chord equal to 1000 mm and thickness 6/b = 0.3 for abscissa 0.2. Solution. Let us find the magnitude of the ordinate according to the curve at the end of which the number 0.2 is written. There are two such curves on the left diagram in Fig. 66; the upper curve, the ordinate of which gives a magnitude of the ordinate of:thetbackedge of'the profile equalling 0.289, and the lower carve, the ordinate of which equals' 0.0272, gives the magnitude of the ordinate of the lower part of the profile. Multiplying the obtained coordinatesby the length of the chord. we obtain for the abscissa of the projected profile,x = 0.2"1000 = 200 mm and for the ordinate,y = 0.289*1000 = 289mm and y = 0.027.2 • 1000 = 27.2 mm. 102
y.
1.2
.Ciao
fU
0
OS
~j~
L~ 
1
,0
/ 0.,4
sgo
/4
o"
20
.
L
4,
O 7r,; t_~ ROP~/fiT~'~;f/7;' :
,
~Cfo
~
. .~
I 0
on
.as.
600
n
0.2
7
0.4.
12
06:140
LAi
3
Fig. 63: Graph for theedetermination of C and p of wings with an Lninfinite span for " spero" profile in rela ion to a = 14 up to 100. 103
103
t. ...



S13
"
1
0.6
1J 6360
0
°
21)0
•

,, .
_.

"
;i
7

Z
08 .86
86o '.. . ,  ........ .;20 . o,
Fig. 64:
infinite
Graph for determination of C
span with "Eispero" profile, in
and
v
of wings of
°
relation to a = 10 to 90
.
.04
701


.
0,2 
.2_
Su. 04
).
6/,
0
0.
0.2
b
.'
O.A
6a
ORIGINAL
OF POOR
QUrIry
Fig. 66: Graph of the ordinates of the "'Espero" profile, b. tail of the profile. a.. spout of the profile;
105
The remaining coordinates are determined in a similar manner, the pointsoare plotted, , they are united by means a Frenrch curve and the profile of the wing is obtained.
O1
0,012,5
,l
1 0.2 0,025
0,3
,.4
0,.5
Ob
J
0.8
.9
0,97.
Fig. 67: Plotting of the "Espero" profile
106
CHAPTER 6. 25.
EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND ENGINES
/143
Method fdi6Obtaining the Experimental Characteristics,
The experimental characteristics of wind engines are obtained either in the wind tunnel, where an airstream is artificially created, or under natural conditions in a wind .power ... ,laboratory with a tower which is equipped with special instruments. Fig. .68represents the diagram of a wind tunnel with a diameter of 1.6 m £et ipinone ofethe.l b6rato~i ",the'SSR., f ,he The main instrumentsfor testing models of wind engines in the wind tunnel are the following: 1. A micromanometer working with alcohol and with a TsAGIZ; tube for measuring the dynamic pressure of the airstream in the tube; 2. a recorder with a chronograph for recording the revolutions . of the wind whe. i'model; . 3. 4. h.':. a barometer for determining the atmospheric pressure; determining the temperature .during .i.
a thermometer for experiment.
The experimental characteristics of wind engines are obtained according to the inertia method of the Aerodynamic Institute in Kuchino. This method is based on the l1w of inertia of a revolving mass. In order to confer a known angular acceleration to a body revolving abput its own axis, a torque has to act on the body, whfch:"shouild beqequal,,' ih Kagh'i tude to the movement of inertia of the body, in this case the wind wheel,'relative to the axis of its rotati6n multiplied by /145 the angilar acceleration, i.e.: M=A I
(149)
where M  torque; I  moment of inertia of the revolving body; dw/dt  angular acceleration. In such a manner, moment in time and the ing wind wheel, we can caused by the external tunnel. knowing the angular acceleration at each moment of inertia of the model of a revolvdetermine the torque of the models M = Maer, forces,i.e. by the airstream in the wind
Determining the value of the angular velocity w, for each moment in time, the number of the mddul6s;.
107
belt pulley fourbl. The drum must have a constant number of revolutions. The velocity of the airstream created by the ventilator should be 10 to 12 m/sec. and subsequently the characteristics Maer = f(Z) are plotted. fixed noz izle devi'e foro testing wind engines container for the micromanometer sci~enfor rectifying the airstream cross section The model of the wind engine 1 is placed in a wind tunnel 2. 10.corresponding to the obtained torque of the wind engine Maer is found. 9. 5. where an airstream is created by means of ventilator 3.idid'wheel is illustrated 'i> Fig. black background. On the shaft of the model. . 8.ornactllo 3 t JntH 4 CLOTPoBOe OKHO 10 10 10 c9 hll  fit ll kl. which sets in motion pen 10 of chronograph 6. SenTIrlITro 2 p 4 .which covers the drum 6f 'the The recording has the shape of whit tracings on "a 4chronograph[. 3.ade:ventilator hatch peep hole modelof the wind engine 6..smallsynqhronal.The revolving of the chronograph drum takes place due to a . The diagram of wihd wheel testing fa_ W. there is an electric contact 9 which onebi in the. 7. Diagram of thb wind tunnel. 68: Key: 1. As soon as a homogeneous stream is established in the wind tunnel. course of a revolution of the shaft closes the circuit by making 8conact with the circuit of the electromagnet 4. the mechanical stop which maintains the wind 108 . 4.dIectrom6tor'" via tranmneio 8 Of the Recording t adings ii made on paperiblackened w*ith the smio ~f a ker6sehe lamp. . 69.0 Big. 2.
7 devices for mfodel testing in a windttunnel. and setting in motion the second pen 11. the dynamic pressure of the airstream in the tunnel is measured in order to determine subsequently the velocity.. 109 . pen 10 marks its tracing after each revolutiop. This pen 16 Fig. it reaches a maximum number of revolutions which.engine model in a stationary state. touches mercury drop 13 in its Jlo.' position and establishes contact closing the circuit of electroa~. As the current reaches a steady state. is suddenly pulled back. magnet 5. 69: Diagram of the... At the same time.west. At the time that the wind engine picks up speed. the number of revolutions does not change any more. The carriage with pen 10 and 11 is displaced parallel to the axis of the chronograph drum by means of screw 117./147 while pen 11 marks thetime each sedond.are called synchronal. the wind engine is set in motion and picks up speed.f the shaft of the wind engine model. after a certain interval of time. by means of micromanometer 15 which is connected to tube 16. is connected with a clock mechinism in the following manner: the penduglum of 12 o'clock.. the two pens 10 and 11 start writing on the blackened paper. The instrument receives electrical current from the storage battery 14. Under the action of the wind stream.
. "3a6n. 2. 2. third.. then of three. 1. Synchronal revolutions are characterized by equal length of the segments An of the recording between two adjacent tracings of revolutions.serial number of segments Ank on which An revolutions were performed (Fig. Processing of the experi! On the paper mental results. in the course of whibh the wind engine made An revolutions on the singled out segment An k should be equal to: where k . the rotation. 70. 5. up to the sixth or eighth revolutions is measured.itraced by the pen during one 7 . After the experiment. the closer are the revolutions to being r" synchronal. 3. second. 33 i. time after Ank revolutions revolutions synchronal revolutions after one revolution engine reach synchronal revolutions.removed from the chronograph. 3. did the wind 3 J2 _____ 2 . 2. 70). reahes'a:synchronal 'number of. For determining the angular velocity of the takeoff of the model. the length of the segment An between the tracings of the first. etc..xpouE 4 co6x. bthe age length lay is found which second. By measuring the length of the segment for each second . On the diagram /148 these are denoted by the figures 4bovthe tiracings. 70: of revolutions and time.isshownh in Fig. which requires no more than 15 seconds. 4..length of the segment corresponding to 1 second.7. Key: 1. oof 4 S. The time Atk . 0. 110 . Further the segmentsof two revolutions are measured at the same time. 1.. ' . S_ Diagram of therec®tding Fig. it can be found at what time in seconds t from the beginning . The diagram of the recording.ftime of takeoff. 4. S . 5. etc.The experiment is stopped when the wind wheel. the paper is removed from the chronograph and placed in a solution of shellac which after drying fixes the soot on the paper and prevents the recording from being erased. oopooA 3 OopoTr c. above on the diagram.revolutions. gradually increasing the measured part":Ahn after An revolutions. The seconds are denoted by figures 0. where t is the number of seconds in the course of which the wind engine Ptbok off. etc. the averwas'. The smaller the difference between two segments of neighboring revolutions.
the average angular velocity wk is developed by the wind engine in the following time: for all the individual segments ndt ftedetermining the value An. the magnitude of which 40t be m su of the shaft and cotangt13 of the clockmechanism (Fig.Fig. counting from the beginning of the motion and up to the onsset !' of synchronal revolutions. . T  3.  0. It is commonly considered that the average angular velocity wk of the wind engine is reached by the l1tter in the middle of the time interval Atk. the curvepeof the takeoff w = f(t) is plotted (Fig. . 69). radAL tained from the equation. sec 710 F. Curve in a 9 of wAd in'd .> is ob_ 2n. Consequently.p on pen interval of time at.The average angular velocity developed by the wind engine which makes Ank revolutions corresponding to a given Ank segment. 71: odel position of the revolving cont depends mutual on the initial Crv.heel: elo of plot tunneland e I[ 111 . 71). 170 ..
.7. curve points 1. 40. O2=HtgD\ etc. while point P is called the pole. Let us draw rays P . 112 . etc.. II.. 71). . 02 . from point P. as scaling values of the angular accelerations in the corresponding points. withoutdisturbing From the takeoff curve. . VII..VII are drgawn. i:. 03. 04. let us lay out segment OP = H which is called the polar distance.. it is possible to determine graphically the angular acceleration dw/dt. we obtain: d dt =kl /151 ~dt=k det. since it can be seen from the plet of the that all these are proportional to the tangens of the slopes tangents. We can therefore take segments 01.. 2.. P . Let us determine the scale of the then tg4 Z= =' angular acceleration. 71.. the magnitude dw/dt is determined for round values of w = 10.. We can see from figure 71 that segments 01. Fig.. In addition... corresponding to the selective values of time t and angular velocity . 71 is an example for graphic determination of the angular Let us select on the acceleration from the takeoff curve w = f(t). Since dw/dt = tg¢ (Fig. 7.by the course of the left part termined on the ordinakeaaxis ' slightly above the origin pass should which of the takeofDcurve.2. 20. heire al angular accelerations are also proportional to the tangenss of the slopes of the tangents on the graphs of the angular velocity. II.t = 0 (origin of the coordinates).: 01= tgfp. at The maga. its of the coordinates. 02.e.. etc..scales of the angular velocity and time.wwhile dt is the elementary scaling of time. 30.j On the continuation of the horizontal axis at the left. smooth course. kw and kt ...certain value. where dw is the elementary scaling displacement. . !7 through which tangent I.1. as shown in Fig. on the axis w are proportional to the angular accelerationsin the points of the graph 1. 2. which are parallel to tangents I. etc.. the angular v Therefore.. P . For the sake of convenience in calculating the number of modules Z = oR/V. The relation between real angular and the scaling w is determined by:: analogically Differentiating the expressions. my assume velocity nitude of th angular velocity ir the same interval of time is de.. .
This moment is determined by means of a threethread hanger according to the methodfsuggested by Prof. BY(a) since: do _k  k_ i tg( and solving equations (a). blast of model doas .s all distance the star wheel starts to on. the axis of the shaft coincides with the It should be kept in mind that after it is axis of the cylinder. °The period of these oscillations. Subsequently the sy stem is deflected at. The system undergoes oscillations around its vertical axis in a horizontal plane. There is an opening in the center of the /152 star wheel in whichthe shaft is paced. the moment of its inertia relative to the axis of rotation should be known. the1intrumnt.k In order to determine the aerodynamic moment of the wind wheel. where r is the distance from the center of the star wheel to the point of attachment of the thread. the period of which is determined by the following: _.e where Et..istar wheel. P. the threads of the hanger form a circular cylinder with a vertical axis. 113 . is the time in the course of which the system makes nc full oscillations.. (b) obtain the unknown slcale: i A' (c) (b) and (c) relative to. iffel2d4a small angle and then released.three threads (Fig. for example. The system of the hanger (thread'.a. thus. is equal to: iAfter obtaining t aperiod fthe oscillations. which is suspended by means of ' . the radius of the inertia is determined by means of the following equationl~\\p. Vetchinkin. 71) for the scaling angular acceleration.with the model of the wind wheel attached to it.k[illglble]. The hanger is a threeblade symmetrical woodeni.not. analogically to the previous case. to describe flat oscillations. in point 1.model + star wheel) is likenedtoa body suspended on an elastic bar. 72).I! the star wheel is carefully rotated around its vertical axis at a small angle and then released. we .From thei p6ts (Fig. V.move on the 7 shaf$ f . The point of attachment of the threads to the starwwheel form an equilateral triangle.. and the angle r = 1 does not change.
_ the period of oscillation of the suspended system for the case when all the threads are situatedabout the vertical /153 axis of a circular cylinder with"a p arallel . '~i~t '3 thread . Vetchinkin.axipassing through he ceter of'gravit: }ft= TCK (a) where r is the radius of the cylinder formed by the threads of the hanger with a length': . P. In his work "Method for the Experimental Determination of Inertia Moment of Solid Bodies by Means of a MutlipleThread Hanger".= Fig.determining.hanger.e: consequently 2. gives the formula for. then c = 0.a This expression was obtained on the basis of th the following conclusion. . where p is the radius of the inertia. T~Mg. (c) (c) Let us transform the expression in equation (c) and write it in the following form: The expression inoparentheses is 'one divided by the period of oscillation of a mathematical endulum. we obtain: T2 S (d) I°= li' in addition: (e) o= Mlp'. ?. 114 .i. 72: Threethread hanger . V. If the center of gravity of the body is situated on the axis of the threads. c is the distance between the center of gravity of the body and the axis of the cylinder. and equation (a) assumes the aspect: hence the moment of inertia: . as"is the ~case Vitk. T Substituting the right part of this equality in equation (c).
: For the Aerodynamic Laboratory in Kuchino. of values for.i dw/dt by the magnitude I.the a series wethobtain In determining the velocity of the airstream on the basis the micromanometer readings.0801 m for the star wheel of the Aerodynamic Laboratory in Kuchino. elative aerodynamic moment M. as well as the correction factors of . according to equation (114). is equal to: K!pa2 VR3r then:  d where of the ~ K is the relative moment of inertia of the model wind engine. the atmospheric pressure and air temperature have to be taken into account. Istw is known ad equal to: Since the relative aerodynamic momentnof the wind engine.From equations (d) and (e) we find: T2  /154 or consequently. r is 0.the radius of the inertia is equal to: m is the mass of the star wheel. the micromanometer: T (150) 115 .e. /155 Multiplying all the values of . The moment of the inertia of the model should be equal to the moment of inertia of the hanger system with the model minusmment @f inertia of the star wheel. i.
where C is the correction coefficient of the given micromanometer = 0. Ab . in the opinion of G. are called aerodynamic characteristics of wind engines. by means of the equality MZ.2 .correction factor fo ". it is easy to plot the characteristic:M = f(z). 73): Zn .. 5 L where: coefficient tub efm heom icl m met r0"l .temperature and atmospheric pressure. The magnitude Zn is situated on the abscissa opposite the point of int'ers6tion with t1hh6rizohta i line with characteristic . spheric pressure. the number of modules Z is found for each given w. The tests are performed in duplicate and the average values of /156 two determinations are taken for plotting the characteristics of a given model. Sabinin. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wind Engines The curve describing the relationship between the diverted moment and the outpatacoefficient of the wind energy on one hand. p0 L' is the height of the column of fluid in the micromanometer at the moment of. The mainumagnitude characterizing a wind engine from the aerodynamic point of view are.correction factor for 777 alcohol.normal relative torque developed by the wind engine.106.mass density of the air at 00 and 760 mm atmo". 116 . L o is the height of the fluid in the micromanometer prior to the creation of pressure.~ further. Mn . MO . corresponding to the acceleraion tion dw/dt found according to graph' 71: z avi . .normal velocity or normal number of modules at which C = max. 26. height of the fluid in the micromarionmeter above 'O L = L' . the following (Fig. ACn . the characteristic is readily plotted: C = f(Z). Ab 273 .with a normad numbqrof mpdules.takeoff. and number of modules on the other hand. 0. Kh.:: M and its corresponding Z.Lo.initial relative moment or moment of pick4p therewith t Z6 = 0 .132. After determining the velocity of the air flow.
s~ & .the synchronal7 velocity is that number of modules at which M = 0. zo V Fig. 74 show n In the curves IM. the characteristics of the wind wheel is shown by the curve in Fig.3 45 i .0 . The ratio Mmax/Mn is called the overloading of t'he 'wihd engine. Model I had flat blades with a constant width b= 0.0ros 17 26 0.wind wheel change depending on the number and the shape of the bladesas well as on the position of the blade in the wind ow The change of theccharacteristics of the wind wheel at various rigging angles of the propeller blade can be seen in Fig.. width b = 0. ll. . 2 The conti uous lines in Fig.maximal relative moment which can be developed by the wind engine.... The continuous lines in Fig.$b2ades. while the dotted lines show the E curves. Z O ..2.... 74. /157 which presents the characteristic of . 117 .. The aerodynamic characteristics of the. 75. 73: Plotting of of the aerodynamic chardteristic of the wind wheel......283 R and a constant rigging angle: = 140. 74 and table).. An and 0.8 d widfd whee modeli obtained in three experiments with the following rigging angles P of the blades: I Number ro of... Model II with propeller. 75. obtained in a wind tunnel for two models of wind wheels of a fourwinged windmill.experiments II.Fig. The best paramters of %he chaaicter'rstics were obtained with smallest rigging angles (see curves M and E.....ondingly r rI sfpt .. . .. he ' 'I the axis ....:'.Mma x . 200 25 340 290 48 ° 53 The model of the wind wheel has: ... r /R = 0.. The effect of the wi g. the rigging angles are presented in the following table. Distanc e from . while the dotted lines are the E curves for all three experiments nde 'oprresp... . 0..357... R = const. illustrate the curves M..
 Sthat S 2 .testing m'~ddel = 140. Figure 76 shows the characteristics of a fourblade wind engine. angle.U)wind energy of the wind wheel with streamlined profila. 3 Z out turbulence. 2 ' l I wheel. This coefficient represents the ratio of the. . is 2. inal.316.33 istics. Let us establish further the effect of the number of blades and of the coefficient of charge k on the character Pareter Ma . which causes a Aerodynamic characFig.on o win3 eerg Ihitial torque MO Number of modules Zn 0. have f'almds twice. 74: teristic of an 18blade wind wheel Table to Figure 74. the blades with a variable rigging angle and a as compared to the flat bent profile. <constant rigging angle ~in a wind tunnel.I . The streamline\profile of the'wing of the wind wheel increases E to a larger extent thantthe variable rigging angle. with flat blades and streamlined profile a.40 t0zo . /158 The shape of the wings affect strongly the magnitude of 5. i 4s o. obtained during Comparing this characteristic with the characteristic of a four/159 blade windmill in which k blades haccensant rigging angle 4 = 140 (see curves I in Fig. Experimenth S _ larger lifting force.17. da6with3.5so 2.. makes it possible for the stream in this part to flow with a higher sp. 75). This is explained by the fact the more streamlined the /161 body the smaller the drag which breaks the rotation of the wind 1 S.10 ynchronal'zapidity Z 2:60 118 .l arger. In addition."of the wings. r'. wind energy. wind wheel II gives E = 0.outpu fi 4. Consequently. side (Fig.35 0. I0 S. 77).Wing wheel I gives a maximal output_ coefficie__nt olf 4the.area of the blade to the surface marked off by the wind wheel.0 2. at E = 0.3 times larger than in the same wind engine wi'th( . blades in the form of plates attached to the f Tests of wind wheel models of a rural windmill with three different profiles of the wings showed that the wing of this mill with a streamlined profile increases E almost twofold. the stream lined shape of the wing in the rear side. even if it does so only from the rear.ieff iient o uti0.to 054 2.0 "' U2. we find that the ..35 0.I blades of a windmill with constant rigging.
15. It depends only on the diameter of .6 0. the area of the s .7 and an initial 119 . Rigging angle p 7 140 = const. . this increase cannpt be attributed to the large number of blades.778.v "I The change Fig. The experimental characteristics for this wind engine are presented in Fig. I with propeller blade. 4 . This increase could be caused by other circumstances.. I . i.006 Coefficient of . Sabinin performed experimental investigations of four. However.0214 imug is observed only in the wind engine. " 2.of blades I Number . the power of the wind engine does not depend on the number of 6blades of the wind wheel. Examining the obtained characteristics. A o0 1. Denoting the coefficient of charge by k 3 . 2557 2223 22'23' 0. blades are shown in Fig.. Some increase  .S. Table (to Figure 75) Notations axi tro . Kh. 80. o0535 S 291 2915 25 7.. Hence it follows that.0367 0. For example. . .  0. 1 de Eed< n .5 1 0 ..78 and 79.2 I " " . the 6blade wind engine has a normal rapidity of Zn = 21. welbtain: as . 6 0.208 charge k with flat blade and rigging angle p = 140 = const. The profiles(5)odf the tested 3 . we see that the 0 Distance from I theaxis 0. " 0.a'ffect little the coefficient of charge of the wind energy.0203 1811' 18°11' it5. in the number of blades 'Affects strongly the rapidity and the initial moment of the wind wheel._ " the wind wheel.: 4 3 .5 G.blade 0.e.6blade 0. oo Iwhich 0. the shape of the blades and their position z S 3 in the wind /flow..295 Fig. 75: Characteristic of a 4blade windmill I  0.models with different numbers of blades and different coefficients of charge of the marked off area.0108 number of blades . 5. according to Fig. _ad1the area marked off by . I0 4 are hard to account for in the experimental model. 76: Characteristic of the 4blade wind wheel with streamlined flat blades. 0.2 1 0.S.by. 15'1 0.0 1.
Sample. we can give the L ' 2 34 D 6 7 s 9 0. a sparselybladed wind engine which is characterized by great rapidity and a small moment of pickup is most suited for . 77: ____ ratio of the initial moment to the normal one M0/Mn. while the initial moment is 6. Ic n such a manner. b.5.M 0. For exbers of blades. I the 2blade wind engine a 18blade wind engine M 0 120 . Knowing the Sm Saerodynamic'characteristics and the 1 effect of various factors on their main magnitudes.0 = 0.? engine. "a:: k.. . in 0. .0 2.I i. . it is 1/50 of the value in the ultiblade.ja Swind • '.3 times larger in the 6blade engine than in the 2blade wind engine. is observed between the initial 9ural wirimill. the acceleration is 3. profiles of the wing a. . manner.these wind engines which represent the c .riou L . wind.. we obtain fo the 6blade engine 046 _ 7_ Characteristic of a..1. If we compare the of. For example. in' M .067. .5 . I •acceleration moment M0 = 0.5 of the <saje.779) and.*: working with a generator which has a small moment of pickup and works with a:alarge number of revolutions. In such a. c.f I.0 Fig.. . the 6blade engine has a rapidity which is equal to approximately 1/2.01..== while f6r the 2blade engine 0.. . while the 2blade engine has a rapidity/163 Zn = 5 (Fig. with streamlined spout. ..ze e . ' A> multiplebladed wind engine isw more suited for working with a rotary piston pump which loads the engine with a large moment of pickup and requires few revolutions.._!nthi 2blade wind wheel. 78: Characteristic of wind wheels with various numunder definite conditiens of operation of the wind engine.. i arious p.. with streamlined back of blade S~f An even larger difference a T Smoment i of multipleblade wind engines and that of sparsely bladed ones.e.7 times larger. 1 correct solution to several problems of construction of the wind wheel Fig.magntd. '4 H . with flat blades.
6/b = 0. while they are much b le 7 'i. characterization of a series of wind enSgines with number of blades i = 2. i..:.thin line 1 was. Kh... Let us note further that the theoretical characteristics accord. The models were designed with an"espero" blade profile and with an increasing thickness of the blade from the end to the bush i. The experimental curve at /168 wR/V > 4 seems to be the average curve drawn between the curves calculated by the two theories. in the right part of the graph. Sabinin.27. was obtained by calculating according tbcthe theory of G. were obtained.  1The Examination of the above presented characteristics shows that the curve obtained according to the'theory of G.. The conwith various numbers of vblades s struction of the models and their blades. Sabinin. and 849. Both theoretical curves almost coincide. with the exception of the 2blade wind engine. The drag coefficient for a 2blade wind engine was 0I . 3. Experimental Testing of the Theory of Wind Engines. 79: Characteristics of remaining ones vit was v 1 /V = 0. 121 . the experimental curve. 80. Sabinin and the classical theory differ from the experimental ones to a large extent. while the curves obtained according to the classical theory are below them..3.e. Kh. e. we see a completely different picture.. . was performed according 'JiO IFtotthe classical theory and according to the theory of G...35.. in which both theoretical curves are below the experimental one at a number of modules which is similar to the synchroaal number. the moment of wind wheels For each element along the blade vl/V was taken const. .. are above the experimental curves. [36] Preliminarily the aerodynamic. Kh. for the /166 Fig. 82.. Examining the curves at wR/V < 4.ing to both G.. Sabinin. 4 and 6. in all cases attmaR/V < 4.TKh. the characteristics presented in Fig. 83. Sabinin. thept o f ind reiTine was tested by G.12 to 6/b = 0.7 thick line 3 represents experimental characteristics of the moment.. 81. Kh.. where k. dimensions 4 are presented in Fig. As a result of testig the model. y. lo J assumed to be vl/V = 0..obtained by calculations according to the classical theory and thin line 2.24. the left part of the graph.
S  very close to the theoret ical curve.5 m and Zn = 7. 1250 . These experiments are interesting in that they . 80: Models of wind wheels with various numbers of blades.39 6 270o ."" i=4 _0 0 o.arnd . characterizing the axial pressure. had D = 2.1 50  t250 2. two models of wind engines of larger dimensions: one model of a 3bladed wind wheel had D = 2.5 . Sabinin's theory.is the force of the axial pressure. The experimental and theoretical characteristics of these wind engines.'lines we~~abtinddexperimentFig.8 9.2 m and Zn /169 =3 L 53 37 !030  3blade.50 . they are markedly divergent.o i= 86. a copy of which is the( model with D = 2..3o 190 . SI 9 2 3 where P . 9. experimental characteristics the axial pressure of the stream on the wind wheel were obtained.are S L.238o 170 11.5 =2 8o periments were performed in the wind tunnel D = 6 m with 0 14. 122 is also called frontal pressure. These experiments are interesting in that. are presented in Fig. while the thick dotted '.5. this magnitude Characteristics of Fig.23.537.o Sof 7 . The same is noted for curve of coefficientsB. 86 illustrates the circles of the experimental characteristic of the model D = 0. while B is the coefficient of (oading.2 m.40 5. o. . III .37. a .7 . while in the upper and left part of the graph. where the thin curveswere by G.: l/obtained . Kh. 81: theoretical and experimental moments for 2bladed models of wind wheels. but with narrow blades and more rapid.5 o_ o250 Fig. 37. These points show that the experimental characteristics of both models in the right part are s imilar . in addition to the characteristics of the moment.29oO 0 . 85 and 2.ally.
3  i 4_ Fig. ..leav~esno doubt as to the. correctness of these theories . that they are practically neg itglbe.erItlafh. 83: Characteristics of the moments for 4bladed models of wind wheels. 6 7 8 9 Fig. 84: Characteristics of the moments for a 6bladed wind he 123 .1 i_7LI I a 0 i 1 2 3 4 5 confirm the correctness of both G. 4V Fig. 82: Characteristics of the moments for 3bladed models of w wheels. u . wnd ) : i to o V/ N\ i. ri 7 S .j s. I I . Kh. Sabinin's theory as. The discrepancy between experiment and experiSment ['i'.. 4' 4. teristics4. the discrepancies are so insigInificant.> charac.well as of the classical theory.
i = 3 o Oo 0. 86: Experimental and characteristics of Z = 4 .1.t 3 0 !'.05I I F II ho 01 c 1 c t eristics 00.. i =3. . 1.I  ofth wind enine D 2 5!m. 85: theoretical characteristics of the wind engine D = 2.a  0. Key: g...I 1.T. theoretical with coriect wind engine D = 2 . t o . experimental 124 . . Z = 7.. 86 Epr f rection ttheoretical oth .00..4 =  0. theoretical 2.2.s a 0.O 0 % ..40.5.5 m. i Experimental and Fig.  2.
The testing of wind engines under natural conditionsYis performed on towers equipped with special instruments and devices. Fig. for the Testing of Wind Engines. The diagram of the elec tric machinery of an experimental tower is shown in Fig. of Towers 28. consists 125 Diagram of the electriFig. and certain things which it is anot always possible to carry out on atmodel. 1425 rpm. is valuable and necessary because the.75 to 4. 88. Fig. 87: General view of the upper part of an experimental tower. . !Equimenfht':. The DC generator with a power of 1. whose purpose is to regulate the number of revolutions. 87 illustrates the upper part of the experimental tower of the Windpower Labor atory TsAGI. Such experimental towers have a wind engine which consists of a head of Eattice construction. wind wheels have various details on their wings.75 kW' at 900 to 12751pmithe voltage"/171 230 '1has additional polesw ith independeht "'itat ion and a differential compound winding K which can be switched over to a compoundwinding.5 kW~. 88: cal equipment. real conditions changes both in velocity and inits direction. The airstream in a wind tunnel. EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF WIND ENGINES /170 The experimental testing of real wind wheels on towers with measured wind flow.CHAPTER 7. measuring and recording devices. as well as various electric.>". In addition. in which the axis of the wind wheel is situated at the height of 45 m [52]. The motor generator with a power of 5.result obtained under these conditions illustrate most truly the operation of wind engines. while the wind flow dashing over the wind wheel under. acts on the model with a velocity which is constant in magnitude and diredtion.
The. and sets in motion the asynchrod.na: generator r which sup/172 eng ne n B set6 _in :ntioin plies the current to the cjmcuit  Such a diagram makes it possible to regulate the power and the number of revolutions limit from 0 to any value. storage battery 126 . cirduit. switchboard $. Sabinin..the following parameters have to be measured: instantaneous and average wind velocities. 90: Diagram of measurement of wind velocity by means of two electroanemometers. which are built on the principle of a The DC generator (Fig. This machine works as a miot . the anemometers " Fig. The wind velocities are masured maof wind velocity by by meansof means of two elecof the system tret. 89). A A 'y The measuring equipment df the experiment l tower is selected so as to'obtain a complete aerodynamic performance of the wind engine. obtained electrical current goes 'r through a. 89: Electroanemometer of the system designed by Prof.Te Swind i~i !dynamo D.the readings of the anemometers by the wind engine. R1 and motorgenerator R 2. The regulation is performed The regulationis performed by means of.volt 1 meter. recorder 3. Key: 1. er s of Prof. torque and number of revolutions of the wind engine.. recording of the velocities is performed on a recording. During the testing. excitation $r .~j WCC .' to motor generator M. of the wind wheel within the 1 K 6if.. electroanemometers 2.t48 of the dynamo ipfS wind en . In order to avoid interference with.of a DC generator with inde pendent excitation of 230 V and a 3phasei asynchronal motor of 220 V connected to the electrical. Fig.
however. 127 . battery. The dynamostarter and the gear casing are made of one unit and they. in order to check the reference reading of recorder and circuit. J~t/. The system of measurement of the wind velocity by means of two electroanemometers is shown in Fig. the larger the deflection of the brush and the larger the reading on/ 174 the recorder. the velocity of the wind should be measured not in two but in many points. 91: Schematic of electrodynamometer. The measurement of wind velocity in two points gives. 91). For the sake 6f greater accuracy. ii For. the error in the determination of the power increases to the same degree. The reference reading of the recorder is obtained when the electroanemometers have their blades removed. The greater the compression of the spring. ' The milliammeter B with recorder. . Both instruments are Dconnected inn series to the same recorder.can revolve in their bearings. AG Fig. The switch is set on clamp 2.ch othe~ on bbthsides of the axis of the wind wheel.. n both anemometers will give their total electroimotik force to the recorder.wash6hisosprings P 1 and In addition. P.a more /173 reliable result. When the switch is"poitioned chclamp 1. and it compresses either spring P 1 or P 2 depending on the' direction where 'the. the measurement is extremely complicated. Voltmeter V serves for determination of the voltage of the. an electrodynamometer is used (Fig. measuring the torque. Since the energy of the wind is proportional tolthe cube of its velocity. _TIn this momentsh C mosh es along rheometer R 1 which receives the current from battery A through clamps a~ nd b. 90.. in is attached to the gear casing which is connected by means of ./ positioned on clamp. When voltmeter V is disconnected and the switch _ is. meter. the starter turns to reverse. brush C is connected on a support to the dynamoP2.gmea. Under the effect of the magnetic field. at equal distance from it. the recorder shows a certain voltage reading. the brush glides along the winding of the reostatrheometer R 1 . A . is connected by means of a clamp to the clamp of rheostat a.tuns_.starter. and by means of the other clamp through regulating rheostat R 2 and switch E to brush C..___ ' IR are situated on poles in the plane of the wind wheel at a distance of 20 m f.
92: Diagram of a tachometric machine. torques . In such a manner. the recording of the wind velocities.and of the number of revolutions d~TiEthe tst Fig. 128 . This processing yields one point of performance. 1 2 The tachometric machine 1i.7 and written on forms which contain the formulas by means 6fhih the unknown magnitudesfM and 5 are calculated. energy of the rotating wind wheel. determined by the formula: 29 (151) where: I c . Recorder 4.em6d' simultaneously on the recorders of the electroanemometers. is connected by means of a beltdrive with the shaft of the wind engine by means of one of the intermediate shafts of the reduction gear..2_.ngular average in minutes. t time of the experiment in minutes. its weight The number of revolutions of the wind wheel is recorded by means of a tachometrice machine. Under conditions of large fluctuations in the rotation of the wind engine permminute. the diagram of which is represented in Fig. velocity of the wind engine . The shorter of the levers is 1.in kineti6. The average values of the readings of the instruments are determined by means of a planimeter*. a correction is introduced for the increment in kinetic energy of the rotating mass. an oildamper is attached to the starter pass valve. electrodynamometer and tachometric machine.385 m in varies from 1 kg to 45 kg. 92. angular velocities of rotation in the wl andww 2 beginning and end of each minute. a more smooth reby means of a bis performed by attached to the length.moment of inertia of the wind wheel.In order to soften the strokes and to obtain cording. Calibration of the springs P 1 and P 2 means of a weight suspended to the lever which is starter. is pe6. /175 The increment in moment AM is the average moment of aerodynamic forces per minute spent on the increasei.<y records the revolutions. Battery 2 and rheostat 3 serve for reference tests. The processing of the recordings of the three observed magnitudes is performed each minute.
TABLE 9 7 z * .15 023' 0. and in . i.0i71 0.19 0.3 0.5.21 0.61 0. 29. 100 o22 1.3 .55 2:47 0.wind engine. wind.7 013 0. 0..25 ' ' 0 .accurate tests. are taken into consideration in processing the observations. There are various devices for regulating the number of revolutions and power on the wings of the real . The construction of the wing is shown in Fig. 'wheel 'should give experimental performances which are near the theoretical ones.021 03 129 . The testing of the theoretical performance of the wind engine is pefformed by testing a wind wheel under natural conditions and Comparing the theroetical performits model in the wind tunnel.933 0.15 0.The barometric pressure and the temperature on which the mass density of the air is dependent.12 4*15 23'3' .calculations of the performance.68 0.0 4. AS 3blade Such a comparative test was performed at TsAGI..S' 09.01 )j 0.0014 0. a cbr. 93.2080.17 0.ero' rofile c I 1. ance of a wind engine with theexperimental performance.~2 ' SlI l° 3' 3.84 0. while Fig.ec'tly calculated. its strength. The profile of the wing was calculated for six sections situated along the propeller line and without any steering ldevices 'ontheblade. with a diameter D = 8 m.M 'esp.01 0. the degree of discrepancy between these performances is rqvealed. wind wheel was built. with a igg ng angle blade. 9 4 shows the congruency of its sections.).4 I1J 0O33' 1417' 0°455' 8 305' O.2 1.12 0..35 0. jn .7 . The main data of the aerodynamic anal si's.: of a wind engine (according to the theory G. and a module number of the = 60 at the eteitip Zn = 4. first The discrepancy between these performances may be caused of all by the fact that the wind wheel operating under natural conditions differs from the fodel tested in the wind tunnel. Kh. . Sabinin) are presented in Table 9.50 . th6se details are usually not reproduced on the model.7 . Correspondence Between the Performance of the Wind Engine and Its Model.7 2'15 ' 535' 0. as well as fasteningswhich insure. this gives the picture of the disposition of the blade sections relative to each other.1 3.
plane of rotation presented in Fig. are 2. under natural conditions. secCongruency of the Fig. and conditions. The aerodynamic perform" /177 ance of this wind engine.while" under natural conditions Emax = 0. 96. tested . which confirms the correctness method of aerodynamic analysis according to the given theory. As we see. 93: Construction of he ing of an = experimental wind wheel.497. 95. m/b = 0. S In addition. obtained by testing under natural conditions. 9 4: tionsof the wing blade. Zn i = 3. 93. direction of the wind Key: model in a wind tunnel.m&0 ax of the the discrepancies are small.Fig. 130 . natural ing the test of the wind wheel under >good agreement /178 x. is shown in Fig.fairly Comparison of the curves shows a.5. where the thick'continuous curve is I' is the theoretical curve (dots). The model showed complete similarity to the wind engine D = 8 m. 4. . D = 8 m. the model of such a wind engine was tested in a wind tunnel. shown in Fig. 1 The performance obtained by calculation and by testing of the wind engine under natural conditions and of its 1. Sc . testing of the model in the wind tunnel gives yifelds 7.40.35. II same curve obtained durthe is III obtained in the wind tunnel. between the theoretical and mfde1 p'erformances arth1e fil1scalwieine = 0.
preparation of a wind power unit for tests corresponding to local conditions. IIIcurve obtained by testing under natural conditions. . 96: Characteristics of the wind wheel D = 8 m.04 0.is usually tested for a definite type of work. IIcurve obtained in the wind tunnel. gines. 95: Experimental performance of the wind wheel (see Fig.14 od 0.usd t. In agriculture.differs somewhat from testing wind engines under laboratory conditions.:test:s a.eh. . 3. 2.In order to explain the . 2 3 4 5 131 .06 0"51!N 0.0 ope 0. r f or testing wind. As a result of the tests. The obtained /179 characteristics in relation to the rigging angle of the blade 4 are shown in Fig. 93). an entire wind power unit. examination of the giicultural exploiconditions of tation of the wind installation. guidelines have to be elaborated for the exploitation of the given machine with the wind engine.r@ obtaining the performance of agriculturAlmachines in relation to the revolutions and the search fortthe most convenient conditions of:exploitation of the wind power unit. Zn = 4. 97. .02 fJ t I 0. under natural conditions. The following points should be included in the prografiN of the tests: 1. SI 4  inf luencee of the rigging angle on the performance. t'sts were performed at various rigging angles p of the blade of this wind engine.6 ? 7 0 z 10 00 SFig. compilation of its technical performance. 012 o. The' 'ta'sk of these . for a given type of work. in:agriculThe method .5. I.zi 6 7 9 0 Fig. i = 3: Itheoretical curve.
5. is regulated and stops. output of the wind power depending on the wind velocity _and the revolutions of the wind 2 Fig. rabotayushchikh s tsentrob'ezhnymi nasosami i s sel'skokhozyayst[Method for testing wind engines operating vennymi mashinami with centrifugal pumps and with agricultural machines]. Zn = 4. various rigging the blade. testing of the wind in. 132 .. . wind velocities at which the wind engine starts to operate. unit l d. 4 i "N losses dueitto friction in the wind engine and in the transmission to the power tool. 1959.ered: in protocols. Key: 1calculated The details of the performance test of wind engines are exposed in the author's book Metodika ispytaniya vetrodvigateley. The results of the test are ent. i oooS. i = 3.Ki or brake block if the local conditions permit it. on the basis of which conclusions are made on the advis bility of using a wind engine for the work with a given machine. 01. I +t00 .c. the.M 11 I I !. 0_ . wheel. performance of the power tooLconnected to the wind engine.with band brake I I . performance of the wind engine while working.12 Il il il l J ' 4./180 stallations with determination of: a.1 oco o b. 97: wheel D = tested at angles of Performance of a wind 8 m. 0o. e. summarizingi tables are set up and the performance of the wind installation is plotted.4 0.
changes its direction. or by means of a more detail in the section to the wind is performed <l either by which is fastened to the rotating part of gearing. In the simple wind engine. 98). a lateral force PtZ appears on the surface of the tail which turns it and along with it. 4adjustment to the wina:. no forces which shifftsthetail to any side appearcon the surface. The manual adjustment means of an ordinary lever the mill. 99 and 100). Adjustment by Means of the Tail. This question is discussed in on windmills (sections58 and 61).while the plane of rotation of the windmill becomes perpendicular to the direction of the wind. These movements which follow. the direction of the wind are called adjusment of the wind engine to the wind. mainly in the horizontal plane. 133 . As soon as the wind phanges its direction (direction 2 in Fig. This rotation continues until the tail becomes parallel. The following forces act on iia system which rotates around its vertical axis (Fig. the wind wheel is adjusted to the wind by means of a tail which acts like a wind vane. 98).which act on the rotating part of the wind engine through gearing. up to 15 hp.heelt6 thewwindis made by hand.>by means of an electrical motor. /182 30. When the wind is directed perpendicularly to the wind wheel (direction 1 in Fig. that the wind wheel should be made by appropriat'e means to follow the changes in the direction of the airstreadm. the homemade adjustments of the . he head of the wind engine around the vertical axis. All of these methods of adjustment to the wind are applied in practice. Hence it follows.ind w. The wind engine operates most effectively at a time when the velocity of the wind is directed perpendicularly to the plane of rotation of the wind wheel.mea"6f the tail. while in the factorymade improved model.CHAPTER 8. the wind wheel is automatically adjusted to the wind. called windroses . In lowpower wind engines. The automaticaadjustment to the wind is performed by the following four methods: 1by means of a tail which acts analogically to a wind vane. 3disposition of the wind wheel behind the t/ower of the wind engine by the principle of adjustment to the wihnd:by. 2by means of small wir:engines. ADJUSTMENT OF THE WIND ENGINESTO THE WIND /181 The wind constantly. .
aded anaa h e ! s arse ep ybadfed wm '' while Fig.. Diagram of the action Fig. PtCF Ti. 134 .ed. 99: Diagram of the action of forces on a wind engine with a lateral blade. a force acting on the surface of the tail during deviationso. lateral view 2. _ and x are coefficients of the aerodynamic forces which are adj ust. where:.Y = + 200. l. by (testing In Fig. These curves were plotted on the basis .of the windyp to. . the airbehind the wind wheel. w. This coef '/183 ficient is analogous to the coefficients C and C x which are obtained the blade. the'of forces on axis of which is shifted relative.1 (152) /. Fig.. of an experimental investigation in a wind tunnel performed by I. Key: Key: .. and may serve as a guide for calculating the aerodynamic forcesacting on a wind c : wheel. S *stream is the coefficient which accounts' for losses in velocity of.. 101 and 102Ajthe graphs showing the changes in y and x are shown for amulti T15e."h is: equal to: e. 2. 1.. 98: Diagram of the adjustment of the wind wheel to the wind by means of the tail. wherei R is the radius of the wind lateral view wheel.experime'ntal. . ' . 100: a wind engine. ." . c .:. 103 and 104 present the graphs for the determination of the point of application of forces "'X which are directed parallel to the axis of rotation of the wind wheel. V. " Y. Smirnov.ly duringthe ' testi3g of the whole wind wheel. to the vertical axis of the tower. top viewy SPtl  (153) = 2 (154) . aerodynamic forces acting on the wind wheel: Fig. .
101: Curves of the coefficients Y and X of the aerodynamic forces acting on a 1 1t IDelbladed wind wheel in relation to the angle of rotation of the wind enoginef frmed . 5u o efficientsY and X of the aerodymanic forces : ±'r model "Syur" 4blade wind engine with load. 'forms a" certain ~ le e o with the perendi1I' . o 7 70 o . 1/3. where the curv in the center of pressure are presented for blades with various ratios of length 1/6). n = 624 rpm 1 4 Zn = = S . we assume that the direction of the resultant forces of drag Ptl and Pb isaSperpendicular to the sur face.the wind. 119). 105. 2 In equations (152) and (155).The force on the surface /186 from the side behind the wind wheel for purposes of regulaSattached tion ( for': 'egulation Fig.on Fig. can fo theplates. In solving equations(152):iand /187 (155). in tail.does not exceedO'= .the u face reistanc e whi h s inf +jclined :at anange a with re sp c to' t he flow. in relation to the angle of formed with the normal position i. . es of the change 106. of the plate to its .10 .M = const. The magnitude of the coefIficient of the resultant force is equal to: Cl (156) The coefficients C and C the plates.. under the action 5 . Zn = 5.iithenorm.. with load. without without tail. 33. f the rsultant R.. that the point of application of this force.o3U oo0 t 10 u.. 135 Further. of the flow which fbrms\with it an angle a.'iit should be mentioned cord b (y ~> 9/b = 1. L 1 1 2 P = CRF R b bk PV (155) 2 fi'i .pOP sition.  :ular t6 the surface (at angles £ 7ttin the angeIofdeflection. n = 1860 rpm. The resultant . CR is the coefficient of the drag force which is the resultant of the lifting and drag forces appearing the surfaces. 6. can e taken from o the curve in Fig. equals: n see sec. 3. whichis riot entirely true.force of. Its position on the surface is determined by means of equation (4 4a) and Fig. changes with the change in the angle of attack.
head of oI the surface corresponding to the tail and to the blade. relative to the 136 . of the axis of rotation of the wind wheel and with a . causes a reactiveinforcef Pp which acts on the arm r relative to the vertical axis. Z = 5. (1. and (155). it is Fig. which is able to turn around the vertical axis. L and L' are the dis60 400 2 0. Y. the moment of the reactive force of the pinion piece on the vertical shaft .exerts a great influence on the position of the winddriven wheel relative to the direction of the wind.2'V (160) In wind engineswith vertical rotating shafts.. The magnitude of the reactive moment is determined by means of the equation: P 76.2 '. 107).R  Forces Pt . (158) (159) 100) " Scenter ( where a. 101. e is 0. M= X ( . 103: Curves of the centers taken with a + sign when the center of pressure a = a/R of a 18blade6f pressure is situated to the right wind engine. Fig. to Figure 102.9) > to (Accordin a) Fig. This force creates a torque of the whole head. . which are expressed 5y equations (k52). vertical axis((Fig.. 104: Curves of the centers of pressure a = a/R of a 4blade "Syur" wind engine without tail with load in relation to the angle y. to Fig. It tends to turn the head of t6 wind engine. (153). The revolutions of the model n = 1860 = const.sign when it is S03 SYI Ix situated to the left of the axis of /188 rotation. is'the" distance from the of pressure to the axis of rotation of the wind wheel. X and Pbl. which maintainh the system in equilibrium: (157) MX= Xa . create moments relative to the vertical axis.:displacement the magnitude of 'l ' ' b ISof the axis of the wind wheel relative to the axis of the tower (Fig._ otatin.of the wind wheel.we Fig 9. 100). 2 401 600 tance frmi the axis :of.54). This moment is called the reactive moment. The circular force which sets the pinion in motion. o'f'' 'to the center of pressure 0 te.
in the experimental data obtained by I..Q:a..Mp0. V.= MM'. '152).vertical axis Z . 108 gives the experimental curve of the moments for those cases when the winddriven wheel does not change its initial positbon. 1. 99 and 100. Fig. These curves represent the change in the magnitude of the moment which rotate the head relative to the vertical axis.M (161) Mx.c 020 4C 1 40 60 '0 20 40 G 4 40 060~ n is the number of revolutions per minuteo)of the vertical shaft at a given power.6 11. The relative (nondimensional) moment Mz is called the ratio. 99.e. 100. (162) i The forces causigthese moments.d 1. are given by equations M.. i. . + MA A!± .. OUr:system will L':e in equilibrium when the sum of the moment of the forces acting on it relative to the .. to1020 30 4o 0 o a iw Fig.. (154) and1 (155). 106: Curves of the cenflat plates d ter of pressure & according to Eiffel. we can obtain the momentso~ftthe tail for the system shownin Fig.)of the dimensional moment Mz found : ' 137 . Fig.v 1. o. (:i n relation to the angle y formed between the axis of rotation of the winddriven wheel and the direction of the wind... . . fiat surkace flat surface . + . the tail is rigidly connected to the head of the wind engine.1O.2 the power of the wind where N is engine in h .2 .:.b HOCT 2 A. 109 and 110 show the curves nmde of the relative moments for wind engines regulated by the "Eklips" system with blades and with out it.' (153).quare 3. I[. 2.Z will be equail . Smirnov. Q I M. i 1 3. Con regulation see section 33). S0. i. From these equations.  Fig.2 2 . One can follow the effect of the position of the system in the wind flow from the magnitude of the moment caused by the action of the wind on the surface of the tailand the /%189 wind~diven wheel. I for the system shown in W. 105: Changes in the coof the efficient Cy and C blades in relation to the angle a. 1.Z JI .to zero.1cyu c 1..+ and Fig. Key: C .O 'for the system shown in Fig.e.K o 0 O A9 e I. We can see from equation (160) that the reactive moment is equal to the torque of the shaft of the wind engine. lp .
M . 177 D).167 for the curves in Fig. Ethe A~desof the square are 0. wheel and the axis of rotation of the head  Eccentricity between the axis of rotation of the winddriven s/D = 0 for the curves in Fig. 109 and 110 Sweep of the surface of the tail from the axis of rotation to the external tip of the ~rfac L/D = 1. we have the curve of the total moment Mz. l 1 Fig. the radius of the winddriven wheel the winddriven wheel R and the dynamic /190 1 pressure pV 2 /2. It. 107: Diagram of the actiio of the reactive moment of transmission. 138 .represents the aerodynamic moment M. curve II represents the total moment M of the winddriven wheel and of the.04 for the curves in Fig. 108.folloWs from equation (163) that the dimensional moment is equal to: (164) j Z. R is the radius of the winddriven wheel in m. Key: 1.tail. 110.f/F = 0. Eccentricity between axis of rotation of~athe winddriven wheel and the axis of rotation of the hed ~D = 0. shown in Fig. 108.125 for the curves in Fig. of the tail and of the. with a square surface. and curve III is the moment ofon&tail Cdepending on the angle y between the direction of ih the wind and the axis of rotation of the winddriven wheel). 109 and 110 were obtained for models with the following ratio of the construction dimensions of thessysted: Sweep of the winddriven wheel  .4/D = 0.129 for all the curves. In Fig. A ratio of the surface of the tail f to the area marked off by the winddriven wheel F .e. of the winddriven wheel.A. 109.lateralblade..z tWi experimentally to the area marked off by 2 . curve I. MAt (163) where M z is the dimensional magnitude of the moment in kgm.0 for all the curves. 108 Likewise . The curve of the moment.(of the winddriven wheel. In Fig. 108 and 110.)/D = 0. i.
and to decrease the angle of deflection of the winddriven wheel. the opposite of . Comparison of the. Only at an angle y = 200 does the total moment /192 become positive (Fig. In such a manner.on it'. wheel .eeitricity (Fig. which takes place in wind engines with rotating vertical shafts.deflection of the winddriven /191 wheel for purposes of regulation (Fig. For this purpose. addi tibnal devices for? envisaging the. the 1 system to..20 _2 D. a moment appears which deflects the winddriven wh wheel from the direct action of ' 0. when the wind engine has no . ' Ift this'case. ihto the ..S i ao _i _i i j109 oils o14 So 0. up.of a surface or of eccentricity between the vertical axis and the axis of the winddriven wheel. ofof .4 1. is that the tail changes in the direction of the wind.Oh.omakes it possibe'lBto compensate to of the eccentricity. 10:8 with the curves in Fig.. shows that the winddriven wheel is in the most favorable position with regard to the wind.L_ S 1 10. "'.turn and place the wind driven .wind.moment MP.. a moment is created o 20 3 4) 50 6o 70 10 0.0 . in prac tice the tail is made at a certain angle of deflection c (5 to 60) relative to the axis of the winddriven wheel . the .th Io.sidet with regard to the dif ect.wind. the r the winddriven wheel. and 110.. negative moment. At the angle y = 0. which makes. curves in Fig.T 0. In the presence. when Sthe 040 300 10 wind is.Winhd (see curve III). 109 and 110). A characteristic feature of the tail adjustment to the wind in. the tq i Fig. possible for.. 108: Curve of the moments of the forces acting on the wind engine system during f dkecion changes changes in in the the di iobfthe :the.deflected by even a small angle. it. 111).. the surface of the tail is given the shape of a handle with the convexity to the side of the regulating surface or Such a tail .' Let us note that this measurement compensates also for the /193 reactive. curve.03 0. II of' the m es does not pass through the origin of the coordinates(Fig. 108). to allt. 9.e reglating Aurfac' . s00 it 08070 60 In this case.12 0 . reacts rapidly. 110) and the In order to compensate for the system acquires a stable position. a certain extent for the negative moment.to be under the direct effect of the 139 . there is a negative moment which deflects winddriven wheel. it is possible for the winddriven wheel.
In the course of one revo. of the windf has also a As the head of aspect.16 i l 1  airstream for a longer time in the process of operation. and when the flap assumes value twice. From the point of view of the principle of . the winddriven wheel (Fig.2 0I . 113).o0 s5 negative Cm o. gyroscopic forces appear during the These rotation of the wheel. the maximal work is performed by the surface when it is displaced witha velocity U = 1/3 V. Blade and Mz Fig. w 1 is the angular velocity of rotation of the whole system relative to the vertical axis.. The magnitude wl depends on the length of the tail. a vertical position (Fig. 020 022 7 the wind engine turns on the wings of the winddriven wheel. 0 0 )0 . This has an extremelygreat importance.. I I. and acquires a maximal acquires a maximal position.l~oeirelative to d axis Z (165) where: I is the moment of inertia of the wing relative to the axis of rotation of the winddriven wheeli w is the angular velocity of the winddrivenwheel.\. Wind of the the wind.i 02 o. tof ± 0 112). Gyroscopic momentswill be treated in more detail in Section 43. the direction direction of engine with lateral blade.90 0 60 0 43 30 20 =0. flaps of the wings and the axis ./194 lution. when the flap assumes the horizontal position. the rapid reaction sor of the tail to all changes of direction.becomes zero twice.1 7Onala driven wheel. the moment which bends the of the forces acting on the wind engine system during changes in Wind the wind..work of a surface. sinde F/full . which is taken 140 . Curves 109: of the moments wind flap. However.2~ 0.2 S1 is the wind engine can develop its power only when the wind flow is directed perpendicularly to the plane of rotation of the wind 0o. icreate a bending moment which in the practice of wind power utilization is called gyroscopic moThis moment bends the ment [34] .j Key: 1.0 o. Its magnitude is equal to: . the* tail is displacedaround a circle with a radius equal to the length of the tail L. surface of.64 8 . Since the.
turning it in a horizontal plane. vertical axis in. . At a certain sweep in distance behind the winddriven wheel. TW 62 Adjustment by Means of Wind/195 Rd'ses%. consequently. J Fig.. we can write: here 0 SOr2?=n L= . The diagram of adjustment by means of wind rotors is presented in Fig. the dca se of sq l s' i j~i: 141 . .24 0plane 0. 114.le hence o(166) 9 070 60 50 40 30 1I . the wind wheel is parallel to the direction of the wind. at this moment in time.2L 04 rfrom the vertical axis to the center of effort of the sail' area.the pinion revolves on the immobile gearwheel and drags with it the whole system of the head. the latter is less likely in the case of windrhe s.4 _ I li . the velocity threatens a rapid wind engine with breakage.o .s are mounted called windro~esi>the of rotation of which is perpendicular to the plane of rotation of the winddriven wheel.° . " _ pinions ofthe last p. engaged l)ha large geared wheel which is firmly attached to the crown of the tower. Consequently.P< deflection of the wind engine of rotation of the system around the. During the rotation of the windrbses . 7and the pinions on the tower.V.. As soon as the wind changes direction (arrdwsVx in Fig. start to turn. The wind engine is removed from the ) wind by meansodfdadisplacement of the axis of the winddriven } wheel relative to the axis of theetower. 114). This displacement continues until the windr. 31.0 ii10 34QU 0 7oOSJ 90yo . The cylindrical S1 D=o..osesj stop which takes place when they become parallel to the flow. two small wind engin. The torque of the wind rotors is perceived by the transmission. While in the case of tail adjustment to the wind. 110: Curves of the moment of the forces acting on the wind engine system during changes in the direction of the wind.0. the angular velocity of .nbmc . the windrpses. Thit is due to the possibility of selecting ahy gear ratio between the windroses. consequently: G.. wh which consists of conical and cylindrical pinions.and parallel to the direction of the wind..
characteristics experimental from is taken (Eig. The value of wl is taken to be approximately equal to 0.: = D/3. The angular velocity of rotation of the system around the vertical axis is So~" I determined by equation: = where: Deflection Fig. 6 iormore.ses engines . ~~(167) i is the gear ratio df the transmission from the windrosmes b to the gear pinion./is taken from 0.05. for other conditions. (184). D is the diameter of the windross V is the velocity of the wind. the magnituden6af which is determined by the equation: (168) lateral blade and'the winddriven wheel. 115).is used in certain wind /196 the power of which exceeds 15 hp. depends on the selection of the transmission and not on accidental breakage by the wind. Fig.2.w 1 which is a multiplier in the equation C165). is the angular velocity of the wind rotors. z I where Z 0 is the synchronal number of modthis magnitude ules of the wind rotors. . Using the characteristics in Fig. The number of blades in windrose i is usually 4. (_ The adjustment to the wind by means of windr. i. 115 and equations (167) and (168). the transmission can be selected in Tksuch a waytthat the gyroscopic moment will nbt be dangerous for the solidity of the construction of the wind engine. the characteristics of wind rotors are presented in Section 42. 112: the action of the gyroscopic moment on the wind driven wheel.: attached to the upper crown of the tower. ll: of the tail relative to the direction of the wind for purposes for wind satipurposes ofthe of compensation of the moment:from the . The dimensions of the blades of the wind rotors are chosen deDiagram of Fig. pending oi' the diameter of the wind rotors the width at the external tip D. The diameter of wind'odses .e. the width at the internal tip a b = D/6. 142 .of the diameter of the winddriven wheel.15 to 0. length : = D/3.
thei. S/D. 116).\ 3. distance. the required aerody Fig. will act on the system. then:. the moment which is required in or 2 3 P [) 00 S. 1. (170) of the torque of wind dsos:s for various angles between clon of the wind dtrect and the plane of rotation. . 108 and 110. If such curves Mldare not available for determining the rapidity of 143 . If the winddriven wheel is disposed behind the tower at a sufficiently large. Since the magnitude of this V. 113: Characteristics of the gyroscopic moment of a 2bladed wind driven wheel. for a 18bladed wind engine. curvesin Fig. Let us denote the relative moment knownfrom experiments. 114: Diagram of wind wheel adjustment to the wind by means of windroses.then an . S05 0Y04 .5 2. 115: Characteristics namic5 (dimensional))moment can be approximately determined by equation: . will be denoted M'. 00 to maintain the winddriven wheel in the direction of the wind.' aerodynamic moment.=der ~~~~ Y=0 Y=i. depends on the ratio.' . and correspond ingly *'1/D' Y ss or = a'. ar. n / 1 32.0 2.by Mz and its corresponding ratio 1/D by a. moment. shown by curve I in Fig. . The action of this moment will cause the winddriven wheel to adjust itself behind the tower in the direction of the wind.5 3. Adjustment by Disposition of /197 the WindDriven Wheel Behind the Tower. /1 /198 003 . Fig. since the winddriven wheel itself vane would play the role of awid' (Fig. P 108 and 110." acteristic of which is shown by the Fig.o 0 05 (169) 1.03 =75 0. it will be obviously possible to use this curve for finding the required aerodynamicmoment which will adjust the winddriven wheel in the direction of the wind.035 Z= IConsequently.) 1.
the gyroscopic moment will be several times larger than in wind engines adjusted by means of the tail. by the sweep of the wind. the adjustment to the wind is usually performed by means of an electrical motor.V . Y shown in Fig. o JL 4.driven we obtain the aerodi:. r Y rR2P 2 (171) 116: Fig.e. the angular velocity wl of the turn of the basis: of equatioan head will be several times larger than the angular velocity offthe turn of the head by means of the tail. which are used in wind power electrical stations. i.vesof the aerodynamic forces X and. wheel 1' namic moment necessary in order to keep the winddriven wheel in thbedirection the wind: Adap. the center of gravity of the rotating system is shifted to one side relative to the vertical axis. In wind engines with a power of 100 hp and more. which causes an overload of the bearing on the support. This method of adjustment to the wind which is simple from the point of view of design. Calculating the force 102 can be used. bonsequently. rotating the system around the vertical axis. the contact switches the electrical motoroff automatically. 2.' the wind by disposition of the winddriven wheel behind the tower. is several times smaller than the drift of the tail surface from the vertical axis/. of the windd wheel which in the given case plays driven the role of a tail surface. gince the sweep. Y by means of equation (153) and multiplying it.of wind engines.: 144 . has serious shortcomings. At the time when the winddriven wheel becomes perpendicular to the direction of the wind. Adjustment to 1. experimental cur.the transmission. on the (166). 'The transmission from the electrical motor to the pinion attached to the tower is performed in the same manner as in the adjustment by means of windroies. As soon as the direction of the wind performs a certain angle relative to the axis of rotation of a winddriven wheel. a contact device connects the electrical motor which sets in motion.
the working tools selected for the wind engine at.e. the highest annual production would be obtained. as ofollows from the data on .~ypa. in this case it would be necessary tu b1lisuch a" Istrong wind.of regulation of wind engines used in practice:. :hav."and for insuring the strength of power o olharts. engite.. the calculated wind velocity for determining the power of wind engines.2. section 46). the energy is needed by the consumer daily and in approximately . constant number of revolutions at a given power. Moreover. In practice. However.and revolutions. It is optimal for regions with a given average wind velocity. If the velocity of the wind changes 2oto.requirement. REGULATION OF THE NUMBER OF REVOLUTIONS AND'OF THE POWER/199 OF WIND ENGINES The lack of consistency of the wind energy.ner.. tools attached to the wind engine require a certain power and number. the wind engine has to be regulated. 3 times per minute. Therefore. The available method..in the wind flow.. energy. which would be able to bear the load at maximum wind velocity occurring in a given region. '"' (see Chapter 12. while the service life with maximal load would be extremely short. from anemograph tracings.action of the regulating mechanism.the calculated velocity of the wind is chosen acc6rding to the annual averages of wind velocities. which means that the wind energy change more than 64 times. a very low output coefficieh at low velocities of the wind. Consequently. Cases are known. the same amount. its maximal power.u:rence. complicates to an extreme degree the technique of utilizationof this. for the beginning of regulation. In order to fulfill this. Vy = 10 m/sec for regions with annual average wind velocities up to 7 m/ sec and finally Vy = 14 m/sec. i. The transformation of wind energy into mechanical energy should naturally tend to complete utilization of the winde.of revolutions which have to stay constant throughout the time of operation of these tools.. it has to have a.. 145 . The regulation of wind engines consists in changing the position of the winddriven wheel or of itsblades. : :.to obtain approximately constant power.can be divided into two main groups according to the nature of . certain power.. If it were possible to per6iye the whole power of the wind by the wind engine at all possible velocities up to storm. Finally. determined for wind velocities Vy is called the adjusted power Ny. is taken Vy = 8 m/sec for regions with annual average velocities up to 5 m/sec. However. which is independent of the velocity of the wind. The weight of such a wind engine would be enormous. . the energy changes 827 times during the same period. in order .if through the winddriven wheel.. the maximal/200 energy which the wind installation can supply in a short period of time may appear quite useless.CHAPTER 9. for regions with annual average wind velocities about 7 m/sec.when the velocity of the wind changedmore than 4 times in the course of one minute. The power of the wind engine.
the.The first group comprises thosessystems of regulation. The quality of the regulation depends on how this task is fulfilled. comprises the systems of regulation in which the change in the position of the blade or of the entire winddriven wheel is performed under the action of the wind force.centrifagal forces of regulating the force of the wind. This method of regulation is the simplest and is based on the fact that the smallest _'. side the blade or of the winddriven wheel in the air flow.shaped windmill.or. subtracted. is p rformed by two methods: n s ystmem reglai 146 . since the point of application of the resultant wind force (center of pressure) on the blade.increases in the P'ocess of operation with the increase in the force of the wind. The action of the wind force on the blade in relation to the /201 construction of the regulation system. by removing 'the winddriven wheel . fnom in ms The automatic regulation V. rtemoval of the winddriven wheel is per_te the formed manually. side other the flywegsitospn 4. on the change in the position of on one. Regulation by Removing the WindDriven Wheel. which change the position of the blades.s. in which the main regulating mechanism is a centriftgd? regulator of a cerIn this case certain systems of regulation can have. the lifting force changes due to the tion of the wheel.th6 first. may be either to the right or to the left of the axis of rotation of the blade. Both these angle the of change factors make it possible to limit the power of the wind engine at wind velocities ex6')eeding' 8 m/sec.i wind. 33. In the simplest type of wind engines such as the goatskin and t.. of attack on the wingsduring rotation. modern wind engine. as a result of which there is an increase in the centrifigal forces of the regulating flyweiLghts. Consequently.From the Wind. In wind engines with such regulationi.. is used in mu:tibladed low power wind engine. it is done automatically by means of regulating devices.bilattain kind. quantity of air flows through the winddriven wheel when the direction of the wind'is oblique to the direcIn addition.he number of revolutions of the winddriven wheel. . . lifting force is diminished and the revolutions decrease down to their normal value. The second group. in the improved. eral action of the external forces. can be either added up to the centrifugal forces of the regulating flyw~ight)is. . The correct determination of all the forces acting in a given system of regulation is the task of the designer..
.and at the other to the lever attached to its head. wide application in multibladed low power wind engines. wind by means of a lateral blade. by the. is balanced by means of a sprihg which is attached at one end to the tail of the wind engine. Moments created relative to the. 117: Diagram of regulation by removal of the winddriven wheel from . .. and in position III. In wind engines with vertical rotating shafts and with lateral blades. 117. Let us examine the action of the forces in the given system of regulation..by means of a lateral surface.wndidiven'wheel. • r.a so..during regulation at wind velocity exdeeding 8 m/sec. In the second case. the wind engine is in the operating position. In the examined system of regulation. vertical axis of the 'system act. 118) at y = 0. at a wind velocity exceeding 12 m/sec. in position I. the arm of the moment is equal to E :(Fig. in position II . In Fig..displacement of the axis of rotation of the winddriven wheel to a certain distance (50 to 100 m) to the right or left of the vertical axis of rotation of the head of the wind engine.emoval o Fig.. second. is fixed to the head of the wind engine behind the wind driven wheel to the right or left side of its axis of rotation. 117 and 118. this moment is equal to: Mb = PbL . from the wind has found . the. at which it stops. on a wind wheel which is disposed perpendicularly to the direction of the wind. the deflection of thewinddriven wheel takes place due to the moment of frontal pressure of the wind on the wheel relative to the vertical axis. Due to its simpicity. reguiation by. which are mainly used for lifting water in agriculture. called blade which.Mrea (a) 147 . the force of the wind acting on one side of the vertical axis. the . /202 at a wind velocity below 8 m/sec. The diagram of regulation of the wind pressure on the lateral blade is YAshown in Fig.
: E P. 118: tion by means of removal of the winddriven wheel nrom i hfrtng _th twb Y . the moment is equal to':' t(ie XSf . cainot remOve.M (c) (d) The internal force of the spring Ps with the arm relative to the axis of the system rf balances this moment.If the deflection of the wind I driven wheel... Diagram of regulaFig.. i. Fig.equation (158). the tail from the position parallel to the wind. is performed on ac/203 count of eccentricity c. A (f) .ithe tail 148 .thb blade or of the eccentricity. tem (Fig. 119: Diagram of the regulation of the wind force in a wind engine system regulated by means of a lateral blade.L . ! 14 = YiZ+ Ya) . These forces as well as the force on the lateral blade create during /204 the regulation a moment relative to tthe txistsof rotation of the head. then the following forces act on the sysforce X.L = Y1 + X (i a).. then according to.e. u ~ r he action of the examined"Kf6rces. . Consideris given to the fact that all these Torces.when it passes through the opposite side of the blade.'the winddriven wheel axis relative to the axis of the tower..Rib'n .. b) . the magnitude of which is equal to::. the system turns somewhat relative to the axis of the tower. 119 and 120): perpendicular to the plane. and a minus sign ./205 a plus sign should be put before a when the center of effort of the sail area passes '_n the side1 of. In the process of regulation. In the presented equation. As a result of ithik. and force Y which acts in the plane of the winddriven wheel. forms a certain angle y with the direction of the wind..wind . shifting .
The spring should be calculated in such a manner. prior. abscissa have a minustsign.ijr. Y. that the arm of force X decreases during the passage of the center of effort of the sail area t ~60 the left of the axis of rotation of the winddriven wheel. the distance a from the center of effort of the sail area to the axis ..e.1.all forms an angle which is larger than Dueo :tlhis" factt. and f.regu at'ioni Diagram of the Fig. o =]oo where a is taken for multibladed winddriven wheels from Fig.2 Characteristic of Fig. 3 / a plus sign.o7 .: .e.should be equal to the moment breated by the aerodynamic forces acting on the winddriven wheel and on the blade." 0ao. d. i.l ' byshiftingathe sfi":in e t. This is explained by the fact. while those lying below the abscissa have .deflection angle y of the axis of rotation from the direction of the wind. 122: Characteristic of a. large.formed with th direction of). 2 1. the center of effort 4blade wind engine in relation of the sail area is shifted to the to deflection angle y of the axis of the wind engine . refers to the case whenjthe axis of the winddriven wheel is shifted to the right relative to the axis of the tower. 149 . 120: action of forces on the wind engine system regulated by remesoviggthe winddriven wheel from thpeirwindr j. the ratio a/R shiuld be' positive while at large angles y.2 0.means. For example.6 0. and increases by the magnitude a during the passage of the center of effort This of the sail area to the right. 2 02. angles y. This.that the moment formed by its internal force.e S stream at each velocity of the wind. ahlequilibrium is formed between the forces which fix the system in a certain position in the air.above the abscissa and consequently.from Fig. in this case a/R should o 6 V be negative. = 0 .P 1 • S.4 0. 121: a 18bladed winddriven wheel in relation tolthe.. acting with arm rx.= a few blades./Afi In equations c. 103.the curve passes .the winddriven wheel is deterni mined by the relation ~\ ( . 104. when :4 y < 270. the values a/R which lie above the M.he wind. for multibladed winddriven wheels.  7/=/o. that at Fig.. . =s0 .. axis of the winddriven wheel relative to the axis of the tower. while for winddriven wheels with 2 only S0.
4 bladedand 2 bladed.rightiside.t~ 0 . 123: Characteristic SOlin relation to the ang es of the winddriven wheel.dftpmntghe x.hd. while it decreases sharply at angles exceeding 200.and synchronal velocity of rotation of winddriven wheels. 122 presents the c eurs~isof a rapid 4bladed wind engine. is shown in Fig. t.i "' __ . C7 and C graphs in Fig. i. 124: R umal ... The curves show that the output coefficient of the wind energy decreases to an insignificant extent at angles y varying from 0 /207 to 200. of the change in the output coefficient of the wind energy E in relation to Z are presented for various angles of a slow 18bladed wind engine.cube of te co6sine of the angle of de. The a tl n. 123. 101 and 102. 90' T 0 .the .e. change Forces X.o 10* 203 040 30 W 0 Fig. and P proportionally to the square of the wind velocity and of the coefficients determin~.side of the axis of iotation of the winddriven wheel. ci q00 o6 ""the other. the velocity of which does not Tn Fig1. Characteristics of the wind/206 driven wheel at various deflection angles y formed..e.removal from t ' wtil". I yoY  i i 1 3 20 30 40 50o 9  Characteristic of Fig.. 150 . Echanges proportionally. 123. the .3 flection of the wind wheel from the direction of the wind. S= o 0 cos' y. For practical purposes it is entirely possible to consider that the power of a wind engine during its. y. the deflection angle y . to left of its axis.off.to in reliio change in 5. 101. i. 102. which is seen from the curve cos 3 y in Fig.3 v..21 the curves change [33]. Y. r4cT .rection of the wind.the winddriven wheel fromi:.between the axis "'of rotation and the direction of the wind.o . of the graphsin Fig. . Forces X and Y are taken fr6m.the 'di.'. 4winged mill. z e0 0. 0 . and 105. where the curves are plotted for for the rati6o E to Ey " 4 models of winddriven wheels: 18bladed. while Fig.7 I 0 iiv .
it is important to know the relation connecting the angles with the wind velocity at which the revolutions and the power will be constant. i. Curve I refers to an 18bladed engine. cit can be considered/208 that : or.\ is shown in the graph of Fig.to a 4bladed wheel and IV .to a 4bladed mill. or 2= cos 0 Z .: a = n os y.e. J 30 . 124. these were taken as wher.. ' V.::then N = f(y) N = Nn cos 3 y (172) The change in the velocity of. 125: changes in the angles in relation to the wind1B velocity at which N = const and w = const.iYd. i. = Nn etc.. Consequently.III . The curve cos y almost coincides with the curve describing the relationship etween the synchronal velocity of these wind engines and the angle ' y. II . is important to know the angle y at which the winddriven wheel is supposed to deflect during the increase in wind velocity.eb constant in the calculation of regui.Let us denote will be equal to: . hence: n = nn cos .26 L 1In 2regulation '/2   I V a  .e. (173) 151 .to a 2bladed wheel. I hence: R I=' I s Ncos.rotation of the winddriven wheel. practical calculations of the of removal of a winddriven wheel from the wi. At a' constant velocity of the wind.. in order to preserve the revolutions and the power developed at th d particular wind ve. Z changes proportionally to the angular velocity of the winddriven wheel. = ".locity > llation t4 Ioo 0 20 30 405 60 70 80 Curves of the Fig.e. the synchronal revolutions of a winddriven wheel change proportionally to cos y at V = const.=cos . From equations (135) and (172) it follows: .
let us first plot the curve of the aerodynamic moment in relation to y for various wind velocities (Fig. and . 126: Graphic determination wheel with regard_ to the direcof the angle y. which is deflected on account of its lateral blade. 127) according aculation e\ _ .. dal. for a wind engine which is deflected on account of eccentricity 5.tie(B :. V 2 .arY1'+ P1 il6eact (a) for a wind engine. let us draw the tangents. From Fig. In final account. Windambuntsto to 4_ __ finding the relation. we obtain the curve of the angle at which the winddriven wheel showed a _j deflection at the wqind velocities V >VYn. These II . 152 . let us find the cosine of the angles. and • %(b) _ _.. which insures its present position of the winddriven Fig. curves refer to any winddriven wheel. After calculating a series of points and plotting them on the graph (Fig. from the. further. 126).. and /209 subsequently the angle corresponding to these velocities.corresponding .the. from the ends of the pinions V 1 .to a given power N = const and w = const. tion of the wind at ian angle y ..moving the winddriven wheel V2 .for V n = 10 m/sec. let us draw the arc CD with a radius Vn.. III .velocity of the wind at which the wind engine should be removed from the. It is simpler to determine the angles y graphically (Fig.. V 3 . t to equation: . On the straight line OB let us lay out in the scale of wind velocity Vn. preserve N and w constant. o I V_ Y. from 0 perpendicular to the corresponding tangent will be deflected from the straight line OB by an angle y which is necessary in order to have constant revolutions and power of /210 the winddriven wheel at various velocities of the wind V > V n . etc.12 m/sec and IV . work4i: velocities of the wind V >>Vn. 126 we have: hence. in order to Curve I was calculated for Vn = 8 m/sec. Each radius drawn.: _ of regulation by re. it follows: which was also obtained above equation (173). • change in the moment of the spring. V 2 etc.14 m/sec.Assuming that V n is the. wind. 125). Vl.t'heI . For this purpose...
in practice. Exceptionally. and is.the wind during its increase in velocity TV8 . the angular velocity of the winddriven wheel is a term which in rapid wind engines is also large. wind engine. The friction in /212 the supports influences the regulation in the sense that the winddriven wheel islae.. The vertical hatching below.r.. using this graph and curves V = f(y) (Fig. SC 20 iI 4j 61 so Fig. shows the magnitude of the reactive moment Mreact = const. This is why.. a different graph has to be plotted by the presented method. The larger the friction in the supports.'eturning to the wind during the decrease in wind7velocity. m. the head with the winddriven wheel is in constant movement around the vertical axis. the coarser the regulation. we obtain curve A which shows how the moment of the spring should change in various positions of the winddriven wheel relative to the direction of the wind. 127: Curves of the aerodynamic moment of the small as possible. regulation is mainly used for lowspeed multibladed wind engines. onoone hand on account of the work of the tail.: by this system.. 125). 127 )the points corresponding td6the given wind velocity and the angle y which should be found on6 te curves of aerodynamic moment at the given wind velocity opposite the corresponding anglesy (Fig. Uniting the points thus found by a line.is inconvenient because it increases the effect of the gyroscopic moment. in view of the simplicity of the design of thidslsystem. these two movementsowill Since in equation (165) give a large angular velocity wl as a result.of the . and on the other hand.8 Iwind engine. As a matter of fact.._ the friction in the supports should be Sas lT.given regu. in coming out from . of the gyroscopic moment. in rapid wind engines . 153 . !er. 127 shows a graph plotted for a TV. wind.lation. it can be used in calculating the regulation of theowind engine of the same type and For another type of wind enpower. .rapid wind engines with this type of regulation are found. 125). /211 let us plot in Fig. gine. on account of the deflection of the winddriven wheel according to the conditions. II 0Il! I I N I1 11 1 1Z N i \ 00C F iI V\ S*Z sec Fig.Subsequently. The regulation by removal of the winddriven wheel from the wind. hS For a problemfree action of the of _system regulation by removal of the wind wheel from the. during regulation. As they have the same direction. the resultant gyroscopic moment may threaten the dirability of the wind engine.
Thecmain drawback of this regulation consists in the fact that a wing with blinds can be given no streamlinreOprofile. the sail which covers the net of the winguis rolled up manually. wind engine prior to regulation.. while in improved models.automatically by means of centrifgal flyweightswhich are placed on the wings. Regulation by Decreasing the Area: of the' Wngs.. it is attended with great difficulty. Under conditions of low4Wind.34. and the wind engine may break before the : area of the wing can be diminished. blades is decreased. The adjustment to the wind is accomplished by means of windroses' . the wings work with their whole surface. Regulation by Rotation of the Bladei or Part of it Around the 35. causes a change in the lifting force and consequently. In more recent designs of windmills which are regulated by the /213 examined principle. When the winddriven wheel develops a higher number of revolutions thn is necessary for normal operation. extremely imperfect.with open blinds during a hold.. This regulation is not used in modern wind engines.area. or by means of a special centrifugal regulator. The folds/214 as well as the blinds are opened manually by means of a linkage mechanism. . this causes large drag and leads to a low output coefficient of the wind energy Moreover. and at the same time. the surface of the wing is manufactured of either longitudinal or transversal folds which have the a 'Iect of venetian blinds. b . Axis of the Flap. if the wind increases to the extent that the number of revolutions of the winddriven wheel startsto increase rapidly. a Fig.%. the numerous hinges on which the blinds rotate complicate the manufacture of the wings. This method of regulation is used in the old tertshaped windmills. Such a method of regulation is understandably. wings. the .. In the simplest homemadel wings this decrease is done manually by removing from the wings a In sail certain part of the boards which compose its surface. Any change in the slope of the blade relative to the wind. 128 shows a wind engine with automatic regulation. the folds or blinds open up and openings appear in the working surface of the wings as a result of which.of the. in its component which acts in the direction of rotation of the winddriven 154 . the effect of the wind force on the wings decreases and the number of revolutions of the wheel becomes smaller. it is difficult to perform in time the necessary operation. When the velocity of the wind changes rapidly.
the flyweightsiare displaced along the axis of regulated by . 128: Wind engine which is crease.which passes near the start of the wing.wing is called stabilizer. Sabinin suggested a system of regulation in which the turning of the blade is performed by the action of the wind force on the stubwing. balance is maintained/215 between the regulator spring and the centrifugal force of the flyweights. the latter are tprned to decrease the angle of attack.attached to the axis at the rear edge of the wing. During the regulation. Kh. the roto be made. the lifting force on the wing decreases and the torque and revolutions of the winddriven wheel are diminished.wheel. and stabilizer t. In the resting state. 129). This pattern lies at the basis of regulation by rotation of the blade or of part of it around the axis of the flap. First. by the direct action of IX the wind on the wing which. V. 1 . being freely sitted on the axis of the flap . Consequently. SI The rotation of the blade around the axis of the flap is performed by two methods.2oare on a line 155 . The process of regulation takes place in the following manner. . and the regulation is called N. Prof. as it is maintained in balance by means of the flyweight. it allows regulation of the revolutions Second. tation of the blade is performed by means of centrifugal forces developed either by a normal centrifugal reguor by flyweights siton the wings of the / A\ Slator . Krasovskiy completed this regulation stabilizing (Fig. blade ol..__ 'uated winddriven wheel. is deflected by the pressure of the wind and.stub.'decreasing the _ gar'of the wings.". As the revolutions of the wheel inFig. G. by means of a rod passing through the center of the flap tube. This . the flap undehthe action of centrifugal forces and set in motion the rodswqwhich are connected by means of a linkage mechanism with the blades..
at a constant angle of rotation of the stabilizer B.. the blade will turn around the axis of the flap as long M. Cr . and acting through arm 4 and rod 5. and as long as angle a is not equal to the initial angle. 130). between the aerodynamic forces on the wing and the stabilizer. arm 5. Fig. the moment of the stabilizer increases and the blade turns as long as a balance sets in again. 129: wing. 129: Diagram the direction of the relative flow. 130).iftin' force.surface of the stabilizer in m. r . will dash over the wing and the stabilizer with a relative velocity W. 4. spring As a result of the increase in angle B of the relative flow. As a result of this a lifting force appears on the surface of the stabilizer which turns the wings relative to the axis of the flap with the following moment: (7) where: f . as there is an equilibrium between the moment of the aerodynamic forces acting on the surface of the stabilizer and the blade of the Diagam the cord of the blade will form with Fig.of the wind engines (Z =. In this case. the airstream by of means msai . 5 . Under the action of this moment. which is equal to: 1. the blade maintains a constant angle of attack'with the direction of the flow. 7 As the wind engine 46 1 is turned on.coefficient of the. blade 2.distance from the center of ef/216 fort of the sail area of the stabilizer to the axis of the flap.comforming to: the direction of the wind ( (position I. In such a manner. the stabilizer lies in the plane of the blade. it shifts the stabilizer 2 by a certain angle. spring 3 which was tight until then is now released.wR/V) tothe. Fig.rotation of the winddriven wheel (position flapeaxms III Fig. rod 156 . stabilizer 'W=VVF~7r .. 2J 3.under all conditions of operation. relative to the chord of the wing (position II. lifting forces turningtheblades developed on the blade which leads to the aronnd the bare . Fig. 130) and at the same time places it at a certain angle to the direction of the wind. a certain o~f regulation by angle a' At the same time. limit of /217 regulation.
• i Fig.. are attached in front of the spout of the wings. 130: Position of the wing during the regulation by means the number of revolutions increases above the calculated. The components of these forces also produce a imoment relative to the axis of the flap in all positions of the wing. the moment of In addition to the moment from the aerodynamic forces actin on the blade relative acting on the blade relative flyweightsg 1. Therefore. the moment of the stabilizer becomes slightly larger than the moment of the blade relative to the axis of the flap.. 131).. Kh. is disturbed.Let us examine the 'method:of calculation of. the blade tarns in the reverse direction decreasing the angle of attack a. G. disturbed. fly6 is displaced on the axis of the wing and by means of arm 7. i. it turns the stabi' lizer 2 by another angle (position III).existed until then between the moment of the stabilizer and of the blade.(see1inFig. in addition to the position which coincides either with the plane of rotation of the winddriven wheel. ~rof . stabilizer.dnamic equilibrium to 'that 'in addition to the forces of /220 gravity. 11 !When I wR Sweight V .d. compensating flyweight to the axis of the flap.which have o been calculated accordingly. a~. The centrifugal forces of these flyweights i . and consequently. Wing with stabilizer Fig. centri2. centrifugal forces also acton the wings. additional flyweights. The balance which had . 157 . or with the plane which is perpendicular to it. compensating . in order to compensate )t the moment from the mass forces. i.SI wn V wR a .one under the action of centrifugal forces. fugal forces of the mass of the blade and of the stabilizer appeanr during the movement of the winddriven wheel. At the same time the lifting force of the wing decreases and the number of revolutions of the winddriven wheel is reduced down to a v value which is slightly below the initial one. [Pages 218 and'2191missing in origichE O.e. This moment hinders the turning of the blade on account of aerodynamic forces. 131: and compensating flyweights: ' .e. Sabinin for the dynamic equilibrium of the blade [311].
134). M=Isinacos.c x' AD is the distance between the point /221 A and the axis OZ. I (f) Awhere Q. we can consider angle a as being constant In all the points of:. (g) (h) but The forces Fig.the blade. (i) or: 158 (175) . centrifugal force relative to the axis OZ.. we obtain the right angle ACD.Let a flat"i . obtained from the rotation of the shaft XX'.XOZ.wing. (c).!hof the blade relative to the axis OZ. we obtain after reduction: IdM = dnw2 AD sin2cos. Let us plane . where a is the angle formed between AD and CD. 134: acting on a rotating blade.perpendicular AC'. which can rotate freely on axis OZ coinciding withathegeometric axis of the flap. (d) and (e) i t (a). Let us drop a perpendicular AD from point A to OZand another.sina cos A'dm. mass m and find the moment of the. Assuming that the blade is sufficiently thin and flat. the moment of centrifugal force relative to the axis OZ will be expressed. denote the projection of the centrifugal force R on direction AC by the letter Q.tb. SA'dn=zI where I is the moment of inertia. M = QCD ytriangles AQR and O'AC are similar. we can Since the two write: QA R (a) Q= AO"' '\ (b) (c) (d) (e) (d) but: and: R=ni"2AO' AC = ADsin a.the Joining C and D. z I I RI Substituting the values Q and CD from (b). Consequently. The moment of the centrifugal forces rotating the blade will be equal to: Y M= . rotate on the shaft XX' with an Let us take point A on the wing with angular velocity w (Fig. CD= AD cos .
Shamanin. tips by means of a stabilizer. by arrow M. as was said earlier (Fig. overcompen. In order for the blade to be able to turn in a reverse direction. rotation of the blade under the action of the stabilizer. situated at the end of rod b.. If the weight of the compensating flyweight is taken slightly above the weight necessary for complete compensation.. 159 . tends to stay in the plane y . the ~oment of inertia is composed of the moment of inertia of the win<IIwand the moment of inertia of the stabilizer with its fastenings Ist: S(177) The moment of inertia of the stabilizer reaches 75% of the total moment of inertia of the wing. In this case the blade will tend to turn in the same direction in which it should turn under the action of the regulator in the given case of the stabilizer. The magnitude of this moment is determined by e uation (175). who suggested a system of regulation based on the principle of the dynamic unbalance of a rotating wing or part of it. In order to obtain a dynamic equilibrium of the blade relative to the axis of the flap. In wind engines regulated by '. consequently: Al (176) Hence.. 134. a flyweight is mounted .. the position is unfavorable.becomes at a =. The maximum value is assumed by the moment at: a = 450 and sin 2a = 1.This moment tends to turncthe blade in the direction of the arrow so that the blade will be perpendicular to the shaft as shown by the dotted linein Fig. 131). should be decreased as afar as possible.first The moment zero .. /2. Amoment appears under these conditions which turns the blade in the direction shown. The centrifugal flyweight a. The effect of overcompensation .22 In wind engines which are regulated by rotation of the blade6. S.00 and a =90.relative to the moment of the dynamic forces of the blade. . the above author suggested a rod to pass through the axis of rotation of the blade (Fig. we can see that in order to obtain the least possible unbalance. the moment of inertia I of the wing relative to the axis of the flap. It is therefore necessary to tend to decrease the moment of inertia of the stabilizer in particularl This can be obtained by decreasing the weight of the stabilizer and of its fastenings.was used by engineer V.An the spout of the rotating part of the blade in order to reach dynamic equilibrium. compensating flyweights are mounted in front of the spout of the wing. sation can be obtained.y during the rotation of the winddriven wheel under the action of centrifugal forces. 135).
a. The magnitude of the moment of these forces can be determined by means of equation (175). Shamanin. The first experimental testing of this regulation system was performed at the polygon of VIME. When the blade is situated at an angle 1l to the plane of rotation of the winddriven wheel... A shortcoming of thiss regulation is the high frontal pressure. 135: Diagram aof the regulation . one has to add flyweight A with mass m situated on arm r.X is directed in the sense of rotation of the winddriven wheel (Fig. The projection of this force will de136. Regulation by Means of During the rotation of the winddriven wheel. which showed that this regulation can be applied just like : 2. the forces of inertia of the blade which turn it in the plane of rotation of the winddriven wheel..other analogical systems. . the projection of which on the plane X . As a result. S. 136. according to V. 36. since it is the plane of the blade rather than its arm which is adjusted to the wind during the regulation.: Icomp = 1 3 1 bl use as a/223 The author of .In order to obtain aa: regulating effect. In order to continue the deflection of the /224 blade until the point where it reaches a position with negative angle cp (Fig. the projection of force Y will be >minimal. regulating factor. crease with the decrease q and when the blade assumes the position shown by the dotted line. inertia of. 160 .the compensating flyweight 30% larger than the moment of inertia of the blade. i.9 \J ___ \^ \ Fig.e. it is sufficient to have the moment of. the component of the lifting force Y' will act in the reverse sense causing breakagelof the winddriven wheel. a). the blade is adjusted at an angle to the plane of rotation of the winddriven wheel by means of the spring. The moment of inertia of this mass will turn the blade in the same direction in which it turned prior to the position shown by the dotted line in Fig. Under conditions of a normal number of revolutions. a lifting force and a drag force appear on its blades.b). One of the components of the lifting force turns the wheel. while the drag bra:ke ' s this rotatiobn. Air Brakes.. a lifting force Y acts on it. 136.this bok agge sted to .
The diagram of regulation by means . * Fig. the centriffugal forces turn it in a direction perpendicular to the direction of In this position. that the excess torque of the winddriven wheel is surmounted by the drag and the winddriven wheel is slowed down. Fate. .stubwings.. M. so that it would hinder the increase in the number Asuch O /a of revolutions of the winddriven.v a SwR 1 S. Key: 1. The author of this book suggested to design an air brake in the form of a biplan or triplan by dividing the general surface : Ito severa1'. As the number of revolutions increases. are displaced with a large circular velocity and increase the drag to such an extent.in Fig.16 (Fig. the valv&s are contained by~'the . 297). 137: IBilau's system of regulation by means ofair brake. normal situation. brake valve 161 .. the valves rotation. Turning vallJves are mounted on the blade of the winddriven wheel..different place. 136: Inertia type regulation of E. V.'i of air brakes.yev. For example.. i 1 o *. This makes it possible to use air brakes for wingP of large dimensions D = .'erli placed them at the tips of the wings in wind engines designed by him._ .. 137. This same valves can be mounted on the blade in a:.. which are parallel to the direction of the circular velocity of the wheel and cause almost no drag under conditions of a In this normal number of revolutions. engineer S. Diagram of Fig..spring. is shown. a brakihngdevice could be used as regulator. If it were possible to change the drag by means of a certain device.wheel.
motorforce was required. the". 3. with the number of modules Z from4.accbrdance with the requirements of the conditions of their. xploitation in the agricultural production. sawing of lumber. in order to lift water by means of wind engines i from a hole at a depth of 100 m and more. the irrigation of vegetable cultures. which have different dimensions. centPifugal pumps. etc. two types of wind engines have been developed . According to this characteristic. According to the main technical requirements of production processes in agriculture. have a small initial moment (Fig. designsdof the transmissions mechanisms and systems of regulation°. since theirastart is idl6e In order to satisfy the new technical requirements. etc.5 and 8 m.therefore they are more convenient for the work J'with those machines which are distinguished by a large number of revolutions and a small moment of piokup/227 such as generators.not only for milling and water supplies. 79).5 to 7. and the third group . Wind engines of the rapid type . the second group comprises the engineswith a small number of blades with the number of modules Zn from 2 to 3. rapid wind engines were designed which are convenient in the work with machines requirh&g' large numbers of revolutions.and responds entirely by its technical requirements to lifting water from deep holes by means of a rotary system pump. the diameter of the winddriven wheel from 8 to 16 m (windmills). and the diameter of the winddriven wheel 1. but also for the preparation of forage.5. the rotary system pump of single action is widely used.the rapid and the slow types. the multibladed lowspeed wind engine was designed which has a large moment of pickup and a small speed (Fig. which is characterized by a large moment of pickup Q and a small number of piston strbkes.the rapid ones. 12 and 18 m.pickupl.5. The types of wind engines built in the USSR have been elaborated in the Central Aerodynamic Institute and the Central Wind Energy Institute and later in the All Union Scientific Research of Mechanization and Electrificaton of the Agriculture (VIME). 'technical With the development of the mechanization of production processes in agriculture. WIND'ENGINE DESIGN /226 The design of modern winged wind engines 'has been in. in general. According to GOST 2656. 18. the wind engines can be divided into three groups. in the All Union Institute 162 . The power tools of these processes require a large number of revolutions and do not need a: <large moment of .CHAPTER 10. For example.'with <"a small number of blades. 74). belectrification of economic and daily lifeAs needs. 5. The first group comprises the multibladed engines with a diameter of the wheel of 3.
while at the external tip. 138) is intended for The multibladedwork with piston pumps only.stpClutch 13 contains ring 15 whichxcaf turn 'around the support tube 14.. one has a radius of 150 mm. 118). The adjustment to the wind is performed by means of a tail which is built in the form of a triangular girder made of iron carbide with a trapezoidttail.Agriculture. with the plane angle of 450. wind enginef TV5 (Fig. att ached to. the purpose of which is to compensate for the aerodynamic moment of the winddriven wheel'. VISKhOM D3. The winddriven wheel has a diameter of 5 m and consists of 24 The cord of blades with a variable rigging angle along the blade.bladed . for which purpose two openings are made in the large gear wheel under the /228. ' Regulation of the wind engine is performed by removing the windThe wind engine starts its driven wheel from the wind (Fig. The wind engine is mounted on a fourlegged steel tower with a height of approximately 15 m.. while the rapid wind engines were released under the brand names VIME D12.5. an of rotation. by means of a manual winch attached to the leg of the tower. 139) is an iron cast crankcase in which a crank operated mechanism is mounted. (Fig.cldtch 13 (Fig.. The surface of the tail is>confc7ave :at the side of the regulating spring. The ring has 163 . and the pins of the connecting rod. Multibia'ed . the blade at the internal tip makes. operation and is stopped below. the clutch and at the same time move longitudinally. oi calm days. At the base of the tower. A cable goes from the winch upward and is 139. Multi. etc.theNorthern Maritimes).) which moves longitudinally along. UNDIM D10. 37. the angle is 170. The head of the wind engine. VINEUSMP D18 (VIME and the Main Directorateof .sWind Engines. the dimension of which is 2. The crank makes it possible to adjust the rod of the pump to 300 and 400 mm. a horse/229 drawn winch is situated which sets in motion the piston pump. lowspeed wind engines were released under the brand namesTV5 (lowspeed wind engines with the diameter of the winddriven wheel of 5 m) and TV8. which appears as a result of the displacement of the axis of rotation of the winddriven wheel relative to the vertical axis of rotation of the head.of Agricultural Engineering (VISKhOM) and in the UkranianScientific Research Institute fdr~the VMechani'at'ion of. made of plates of galvanized iron. other has the radius of 200 mm.82 m 2 ..
while at the internal one it is 410 mm.:tround iron. i' A winddriven wheel with a diameter of 8 m has 18 blades made of pltes of galvanized iron with a thickness of 1. which. thisangle equals 470. The number of teeth of the large wheel Z I = 63. i. the angle between the cord of the blade and the plane of rotation of the winddriven wheel equals 220. . 141) is the shapedelongated cast iron 5. The general view of such a wind engine is presented in Fig. 45x45:. In the upper support 7. = 17.mm. The length of the blade is 2 450 mm. which are attached to three wings. an angle 6. 138: Multi bladedl wind engine TV5. The power of the wind engine at a wind velocity of 8 m/sec equals 2.. Two conical roller 'bearings are fitted to this axis. into the root of which axis 2 is pressed . The spokes are attached to flanges of the hub of the winddriven wheel by means of two bolts each.J.is attached to the head of the wind engine. of the winddriven wheel. it turns on ball bearings which are placed 164 .cut' Sclutch 13 does not turn due to a key which is welded to the wall of support tube 14.cary . The lower base of the head is fitted to tube 6. the head turns a~ thering while the directional c. while at the internal ring. which rotates freely in"Iitwonsupport's. lifting water with a pressure head of 10 m amounts to 10 m3 at a wind velocity of 8 m/sec. at the external ring.e. wheel 3 is engaged with conical pinion 4 which is fitted on the vertical shaft 12 of the wind engine. The rim of the conical gear wheel 3 is attached to the rear flange of the hub. Fig.~l a.under. As it turns around the vertical axis. which.. the number of revolutions of the winddriven wheel at full The output for load is 40 rpm. interconnected by means of spokes made of iron carbide.50 to the horizontal. The blades are mounted with a variable rigging angle. 140.on one side which contains/230 bracket 16 made of.the hub. its width at the external ring is 674 mm. This deflection is made in order to bring the winddriven wheel nearer to the tower and avoid touching the leg of the latter with the blades. The multib. at the pinion Z. The head of the wind engine (Fig.1 .5 hp.25mmm.id engine is ihtended for work with agricultural machines in animal husbandry in kolkhozes and sovkhozes. ded TV48'"w .
where F is the surface marked off by the winddriVen wheel.370 mm.oil cakeola breaker. 15ring of the stop clutch. The area of the surface ftis equal to 41185 m 2 . The wind engine is started and stopped by means of a manual winch. root cutter. The tail for adjusting the wind engine 8. 117). 15 i 8 '14 to the wind consists of girder 11 which has a length of 7. Regulation of the wind engine by removing the winddriven wheel from the wind. 9girder of the tail.95 m 2 . stopping and regulation of the wind engine. 2shaft of the wheel. situated below. In the absence of wind. at the base of the tower perceives the work of the vertical shaft and transmits it either to a piston pump. the vertical shaft of the engine:iis disconnected from the winch by f i ddgtoo. is performedby means of a lateral The area of the blade blade (Fig. 10bracket for regu. cable. . 141) Fig. the same winch can be used to set in motion a piston pump which is either horsedrawn or tractordriven.'strawcutter.11 13stop 12bumper. The clutch has an arm with a slit which contains iron 165 .th clutches means on the upper and the lower compartments of the vertical shaft. 4large pinions with crank mechanism. Cable 14. 3small driving pinions. which amounts to ftg/F:= 0. 6rollers. 7guide arc for the :ro. roller. 16bracket. cornmill.85 m. which goes from the winch upward. The wind engine is mounted on a metallic lattice construction on tower 13 with a height of 14.1' orvi o an agricultural machine . The /232 cast iron shell of the lower support 8 is attached by means of bracing wires to the of the tower. 8crank case. is connected at its two ends to clutch 9 which moves longitudinally along the support tube. millstone. etc. The winch (Fig. 139: Head of wind engine TV5: 1hub of the winddriven wiii wheel. with its fitted head turns freely in the support. which amounts to 3. Through its:center passes the sharp tip of the support tube which. 14support tube.latng the sprihg. which is fastened to the leg of the tower at its base.4 1 4 Slegs on a selfaligningtircular pivot. The end of this girder has the shape of a trapezoid and a surface made of galvanized iron is attached to it. clutch. .097.19% from the area marked off by the winddriven wheel. 5connecting rods. equals 1. this takes place upon starting.
and the lower 8 which is balshaped. case The grease is poured from the upper transmission into the crank/235 of "the head up to a certain level. W 918 The upper end of the stop cable is faswotened to the tail wherefrom. The head of the wind engine (Fig. The wind engine VIME D12 (Fig. The latter clutch 165a" . 140: The TV8 wind engine.5 hp on the shaft of the winddriven wheel. of As the cable is tightened by the screw. they are attached to the steel tubesof the flap. 143) is shaped like an iron cast crankcaseca which contains the support of the horizontal shaft 2 as well as a couple of conical gear pinions 35. This rod serves as a guide during the upward and downward displacement of the clutch. which can only move forward along the support tube. 38. 142) has a threebladed winddriven wheel with a diameter of 12. which transmit. while the number of its revolutions at full load is 25 rpm.. The power of the wind engine at the wind velocity of 8 m/sec equals 6.Wind Engine. m. shifting device 17 displaces clutch 10 around the horizontal shaft. clutch 10 act on clutch 9 by a kinematic link.7. Fig. The stoppage and starting of the wind engine is performed by means of a winch which is mounted to the leg of the tower by means of a screw.. fastened at one end btetheAupper support.j it passes via two rollers through the support tube where it is connected to a rod.l the wind engine and the stoppage mechanism. this salient seizes up the base of the clutch which is carried by the support tube. side the tube. The blades of the wings have a streamlined profile and are made of wodd and metal. The screw is connected to stop clutch 14 by means. the lever of cable 16. the rotation of the winddriven wheel 1 to the vertical shaft 5. which goes into'!the Out/233 longitudinal slit of the support tube. The crankcase of the head is attached to support tube 6 which rotates wh ich is'' e around a vertical axis in two supports : )the uppr. a roller support. the latter. In such a manner a connection is established between the mobile head of . and at theoother end to the lower one.has a salient on its lower end. Rapid (Spas elybladed) '.rod 10.
5conusof tube. . 11tail girder. At a wind velocity of 8 m/sec. 14stop cable. a negative moment which is transmitted to the main shaft appears on the revolvThis moing part of blade 20. The normal number of revolutions of the winddriven wheel is 5560 rpm.adjusts the stabilizer atalarge negative angle. power They can be equally used for setting in rotation machine tools in workshops ~f agricultural machine parts as well as driving agricultural machines and centrifugal pumps for irrigation. Due to this fact. The wind engine starts to work at a velocity of the wind around 4 m/sec. 7upper support of the head. and the wind engine stops.Cable 16 is released upon stopping the wind engine. 8lower support of the head. 13tower. 6supporting the head. 12vertical shaft. fixed rigidily the ment of of the blade 18. and rod 12 which pass inside the flaps. 3conical gear wheel. 4.in the working position. 1 6. Head of the TV8 wind Fig.3 4 2 4 acts on stabilizer 19 by means of cranks 11.b . conical pinion. they are suitable for small istations. the istabilizersare i!i automatically adjusted at a certain angle of attack which was determined during the design for a given set of conditions of operations. 9stop clutch. 10guide 'pr clutch"9. the stabilizers are displaced relative to the ithe axis of the flap and adjust' blade tips .14 21 with a lever mechanism. and. winddriven . and by the action of spring 13 and rod . mopositive the ment balances part. 141: engine: 1hub of the winddriven wheel. Due to the fact that wind engines of this design work with an almost constant number of revolutions./237 the VINE D12 wind engine i'can develop a power of approximately 15 hp obpithe shaft of the winddriven wheel. 2axis of the winddriven wheel. Under the 2 action of the wind.
The head (Fig. which at certain numbers of revolutions connects the lower compartment of the shaft. Below. wheel is transmitted through a couple of conical wheels to the vertical shaft. The rotation of the winddriven wheel is transmitted to the vertical shaft which is connected to the reducing gear at the base of the tower.cast D12.f /238 8 m/sec equals 2. Regulation is performed by means of a lateral blade and of valves which are The placed on the tips of the blades of the winddriven wheel. . a centrifugal clutch is mounted (Fig. .pump. by means of a couple of conical gear pinions. 145)lnhas crankcase just like wind a . The power of the ' wind engine at a wind velocity o.. 147). crankcase is made above and it contains the support of the upper bearing of the vertical shaft.of with pbwer'pump. Wind engine PD5.The VIME D5 wind engine has a threebladed winddriven wheel with a diameter of 4 m (Fig.difference wind engine. 166 . This wind engine is intended for operation The twobladed winddriven wheel of wood ? power pump. which has worm gearinge. .This wind installation is experimental and operation of a rapid wind engine serves to.he winddriven wheel from valves work like air brakes and prevent separating during the shedding of the load. 146). The reducing gear mounted at the base of the tower has two pulleys which can set in motion a centrifugal pump or lowpower agricultural machines as well as a generator..t. joined with a The crankdriven mechpowerdriven winch. with a and meta'l(construction 'turns the main shaft. 142: that the cover of the .find the potential.7 hp on the wheel. in the upper compartment of the vertical shaft. . shaft of the winddriven The normal number of revolutions of the winddriven wheel is n = 180 rpm. 144). The transmission ratio of the revolutions of the winddfiven wheel J to the revolutions of the vertical shaft equals 1:2. with the only VIME engine The rapid VIMiE D12 Fig. which has two supports The rotation of the winddriven with ballbearings (Fig. anism of the winch sets in forward motion a yoke which is joined with the rod of the I. regulation is achieved by the rotation of the blade around the axis of the flap. The.5.
metallic construction with a tower of a he. Krasovskiy's system. . by means of a manual winch which Passesto the foot of the tower.9 10 R2 3 2. for starting and stopping the wind engine.are made blades of the windr6ss a thickwith planks of pine wood ness of 10 m. 17lever motion. 18rigid part of the blade./239   gine is a rapid wind engine of all i 12 ..has three 7 wings with streamlined blades (Fig.ight of 19 m (Fig. G. 150) which turns on rollers in a ring attached to the upper part of the tower.. Regulation of the revolutions i 6 5 2formed of the winddriven wheel. 15rod for setting the clutch 9 in wind engine is performed like in the VIME D12 wind engine. The wind engine starts to work idly.~: " S16 Li i' r. the lower end of the in a support with a /241 turns tube.. 4conical pinion. 10second stop clutch. of stoppage and regulation. which adjust the winddriven wheel to the wind are 18bladed winddriven wheels cable. 143: Head of the VIMKE D12 wind engine: 1crankcaseof the head. Kh. . 21centrifugal flyweight. Fig. it is set in motion 'low wind velocities. 14clutch for start and stoppage. 126od .. The winddriven wheel has a diameter of 18. The head of the wind engine of a metallic frame on which the reducing gear with a transmission ratio.brake blockk and a mechanism for adjustment to the wind by means of a hand wheel and windroses. 11lever of stoppage and regulation. 2stop of the winddriven wheel. 8lower support. 6support tube. The windroses. V. 149). 9stop clutch. 1 6 stop with a diameter of 2'17 m. therefore.\i rr L ::15 "1_ . i ~ 2consists S . 20: rotating par'tlof the wing.:of 1:3 is placed.. 5vertical shaft.. Sabinin and/240 N. is pering by Prof. by turnthe terminal part of the wing which amounts to [fraction illegible] of the length of the wing. 148). as are'a :mechanical . 3conical wheel. I 7I.: . l.m and. The . e b ball bearing. ' The VIMEGUSMP D18 wind en.at. The head is fastened to the support tube 325x9 mm (Fig. 13reguating spring. 19tabilizer. 7upper support.. The rotation of the shaft of the windroses 'is transmitted through a conical gear to 167 .
E.4rm. The vertical shaft has a diameter of 70 mm and it turns in three spherical ball bearings mounted on the center of the tower on horizontal bracing wires. carbide 100 x I00 x 14 mm and 60 x 60x 8 mm. 153).Of approximately 19 m and consists of a lower riveted pyramidal part with the side of the ' square at the base equalling 4.the vertical shaft is attached to a reducing gear((Fig. The regulation of the power is performed by turning the blades around. from where the generator caii/2 4 set in motion and the transmission of the movement to the machinery can be performed. 152) with a transmission ratio of 1:3. The legs of the tower are built in a foundation with rough walling at a depth of 2.AChaplygin. The blades are rigidly attached to the tubular flaps. Below. E.735 m The tower is constructed of iron (Fig.the axial horizontal shaft and further through a worm gearing to the lantern wheel ring fixed to the upper belt 1'of. 800 mm diameter each. the flaps are. D5 Fig.m and an up~ e per prismatic allrounded construction with the side of the square equalling 0. The aerodynamic analysis was performed on the basis of the turbulence theory of N. The winddriven wheel has three blades of woodenmetallic construction.8. 151). suggested by N. Zhukovskiy ahd S. The overall transmission ratio equals 1:5000 The tower of the wind engine has a height. Two pulleys. in. are fitted" on the horizontal shaft of the reducing gear. which rotate freely on ball bearings fastened to a special trilling. G.such a manner that the center of effort of the sail area is displaced relative to the axis of rotation of the wing to'the rear edge.the tower. Zhukovskiy under the leadership of Prof. VIbe rapid wind engine.. 168 . V. P Vetachikin. Ufimtsev The distinctive feature in the design . with an aerodynamic profile 2 43 similar to a wing of the aerodynamic type with an inverted parabolic' airfoil. the electrical machinery and the automation were elaborated by A.passed in the vicinity of the spout of the blades. Wind engine of the system UfimtsefVetchinkin D10 (Fig.AA. For this purpose. the axis of the flap in the direction of the wind. which is carried on the horizontal shaft of the wind engine.. i of this wind engine is the small weight per kw power.
due to the given system of transmission.5. As the number of revolutions of the wind engine decreases. Due to the presence of the flywheel. generator is~transmitted with a transmission ratio of 1:10 by means of a belt drive. 2by decreasing or increasing the current of excitation in the magnets by means of the shunt rheostat.'i:. 8 lower support. 3shaft of the winddriven wheel. Fig.e.' and . G. 6 vertical shaft. 145: Head of the VIME D5 wind engine: 1flap of the winddriven wheel. ~ The dc generator has a nominal power of 3. iI " . the flywheel ro bato tates the generator for 23 min Vtfon __ gthis utes. 17 A.wherefrom the rotation of the . In such a manner.top'. It was possible to increase the voltage to 350 V when the wind velocity increased. 169 . 220 V. which abolishes the rapid transition from one set of conditions of operation of the installation toanother.dc. 11axis of the tail. a large wooden pulley is p1: placed. under conditions of puls6d wind. _ i I 9 • _ On the vertical shaft N below.The rotation of the winddriven wheel is transmitted to. 13guide rol lers.. 1750 rpm.: 1by the change of the angle of attack of the blade by means of the manual stop winch. 9support tube. the winddriven power . 7upper support. Ufimtsev's system.ted to the shaft of. which has a free pace so that it can lag behind when the shaft of the generator is rotated by meansobf another motive force. that t:he shaft/244 of the generator is a continua L. 5conical pinion. A pulley is fi. design makes it possible to i±on out the number of revolutions of the generator for short inter" vals of time.station could be regulated manually by one of three methods i. This is v caused by the fact. 4conical wheel.a vertical shaft through a couple of conical teeth with a transmission ratio of 1:3.5 kw. the lag of the wind engine is not ±eflectedi'initheiwork of the flywheel. 2crankcase.t. 12tube of the tail. the dcigeld ator. of the shaft of the flywheel inA. 10stop clutch.cable.
146: Head of the PD5 wind engine:.4 22 .2conical wheel. Vetchinkin. P. 3regulation by turning the blade /245 according to the Ufimtsev i system The winddriven wheel has three blades which rotate around the axis Fig. . a curved surface has greater strength. The wind engine Ts AGI D18. The tower with a height. 6upper support. The tail unit is slightly a'we arched in order to compensate for t. 1shaft of the winddriven engine. the wind engine could not stand exactly in the direction of the wind during its operation. The project of this wind engine (Fig. 3by increasing or decreasing the load on. 4crank of the head.n ing wires. Distinctive features of the Ts AGI D18 wind engine are the following: 1connection of a flywheel of the proper type with a capacity of 10 minutes to the vertical shaft of the wind engine. Perli. 170 . which appears during engagement of the upper transmission. the reactive moment of the vertical shaft.3 'driven i Vl7 _tice wheel to the wind is per. formed by means of a tail of latconstruction which has a biplane unit mounted on its end (this is why such a tail is called biplane). 147: Centrifugal clutch to wind engine PD5 designed by engineer S. B. 5ball bearing of the vertical shaft. The adjustment of the wind=. 154) was elaborated under the direction of Prof. V. the station which was done by connecting additional lamps and motors. Besides. Fig.of 40 m is of lattice construction with indentical )square sections throughout its height. Without this. it is maintained in vertical position by means of brac. according to the system of the UfimtseviVetchinkin D±10 wind en ii i gine.40 mm. 3conical pinion. 2the considerable height of the tower .
This moment rotates the blade with its arm towards the wind. .. which is counteracted by the flyweight suspended to:. creates a moment relative to the axis of the flap. their axes pass in the spout of the wing in such a man. that the resultant force of the airstream which passes close to the central axis of the blade.Vetchinkin /'from described above. The disc of the flywheel weighs.fold. decrease the angular velocity of _ .of. The flywheel (Fig. i. 155) is built by the same diagram as the wind engine of Ufimtsev. the disc is placed on a rotating housing. When the wind engine is addressed. and differs it only in its weight. which is done in order to . The weikhts of the wind engine's parts are:. : and the wings are freely adjusted with the spout towards the wind J just like wind winch rings. decreases the drag approximately / Fig. 149: Wing with partially removed casing..for the tower7.5/ . OhIGINAL PAGE IS171 OF POOR QUALITy . which makes it possible to have small loads on the wheel at rest.5' tons. approximately 1. . the flyweight is raised.. This . rotation of the tail during side gusts. the wind engine can work more hours per year than with a low tower. /246 The tower is all metallic of welded construction and has/a height of 40 m..the system of levers of the regulation mechanism. wind engine. 3.. The adjustment to the wind is by means of a triplane ..performed tail.25 tons. the number of revolutions is 25003500 per minute.the flaps. ner.. In order'to decrease the re'sistance of the air. With such a high tower. 148: The VIMEGUSMP D18 . Fig.
2ring engines "Hercules" and "Climax" in with latern pinion.(Fig. while in the second. 150..5 tons. 160). 150: port under the frame of the head. 156). 162.(Fig.head of the wind engine3. the connecting /253 rod in its turn is connected to a yoke. The transmission mechanism of multibladed wind engines "Aeromotor" is built according to diaThe crank 2gram VI (Fig. 2rollers. Fig. which Support tube: 1supFig. The forward 'movement is communicated by the connecting rods to the rod of the pump.] /252 The oil in one of the guides. one end of which is hinged to an immobile support (diagram VII. _ C [Pages 248 and 24 9 are missing from the original text. 156). 158. overall weightS12. 172 ORIGINAL PAGE IS OF POOR QUALITY . flywheel1. 3pintle to England. The wind engine has roller bearings and automatic lubrication. is manufactured according to diagram IV (Fig. a connecting rod mechanism is mounted on the rim of the worm wheel. In the first. The design of the Fig. 151: mechanism of multibladed wina of the tower: 1girder.'to the shaft of the winddriven wheel (Fig. 163). is collected by means of a pump from the oil vat of the crank. and 159 are also missing. whilethat o'f "HerThe cules" is shown in Fig.5 tons. 1I '\ is engaged with a worm wheel. 161). A wall is fitted.5 tons. Jw. 162).whih. difference between them consists only in the mechanism of starting and stopping. The prismatic part Fig. Figures 157. head of wind engine "Aeromotor" is shown in Fig. 161. The design of the transmission mechanism in the "Gigant" wind engine is quite simple (Fig. are built according to the the support tube shown in same diagram. two guide rollers replace the levers. The compact transmission mechanism of the Fairbanks wind engines. while its lower end passes inside the support tub'e and is fastened to the clutch which can only glide along the support tube upwardsadd downwards. at its upper end is fastened to the tail. this mechanism consists of a series of levers connected with the clutch which rotates on the support tube and is displaced longitudinally along it. 156). a chain is thrown v over the two rollers.
Vetchinkin...............YtTotal weight........3025 kg 1 tower... 173 .. 154: The wind engine TsAGP D18 according to the system of Prof.......4825 kg redacing gear with vertical shaft......... 153: Wind engine of the system head...2400 kg I... mechanism Ufimtse iVetchinkin D10...12...5P00kg Fig...... regulation... for stoppage and turnin'g'to the wind...38 hp Normal number of revolutions of the winddriven wheel ........' " Reducing gear for the Fig........ j..... 152: D18 wind engine....... 42 rpm Revolutions of the body of the reducing gear....378 rpm Weight of the individual units of the wind engine: 2250 kg winddriven wheel Fig. Technical Characteristics Power of the wind engine at the wind velocity of 8 m/sec.... ..
... 156). we Jshall mention the sixbladed wind engines with a diameter of the winddriven wheel varying from 5 to 12. U% . 156: Diagram of the transmission mechanism of wind engines.I The wind engine "IZI" has a transmission mechanism with internal toothed gearing (diagram VIII. . VI V Vil Fig.: . The regulation is performed by turning the blades of the wings ' around the axis of the flaps.1 . I . SFig. I cy . 4 Fig.. The general aspect of the head of this engine and the cylindrical transmission with internal gearing.  164. The wings of these wind engines have flaps made of steel pipes. : I S' the rapid wind: engines for electrical installations. 174 0IGINAL 7 PAGE IS OF POOR QUALITy . are shown in Fig. TsAgI D18 wind engine. . working with piston pumps. 165). 155: are The flywheel of the "Agrico" (Fig.5 m of the Danish firm 1 2S..\Among .. All six blades kinematically interconnected so that they turn simultaneously in the process of regulation.
fourpole shunt generator . The number of revolutions is limited by turning the blade by means of a centrifugal regulator mounted on the shaft of the winddriven wheel (Fig. OF POOR QUALITY 175 . with maximal number of revolutions 1200 rpm. displaced behind the winddrivenwheel.45 m.at 3240 v. 166). For small winddriven power. installations. Power 1 kWt at 300 rpm.1 kWt... 160: engine "Fairbanks". 161: Head of the wind engine "Aeromotor". Fig. 162: Head of the wind engine S"Hercules". diameter 3.Head of the wind Fig. ORIGINAL PAGE IS "1000" with a 3bladed winddriven wheel. the American firm "Roralight" releases the model /255 Fig.
ploitation. Fig. a Weight of the wind engine is Wind the Engine creation of The main element)in the design a wind engine which would have the lowest weight with high performance. from is derived requirement This s avings. Fig. mission 176 .g ' !) wGignt 39.nx ' • Fig. 163: Head of the wind "Gigant" Fig. engine. of metal the necessity as well assaving in the transportation of the excessively heavy wind engines to the site of their ex. 164: Head of the wind and the transengine "IZI" mechanism. 16: Head of the windof a :. 165: Wind engine "Agrico". Generally speaking.
VTME D3 and D50 with similar aerodynamic param~ters. Let us note in this table the values of column 10 which contains the weight of engines related to unit area marked off by the winddriven wheel. 166: engine "Roralight". lhp. i. The curves :in Figs. 170 presents t hweighticurves in relation to the diameter of the winddriven wheel in foreign wind engines.. 167. Fig. taking into account the weight of the tower.kind engines have an extremely high metal content. These curves show that the lowspeed wind engines are 3065% heavier than the rapid ones when the weight of the tower 'is taken into account.with multiple IIfor the "Hercules". It appears that the multi bladed wind engines. increases markedly withtthe increase in the diameter of the winddriven wheel. and . are almost twice heavier than the rapid engines with a'(smallanumber of blades.fto the group of lowspeed engines. This indicates that one should not be carried away by the large dimensions3of wind engines. blades: Ifor the English wind engine "Aeromotor". the weight of the low.. /257 The curve in Fig.e. 169 illustrates the change in the relative TsVEI weight of rapid wind engines VIME D5.' constructed and designed in Soviet plants. The. VIME D12. . iresent a comparison be68_p tween the weight of wind engines produced in the USSR.and highspeed wind engines are given. while Fig. /260 Hence.. engine Wind IIIAmerican "Samson". 168 presents the curve of the weight of the wind engine without accounting for the weight of the tower. 167. we see that the specific weight of wind engines. and from 80125%Iheavier when the weight of the tower is not considered. which belong .weight of rapid wind engines averages/256 from 300400 kg per. while of the low speed engines from 500800 kg per 1 hp. Table 10 presents the weight of wind engines of Soviet and foreign production. In Fig. 177 . engine wind America! Winddriven electrical Fig. the weight related to unit area marked off by the winddriven wheel.
Key: Fig. 170: Characteristic of the weight of wind engines. 169: Characteristics of the weight of winddriven wheels per squarerim of the marked off area in rapid wind engines. ven wheel in m. . 2 2 AX31Me!p 4 .. 3curve of the excess weight of lowspeed wind engines above the weight of rapid ones in %. 1kg 2kg/m Key: 1kg/m2 2_diameter of the winddrive s.eC 4 9. cv i 2 .1000*   % 7500  . 167: Curves of the over"all weight of wind engines.. 2weight of highspeed wind engines. 168: Weight curves of wind engines without the tower: 1weight of lowspeed wind engines. Key: aweight of the wind engine bdiameter of the winddriven wheel ckg dm engine bdiameter of the wind driven wheel kg 1 o I t i. % b. 1weight of lowspeed wind engines. " _ 0 I c * . Key: aweight of the wind Fig. 45 F Fig.. 178 .~anm L e 4< 5 10 15 20 S 30 O TpcoK. 2weight of rapid wind engines. aamep poKOAc"a da 0 poKOC Fig.
5 53. 15170 52000 173  WI tor TsVEI F=13.9 3.7 . whn No r.9.. I t 4 o.3 113.0 16 134 15.3 t8 24 18 7.2 15.2 _ .9 _ _ _ _ .2 15. .25 26.6 707 7.2  15. 36.05 4.4 2944.8 7.5 40 12 30 . 38.05 4.3 1.8 24.5       237 1010 22 950 254 ?' 920 1000 _ _ _ 252 772 35.3 29..TABLE 10: DATA ABOUT THE WEIGHT OF WIND ENGINES. Cklh'ean TsAGID30 Su erpower TsVEI D50 30 3 12 3 3 3 7526 7 1129 10125 2.07 113 344 820 796 135 92 160 195 65 500 122) 163 535 380 1 950 sh ft2 755 2(5c 306i 210 320 1 291 3.0 1..D=2m ngine.4 .0   "Stover" "Star" USA "Aeromotor" '. Sane ro 3 3 2+2 3 707 19 13 78.o F 2 3 6 7 8 9 ti 12 lti~la n (TV) Rapid VIME DVIME Soviet Producn (TV5) miltibla D5 8 12 5 5 18 18 3 3 19.6 54 38.8 7.3 18.5 _ _ i 18 18 18 18 1 18 _  7.3 14.2 6.1198 s15 19o00 15 1682 16 t 300 i5 VIM VIME E 575 D30 D3.49 42 _ 34.6 50.3 2553 2i 4 23 50 13.3 1I 18.9 5.0 50.9 3.14 4 a3.5 373 850  73000  33 90 cdedis000 S6f head Vertical .4 25 794 1021 7949  25600 44.7 _ _ _ _  495 1090 640 9 S0 1040 _ _ 10. • P  00 a)  0 eNam igne d.05 4.5 "Hercules" England _ 3.05 "Samson" USA 4.of UfimtseVetchkikin 850 958 420 250 96) shaf dural) Multibladed Foreign 9 4 13 26 2.0e"3. 1 affts of a parts dual .. I 48 55 65 25 . wings R f a _ ma .8 23.5 35 3.
a diameter of 3 to 3. Vcurve of the average weight of the wind engine per square m of area marked off by the winddriven wheel. II. wind engines with The last curves shows that multibladed'.5 m have the minimal weight. which was plotted on the basis of curves I. and III.IVdurve of the average weight of the wind engine in relation to the diameter of the winddriven wheel. 180 .
is equal.le'legth of the wig and' /262 integrating. on the wings: =Cyb J (W 2(r + V2) dr = (b) Placing (R ..i.hthismethod. The load on an elementary area of the blade with a width b and length dr. wings. dP=Cbdr  Consequently: (wr2 V2).according to equation (85). hypothetical radius of the (4i(8.CHAPTER 11. The relative velocity of the airstream: W= VWo r+TV Where: wr is the circular velocity of an element of the blade.to: Pd=C bd where: Cy is the coefficient of the lifting force of the wing. we obtain the total:load.r 0 ) in front of the bracket. 40.s( s ( 2 +y (179) 181 . (a) Assuming that Cb .fmiagniitudesload and permissible stress. r is the distance of the blade from the axis of rotation of the winddriven wheel. W is the relative velocity of the airstream which dashes over ahielement of the blade. standardization of the stress related to.are :constant thiobugh6ut t . CALCULATION OF THE STRENGTH OF WIND ENGINES /261 The calculation of the strength of a mechanism or structure is determined by the. we obtain: \p=C!6 Let us note: ((RrojW21 R 2+j. p is the density of the air. Rr  area of the blade. V is the velocity of the wind. (c) b(R . we obtain the overall to: the wing: .ro) = S S . Wind Load on the Wings and Calculations of the Strength of the Wings. The methods presented below make it possible: to determine the magnitude of the load.M. load Substituting S and rm in equation (c). calculations of wind engines is presently extremely difficult due to the insufficient experience wit.
: 182 VC=Wr+ . Pf <i. Taking the ratio of the equation (179a) to (179).r = rm. we can assume: Cyn/Cy= 1.. consequently: +___ /263 (d) Let us note: and hypothetical number of modules at. r v )i\ 1 (179) (179a) where:Cyn is the doefficient of the lifting force during a wind gust. the overalll frontal pressure on the winddriven wheel. the working load at a calculated velocity. we obtain the expression forthe coefficient of overload in the following form: S . The magnitude of this pressure is obtaindd by multiplying equation (179) by the number of blades i and by the coefficient of overloading n.e. Substituting these values in equation (d) and dividing the numerator and denominator of the right_ side by V 2 . should be known.e. In determining the internal force on the bearings as well as on the tower.cs ) (182) . we obtain: V2 Or  Vi V2 + (181) the value of Cy in equation (179) should be taken as maximal. c.During wind gusts which come with high velocities and to which the winddriven wheel cannot instantaneously adapt. of the wind Pp is called the coefficient of overloading. i.. +V ) p CY Since forces P and Pmax are calculated at a maximal value Cy = Cyn.. The ratio of the maximal possible load on the wings Pmax which appears during wind gusts to. 'o (180) Let us denote the velocity of the wind during a wind gust Vn and let us write the equation of the load on the wings as V and Vn: P=cs . the wings may be overloaded. ( .._x Cy S .
For other profiles.3 6 1 . III and IV in Chapter 2. is the Inumber of blades. The equation of pressure ](l179 ) where C .2 wind tunnel.3 04 '" l.tests. the value of which f~r mult ibladed wind engines is presented in the table below. the value of /264 C istaken fromt heraph (Fig. 1.The characteristics of certain profiles were presented in Fig. . 171) where the value of C was obtained for an angle of attack a = 10.56 1.9 0.. .maximal coefficient of the lifting force. The winddriven c"". wheel stands in the plane of rotation perpendicular to the wind flow at a working velocity V.: :.. 1. . Case II.'. 0. Width of the .h t o10 14 20 0 2 225 the arch C m axiumm S I . on"tthe blade: . Cy should be selected according to their wind ltuhel. 35 I.74 For a rapid wind engine with "espero" profile.1 0. The wind engine is under load. 1underlhoad and 2without load.6/b for an "esperoy profile.. II. . the winddriven wheel. "U. 0. the load of the working machine is excluded: P_(184) Where: X is the frontal pressure on the winddriven wheel Graph of C in relation Fig. In both casesthe direction of the wind is perpendicular to the plane of 'rotation of the winddriven wheel. S2 (1514) 183 ... to.~ I .l171: measured in Kuchinp's. 6 1 .12 0... CasetiI.The maximal load on the wings: p SE (183) Let us examine two cases of operation of. .
The values of x  coefficientsof the. frontal pressure, when the wind engine is without any load: /265 Multiple bladed winddriven wheel with cylindrical arch x = 0..642 x profile aerodynamic with wheel Four bladed "Syun," winddriven 0.412 load on the Example 1. Determine the frontal pressure and the m/sec. 10 = wing of the wind engine at a wind velocity V m; The winddriven wheel has a diameter D = 16 m; rQ = 0.1 D = 1.6 : neares't't is whichj the width of the blade at the level of the section exthe at m,while 1.8 = the center of the winddriven wheel is b 1 ternal end it is b2 = 0.8 m; </6b = 0.16. The number of modules Zn = 3 and the number of blades i = 4. The frontal pressure equals, according to equation (182):
,P,=C LS(W2r 2
V2)in.
Cy = 1.2  maximum coefficient of the lifting force which is found from the graph in Fig. 171 at 6/b = 0.15. p = 0.125  mass density of the air at 150 and(760 mm Hg.
(81)3
R=8
\V

area of the blade.
angular velocity of the winddri
2 ,6

2 +Rro+r
iyen
wheel.

hypothetical radius of the_ wing.
Z
 kf V 41
1,932+1i52 2
5.97
32931
4,72
"
k=
Here
.
Ji15;
1.93.
H.
rm
3.755 14 0to
Substituting numerical values in equation (182), we obtain:
P, =1,2. 2 . 8,3(3.752.5.142
+10). 1G64 =1990kg4
/266
The load on the wing is found fromthe equation (183):
PA 1990
The load is distriDistribution of the wind,'load on the wing. to the distances proportionally blade the of length the buted along the winddriven of rotation of axis the from sections blade's of the in the graphically load this represent to usage common is It wheel. flap. the of axis the with anglecertain a forms which form of a.filine a of shape the in wing the of cord the on load is distributed The triangle (Fig. 172).
184

 The load on the blade is determined by the method of A. I. Makar.evskiy, who represented it as the volume of a trihedral cut pyramid, with. its tip directed towards the center of the winddriven
wheel (Fig. 173).
___
. Fig. 172: Distribution of the load along the length and the cord of the blade.
The volume of such a pyramid is equal to: 
According to the notation*,in Fig. 173, we have:
O
o
/
Fig. 173: hri
Volumetric load on the blade. height of the pyramid;
SF,

base of the pyramid, nearest to the center of the winddriven wheel;
base of the pyramid, removed from the cen

ter. Substituting these expressions, we obtain:
3
(RL ro)(
,
b b,R
__
'
b, b
Let us replace the subradical expression b 1 by its value,
obtained from relation:
/268
185
hence: b,_b.
Substituting under ther_adical, we .obtain:
(R  r0 ) R
(R)[ f 6,r, _6
R ~=, (±bR+ 1)]
Assuming that the ordinate x = 1 m, we obtain: '.
. . ..
(185)
If we consider the volume of the load in the shape of a prismatoid with two parallel. sides, welcane:,write the following formula for such a volume: v= F + 4M),\ where, according to Fig. 173, we have: height of the prismatoid;
, area of the first bases of the prismatoid; r=*'
b,±b.
RRro 1.
area of the second basks,o)parallel to the first; area of the middle section, which is equidistant from the parallel bases.

Substituting the values of h, f, F and M in the equation of the volume of the prismatoid, we obtain: R
v.
V=: R 6T
r o. 2
4
btb.
+._. ,
After./transformation of this equation.f6 x  I, we obtain: .... R. R1, R)] a b, 1 +
(186)
Equation (185) is recommended for wings with a trapezoid shape /269 of the blade, which narrows towards the center of the winddriven wheel, used in multibladed wind engines. Equation (186) is more suitable for wings with a trapezoid shape of the blade, which narrows towards the center of the winddriven wheel, as used in rapid wind engines. Specific 'load. The ratio of the load on the wing to the volumetric load is called specific load, the magnitude of which is:
P V R rOb t
kg/r
 b2l 'r.(187)
for blades, which narrow towards the: center,
and
.186. . ..
186
(188)
for blades which widen; towards the center. The position of the center of effort of the' sail area or of the resultant load P, is found in the following way,using the notations
in Fig. 173.
The cord of. any section at a distance 1 from the base ,of the blade is expressed by the equality:
(Rb  b.)
(a)
The largest load at the level of the spout of the blade for the same section is equal to:
=x
The elementary volume of the load is:
dV ' dl = (b 1) r( d.
,(b)
(c)
Let us write the general expression for the position of the
center of effort of the sail area:!
/
,)
R,.
dVI
where V  the overall volumetric load on the wing. Solving the integral and dividing the results by V, which is known from equation (186), we obtain: Lyn.
Rr * Rr
/270
dVl=
.dl0
ii.
= R
.0
 b
N

b,)b (r)

12
bi
b,
b
i6
3b
J
Dividing this expression by the right hand side of equation (186)
and taking x
:1', 'we ob'$ain: L,.. ' at the base ,of the blade:, , R \ .. _,, R : , + 3b, h,b, , 2, f b,6, {2b,+ i2,[ "
2 6, .t 2' r,
(189)
Adding up ro, we obtain L
wind wheel:
L,"n
from the axis of rotation of the
 b ,+_b,t o __
+,'*._, ____
=b r+ .L

(190).
19+1
187
0.'2R for almost The dimension of the wing is usually radius ro 1/2 bl; in the all wings, the rapid wind engines have a width b2 wind engine;s, wing of windmills b 2 = bl, while in multibladed' b 2 = 2bl. Substituting these values in equa'tions (186) and (190), we obtain simple expressions for a rapid calculation of the volumetric load V and :'for the position of the center of effort of the sail area Ly for different wings. n For rapid wings with a narrow tip of the blade;
SL,= 0.833R. (a)
(b)
For multiblad :'wing's:,, /271
v ==.74R,
L,, =0,724R.
(c )
(d)
For the wings of windmills:
V= 1,2Rb,,
L,,= 0.688R.
(e)
( )
Load on the rib of the wings. Let us take the distance between the ribs equal to a, consequently, the load over this distance is distributed betweent.the two ribs in such a manner that one part of it over distance a/2 corresponds to one rib,while another part over distance a/2 corresponds to the other. The magnitude of the load on the rib is found by multiplying the specific load [see equation (187) and (188)] by the volume AV of the areodynamic load on(,the rib. Let us determine the volume AV by integrating: _o I b,SdV

) (b 1 Rbrob=r
±
b
ro br
)rdr =
2 * (R rPO) (R2,.= r.) [(bR  b,r). r,(b, 
dr,. b) rj]
If we denote the distance between the center of the winddriven wheel and the rib by rx, the unknown volume; will be between the limits from rx  a/2 to r x + a/2, i.e.:
188
188
Substituting here the value of dV and integrating, we obtain the volume of the load on one rib:
AV a
Lb (bIR  b(11) r. )
b12)
jr
Multiplying the specific load p by this volume, we obtain the load on one rib:
/272
Q,=p.V=
Pa
[(bRb ro) r/
(191)
where: a  distance between the ribs; r x  distance from the rib to the axis of the winddriven wheel; bl  width of the blade at the tip which is turned towards the center of the winddriven wheel; b 2  width of the blade at the external tip; p  specific load on the blade which widens towards the center of the winddriven wheel [equation (188)]. Those blades which rise towards the external circumference are used only in the multibladed 'winddriven wheelsof small diameters, and usually havenno ribs. Example 2. Determine the load on the rib of a wing of previous example 1, if the distance between the ribs and the axis of the winddriven wheel rx = 5 m; the distance between the ribs is a = 0.6 m. r 0 = 1.6 m; R = 8 m; b 1 = 1.8 m; b 2 = 0.8 m (Fig. 173). Solution. The load Jon the wing, according to example 1, is equal to Pmax = 498 kg. Let us find the volume of the load on the wings, according to
equation (186): V=Rr [b( tro .
The specific load p is found according to equation (188):
(4+(++i]  ±
= 3 .5 k
The load on the rib of the wing at a distance rx = 5 m from the axis of the winddriven wheel, is equal, ./according to: equation (191),
to:
189
S2r(Rr,
 1'6) (8 2. .6
(180.)
+ (52
)
)
517 kg.
The load on the rigidly attached part of the wing during regu /273 lation by rotation of the blade tip. The rigidly attached part of the wing is subjected to'the highest load during a storm. Therefore, in determining the load on this part of the wing, the maximum velocity of the wind Vst for regions with annual average, 'wind velocity
up to 5.5 m/sec ................ 40 m/sec, from 5.5 to 7 m/sec.............50 m/sec, and above 7 m/sec.............. 60 m/sec. The frontal pressure on the rigid part of the blade is equal, according to equation (179), to:
where:
Cy ~a1.28  coefficient of the lifting force; Sri  area of the rigid part of the blade;
rm  hypothetical radius of the wing, which is determined by means of equation (178), where R is taken from the center of the winddriven wheel to the tip of the rigid part of the blade. The load on the rotating part operates under a storm, the moment Mro acts in the opposite direction developed by the rigid part of the of the blade. When the wind engine of the rotating part of the blade and balances the excess moment Mex blade Mr, i.e.:
where Mba is the moment developed by the blade when the power of the engine is balanced [see equation (193)]. Hence, the force applied at the rotating part of the blade/§"will / be equal to:
p where:
_ kb J
'
*
/
(192)
(.19a3
(193)
(194)
Res.:distance of the point of application of force Pro to the axis/274 of rotation of the winddriven wheel. 190
equals. Cy 0.17. oio00 t (137a) here (st shouldbe determined on the basis of the number of modules according to the aerodynamic characteristic of the given winddriven wheel..should be expected to be negative. The load cpnn the turning blade stabilizer is equal'to: .the limits of a dircumference which passes through the tips of the rigid part of the blade. w is the angle of velocity of the winddriven wheel. where: Let us find Est on the basis of a given Zst according to the The norcharacteristic and let us substitute it in equation (137a). where: Cy is thewmaximal coefficient of the lifting force. finally. S?o 6 54 Dit. Pro [see equations (192). according to equation (137). let us find Cy by means of equation (179): 0 C S 2) ] (195) After we obtain Cy for a given ratio 6/b. rst is the radius of the stabilizer. 63. the angle of attach a. V is the working velocity of the wind in m/sec.st2. 191 . let us find from the graph in Fig..t. at which the engine develops its full power.. After determining the pressure Pro on the rotating part of the wing. Two cases of loading are examined in this calculation of the strength of the flap.. which is equal to the distance from the center of effort of the sail area of the stabilizer to the axis of the shaft of the winddriven wheel. which/.9 at 6/b = 0.The power of a winddriven wheel which has a diameter D be4. st  ' (196) . let us find Mri and Mba and. Having the numerical values of Nri and Nba. mal power Nba is found at max. The distribution of the load along the length of the turning power of the wing is homogeneous while the distribution along the cord is triangular. (193) and (194)]. tween '. /275 The load on the flap. Sst is the area of the stabilizer.
Case 1. Case 2. P is the load on the wing. it is assumed to be Lcg = 0. . The flap is subjected to the action of: 1the moment of the aerodynamic forces Ma.25 R. where: Lcg is the distance from the center of effort of the sail area to the axis of rotation of the winddriven wheel. the wing/276 points downward.48 R.= G(048r0. the moment of the aerodynamic forces Ma and the elongation caused by the centrifugal forces C: Mg = G(Lcg .and 4the weight forces of the wing G.25R)=G03 (197) Fig. 174). the calculated moment: Mad=l / M+ (198) the centrifugal force: C=me'r=5t ( 0 G5824 R=0.049Gw2R. R R g= idm L1 dnr m (201) 192 . 174: Diagram of the wing for calculathi6nu of the flap in its horizontal position. D F The moment in the dangerous section equals: M. 2the moment of the gyroscopic forces Mg. 3the moment of centrifugal forces Mcf . Mg.weight) fprces. R = 0. 1 (199) the stress in the dangerous section of the flap: PT (200) where: F is the area of the section of the flap.k). 0 and D a' supports of the flap. M is the overiI' moment which bends the flap. which is determinemxby means of equations (182) and (183). Where G is the weight of the wing determined by its outline. The axis of the flap has a vertical position. Lc is the distance between the center of gravity of the wind and its oxis of rotation. The axis of the flap has a horizontal position. E and K are'supports of the wing (Fig.2 up 0. 2 distance from the axis of rotation to the dangerou section. 2 The flap is subjected to the action of a moment of the.
the gyroscopic moment is not accounted for. 1j0.wMsin2 lwiis the moment of inertia of the wing with the stabilizer where: relative to the axis of the flap..75 LV. the 6/b of the profile is determined based on the d*ispsitaton of the flap. The magnitude of this moment can be found by means oceqiuaitiopb (175): . regulating flyweights. the calculated load on the wing is estimated from equation 193 . W. The r atios of the momentsoff inertia'of the blade and of the stabilizer are of approximately equal. Consequently.where the difference between the integral equal to: inside the brackets is I . of the strength of the wings:with stabilizersjis performed in the following sequence. the strength of the flap is calculated from equation ' (202) and Third.+ S_ (202) In calculating the spars of the wing. a tracing is made of the matched s%\ctions of the wing and the spans are placed in it. ribs. In calculating the flap. jI 0. . . after which one can proceed to design the wing. (201a) The stress in the dangerous section of the flap:. using the obtained dimensions of the flap. is the rigging angle. the gyroscopic moment cannot be neglected. VL 277 First. ect. .25A :Calculation. '(T7j9): Second. §velocity of I rotation of the wing. since this moment is determined by the entire mass of the wing (spars. w angular. since the mass of the spars themselves is a very small value.O.angular velocity of rotation of the head with the winddriven wheel relative to the axis of the tower. The stress which appears on account of the moment of cehtrifugal forces has to be added to the stress oi'n the dangerous section of the flap.the moment of inertia of the wing relative to the axis of rotation of the winddriven wheel.. 'support.
the overall stress on the torsion of the spar equals: (205) 194 (204) Sangle Fig. The concenare applied at the sides of attachment of 7 /278 Calculation of the itabilizer. the spars are calculated We shall present the cal culation of a twospar wing The wind S (Fig. 176.(yig. The force Qx . is determined by means of equation (191). Sinqj the load is distributed in the shape of a trion the cord._ After having obtained the I S design shape of the wing. The load on the stabilizer of rapid wind engines is determined according to equation: This load. 177. The spars are calculated as cantilever beams on two'supports E and K (Fig. the torque Mt which appears S 1 as a result of the shift in the center of effort of the sail area relative to the axis of the spar.isA j where bst and mst are given in Fig. 176).stabilizer. consequently. When the ratio of the permissible stress of flection k) to /279 kt of the torsion is kfg/kt 1.3. 175: wing. acts on the spar of the. 176: Section through a twospar wing. 177).. trated forces P and P 2 the ribs. 175 and 176). . which is distributed uniformly along the length of the spar and as a triangle along its cord. bends the spar with a moment: I o_ (0 (203) where: kst is the length of the stabilizer (Fig. the center of effort of the sail area is at a distance of 1/3 of the cord from the spout of the stabilizer. 2L1 PS_ load on the blade causes forces P1 and P2 on the spar: Fig.the load on the ribs. S. In addition. 175). Key: Diagram of a twospar 1spar 2rib 3Lcg These formulas are derived according to Fig.
aB is 1cl. 178: Action of the forces on the stabilizer. a . where V = the velocity of the wind at which the winddriven wheel works wPth maximal power./280 culated as being subject . conheted in paraile~ is determined . under conditions of n = const.and to elongation by force C 2 /2 (Fig. 178). the rib is considered to be a beam with sealed ends. to compression by force S. 179. The flection moment is equal to M. 177: The load on the stabilizer. which. The load on the rib of the stabilizer equals: 8  n (206) where n is the number of ribs.. Vlim is the limiting velocity of the wing at which the engine stops. 178). N = f(V) is given in Fig. The performance of wind engines with Z = 6 and higher._ o elongation by force T which is obtained as a component of the resolving force Cl into the direction of stanchion II and of guide rope aB. i5 Eig.o.o . 195 .c cCl Fig. torque.ds. . The loads on the wing of the rapid wing engine without regulation. of stanchion II.1 Stanchion II is subjected to flection by force Q/2. Key: 1section across 6b 2stanchion 3ribs 4spar 5Pst 6bst 7mst For calculation of the fleption. 7 3ep i= 'and At'1 7 4 ! H O fTi A Wfg and Wt are respectively the moment of flection and the. which is obtained by resolution of force to the direction aB of the guide rope and.where 1.on the basis of its performance. Stanchion I is subjected to flection by the aerodynamic force Q/2 and to elongation by the force C 2 /2.(l bst" (207) The stanchions of the stabilizer are subjected to flection by force Q and to centrifugal force C (Fig. The guide rope.
The Wing Load on the Tail and in the/281 Regulating Lateral Blade.. +1AI _=C. 196 . The load is distributed throughout the length of the wing . d the tail hinged to a spring. . Examples of calculation :for the wing. The load on the cord is distributed uni 41. The folding tail (Fig..± (208) the frontal pressure will be: is taken from the curve in Fig.accoring to Fig. 171. 180).mS(maTr (209) 1 .. The load is distrib ted on the length of the wing proportionally to the cord. (210) The load on Fig. we can write the following equation: PItb. Cymax is taken from the curve in Fig.50 m/s The load on the wiZgs: O08 .bThe engine is at rest. 181: The load on the tail with rigid attachment to the head of engine.3ij V Vlim. .(212) the wind engine. 179: Performance of a wind enginemax working without regulation. . Vs 40 . 180) has to be calculated on the basis of the internal force of the spring. to Fig. Drawing the perpendicular r x from the point of torsion of the tail to the direction of the force Psp. Velocity of the wind during a storm. Key: lPspw 2Ptk 180: Fig. 171. the dimensionrof which are determined as shown in Chapter VIII on regulation (section 33). a and b see Fig.1 Fig. Si. aThe engine works at a wind velocity The load on the wing is: V. I P R (211) (212) The stress in the tail rod caused by force Ptk: k_ (213) (rx.
horizontal shaft is:s&. The stress caused by the aerodynamic force Ptk: /282 k (215) (216) The load caused by the weight of the tail G: k.03 F. a deflecting moment caused by a moment caused by the gyro the weight of the winddriven wheel and . Gtl oscopic forces of the entire winddriven 2. Mg = 21 0wwl.03 to 0. The lateral regulating blade. f is the area of the tail in m 2 which is assumed on the basis of statistical data f = 0.Pjected to the action of: a. k == * The area of the lateral regulating blade. c. Mg 197 . for a twok3baded wind engine.2. wheel. The following load acting on the girder of the head should be known in order to calculate it (Fig. Frontal pressure P on the winddriven wheel. Gw weight of winddriven wheel and Gtl weight of the tail. The moment caused by the gyroscopic forces of the entire winddrivenowheel Mg = I0w1 (Sec. where F is the area marked off by the wind wheel.The 1 G. b. which can be calculated for stabilizers of wind engines according to equation (182). h Key: 1. M2.01 to 0.e. 181) should be calculated by the lateral force. Calculation of the Head of the Wind Engine.Fig._GL 42. 43) for a wind engine with a number of blades higher than 2. The unfolding (rigid) tail (Fig. and for engines without regulation:. i. Weight load. which is determined by equation: L~t~g~ (2114) where Cy = 1.The stress caused by the weight of the tail unit G. 182). is usually taken in the limits from 0.06F. :by means of equation (209).0 to 1.Fig.head of the the Load 182: winLoad on engine . the torque M:= 716.. 1.20 = N/n kg. Msp = Mbl k = MblWW. Girder of the head. where F is the area marked off by the winddriven wheel. acting on the girder. 2. P l.
a a 4 p  7tion 1 S G2B B. we obtain the following equality: S\Ga .=. For determining the readtionsBli ahd B 2 . /284 d  diameter of the shaft of the wind rotors. the equation of the sum of the moment and of the projection of the forces according to the notagiven in Fig. The moment developed by the windi6se . . /283 Hence: B =Ph +C. weight the from M2 ..a rigging angle The moment of friction in the bearings of the windrb'ses:' where P' = 0.. 183.moment of friction from of the head.b.Gr 2 2 ).coefficient of friction of metal against metal. The moments of friction are caused by the force G . Determination of the forces of friction in the supportsof the head during adjustment of the winddriven wheel to the wind by means Let us compare of windr ses.= O.. and SB=Ph+. Ph + Gb=O.10 . trapezoid blades and .M. p. 184.Bh.=L(ar. The characteristics . 183: Diagram of the head for determination of the forces of friction. indicate that most convenient are the small wind engi es withiy<'W p = 200 and 30 . Let us note: M. The windros 6s!'i and their main dimensions are determined by the characteristics of small wind engines (Fig.Ca S h ' (217) " B =Bp.moment of friction . which can be found be means of the characteristics in Fig.lr forces B 1 and B 2 . (218) Fig. this moment of friction should be surmounted by the aerodynamic moment of the wind rotor.wwightedf the head.weight of the windrses. During adjustments of the winddriven wheel to the wind. 184). B 1 and B 2 .G 2bGa. PB.: i is equal to: .(219) 198 . Gw . M.
9 for conical 'and cylindrical transmissionsand 0.0 0.02 0.d S0 0I  0.0 'I A= 75 and Z 3 = 3 0.2ii (Mw 1 ). D .coefficient which accounts for the decrease in wind velocity behind the winddriven wheel.125  mass density of the air.4 .03 0. After reductions.02 V 3.diameter of the wind rotors.04  0. (221) :.0 0. 43). 18: 1average annuactl 0 in the given region. wind Characteristics of the Fig. (220) The gear ratio of the wind rotors: eV 1w. 0.0 0. The transmission should correspond to aw (see Sec.for worm gearing.0p density of the air.125 mass =  0. we obtain for oneWwindose' \.. 199 . For two wind rotors: £ .04 .' (222) where n is taken equal to 0.1.45 . P = 0. = 0.
1\ where Z is the distance of point A from the axis z' . velocity U and the axis z' .43.the centrifugal force appearing /286 The force during the rotation of the head around the axis z' . 185: z Action of the gyroscopic moment on the winddriven wheel.z' (Fig. 4 1 0 z y The overall moment which breaks the flap at the bush is equal to [34] M.X.z' parallel to R.. in addition to the aerodynamic forces. 200 . The force Q 1 is directed from axis z' .'which bebnds the flap) when the flap is vertical: f. It is obtained by the summation of the moments of all the flaps (for three or more blades) = y= I°' (225) where I0 is the moment of inertial of the entire winddriven wheel relative to the axis OX.$imu) (224) jz Fig. The Gyroscopic Moment of the WindDriven Wheel During the rotation of the head around the axis of the tower z' . which in a given case is equal to iLthe circular velocity of rotation of point A around the axis X. (223) a where I .moment of inertia of the wing relative to the axis OX.the centrifugal force appearing as a result of the rotation of the winddriven wheel around its axis. These forces cause moments Mx. centrifagal and gyroscopic forces act on the wings of the rotating winddriven wheel. The direction of the force P is perpendicular relative to velocity U and the axis Angle B1 is formedby of rotation of the entire system z' . My and M z relative to the ax s OX.z'.g 21) J'sin :.z'. of acceleration of Coriolis: P= 2mw1 U sin . The shaft is bent by the gyroscopic moment of the entire winddriven wheel. The calculated :m mmal ibrhent. OY and OZ..z'. Let us take on the blade point A with mass m and let us writethe expression for these forces: Q = mw 2 r .z'. If 2W1 The angle of velocity w is found by means of equation: (226) where n is the number of revolutions of the winddriven wheel per minute. Q = mw 1 2 k . 185).. For a 2bladed wind engine. U = wr is'the relative velocity.
.gear ratio of the transmission from the wind rotors to the pinions on the tower. 201 ." 0 tests (Fig. Z O .number of synchronal modules of the wind rotors.radius of the wind rotors. the velocity of the wind 20 m/sec. i . 184. 184). The stress on the shaft of the multibladed ' wind engine (231) Determination of the angular velocity of rotation wi of the wind engine relative to the axis of the tower.velocity of the wing in m/sec.diameter of the wind rotors. RO .moment of the drag of the flap at the bush. are considered as working with a synd'hronal number of modules: (232) where: Z 0 V D synchronal number of modules taken from wind tunnel velocity of the wind taken equal to 20 m/sec at the head. The angular velocity wl for the rotation of the windroses is deter'mined under. b. where i .gear ratio of the transmission from the small wind engires288 to the pinion on the tower.head of the wind engine turns with an angular velocity /287 which is equal to: 0\ (227) where: Z O = wORO/V .angular velocity of the wind rotors. c.The. On the basis of equation (224) and (227). D . the windroses.v'228) rotors which is found according to the characteristics in Fig. WO .synchronal number of modules of the wind :. the moment which bends the flap/ /is equal to: M=Z (229) The stress in the flap = W Did (230) where: W . V . (Y = O . 0 diameter of the windroses. direction perpendicular to the plane of rotation of the windrqses.the(fll611owing conditions: a.
186a: .power at the height H. . 186b) where: (234) h . N=. N . The tower makes it pos sible to raise the winddriven wheel beyond the limits of this turbulence. using equation (248) (Sec. they make it possible to raise the winddriven wheel to any height. as required by the local topographical conditions. In winged wind engines. hp 202 cles in the vicinity of the wind installation. 46): N H (233) where: No .The measurement of the strength of windoses ' is performed under the same conditions under which the value of wl was determined. . 44.Wind Engines The wind engine consists of two main parts: the head of the wind engine with all the machinery and the tower on which the head is mounted. in selecting the height of the tower. the towers play. Since the power of the wind engine changes proportionally to the cube of the wind velocity. .. Different kinds of obstacles on the surface of the groindmay disturb the linear motion of the airstream causing turbulence. n / HFoM .e./ t However. H3 . i. The Power of '. 186a. we can write the equation of the power of the wind engine as a function of height.o _ Characteristic of the power of the wind engine in relation to the height of the tower. . The approximate characteristic of the power of the wind engine in relation to the height of the winddriven wheel above the ground is shown in Fig. an extremely important role. it is impor.power at the height H 0 . Key: 1.height of the obsta o o Fig.Nop 1  The minimal height of the tower should be equal to (Fig. tant to pay attention to the technical possibilities and the conditions of exploitation of the wind installation.
187: Construction diagram of. towers below 10 m. and X .j For.30 H m. 186b DThe first three diagrams of piy/291 Fig.5 to 2 m. The opening between the legs of the tower with a height above 10 m B=.c . where D is the diameter of the winddriven wheel.p p wind engines with a power up to tower.radius of the winddrivenwwheel. type A towers..25H. is assumed to be equal to 15 D. 203 .22H I to 0. R .XI refer to type C.VIII refer to type A. IX refers to type B. I . IT Fig. 187 and 188.distance from the top of the obstacle to the lowest point on the markedoff area. B = 0. The distance between neighboring wind engines with the same height of the tower and diameter of the winddriven wheel. The construction diagrams of towers f67windwengines are shown in /289 & T Fig. 186b: Determination used for tower are type of the height of the wind A engines with usually a power up to. assumed to be 1. .
can be calculated by means of an equation which was derived by the author on the basis of statistical data according to metallic towers of this type. However. are used in the construction of towers with bracing wires.ratio of the weight of type X towers .the other diagrams of towers 8 . the weight of the rotating towers is considerably smaller than the weight of Group A towers. group A.i of this type are used for winl enhgines of higher power. B.T" T . and C towers. the towers of group A are more convenient and more reliable in the exploitation. II. according to the diagrams. The type B and C towers.0 . 0c riA ' vll • . Towers with bracing wires have a smaller weight than the group A tower. i. R is the radius of the winddriven wheel in m. 189.: G== (16.3R3) (235) where: H is the height of the tower in m. K is the coefficient accounting for the weight of 204 . constructed S. where the curves describing the relationship between the weight of the tower and the /292 ratio H/R are presented: GIX/GA . These curves show that with the increase in the relative height HXR. GXI/GA .J Fig.5HR+ 0.rotatory.5 0. III and IV.ratio of the weight of group C towers to the w: i wight of group A towers.ratio of the weight of type IX rotating tewer to the weght of any of the A nonrotating towers.e. The ratio of the weights of these towers is presented in the graph of Fig. GGa Gs th The preliminary weight of the type A tower. 189: Graph of the relative weightsof towers according to diagrams I. GX/GA . 188: Construction diagram of types A.21 SH Fig. to the weight of the group A towers.723H3 5.
2.coefficient of the head pressure.15. then instead of expression 5. we find the value k = 2. 2Z //_ 2.H ist'he/293 fllction moment caused by the pressure of the wind on the tower and expression 5.4 R 3 should be substituted in equation (235).00085 and P = 5.0 3 xprgession' 0. The expression 16.75 H2 kg.6.1 _/_ construction and is in relation to D and H from the graph in Fig.723. From the graphs in Fig. and Hmod = 0.tower: G=(16. Hmod . 190.32.5 m/sec. 6.the momentcausea by the weight of the tail. H . 190: Graph of the coefficient K for determination of the preliminary weight of the tower. .K .5) .Determine the Fig.3 R3 .20 kg The wind oads on the towers of wind engines are determined /=*II\ according to an equation obtained experimentally at TsAGI for the models shown in Fig. (238) 205 .c etower Rx = 0.the Staken . . Assuming V = 40 m/sec. we obtain: P = 6 770RxH2 .measured height of'ithe tower in m. 191: /294 (236) where: V = 40 m/sec for regions with an annual average wind velocity up to 5. I of the wind force on the head of the wind engine. Example.486 m and substituting /295 these values in equation (236). weight of a tower with a height H = 15 m of a multibladed wid' ' c:engine D = 5 m. • If the wind engine is removed from thd windby means of a blade.723151+ 5. R x . (237) For a fourlegged latti.52 0. is. substituting the values of the other magnitudes in equation (235). taken from Table 11.. S 6 .5.5 HR 2 accounts for the flection moment caused by the action _ .3 R 3 . we obtain the weight of the. 190.height of the tower model in m.
.. slaes towaras the wina . . Conical solid o00ooes ..8 41........1 28. TABLE 11 Coefficient Distance of the point (.. 0... or the side towarAs the wind ... ... ... For calculation of the towers. On the basis of experimental data... Cylindrical solid . Trihedral s6id ' disposed with the .. tower..correction coefficient for cylindrical sc(:§6aid tow6r.. while D is the diameter of the cylindrical tower. Aralogically to the'previous cas. .0024 Cylindral Jbttice tower .... . the head pressure on the winddriven wheel has to be determined. 192.. ....ibu5 0....75 H... 'H kg (239) K .i' of application of the of head pressure resultant from the base x/H :(in %). . ... 191: Types of tower models tested in the wind tunnel.... solid tower  we obtain for a cylindrical P.PO4 49........ Fig.dasposed with1 tl edge towar s t e win . 00 0...:O.....5 2948 Trihedral slid.4 Hence..0013 0.. Type of Model (Fig...............007......... the following formulas are derived for wind loads on a multibladdd winddriven wheel (Fig...... Tetrathdraldsolid disposed with the edge .. ......2 32. 193): P= (240) (241) 206 .... determined from the graph in Fig............. we see that the load in kg per 1 m height of the tower amounts to 5.... 191) 4legqed lattice..... in relation to H/D.002 42....
cr 0.. 0.. . .125). 125.'.mass density of the air (at a barometric pressure of 760mm Hg and 150 C. . .o000 0 .ing 0. ivn whee 10 o '.. ficient of thde w1'dof I o " I 0 3 )O 4o0 operatio th loa Y .374 0 '. 0. P =o 0 / 1 900 " pressure for Head Fig. 13 0. 0. Relationship between Fig. . 0:225 Q.150 0.18C ) .180 0. ' olumn of y = 400 two lower lines. 0. .d!epending on the angle y is assumed to be equal to 830 m/sec.250 0.475 and y = 0. fin "the multibladd the case of operation with load.. . . .140 .. . S curve in Fig.730 0 625 0. .100 . the windFig. 125.075 0.d presented in Table 12: p . VALUES OF x AND y FOR MULTIBLADED WIND ENGINES A:gie Type of ope 4lln e.20.060 90  ..2735 0.. In Table inthe 12.240 0.625 0.. 3 4 r a 8 9 10 11 . p = 0. 125.load coefficient s/29 6 obtained experimentally 'a.  Load coef  " o c. V . ting the numerical values of TABLE 12.180 0.i'th 164 loa ing' of.~iwinddtdv.x x and y .the area marked off by the winddriven wheel. 193: different positions ~6f )the winddriven wheel. . F = IR 2 . .610 0. " Determine the forces Px and Py.47 .07 . o 100 f Angle of rotation ee1 v qipd of  ILoadcoefType of *operatin filen of the wind Idle qperatio . regulation according to curve 'I. .velocity of the wind in /297 which.Y . 180 0.200 0. 192: the coefficient K of cylindrical towers and the ratio of height t to diameter of the tower.2 U 14 4L Example. Fig. to According driven wheel should deflect at an angle y = 400 at a wind velocity of 10 m/sec.350 0. V = 10 m/sec. . oo o I So 0. . we find x = Sub stitu:f.780 0.260 power 1 207 .1010o .575 0 510 0. .220 0. according to the  m/sec.. acting on a winddriven wheel D = 5 m of type.150 0. . . . . .760 0. . ..  of rotation .. . pf . 1.
The head pressure on the wings and head: P=ics2v6OsFV62 (242) C x .engine. according to equation (226): Mg 2I208ow 208 .y axis for a threebladed wind engine and for the multibladedq_ . equation (182) has 0 Values of the Fig. =I 1 For twobladed wind engines. 188). V s . H .00085. The wind loads on the tower offwindenkines with stabilizer are determined by the following procedure.25RJ]H_ (243) (refersto the whole tower). 3.for a four legged tower = 0.. '.. wind engines. 6 In determining the head pressure in rapid wind engines. Pressure of the wind on the girder of the tower.I)I 0 a 0 P j F=0. The forces Pbl/ in rapid wind engines.0014. R . which are regulated and Px and Py in multiblded by the removalof iithe winddriven Wheel from the wind. according to equation (225): . /298 F . 194: coefficient C x in relation to 6/b. create moments which deflect the tower relative to its base. The maximal gyroscopic moment relative to the y . 194).the given magnitudes in equations (24Q) c. or the belt.. 1. is equal to: = 4. with only a few blades. we obtain:  54 0 0. <where the bracing wires are fastened in type X and XI towers (Fig.20 .aerodynamic coefficient of the wing at an angle of attack / corresponding to C = 0 (Fig.wind velocity in the storm (40 m/sec).baccording to formula (237). for a(cylindrical tower = 6.area of the middle section of the head in m 2. Moment caused by the gyroscopic forces. since in a given case. and (241).height of the tower. while 1/3 of Pt acts on the rear side of the tower. The load is assumed to be uniform throughout the height of the tower. to be used. and this has to be taken into consideration. the airstream dashes over the winddriven wheel perpendicularly to the plane of rotation of the winddriven wheel. Vt = 40 m/sec.2/3 of Pt are assumed to act on the frontal side of the tower.
5 kg/cm 2 . Oti tk G Weight load Fig. 209 . and loam in the ductile state.'should be on the same vertical line. sandy loam of average density and powdered sand saturated with water. large no give foundation should construction. the allowable specific load should be assumed to be 1.5 to 3. Qtr . sandy soii.1 to 0. 195): Me) = R1.ih:fi tained duetto the lack of balance between the part of the head relative to the axis of the tower (Fig. the moment caused by the aerodynamic forces on the winddriven wheel.5 to 6 kg/cm 2 . The first number corresponds to humid. the static the for accounting in ciently strong /299 .'at which the foundationsare in. OST 9000438 should be used (Table 13). should 1. For the same soil of average density. while the larger number corresponds to waterpermeable clay soil. weight of the tail. while for strong soils from 3. it should be suffi'etlli$ satisfy the following main requirements: and dynamic load.. In determining the allowable pressures on various soils. the tower's own weight Qt* The foundation under the tower of the wind engine.The calculated overall moment: M = Ma + Mg. the of slanting cause homogeneous pne which could ''~re most likely to appear when the foundation of the SediTgnj tower foot!. ob .a . In order to abolish the slant of the tower. the center of gravity of the entire mass of the foundation of the foot tower . b. as well as ground with interlayers of silt or peat) are up to 1.5 kg/cm 2 . given region. 2. weight of the engine: Q=q+dQ : where: Qww Qtl is weight of the winddriven wheel. The depth . The tower is subjected to weight loads: a.especially not a sedi~'nt. The allowable specific pressures of weak soils (clay.>is built on sand of small or average density.weight of the upper transmission with crank house. 195: on the tower.25 m deeper than the depth of f.eging ld~3 are taken 0. The moment caused by the weight forces on the wind engine. where Ma is.
.....san 8..0 2.... ALLOWABLE PRESSURE (IN kg/cm ) ON THE FOUNDATION SOIL AT A DEPTH OF THE BASE 2 M BELOW THE DAY Name..3 " For the southern region:. gravel and pebbles fe gardles sc f humidity 1.. Sandy and gravelly soils ..i : average 2. G..0 1. loam 20 3..The depth of freezing in. The calculated force on the frontal legl' equals: P...1.. Ine humid sand o.5 ..........5 6... 1..0 2:0 7.. 1._dry sandy loam humid sany loam Sowdered ry sand Snmid dry sand 5.point of application of the forces and the base of the foundation (Fig.... fne dry sana 6...1.. clay 2..5 4'02...0 25 4..5 51............0 i..... the weight of the foundation G$... 196)..:ofsoi I........... are built of brick or stone on... a moment M = PhH + PHt.: cement mortar..5 1.. ayerage snd egard±ess of numl ly gravely ......1 " The foundations under the foot of the tower.5 2.5 2....the European part of USSR is assumed to be: For the northern and eastern regions . where H and Ht"are the distances between the ...2 3..0 n hard in do9il The compression forces are the weight of the wind engine and of the tower Q.... 210(244a) 210 .5 " For the western region...6 " For the central region. 50 II..5t . cause at the base of the tower.... rough and reardle s of h uditv 9.4B  \ p.0 m For the northwestern region..= distance between the foundationalong a diagonal line............. The maximal internal forces on the legs are encountered when under these conditions the wind blows diagonally through the tower: the following equality holds: _  hence where 1... 6... Clay soils stated state 2.... The bending loads caused by /300 the head pressure of the wind on the tower and the wind engine. 2..02...... 2 TABLE 13... (244) on the hind leg:..
Assuming that the area at the base of the foundation in cm 2 is F. 211 . the pressure on the ground'is determined: I p p I9.P•1 Fig. 196: Foundations under the feet of the tower...
level CD. As a result. which as a result of the revolutions of the Earth from west to east.CE becomes greater than before. which are to some extent. 198. i. the pressure on segment ED. air which comes in contact with the Earth is warmer about AF than above the segment FB. The uneven distribution of heat between various regions of the EarthJ determines the circulation of the air in'. in a direction opposite to the displacement above. related to each other. The air column above segment AF widens while above segment FB. Therefore. THE WIND AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY /305 The Origin of the Wind The main cause of the formation of wind is the uneven heating of the Earth'§ surface by the:sun Let us assume that as a result of the uneven heat given by the sun's rays. mountains and forest cause variable heating of the surface at the same latitude.e. the Northern Hemisphere from the northeast. Eastern winds of considerable strength blow in the upper layers above this zone.PART TWO WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS CHAPTER 12. At the level AFB. constant winds blow in are deviated to the west. on the Earth's surface. At the same time.e. segment AR on the horizontal surface of the Earth has The been warmed up to a greater extent than segment EB (Fig. The revolution of the Earth also causes deviations in the air flow. To the north and to the south of the calm zone pare situated the zones of the trade winds. 45.the Earth's atmos. Therefore. oceans. All these causes complicate the general circulation of the atmosphere. the air flows from segment FB to segments AF below. 197'). the circulation of air illustrated in Fig.it is compressed. northern and southern latitudes and are distinguished by the regularity of the airstreams as far as direction and velocity are 212 . at a certain . the direction CED.phere The Earth's surface is irregular: the dry land. the pressure above segment AF decreases as a result of the displacement of the air. i. A calm zone with weak variable winds is found at the equator /306 near the Earth's surface. 197 Tby means of arrows is obtained. In such a manner.as shown in the diagram in The trade winds extend approximately to the 30th degree Fig.it decreases. the air flows in whle on segment. while in the Southern Hemisphere they blow from the soutth ast. A series of individual circulations appear. the pressure above the colder segment FB increases.
upward current 2. 197: Diagram of formation of airstreams. Key: 1.. In the v/tcinity of the large continents.      O 1 B . at these latitudes. turbulent movements appear and disappear continuously and complicate the simple diagram of the general circulation of the atmosphere shown in Fig. The average velocity of the southeastern trade winds in the Northern Hemisphere reaches near the surface of the Earth 68 m m/sec. calm 3. there is a layer of variable winds. approximately up to 70 0 . 1 nepemeunu e "B Fig. 37 3 2noo Breezes.the winds blow at all altitudes between the western and southwestern points in the northern hemisphere. depending on the time of the year and on the region. 300 southern latitude During the day. In the subtropical latitudes. The land air lifted above the land flows towards the sea in the upper layer and subsides at acertaih distance from the shore. 30lNorthern latitude 4. etc. 198: Diagram of the general circulation in the Earth's atmosphere. variable winds 2. these winds are disturbed by the strong annual fluctuations in temperature and pressure above the continents. Local winds. lepeu3ame local topographic conditions of the Earth's surface (seas. To the north and the south of these regions. As a result of the ) __ changes:in'day and night> temperature. and between the western and the northwestern points in the In addition. therefore the warm air becomes less dense and flows upwards..concerned. mountains. Above the Iaye' of trade winds. downward current . Key: 1. southern hemisphere. in sunny weather.) cause local winds. the zones of the trade winds are replaced by calm regions in the belts? of high pressure. wind 3. The particular C . 213 . to i Fr 77 / A Fig. 198. sea winds are formed on the shores which are called breezes. At the same time the cold sea air flows towards the forming a seashore wind. the land warms up to a greater extent than the surface of the sea. The height of the layer /307 oifi"countertrade winds varies from 48 km. and beyond that layer we have the zone of the countertrade winds which blow in a direction opposite to that of the trade winds.
. a lowpressure is formed above the land. It is measured by means of 214 . The zone of the breeze extends approximately 40 km towards the sea and 40 km towards the land. from the land to the sea. These winds are called sea monsoons. In tropical countries. The annual changes of temperature near the shores The monsoons.in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. The velocity of the wind is the most important characteristic of the technical properties of the wind.In such a manner. the air /308 flows from the oceans towards the land while above on the contrary. a greater extent than the surrounding seas and oceans. while in the moderate zone. due to this fact. These winds effect considerably the climate of the far eastern regions. In the winter. a circulation of the air sets in which is directe below to the seashore and above. breezes are observed in he summeru!near the shores of the Black and Caspian Seas. Strong monsoons can be observed on the southern shores of Asia .: Magnitudes Which Characterize the Wind From the ::n Energetic Viewpoint. stantly in magnitude.300 m. The velocity of The velocity of the wind and its measurement. fr ~6m the land to the surrounding ocean. during the summer.the air flows to the sea and above. In our country. and below. where they have a southwestern direction in the summer and aunnortheastern direction in the winter. while the upper layer. only in hot weather during the summer.the wind is defined as the distance in m which is passed by a mass of The velocity of the wind changes conair in the course of 1 second. on the contrary. from the oceans to the land. the lands are much colder than the surface of the sea. and direction. of large seas and oceans cause a circulation which is analogou sto the breezes but has an annual cycle. The monsoons appear In the summer the dry land is heated to due to the raowingreasos . The cause of this change is the uneven heating of the Earth's surface and the irregularity of the local topography. Strong northwestern continental winds blow during the winter. The height of the breezes extends in our latitude to 200 . At night the air above the land is cooled to a greater extent thantthe air above the sea and therefore. from the sea to changes: the land. the direction of the circulation below. 46. Monsoons are also observed near the eastern shores of Asia. breezes are observed almost throughout the year. a region of highpressure is formed above the lands as a result of which the lower layer of the air assume a direction from the land towards the ocean. southwestern and southern humid sea winds are observed. These winds are called continental monsoons. Princip. This circulation which has larger dimensions than the breezes is called monsoon.
Various types of instruments are in use by means of which the velocity and the direction of the wind are determined. that during the revolutions of the vane. Where Vir' . 215 . Equations (a) and (b) have been suggested by the author for use when no conversion table is available. 1. indicate or record the velocity and direccertain time interval. The wind vane has a metallic board suspended on an axis. the velocities are large.special instruments which are called anemometers. During its deflections. perpen' dicular to the indicator of the wind direction in such a manner. which deflects it by a certain angle. sponding to each pin. as shown in Table 15. 199. All these instruments can be divided into two groups according to the method of determination of the magnitudes. In addition. The magnitude of this angle depends of the velocity of the wind. the velocity of wind can be determined from the readings of a3fWild wind vane with a 200 g board by means of the following equation which are varied for deflections of the board up to pin 7: V = 2Nk . is presented in Table 14.ity wind. 199: Wild's wind vane.1 V = 2(N 1). a wind vane with a 800 g board is used. The wind vane with a 200 g board (is used in regions which have low wind velocities. for a wind vane with a 200 g. its plane is constantly disposed towards the direction of the wind. N . Wild's wind vane indicates the instantaneous velocity and direction of the wind. 150 x 300 mm board.number of the pins around which the board moves at the time of observation. Fig. Instruments which tion of the wind during a indicate or record the instantaneous veloi. (a) (b) Sthe where: Nk is the number of the lower pins of the two between which the /310 board moves at the time of the observation. This instrument is utilized in many meteorolo/309 Its general view is shown in Fig. Instruments which city and direction of the 2. logical stations.Lthe board passes along sector B with 8 pins numbered from 1 to 8 which indicate the magnitude of the wind The magnitude of the wind velocity corre" velocity in a given moment.
it is not expensive and has a great durability. .TABLE I4. are usually taken 34 times Comparison of the readings obtained on an hourly basis with a day.I 3 4145 5 5 6 6 677S i 88 b ve above above.the . TABLE 15. i 2 23 . Readingsby means of the wind vanes. where V 3 . the ty win4in wid n 4 6 8 10t 14 t sI 20 24 34 40 II0and ove The advantage of Wild's wind vane consists in the fact that due to the simplicity of its design. 4 and 24 times a day We can see that the readings taken four times a day give an average daily wind velocity with an error of 1% as compared to the average wind velocity obtained on the basis of 24 readings per day. V 4 and V 2 4 are . 3 13 II 1 5 5 56 6 1a 7 ! 1 VI Velocity of. the usual readings taken 34 times a day. a Wild wind vane'. The average velocity of the wind canbe deterAnemometers. DETERMINATION OF THE WIND VELOCITY BY MEANS OF WILD'S WIND VANE WITH A 200 G BOARD No o thebpins .93 V I V 4 = 0. 3. accurately by means of an anemometer. The main part of t this instrument is a fly which consists of a crosspiece with 216 . Observations of the instantaneous wind velocities at various meteorological stations can be quite inaccurate. depend mentirely on the observer who is susposed to estimate the velocity of /311 the wind by the average position of the wind vane board in an interval of two minutes. since the recording of the observations on wind velocity'in a given case..~ mined . For example: V3 = 0.99 V.avera'gevelocitis of the' wind 'btai'ed from the readings of. DETERMINATION OF THE WIND VELOCITY BY MEANS OF WILD'S WIND VANE WITH A 800 G BOARD Number Iof 22 1. show that the latter are sufficiently reliable for preliminary calculations. ' Velocityl of the' wind in 0 12 3 6 7 8 9 12 1tO 14 17 m/sec'.
and consequently.U = 1/3V is obtained on the assumption that the ratio C1/C2 = const throughout the pathof displacement of two diametrically opposed hemispheres of the anemometer... we find that the circular velocity of the hemisphere amounts to approximately 1/3 of the velocity of the wind. This simple relationship facilitates the determination of the It should be mentioned.projection of the surface of the hemisphere on the plane perpendicular to the direction ofovement'. or: C1( =C( 2) ) (c) (d) (e) Substituting in this equation the values of the drag coefficient obtained experimentally. 217 .34 and C2 = 1. Cl and C2''drag coefficients of the hemisphere. The uneven shape of the surfaces causes pressure differences between the two sides of the vertical axis of the crosspiece. that . othe wind and the concave hemisphere in the direction of the wind.hemispheres at its ends.mass density of the air6' F . the number of revolutions of the crosspiece with the hemisphere 'is proportionalilo the velocity of the wind.e. the right hand side of equations (a) and (b) can be rewritten: F(VU 2 S' After reduction.32. On one side of the axis of rotation.(VU). . U ... as a result of which it turns. we obtain: I(V +U)=c. however. p . the wind encounters the convexity while on the other . Since the friction of the axis of the crosspiece during its rotation with the hemisphere is insignificlantras compared to the acting forces. the ratio U/V changes somewhat with the change in the wind velocity V. Cl = 0.: (245) Expression (e) shows that the ratio of the linear velocity of /312 the wind does not depend on the(idensity of the air. 'n reality. However.pressure of the wind corresponding to the convex hemisphere . tfansission mechanism of the anemometer.circular velocity of displacement of the hemisphere.the concavity of the hemisphere. i.velocity of the wind. these changes are so insignificant that they are practically negligible. '' V . the hemispheres are subjected to the following pressures of the wind: (VU) 2 (a) (b) where: Pl and P 2 .
if i is well calibratedzl the velocity values recorded by it are of course more accurate than those determined by the eye. Kh. Calculation of the time is performed by means of a stop watch or by means of a watch which has a second hand.oof the anemometer with regard to the stream. 200).4% is observed in the readings dependi~g on the position. face of the anemometer should be placed at an angle of 450 to the direction of the wind. The electroanemometerveis used for instantaneous determinations of wind velocities. the anemometershave to be calibrated. Anemographs. Dividing this number by the time of observation in seconds.to real velocities which are determineddby calibrations using another accurate and tested instrument. the most convenient instrument for recording wind velocities. the •Metpribor". This is. The elaborated electrical current is fed to a volt meter.of Prof. G.. 200: produced by j n In measurements of wind velocity. The counter of the anemometer and the stop watch are started at the same time or else the time on the watch is noted. as shown in Fig.4 to 9. as a result of which. V.wind tunnel established that a change of +4. Before utilization. the stop watch and the anemometer are stopped at the same time or the time at the end of the observation is noted on the watch. The numbers on the face of the anemometer show the number of meters by which the airstream was displaced during the period of the observation.the readings of which are recorded are called anemographs. which consists of a crosspiece with cupshemispheres at each end and of a box with a counter which indicates the path)in meters passed by the airstream during a given time interval. Anemometer Fig. The investigations. 201.obtained according to the readings of the anemometer. the scale divisions of which indicate directly the magnitude of the/314 wind velocity in a given moment. Anemometer~s. The most widely distributed anemometer:iis the "Metpribor" hand anemometer (Fig. tables or graphs are obtained for the conversion of the wind velocities. Smirnov at the Kuchino . and after the elapse of the desired time interval. we obtain the value of the average /313 wind velocity in m/sec for the time interval of the observation. Sabinin and I. which is extremely important when calibrating this instrument.(i! . A crosspiece with hemispheres turns a small dc generator. 218 .
mm: . 203. can be performed by means of Pito's . It consists of two tubes:. This tube7 is mounted with the . . then it is easy to determine the average velocity of the wind pper t seconds:. A diagram of the Pito tube is shown in Fig. anemometer corresponds line £ mm on the ment 2. operation. a contact anemometer and os .by calculating the number of n i...t1Ube.r. . an electroanemo/ "existe.. The'dynamic pressure of the wind stream Fig.. of the anemometer covers the drum of the which differento its in relation to Each distance between recorder.2 . and. ' With vl'tagge . wind in the positions the two streaks corresponds in this recorder to a certain pat. position of the If a segS passed by the wind. are in :. the recording is a smooth and continuous curve it is a while in the second 2 2 ' straight interrupted line. an internal one which is thin with an open front end where the airstream exerts its pressure.' dependent. 201: contact is seen on the paper . . the wind. n0 recorder which are fed from an electrical storage battery. open end of the wind vane into~. meter. stream. the other end of the latter is connected with the air space df the thick tube.sn 4 ~ A more accurate determinationof the velocity of the air=stream.Two types of electroanemometers with recorder. of the intervals between the streaks on a portion of the line f. 202: Contact anemometer with c causes a pressure on the air /315 inside the tiubhe.' and 2. 202.an external tu:bhewhich is fixed and forms a closed airspace united wih.e. In the first case. direction of the wind to t seconds. The pressure of 219 .hKey: 1. the atmosphere of the lateral openings in the_ front part of the_0e The rear end of the thin tubeis connected either directlyVor via a rubber tube (depending of the design of the instrument) with the tube of ai~idh:idcolumn pressure gauge. A contact anemometer with recorder A line is shown in Fig.nce. with transversal streaks recorded by the pin at the time of the Change in the readings Fig.
in section II. 220 . The pressure of the airstream is determined from the differ" ence of height between the levelsof the liquid while thevelocity of the wind in a given moment is determined by means of Berioulli's equation. of the liquid levels in the tube of the pressure gauge. Consequently. The relationship between the mass density of the air p. Fig. B =6. (d) Hence. can write: SP+ or: we (b) /316 This pressure difference causes the difference in the position . specific weight of the liquid in the pressure gauge. as a result of the level of the liquid in this tube is establised at different heights. 203). . height of the column of liquid in mm. Substituting p in equation we obtain: . the air pressure in the thin tube is equal to pl and the velocity is VI. 2273+s _ (246) by its value from equation (3). P (a) since the velocity in the same tube is equal to zero (V1 = 0). Consequently. 203: Pito's tube.the pressure is p while the velocity is' V. For this purpose. colored alcohol is usually utilized.5 I (23+. the temperature t and the barometric pressure is given by equation (3) (see first chapter) . for these two sections. . BernOuii's 4quation isA written in the following manner: pfvzI~ V. we can write: .(246) where: p h y mass density of the air. we obtain: P . Pr h the airstream in the thin tube is trans" mitted by the liquid in the Ushaped tube of the pressure gauge.P S pv2 2 which. In section I (Fig.
for the water:column pressure gauge: *V=6. 205 illustrates the diagram of the commonest micromanometer with tilted tube. In the newest design.h~ the same meaning in English. An instrument which records not only the velocity /317 of the wind but also its direction is called anemograph. [Translator's note: A different word is used in Russian from the word in the heading of the previous section. we obtain the 'Tollowing simple expressions. electric conductor to a recorder which is mounted in the building of the meteorological station. The tracings are transmitted via an . it is possible to change the slope of the tube. which hinders accurate readings.5 1 7 9h ('' Under normal conditions.] 221 . The general view of the receiving. is a worm gearing with contact for tracing the velocity of the wind. Ii . which however . Expressing h in mm water. At low velocities of the airstream which are measurable by means of Pito's tube. which is convenient for changing the sensitivity of the micromanometer depending on the experimental conditions. of the anemograph is shown in Fig. while thait. is a box with an electrical device which perceives the direction of the wind. 1. Closedvessel A. Fig. Substituting these values.5 /'h (73 t for the alcohol pressure gauge: \V 6.t = 150 C. the height h in a normal manometer is too small. Fig. which is connected by means of t(bing B with Pito's tube. for the water column pressure gauge: hV=4 1 /_2\ (247) for the alcohol pressure gauge: (247a) Anemograph. 204: Anemograph.The specific weight of the water yw = 1.. we obtain:. B = 760 mm Hg. and substituting the numerical values of the specific weight. 2. Micromanometer. where v$. A more sensitive instrument for use with Pito's tube is the micromanometer [26]. part. 204..aIlcoholi's 079.' The recording made by this instrument givesa clear representation of the specific pattern of changes in the velocity and direction of the wind.
24 222 .t in the tilted tube at a known angle a of. Measuring the length of the liquid column2. For example. The average velocity of the wind is called the average arithmetic magnitude:i. by the time in seconds of operation of the anemometer. consequently.4 mm water of the alcohol y = 0. we obtain: column Since we adjusted the height of the alcohol column to that of the c . The average velocity of the/319 wind determined by means of the anemometeris obtained by dividing the number of meters shown by the anemometer. For example. the obtained velocity is: V= OA. the point of the anemometer counter indicated the number 425 m. in the beginning of the observation.. we obtainthe average daily wind velocity. m n Avereage monthly and average annual wind velocities.usually contains alcohol. the obtained value h can be substituted in equation (247). 6 measurements of wind velocity. 1/4. etc. the level in the tube assumes a certain position above the level in vessel A at a height h. Consequently.. the average velocity of the wind for this time interval equals: This method of calculating the average wind velocity gives an approximate value.lmn/se.6 . tilting and a specific weight of the liquid y we obtain: h = k sin ay (a) The slope of the tube in micromanometers of this type is made /318 in such a way that the sinya is a proper fraction: 1/2. the average velocity of the wind per hour .: .1/10 * 08 = 0. i.8. If we add up the average wind velocities E'per hour observed in the course of every hour for one day and divide by 24. Example.063. after 1 hour of operation the anemometer showed'the number 18.784 m. Due to the difference in pressure dynamic pressure between the side of Pito's tube and the surface pressure on the side of the open tilted tube C.e..composed of several observed velocities over a given interval of time.53 rd/sec micromanometer. The average velocity of the wind can be obtained more accurately by means of anemometers. At the slope of the tube sin a = 1/10 and a displacement in the meniscus inside the. r equaled in this hour: SVah = .tilted tube k = 5 mm. specific weight h = 5 . were performed every 10 minutes in the course of an hour. water column.
the Hi night wind velocities are greater than those reported during the day. the velocity of the wind is similar at night and during the day. the regions situated near the seashores . tables are compiled of the average monthly and average annual velocity of the wind. The lowest velocities of the wind are observed in regions of the central part of Yakutia. The latter however. for example. to 3 PM. the velocities of the wind are highest during the day and lowest at night. On the contrary. In the mainlands. in the highlands. and of the Baikal and Balkhash Lakes.of the Black and Caspian Seas.. This is explained by the fact that the annual average 223 . in the Northern Ural and Nothern Siberia. on the contrary.Oceans.In an analogical way. According to the data of meteorological stations obtained from observations performed for many years.! characterized for most regions in the USSR by a minimum in the summer months andra maximum in tispring and in the fall. but also for many other branches of the national economy. the average annual velocity of the wind is determined by the expression:  On the basis of recordings of average daily velocities of the wind. As a rule. The daily course of the wind velocity is characterized by the fact that the maximal velocities are usually observed in the middle of the day. the regions with comparatively large wind velocities are our semiarid regions in the southeastern European part of USSR.PMi~. ' The annual course of the average monthly wind velocities_. where the effect of forestr:areas is felt. performed by meteorological stations in the course of several years. the coastlandsocft'the Arctic and Pacific . with a maximum at 1 . from ' l".aredis/32( tinguished by the strongest winds. In the plains. may give entirely different amounts of energy because they are similar for regions which are situated at a certain distance from one another. The highest wind vc velocities are observed in the central regions of the Central Asian part of the USSR. It is common usage to judge on the possible amount of wind energy which passes in a certain region in the course of the year from the annual average veloci esof the wind. general conclusions can be made about the distribution of the average velocities of the wind.v . These tables are of great practical interest.. In the winter. the maximal wind velocity is7 observed in the summer. not only for wind technology. Comparatively weak wind velocities are observed in the northeastern regions of the European part of the USSR.
Behind the obstacle the velocity of the airstream decreases. New vortexes appear at the sites of the streams which have been carried away. .in their immediate vicinity. stony slopes cause very low wind velocities. In the valley between the elevations. aipart of it is transformed from a linear movement into an irregular turb'ulent one. the velocity of the wind in plainsteppes changes. and so forth. not only dt the level of the obstacle. When the airstream flows around . The sum of the cubes of a seies(C of numbers with small fluctuation in their values. In such a manner.. The underlying surface and the local topography exert a great influence .ums of the cubes of these numbers. The drawing shows that an anemometer placed in the vicinity of buildings cannot give true values of the wind velocity.. a kind of gangway is formed where the airstream is forced through. ravines. Investigations in the wind tunnel showed that the velocity of the airstream which passes above the roof of a house is markedly increased and consequently. The data obtained in the Kuchino!!wind tunnel about the movement of an airstream around models of individual houses. 206. but even at a slightly greater height. if the latter stands in an entirely open area. which give the same sum as the first series .increases 1..on the velocity of the wind. and form vortexes which are dragged away into the direction of the airstream.ffeCth belongs here to the ascendant and descendant streams.. an anemometer placed in the vicinity of /321 the tip of a roof. . then under certain conditions it can surround it and blow in the valley.obstacle. The air jets which flow around the edge of obstacles. Elevations with steep. The local topography creates the socalled local winds.precipito s.velocities of the wind are arithmetical averages of the values of numbers to the first power .52 fold.an. If the airstream encounters an isolated top. is smaller than of a series of numbers with marked variations in their values. the velocity of the wind is usally low. gives excessively high values of wind velocity for the given region.whentaken to the first power. If the elevation does not have regular slopes or the relietf is disrupted by precipices.e'declsiveI& . local winds 224 . An anemo6re'eonnaissance instrument has established that.while the energies of the wind are s. as well as groups of houses are shown in Fig. This turbulence which starts at the sides of the obstacle is gradually extinguised at a distance from it. The effect of obstacles on the wind velocity."20 m..are broken. and not above its reach. and disappears completely at a distance of approximately 15 time the height of the obstacle. etc. depending on local topography. at the height of 10. The velocity of the wind above mountain tops in open mountain chains with regular streamlined slopes' "without any sudden change in topography.
when directed across the valley. facilitate the finding of conversi6lrcoefficients for the(!approximate determination of the average wind conditions in each of the sites of reconnaissance on the basis of corresponding average data about the velocities at other meteorological stations. in those cases when complete information is needed about the wind resources of a certain region. the winds reach almost normal velocities. Therefore. Anemometric reconnaissance establishes: 1. the degree of uniformity of the airstream. 1 PM and 9 PM local time.stream 225 Fig. The duration of the readings on the anemometer was from 3060 minutes. bases of airships. an expd\ition is sent out for anemometric reconnaissance. for example. The data of anemometric reconnaissance serve as a basis for selecting the site of construction of winddriven installations as well as other structures which are related to aicertain extent with the wind conditions of a given locality. . In the course of 45 days. Most meteorological stations perform recordings of wind velocities according to the indications of Wild's wind vane and only 3 times per day. the accuracy of this data is insufficient for thorough technical calculations. etc.. 206: Aerodynamic Fig 206: Aerodynamic Spct:Urm around houseg n odes are created which sometimes /322 great strength under conditions where the velocities of the wind are comparatively low in the neighboring open part. speed of its 5060% loses Wind'. the following was found. the effect of topographical conditions and various obstacles in a given region on :the velocity and direction of the wind. at the same time performing observations on the velocity and direction in several sites of the selected region._reach A = >Y4K< '> ~ Anemoreconnaissance. 3.peditions study the structure of the wind. These ex. ' The observations were. meteorological stations. In addition. The velocity of the wind also increases when the airstream surrounds hills with a. Interesting information was obtained for example. the extinguishing effect disappears and the In the valleys of rivers. at 7 AM. by the anemometric expedition in the mountainous regions of Crimea.more of less regular outline of their surface..performed by means of an anemometer with hemispheres fastened to rods with a length of 4 m. new towns./323 1400 separate observations were made. airports. The velocity of the wind in valleys decreases considerably as compared to the general flowY In those places where the valley loses its steep slopes. the dependence of the velocity and direction of the wind on the height above regions with changing configuration. 2. parallel observations performed in various places of the same region and in the neighboring meteorological stations.
the normal flow reaches 100%. those points on the elevation which have wooded slopes also have lower wind velocity. for regions with annual average velocities not exceeding 5 m/sec. for whole values of V 0 . He arrived at the conclusion that this relation is characteristic and yields a normal Gaussian probability curve: =A =Ae(VV). Despite their higher position with regards to the center plateau.:' ii 226 . M. 207. . Sreznevskiy derived the mathematical relation which gives a relatively close coincidence of the theoretical recurrence of the wind with the practical one. for Leningrad.velocity of the wind. V0 . As early as 1889. while Table 16 illustrates the recurrence in hours [27]. Prof. Recurrence of the wind. the increase in velocity '. from an energetic viewpoint. Mor'e reent th6oretical data 'on wind recurrance was suggested by Gullen.number of components. n .. topswith large stony precipices slackened the wind. Pomortsev was the first to determine the r'elation whifc h gives values of wind recurrence close to the real ones. several scientistshave given mathematical relations which make it possible to find the theoretical magnitude of wind recurrence in a given region with a certain degree of accuracy.above. The wind recurrence is defined as the sumcof the hours in the course of which wind with the same velocity vblows in a certain place at difT ernt times.average velocity of the wind in the examined time inteva . M. Science has dealt with this matter for a long time. The recurrence curves of the winds according to Pomortsev are presented in Fig. Regions of high plateaus are characterized by high velocities of the wind.  BI (V Yj VY* 1' 4V 3 V V . high wind velocities were observed on the most streamlined tops which had regular outlines. or from a theoretical relation which is derived from Pomortsev's assumption on the applicability of_ Gauss's law to the given case. On the basis of long term investigation.In mountainous crossing points. the study of its recurrence is a very difficult task. where the parameters A and B can be determined either by the method /324 of the least squares from actual observations. The recurrence is the main magnitude characterizing the wind In view of the inconsistency of the wind.
i S A i8 For a comparison of the theoretical recurrence with the recurrence of the winds observed . 'i Jz ' 1 velocity and direction of air Fig. L.. 208: Curves of wind recurrence according to Gullen.. Key: 1.2 01 o 4 2 C 6 oo./325 rences according to Gullen 0 04 I.<. So04 corresponding to these curves in hours. Key: i.. in an Aerological dbservatory in the USSR.. minishes and it disappears almost completely at a certain altitude. M. . Thable17 gives the recurrence i .IS l I 0 I !The curves of wind recur. 200 I S IN aw 12 14 I . Fig.) curves and tables of Gullen and M. above the Earth's surface in' creases. while curve b shows the wind velocity during the same time /327 . 207: Curves of wind recurrence according to M. e in nature. I . recorded by a special instrument which was mounted in a kite. this infl'uience di''"':" . in hours streams. Pomortsev and according to actual data. Fig. S VO _are o elaborated by S. It is recom 0 'o tt . recurrence in % 2. 208. Rozentul presented in Fig. J e lera M/.intervals iin the vicinity of the Earth's surface. Pomortsev. These graphs 227 .. while Pomortsev's curves need 900 i .recurrence of wind velocities 1 1 11 1in regions with average velo4 cities from 6 m/sec above. Curve a shows the change in the velocity of the wind in a short time period at an altitude of 250 m. Fig. leads order rence it is Examination of these curves to the conclusion that in to determine the recurof various wind velocities quite possible to use the 1 . 209 and 210 /326 illustrate the recurrence curves according to Gullen.. 211 presents the changes in the velocity of the wind. Pomortsev. Change in wind velocity with altitude. S more accurate values of recurrence in regions with average _ _ ____ 600 400 _7 wind velocities below 6 m/sec... wind velocity in m/sec. mened to use Gullen's curves Xfor the determination of the ~. As the altitude n.The given obstacles on the Earth's surface effect considerably the J6 4 v S30..
/. it can be seen in the layers above 1000. to Gullen.. Jb Copo Cb sp B Fig. show that the greatest decrease in velocity in the vicinity of the Earth's atmosphere is caused by urban development. there is a slight change in wind velocity with altitude while at an altitud&about 500m velocidecreases with the awind the wind velocity de'creases with an increase in altitude. 210: recurrence curves according to Gullen and according to Pomort. sev with the actual recurrences for Moscow: 1recurrence according to Pomortsev.I 2 3 4 6 78 10 I) 1 2 b cKOpoCb SeTpa a H/C.thfere: is< even a slight increase in wind velocity in the vicinity of the surface. 2according to Gullen. 2 ! 11 I ! I I K I t / I S \ to \ show that the flow of airstreams in the upper layers of the atmosphere takes place with less pulsations than below.3 32 . 212 give curves obtained according to observations performed in the Aerological observatory in the USSR. 14 S... the velocity of the wind decreases in the vicinity of the The lowest Earth's surface.in the vicinity of the Earth's surface.above various kinds of underlying surfaces. Key: a. Observations on the changes in the wind velocity with altitude. in Nbvorossiysk. When the underlying surface is an open plain. 209: Comparison of the recurrence curves according to Pomortsev and according to Gullen with the rear recurrences in nature: 1recurrence according to Pomortsev. This phenomenon should probably be related with the circumstance that on calmdays. 3according to recordings. wind velocity in m/sec. 2according ing to Pomortsev. here. Key: a. when the Earth's surface is sufficiently heated by the sun. AiI i. air currents of a local character resembling cordings. even in the plains.which . gives the values of wind velocity during the winter and during the summer. recurrence in % b. Fig. 228 . recurrence in Key: b. recurrence in % a. 3according to tracings. Comparison of the Fig. wind velocityl in m/sec. there is an increase in wind velocity in the vicinity of the Earth's surface which amounts to 1/1/2 fold as compared to the general S/ 6 4 stream flowing above the Earth's surface :in the Markhotsk Pass. For example. 7. 6 I i 4 6 o2 S 4 3 ' 12 14 16 18 20 .I aI   _ 3 V £0 2'Ii7!:i2:L aZ . radiants of decrease in wind velocity is observed above a convex surface with a:sniooothout/329 line of its relief.
a of crease of the effect 9101f112 13 1415 1617181920 marked increase in wind veloI increasiI. U 10 685 8 500 70)0 394 7..TABLE 16. . titr city of the general circula _  . M. 1 L 1I _L  .  640 1050 128 315 700 t 000 376 70U 70 52 26 262 131 52 26 1tS I 030 1 120 1 100 '3   52 183 438 7'0 886 0001. between winter and summer shows that the change in wind veloKey: 1m/sec city with altitude is much /331 less expressed in the summer than in the winter. POMORTSEV Wind yelo verage. RECURRENCE OF THE WIND ACCORDING TO M. with observea is city the of Fig.:13I1 7: 1892 course considerably inthe wind in the vicinity Earth's surface.... 17 . .:a: general order [23] . . 211: Characteristic ing distance from the ground.  j 2 r :. A comparison of the velocities bon the surface of the Earth. 19. . .L S' "... S. .r12r 3 _. tion is low. ....r . .. wind: aat an altitude of 250m. .  330 t050'1 445 141 5 1210 193 62  93. V i ': 3 4 5 6 7 . 9 . 14. 18 . ...recurrence 0 . 8l 5001 70 312 516 170 350 70 220 36 1033 8 0l 6S' 96) 783 1000 850 700 520 36S 25. which increase the/330 general movement of the air during the day. and what comes to the fore aret f'e6ts ' of ... 17 7 the Earth. 12 13 . 653 2020 1990 1445 1003 873 171011 610 11310 525 '51 ) 070 1 310i 0 152 26  700 963 1 462 7 334 100 92 228 350 5 . 229 .. rr12 ..rY!.r. .      18 16  61 26 17 157 87 52 290 193 131 79 20. 2230 876 500 3600 2020 1030 219 87 307 630 17. these local winds .. _ .can ... .. which is explained by lower values of the vert. 8 10 . . In the lower layers and up to 500 m above the Earth's surface..4g wind velocities (:in m/sec) secity n. t5 .  61 . 87i 796 68S 520 420 115 16. . 6 . general circulation.5 376 6S/i 87 228 420 52 149 262 44 88 187 18 62 140 0 13 1t8) 280 520 876 70 2590 1700 1070 3 4 . 2 . I ssis e Hours dfwind. 17 .. The of the local wind is quenched under conditions of increase in the winds of the . . When the velo . .ical temperaturengradient in winter time as compared to the summetr. . t .
7 19 . 2 On the basis of the given observations on whid velocity in relation to altitude. . 13 .velocigy determined for a height h. 16 .. 10 . . 6 3 15 14 6 5 10 4 3 2    .. .3) 5 . 27. 25. . as well as for the turbulence seen in the vicinity of the ground.are correspondingly the velocity and the height.    40.0 20 100 650 450 360 280 220 t70 40 100 70 60 40 30 20 18 15 870) 736 0 77 S86o 770 780 700 600 5. 140 too 60 40 30 22 13 10  200 1040 93) 810 680 630 930 400 475 7. . . 36. 5.0 40 30 280 230 190 150 125 100 75 58 36 27 22 620 680 550 S6.TABLE 17. 22 . RECURRENCE OF THE WIND ACCORDING TO GULLEN Wind vplo4verage annmalwindvelocities in mr/se' city in m/sec Hours of wind recurrence Up. Laykht:.. tb'l . . .  675 6 0 530 475 410 345 290 20 200 170 "0 120 99 75 60 50 23. "   10  *22 '18 12 10 28 S30   22 17   9 7  34 .  "  10 5  17 15 35 25 22 18 15 12 670 650 600 550 4W 440 380 330 280 240 200 175 150 130 110 835 75 620 600 570 540 490 450 400 360 320 280 )4) 210 is0 150 130 o1 1i00 60 80 . 18. 7 .. 38. .o man took into consideration the effect of these factors and admitting 230 . . 50 40 35 30 70 60 50 40 32 29 31. . 21. t10 6 4  26 . V . .. the simplest relation for a height of 5 m and above is the following expression: (248) where: V 0 and ho . 8. . . 37. . 17.   . . several investigators derived general formulasfor / determining the velocity of the wind according to altitudes.. measured in the vicinity of the ground. 9. 33 35. D. 32. I740 700 60' 6. ... 1 2. . .4. 4.39. 4. L.. 1200 1 540 365 245 850 1 172 10 103 83 300 520 250 450 3.. The shortcoming ' of this(: formula is that it does not account for the effect of the underlying surface on wind velocity. . 12. 24. . 28 . . 1450 1 220 930 660 470 330 220 150 90 S0 0 36 20 17 to  1250 1 150 950 780 630 480 350 260 200. Of these formulas. 20.
0 . Sequals 1. the velocity of the wind V = 0.known velocity of i. the winds follow the local relief.00 (J that at a certain height ho.Izvestiya Akademii nauk USSR 8(1) (1944). "Wind profile and interchange in the atmospheric layer'close to the ground". I. V= V. 11113 14 with the resultsof direct observa 1 "/ Characteristic of Fig.8" 6. m/sec tions which include the air layer close to the ground starting with several cm.5 cm. 0. bsummer at 1 PM Key: 1.60 'where V .7 cm in the case of a sugar__ beet field. 212: . The irregularities of the surface encountered by the wind cause turbulence. A comparison of this equation < 0.the change in wind velocity in relation to altitude: awinter at 1 AM. 2. if the underlying surface is covered with snow. h 0 .10: S3 10 i.2 cm in the case of field covered with low grass.0 U" as a measure of the roughness of the underlying surface. according to the observations of RykacheV)performed in 19172 and published in the collection Ydstestvepniyeproizvoditel'nye sily . In the lower layer.unknown velocity of the atwin Vat .height at at wind the 7 9 Swind o0.2.which is unfavorable for the work of wind engines. Usually h 0 is regarded its magnitude 1 . and 0. The instability of the wind with regard to bothovelocity and direction extends up to a height of approximately 80 m above the ground. The change in wind velocity in th 'Nlaybr extending from 15 m above the surface of the ground. confirmed the validity of this equation for calculating the changes in wind velocity in relation to altitude under conditions of an adiabatic gradient (Laykhman.Rbossii [Naturailproduction forces f /332 Russia] Vol. Part 1. 231 . he obtained the following formula: h .11 which the velocity of the wind is equal to 0.OOL J 4 147 .a 1'00 0. 3. is characterized by the following values ( in m/sec).
.e~ii noipon ..40 .+Icora  47.om. Seii 2 " 5. Modern wind technology has given as yet no exhaustive answer to this question.ohowever.m[iban 11ir. average value of the velocity in the period from Feb.t6 0 Section 14. The overall power determined for the USSR can amount to 10.50 . The inconsistency of the wind velocity in time and with altitude.a. I3. . height (in m) 3. with snow cover gone (AprilMay) 5...83 I . .7850D2 where: D = 15 D D  (a) diameter of the circular area under one wind engine. Let us.a distance.which was 15 fold the diameter of the winddriven wheel.ri nac 8/11 o2iV 1917 r.87(15D. 1917 grbund surface (Table 18).. The area underornewind engine should be equal to: F = 0. underlying surface 2. The closest disposition of wind engines can be obtained if oone assumes that the area under each wind engine has the shape of . 8 to May 24.701 million kW with an annual average energy output of 18. the lack of experience in the exploitation of groups of wind engines. . as well as of individual powerful wind engines with a power above 200 hp. 281 billions of kW hours [18]. 5cpegilueO 'If1. Ad/333 hering to the checkerboard pattern of wind engines on the surface of the groundi let us calculate the amount of wind energy per square km.87D 2 2 = 196 D 2 • = 0. Approximate theoretical calculation of the wind energy. snow cover 4.88 5.2 5.431 .) (b) 232 .. which can be put to practical use. Oe I 4.. cc 4C e. Krasovskiy distributed the wind engineson the surface of the land in a checkerboandd pattern over.48  5. do not allow to determine the magnitude of the windenergy. The Energy of the Wind 3C.." regular hexagon. N.( fc2.23 6. This author found that the following amount of wind energy could be obtained per :square km of 1i.Iwi Deb upo. The area of such a hexagon will be equal to: Fhe = 0. . ) r y v o t the cube of its velocity: Key: It is of practical interest to determine what amount of the wind energy can be utilized by modern .technology. present some theoretical considerations on this matter. the energy of the to wind changes proportionally According to equation (62).o80 6. diameter of the wind driven wheel.Or roNR.
its characteristics&fBid the recurrence of th :'wind in the regfonii dofthe wid. instllation 'sho.e. we obtain the deter " . woring with.ooo00065 DW z Multiplying this expression by 5100/D mined power per sq. deb=2.(25)4V (250) or. the number of work hours of the wind engine can be determined in the course of the year for each velocity of the wind.: 2 V : . &qation. Knowing the characteristics.30 we obtain a simple expression for the steady 1 de = power: i 25p1) (251) where Vdedt is the velocity of the wind corresponding to the determined or hominal power of the wind engine (see chapter IX). i.: The power Of each (137) ] : ind engine :equals [Section '22. 5 btained f68106 persq 4 CuaiutAt it 618 790 1t00 i480 1880 2400 1550 2220 3040 3950 5120 Dividing one sq.TABLE 18 Annual. the output coefficient of the wind energy can be determined at various wind velocities. km.000654D e OV . km. . sq 297 435 1000. iV= o. For determining the annual output of a wind engine.. wind ' engnes petr.46 Va 2 /334 kW (250a) If 5 = 0. the annual output can be calculated by means of the equation: i~" 0 654 r t ( 252 (252) 233 .. av[ POwe ~yin kW !generators. km.of kW hrs. Having this data.uld be know:. by 196 D 2 . we obtain thennumber of wind engines which can be accommodated per sq.. From the recurrence curve.
5. By means of equation IN = 0. M (in hp'. where n = 1. the coefficient ( canbe assumed tobe.we obtain the annual output of the wind engine. TABLE 19 Annuaaveracre (inmi/sec) Annual outputI lof wind engine D = I .00654D 2 V3. all the hours t of wind recurrence at a velocity above ty should be added to the number of hours t of wind recurrence at a velocity equal to Vy. up to a Vy at which te power of the wind engine becomes limiting. which de"scribes the recurrence of the wind. Table 19 presents the calculations of the annual output in hp hours . by multiplying the power of the wind engine by the number of hours of recurrence at the given Velocity and adding up the products. while it is variable in the case of piston pumps. velocity of the wind at which the wind engine can operate. 6. constant. mechanical output coefficient of the wind engine. if V = 8 m/sec (a wind velocity of 3 m/sec is taken into consideration oly for winddriven pumptinstallations). 87 196 314 435 544 628 692 234 . hr.rfor an arbitrary wind engine with a diameter of the winddriven wheel D = 1 m and different annual average wind velocities.. 4. Consequently.e. millstones and several agricultural machines. The number of hours per year in which the wind blows with each of these velocities can be found in Table 16 or 17.30 = const.where: D n V tp  diameter of the winddriven wheel.r the power of the wind engine can be calculated at velocities of the /335 wind 3. 7 and 8 m/sec. The power was calculated for the shaft of the winddriven wheel. In calculating the number of hours of wind recurrence. output coefficient of the wind'.: energy. The magnitude of the output coefficient of wind energy and the output coefficient of the engine should be taken from the characteristic of the wind engine which operates with a given machine [45]. g nerators. i. In working with centrifugal pumps.) . number of hours of recurrence for each wind velocity.: t = t + t.0 and 5 = 0.
12 ..r7tIv r r . the storage devices used in wind technology can be subdivided into the following groups: 235 . months and even years. 2v means of equation: .ferent dimensions can be calculated for any annual average wind velocity by D D! . Accumulation of the>Wind Energy.dc. at the height of 190 m.e. from the 13th to the /. mag W . As an example. i 18 19 21 t. According to their principle of operation. increased 3 fold.:.drif.one hour.Since the power of the wind engine is proportional to the square of the diameter of the winddriven wheel. minutes. We can see from the graph that the change in wind velocity in intervals /336 of 2 _seconds may reach 10 m/sec. minutes.period. These fluctuations of energy are ironed out by various regulating devices of the wind engine. Fig. The inconsistency of the wind in time. 2requires :structuresof storage devices which make it possible to accumulate the energy during the At this moment in time. its outpbfoIi~~. and upfto .. Consequently. hours. r"7. The capacitance storage device can store and return to the consumer the energy accLuulated:in the course of a prolonged :time from 1 hour to several hours.= . the matter constitutes an :qalm. extremely complex problem in the practice of wind energy utilization. Fig. with friequentccalm periods extending from 1 to 5 days. The periods of fluctuation in wind energy are of the order of seconds. 48..? 01 2 1tI r17M 1/ex " LI The changes in wind velocity which take place both in Types of storage devices. For example. The buffer storage devices can accumulate and return to the consumer the stored energy in short periods of time in the order of seconds. . the velocity of the wind changed from 5 to 15 m/sec. 213 presents the anemographic tracing of the wind velocity at a height of 190 m during aasperiod of 20 seconds. the energy of the wind in this moment increased 27 fold. nitude and in the course of time make it possible to use in practice both buffer and 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1I0I1 f2 1314 1518 capacitance types of energy storage devices. (2 5 3 ) whereth vales of'N are presented in''Table 19 for average annual velocitiei ranging from 3 to 9 m/sec. 213: Anemographic tracing of the velocity of the wind during 20 sec.c 15th and from the 20th to the 21st second.. i.
c is enclosed in' a hermetically closed housing. or at/ceitain moments in time. Of the existing mechanical accumulators the one designed by UfimtsevVetchinkin is well known. and the clutch rotates the generator on account of the energy which it accumulated during the increase in wind velocity. V. With regard to the losses caused by the friction in the bearings. As soon as the wind slackens and the number bf revolutions of the wind engines decreases. the dis. the generator is operated either directly 1 by the wind engine or by the storage device. compiled by Prof. the disc accumulates kinetic energy just like the flywheel of a steam engine.tensile strength per kg/mm 2 . In such a manner.1. the disc continues%. The main drawbackhiof energy storage devices is the losses caused by air friction. like the spring.. 3. presents approximate weights and the main data of energy storage devices. hydraulic. The weight of the disc per 1 hp equals:_ _ f (25 4) where a . P. andVwel . lubricated. This storage device consists of a steel disc:with an axis. electric. 6. This generator is set in motion by means of a belt transmission from the vertical shaft of the wind engine. pneumatic and The mechanical accumulator storesthe excess energy and returns it when reeded by means of mechanisms such as flywheels. the wind power installations gives to a certain extent an equal amount of energy regardless of the pulsating nature of the wind. suspended on ball bearings. mechanical 2. The smallest weight per unit 6f ehergy accumulated b6 thee *torage device is held by a disc of equal resistance. 236 . jacks. these form an extremely low percentage./337 etc. The. 4. thermic. is connected by means of a special clutch to the generator and is in fact a continuation of the axis of the latter. This is the buffer type of energy storage device. frequency at which 'the clutch is i switched over depends an the duration af the wind guAs a result.of the losses of air friction when the bearings are properly mad. The diagram of operation of a wind engine with energy storage device is shown ±iniFig. hydrogen storage device. The axis of the disc. like when the wind velocity increases. The clutch which connects the axis of the disc. Table 20. to rotate with the same number of revolutions which it had in a given moment. 5. springs. Vetchinkin. 215.' to the axis of the generator is designed in such a way that when the number of revolutions increases. These mechanisms return the stored energy to the power tool intermiftntly like the flywheel.
which are leadplates. btal./339 sible to accumulate and preserve the electric energy in the form of constant current for its expenditure according to the graph of consumption.the electrodes battery filled with dilute '' sulfuric acid and placed in it.. iron. r steel . 350 700 m/sec 7. Ththemechanical storage devices belong also the elastic energy storage devices in which the elastic properties of bodies are utilized for the accumulation of energy.weight of and : " hIungsdhaft bearings) kg/hp hr.. rotor kg/mm Stress of2the 1 40 0 6.hr. a rotating disc is included in a hermetically closed housing. in which some vacuum hadbeen created.devices which make it pos. kWt . 4.. _. undercarriage Of 'afrlanes. gc/kt hr. storagedevice 1 0 4700 3.:stee common !high quality . The capacity depends on the number and dimensions of the plates of each 237 . 5.. 'Theoretical weigh of rotor. Circular v'elocitt 140 .TABLE 20 U) d 0R ww d 'M 2.kg/hp . This method was applied by /338 inventor Ufimtsev for the wind installation built by him in the town Kursk. The number of. An example of the simplest buffer storage device are the rubber shock absorbers used in aviation for the.amperehours which the storage device can supply to the net is called the capacitancheof the storage device. Weight of stcrage device per. Material'of the rotor ' "_ (ith o8000 6000 4000 . The element of an electric storage device consists of a ..hr o stored e rergy. " : 00 ' 150 50 In order to decrease the velocity caused by friction of the air. Electric energy storage devices .
The output coefficient of the storage device is called the ratio of the work obtained during complete discharge to the work consumed during the charging. Therefore. if during its discharge the battery can give 70 amperes in the course of 3 hours. it had a capacitance of 210 amperehours. Machine building 2 of the hydrostorage device . in alternating current circdfits'the . i.under conditions where the dimensions of the plates are the same. which sets in motion the generator.: ' power of the hydroturbine: hence: 75. as long as the voltage of each element does not decrease from 2.8 V.e. while. the water passes throeghthe same pip intb o a turbinei. Electric storage devices operate.alternatihg current is transformed into constant current prior to discharge. the larger the number of. In the absence of wind. The diagram of a wind installation with hydrostorage device is shown in Fig.. The amount of water required per 1 hp hr of accumulated energy is determined frof the equati'on for the.. The electrical current obtained from the /340 winddriven installation is transmitted via line 7 and setsin motion the electrical engine with centrifugal pumps which supply the water via a pipe to the forebay pipe. it can be led into an irrigation system [16]. which in its fall can perform work. The w wind engine is situated atthe highest point in a place open to the wind and is operated by a generator. the larger the capacitance of the storage device.element and on the intensity of the charged current. pond or lake. The magnitude of this coefficient varies between the limits 7080%.3600. .' only with constant current./is situated in the vicinity of 'water 'source 3 .3ii = ' i000QHr= 75.e. Experience shows that the slower the discharge. When sufficient water is available.05 to 1. Hydrostorage devices.amperehours which it develops. the constant current of the battery is transformed into the alternating current dircuit. i. The hydrostorage device is a power installation where the energy of the wind or any other energy is transformed into potential energy in the form of water raised to a certain height. For example.a river. 214. under this condition the capacitance increases up to 28 x 10 = 280 amperehours. When the current of this battery is only 28 amperes.k mM 238 .during te discharge. 3 and not 10 hours are needed for it to be charged.' Such a double transformation decreases the output coefficient b6 the battery and increases the measured losses of the installation..
(255a) The most important structure of the hydrostorage device is the forbay for the storage of water. 10 =5 150  It is ntmoconvenient to build such a large forebay for a wind installation of low power. the capacity of the forebay should be 51. natural water reservoirs have to be sought.of . clincy ur.&y in m. n_ The efficiency 'of the hydrostorage device is de..of the forebay(evaporation.0. seepage)7 and'substituting the numerical values in equation (256).9 ciency.5 _m2 . fi S _tur = 0. . we obtain: =O 950.9 e fii ' tur = 0. At a pressure head H = 10 m per 1 hp hr.. (256) Diagram of a windssuming power installation with hydro assuming ntr = the 0. should have a forebay with a capacity of: W 5 N 1 o. termined bymultiplying the ".:effii" ef 0.~7effi cieiicy.525. *a H .9=0. we obtain the volume of water per 1 hp hr. mp.of the pipe.8 p in Pu = 0. nVp = 0. 239 . (255) .85 .of storage device.amount of water in m. .95 transmission effi'cienc. efficiencies . efficien y '. Key: 1.525 in equation (255). for building hydrostorage devices.5 H M_ 51s 3 hr. the hydrostorage device with a "steadypower Ny = 10 hp per 10 hours of work..of the unitsof the installation..85.pf the hydrostorage device. which are situated at the required height. 1 270 o5 ..This expression yields:/341 Q= Swhere:  .80o. i. Fig. 2 Q . line of transmission of the energy romstorage the device engine to the pump. In such a manner. Therefore. the turbine.uild dams in ravines and gulleys. Substituting n = 0.= .height from the lower to the upper level of the water in the fore. It may appearadvisabi t.. O0T 7_ /hp.: .e. 214:  .9o. b. TrU 4p~i ri::. i.8 icaency 0 of the pump.o..
The oxygen is used for industrial purposes. This unit is /343 started in order to cover the excess load. Regardless of the degree of . A.Ufimtsev at the winddriven electrical installation in the town Kursk. when the power of the winddriven installation exceeds the load required by the consumer. The hydrogen storage device. The thermic storage device which is intended for heating purIn those periods poses is builtaccording to the following plan. The hydrogen is stored in reservoir f . G. which is stored either in the form of hot water for the . As an example. the weight of the compressed air storage device equals approximately 18 kg per kg of air. Ufimtsev suggested in 1918 to accumulate the energy of the wind by electric dissociation of water into hydrogen and oxygen. 215. The daily income of energy on account of the work of the wind engine is shown by curve k.I shows the change of this load. the compressed air can be used for the operation of either power tools or air turbine s.'~ The compressed air is stored under great press sure in gas balloons or in reservoirs. A.Thermic storage devices are structures in which the energy of /342 the wind is transformed into heat. The electrical current goes to the storage battery c and the electrolyser3d where the process of dissociation of water to oxygen and hydrogen takes place. Curve I . The oxygen is accumulated in reservoir e and can be used for various purposes. The diagram of such a winddriven hydrogen installation is shown in Fig.from which it is used for the work of turning engine g which sets in motion generator h. the same figure shows the daily graph of the load of a winddriven electric station. The wind engine set's in motion the energy storage device a which is fitted on axis b.internal combustion engines. Since the hydrogen can be stored in gas balloons.. it is possible to store energy in the form of hydrogen fuel which can be spent according to need on the work of a thermic engine. The consumption of energy during the time from 3 PM to9 PM is covered by the electrical storage device. while the hydrogen is used for burning in'. An attempt of utilizing a thermic storage device for heating was made by G.. In such a manner.'the air in the engine constitutes not more than 60% of the work spent on compressing this air in the compresssor. 1i_. The work of expanding . The compressed air storage devices make use of the elastic properties of a. the excess electrical energy is directed to electrical boilers in which the water is heated up to vapor formation and is then used in heating systems.lheating of premises or in the form of vapor which is used in steam engines or turbines for central heating. 240 . the kinetic energy of the wind can be transformed into the potential energy of compressed air by means of a winddriven compressor installation.icom' pression.
Key: 1. tiimenA. de g h Fig. power in hp 2.which ael erates the reserve engined)r itig its starting. about the prospect of energy storage on account of hydrogen production. The automatic starting is performed by means of the current which passes through the 1 . 215: Ufimtsev's diagram of a hydrogen installation.Pgine i j " storage The reserve hydrogen eng and the generator are started automatically each time that the charge supply of the battery is consumed up to a given limit of its voltage.of day 241 . In this case the generator turns into m~m tor. 2 dc generator of the engine. 1 I. No practical data on this matter are available to It is hard to speak date.
The . the performance of the wind engine should be known as well as the characteristics of the power tools which are operated at the same time.wind engine by comparing the main parameters of its aerodynamic characteristics..i. the rapidity of the winddriven wheel Zn with load. The curvesin Fig. and in the lower part . Performance of Wind Engines and of 's$ton Bumps The performance of a wind engine is definedas the relationship between the power of the wind engine at a certain wind velocity 242 . On the basis of thesemagnitudes.e. however the starting moments are largely different. Fig. 216 show the change in the main magnitude of the wind engine characteristics: the initial and working moments. the lower its relative moment.df wind energy./345 ded winged pidity and very small initial moment. the multi 'a wind engines. are distinguished by a large initial moment but very low rapidity.the characteristics of the relative moments M = f(Z) are given. in addition to the aerodynamic characteristics. For example.Wind . In order to performrithsetasks in the proper way. in the upper part of the graph are aiventhe characteristics of the output coefficients(. it is possible to sn make a correct selection of the wind engine for work with a given machine and to find out the advantages of a certain type ofi. The graph of energy utilization and the characteristics of power tools are the conditions which determine the type of wind engine.and synchronal Z 0 without load. ( = f(Z). operation of different agricultural machines. which should be taken into consideration in selecting the type of wind engine.and the rapid speed . The higher the rapidity the wind engine. are almost identical. we find that winged wind engines are more effective than rotor ones. 49. In projecting a wind power installation. the most favorable set of conditions of operation of the wind power unit should be sought for a definite type of work and considering the local wind conditions. Comparison of the initial moment MO shows that the winged sparsley bladed wind engines are characterized by high ra. as well as the rotor type.CHAPTER 13. the lowTwo types of wind engines are available to date. sparsely bladed. CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND POWER UNITS /344 ' engines are designed according to the conditions of .multibladed output coefficientseof wind energy in wind engines of both types with the exception of the rotor type. comparing the output coefficients of wind energy .L'. 216 presents the aerodynamic characteristics of the main types of wind engines.
217: acteristics and performance of the VIME D16 wind engine. 4. Let us recalculate this in characteristic to the performance N = f(n).characteristics s /346 are plotted on the basis of the aerodynamic characteristic ' S_= f(Z) by its scaling to the performance N = f(M). The values of rapidity X ZlZ 2 etc. and the number of revolutions N=f (n). n isrpm. and 6 m/sec. 216: istics of winddriven wheels in various systems. Example. 243 . as shown above. the result of the calculation is recorded in a table ao c.. N is hp on the shaft of the winddriven wheel. 5.in m/sec. These. determined by means of equation (140) at wind velocities of E . 0 NI S' i . Table 21. The number of revolhtions of the winddriven wheel is. right). E and n.therwind  driven wheel is given for an improved type of the VIME D16 windmill. plotted. 217. S 2 Aerodynamic characterFig.data of Table 21. bf. let us plot the curve of the /347 power of the wind engine for each working velocity of the wind in relation to the number of revolutions of the wind engine (Fig.c 20 30 1 4o 1( Aerodynamic charFig.the  5 0 power of the wind engine is calculated for the same wind ve . According to the. according to which the graph of the performance is .. . 217 left. according to equation (137) ... are written out in a series together with their corresponding output coefficientsof wihd energy. In Fig. 2 locities and their corresponding Z. where V is .0.')l= f(Z). SII sal" Further. etc.02 0. __ /V. the aerodynamic characteristic. 3.2 . obtained from the aerodynamic characteristics 0. .
35 0.6 2 00 32. {~n 18.20 28.020 V=3 V= .80 7.30 17..20 8.60 n N 0. i{Jn (N 5.0 3t5 inDdules Z Output Scoefficient iof the .SO 16.70 0. It is much more complicated to select the power tool for a wind ehgine.96 2 66 0. Moreover.00 43 1.: energy 0.8 2.40 37.14 n 3.80 402. These operating conditions are obtained when in trying to superimpose the characteris:'i tic of the power to61l over that of the wind engine. .40 615 20.00 18.than it is for a thermic engine.60 7. Examining these curves.501 a 1.245 0. This characteristic should be used in selecting the power tools for a certain wind engine.40 7.20 6.50o.20 0. at which the unit can operate the longest time with maximal output coefficient of the wind energy.wind.30'i13 50 O10.8) 4.00 29. Y=6 V=7 1t80 3.110 0. 218.20 10.' 244 .0 14.34 2.00 34. The thermic engine works with an almost constant power and number of revolutions.5 2.2 I0 in 2.0 1i. only at certain revolutions of the winddriven wheel.. 0 L 13.7o i.24 n 3. therefore the selection amounts to determining. we note that the wind engine develops itsmaximal power corresponding to each wind velocity.00 21.79 0 ~ 0 0V.2.00 24.60 9.80 14. .70 2 36 S9N 1..83 4:60 7.24 4.0 1.40 25.00 21. as shown by curve A in Fig.60 16.80 12.00 6.90 ..80 21.53 1.:".1 9.' the corresponding power of a power tool and its revolutions.90 3. 2 o 1.00 15i 00 18.60 5. 00 2. curve B characten izes unstable operating conditions.40 4.01) 4 .32 [4.20 9.V S=8 S =9 S ii V10 V 1: {v X 2. the former will pass through the peak of the performance curve of the wind engine.40 36. it.80 19.0530 0.80 42.20 12.50 21.40 32. with the V.TABLE 21 rpidity of wh e no o 0.0 .01) 24.00 10.40 in N 4.80 4.26 O 3 0.00 28.62 2.125 0. . is easy to determine the gear ration'at which the unit will have the most favorable operating conditions. By means of the characteristics of the wind engine and of the power tool.0 6.40 410 04! Jn 4.00 39..00 25.60 14.47 1. In this case.87 1.175 0.80 33.230 0. The task of selecting a power tool for a wind engine consists ii selecting a certain gear ratio of revolutions of the wind engine to fit the revolutions of the power tool. The L3 wind engine has both variable 'revolutions and variable power.5 1.l o104 0.40 12.00 .the power consumed by the power tool is smaller than the power of the wind engine developed at each wind velocity.66 19.90 7.5 .20 29.00 30"0 12.00 30 50 28._ from:a. 0 9.20 9.30 11.00 12.9N t10.40 16.20 6.60 12 N 0. 40 2020 15.601 3.19 0.60 25.40 118.ccatalogiie. Curves B and B' characterize an unfavorable set of operating conditions since in this case.
~output. the specific weight of which differs from that of water. _I _ The power N required for lift ing water by means of a pump is determined by the equation: 7sN 'j (257) . Fig. and finally nv . accounting for the mechanical losses Key: 1. in the hinges. Hst and of the sum of all the losses in the pressure head Eh. H . Ipressure head in m. the factor y . S= nm"h v .the hydraulic efficiency of the pump. the load will brake the wind engine in each moment by increasing or decreasing the revolutions with the changes in wind velocity. etc. 218: Performance of a wind n . of the bar in the bearings. in liters per second. flow rate /349 where Q or feeding of the water by means of the pump. H 1 20. dm. . H=Hst+.(258) For liquids. the power of the power tool Sincreases more rapidly than the power of the wind engine. accounting for the degree of faultlessness of the pump in the hydraulic sense.volumetric efficiency of the pump. ical efficiency nm of the pump.05. rpm against the wallsiodf the cylinder. which consists of the mechanting conditions.. nh . should be introduced in equation (257). hp due to the friction of the piston 2.overall pressure head in m. The output of a single acting piston pump is determined by equation (" (259) where: h piston stroke in dm. accounting for the losses in pressure head during the flow through the pump.number of double piston strokes or revolutions per minute of the pump crank. its value fluctuates between the limits 0.volumetric efficiency or coefficient of filling. in the suction intake pipe and in the delivery pipe. i. with which the pump operates or the manometric pressure. nv . n . therefore.specific weight of the given liquid.increase in the number of revolutions.overall efficiency of the power unitunder various operapump. The magnitude H consists of a static or geometric pressure head.area of the cross section of the piston pump in sq.hr (260) 245 .e.9 and 0.
Assuming that t'epressure /350 head H is also constant. at this velocity the wind enginewill not operate due to overload. Hence we see that the characteristics of the pump power. at certain values of the piston's stroke h and of the pressure head H without c: accounting for the losses of pressure during the movement of the water in the pipeline. In designing a winddriven pump unit.7s85d afrrtnr ' 7 G°d (261) In this. and :den6tingthese magnitudes in equation (261) as C. 3 246 . hp intersect the characteristic of/351 Key: hp 1. sec ly. isa straight line which: passes through the origin of the coordinatesforming a certain angle with the axis. This straight line does not Key: 1. we obtain: N = Cn. are constant ?. (262) This equation shows that the power spent:> for the operation of thepistonpunp is _directly related to the number of strokes n of the pistonIor the number of revolutions of the crankcase. when superimposed on Congruent characteristics Fig. the wind engine at wind veloci'f 2. plotted according to n. therefore. 2191. However.which it develops Jat the wind velocity of 8 m/sec. we know from the tables of wind occurrence that winds with a velocity of 3 to 6 m/sec blow during the largest number of hours per year.. m/sec ties below 6 m/sec.1 values of hg. a pump computed for the full power of the wind engine would prevent it from operating for the greatest part of the year. In Table 16 which describes the occurrence ".wind we find that most frequent are those winds. 219: the characteristic of the wind of wind engine and piston pumps of engine would cross .equation t. If the piston pump were connected at the maximal power of the wind engine. the wind engine should work at those wind velocities which occur most frequently. The husbandry needs water daily. Congruency of the performances of piston pumps and wind engines. the velocities of which are equal to the annual . rpm of the wind engine 3. the characteristic of such a 2 a HBe.Substituting the value of the theoretical output of the pump Q in equation (257). consequent. we obtain: I h 0. In such a manner.BeToar pump (Fig. t at point different power.3.dotted straight line).. one I Ihas to determine the power of the wind engine at which the pump should be connected. a.
'!). the characteristic of the pump should follow ray III. II. Consequently.. If the average annual wind velocity in a given region is 4 m/sec. its stroke /352 h and the revolutions of the crankcase n. knowing the diameter of the piston d.. the characteristic of thecpump should correspond to ray II. from equation (255) we can determine the output of the pump: Q=. by adjusting the pump to the power which the wind engine develops at a wind velocity equal to the average annual value. 219. Determination of the output and of the dimensions of the pump. .in a wide range of windIevlocities and to insure the regular water supply of the husbandry. 219.60.average velocity. O. the output of a single acting piston pump Q can be expressed by the equation:((0..number of double piston strokes of the pump or revolutions per minute of the crank mechanism: 247 . determines the power of the wind engine which is equal to the power taken up by the pump. the characteristic of the pump should intersect the peak of the curve describing the power of the wind engine at a wind velocity of 3/m/sec.95. as is shown by ray I in Fig. Substituting these values in equation (265). we permit the wind engine to operate.£ (263) In addition. that in calculating the losses in the pipeline which change proportionally to V 2 /2g.6 llln( !rh. The point of intersection of the ray with the peak of the curve describing the power at a wind velocity of 5 m/sec. correspond to the characteristic of the pump illustrated by ray III in Fig. and finally. n . (265) The generhlimechknical efficiency of piston pumps which operate with the wind engine can be assumed to be equal on the average to 1 = 0. Let us assume that the most appropriate operating conditions ofa winddriven pump unit corresponding to the average annual wind velocities in a given region.total pressure head in m. the straight linesI.0 . This means that if the average annual wind velocity in a given region equals 3 m/sec. we obtain: do60 4 (265a) where: H . and III assume the shape of a flat curve as shown by the dotted line for ray II. while the volumetric coefficient is equal to nv = 0. Consequently. if the average annual velocity of the wind equals 5 m/sec. It should be kept in mind.785 dnh . (264) From equations (263) and (264) we obtain': hence d hence75.
In order for the characteristic of the pump to stay unchanged during the changes in the diameter of the piston. \ (266) In solving equation (265).Hdp= Cot (268) 248 . as well as by the average velocity of movement of piston d which varies between 0. h and H for a given characteristic should be correspondingly changed.e. 219).OOOC54DV'. The average velocity of the pump piston is determined by means of equation: 2hn .\ the velocity of the wind V is assumed to be the velocity at which the unit operates with maximal output coefficient of the wind energy (Fig. pressure head H is computed on the basis of the ground . In order for the characteristics shown in Fig.e. the revolutions of the pump are taken/3. i.53 from the performance plotted according to Fig.erl consumption. which is determined by: N=O. 3 m/sec. the sites.: : hHd = h.0 m/sec. (219) against thepoints of intersection of the characteristicsoof the pump with the peak of the power curve of the wind engine. The piston stroke h is given by construction conditions.h N  piston stroke in dm.piston stroke in m. weobbtain: (267) and for another pressure head: I N=Cd2H from which we derive equation (267). 219 for a given pump to remain unchanged during the changes of static pressure head.2 and 1. The diameter of the piston pump is determined by means of equation (265). . the length of the pipeline and of its parts which cause local losses in pressure head. wa. power of the wind engine in hp. h=hV11 =Const This rule is derived Denoting by CO 5 "n] "from the main equation of power (261). =p where h .product of the piston stroke h by pressure head H should remain constant for a given diameter of the pump piston. i.f and high level condition of the pump installation. the piston stroke should be correspondingly changed in such a manner that the.
4 .0 2.10 20O20 6.34 28. . 221).0314 0. and of the tool of the corresponding power. M by a method presented on page 243.40 98.0 112.20 10u1.50 42.0.00 25.20 25.30 9. 220) is plotted.00 74.60 25. This characteristic is scaled to the characteristic of the dimensional moments the moments are determinedby".00 10.20 14.00 31.40 0:57 28.060 0.20 28.100 . 216 shows the characteristic of the relative moments M of the winddriven wheel in relation to the rapidity Z.00 44.20 80. the velocity of the wind at which the wind engine starts and stops should be known.40 67.00 56.00 41.40 14.'a crank driven mechanism.Congruency of the characteristics of the moments of wind engine and piston pump.60 63.20 45 .00 14.122 0. Fig.10 76. The moment of the piston pump of single action changes during a complete revolution of.80 9.60 11. .80 0 n5 S49.00 V=6 a . .10 18.04 28. . proportionally to the sinus of the angle of rotation of the crank (Fig.60 3.60 7.80 19.00 38.80 38.00 2t.40 V.6 6.80 21.8 19.1 0 n S 1M 48.40 13.40 60.00 Table 22 presents a general example of scaling of the relative /355 moment M to the dimensional moment M kgm for a 4bladed winddriven wheel with a diameter of 8 m. t.20 24.30 42.00 29. The simplest solution d'f this problem is by congruency of the characteristics of the loading moment of the piston pump with the characteristic of the moment of the wind engine plotted for various wind :velocities.092 0. the equation: . Al 12.3 where: R radius of the winddriven wheel.80 1 11. 0.00 18.58 57.85 0 S 3..5 3.20 50.80 45. According to this table.43 4.41) i. (n w /s in e 6.50 24 00 1.058 0. o 0.00 1. ~aph a (Fig. .0 22.80 59.10 36.00 39. 249 .80 43.80 15. .60 14.70 36.90 19.5 2.80 5. TABLE 22 Ra4 idity Z .30 V=7 V=8 nV= 0 1 37.00 9.50 30.005 VelOcityw of Vwind om/fsc' f0.125 0.40 56. o Rl1ative Imelvt 3 i .80 7.60 6.o0o 33. which can be used for comparing the momentsof the winddriven wheel D = 8 m. In computing the output of a winddriven pump installation.40 75.01 48.40 61. 0 " Al 27.2 350 3.00 25.o !. .0O 58.80 77.60 16.00 4.70 24.30 43.30 12.20 26.00 80.40 35.0 3.95 50..139 0.70 10.50 8.40 4.50 38.00 28.40 18.
.radius of the crank.. angle of rotation of r = h/2 .on . Fig. i . =Pr sinf (269) i _ _ where: P  force acting on the bar.total efficiency of the pump determined according to equar (258). 1. forward motion b. I) . we obtain for plotting the relative characteristic of the loading moment: . 2pin of the crank driven mechanism. m/sec Assuming P = 1.KM.I0o 60o Fig. sin. he loading momeit equals 0. kgm 2. 4rod of the pump.. In this case sin = 1.. (270) The moment reaches its greatest value when the radius of the crank and rod of the pump subtend an angle = 900.. r 1. 2 O°opo"ie. 220: Characteristic of the dimensional moments of the VIME D8 winddriven wheel. i = 1 expression the and n = 1. . return stroke 250 .while at 1800 and C = 0. revolutions of the winddriven wheel 3. Key: a.. Key.gear ratio of crank to /357 winddriven wheel.tion Jt 2 n . which changes from 0 3x to w during the forward motion. 221: Characteristic of the moment in the crank of the piston pump: 1pin on the shaft of the winddriven wheel. 3connecting rod. consequently Mma 1. 5pump. 9 the crank.
n .. d . while the dotted line .. when the winddriven wheel is set in motion..e. Fig.to a <3bladed 251 . causedby thei. = M i  Hri tof dHri rd:h hi == .. we (272a) dhHi . Comparison of the characteristic of slow and rapid engines makes it possible to determine which of the two types of wind engines is more suitable to operate with the piston pump.i. i obtain: 'l " L. 2ff. i. while the average moment is surmounted by the working moment of the winddriven wheel. /358 H .water column. 221 by the hatched area.pressure in m.e. d... 4. i in cm whileh is in _mfters. a where: P (272) Pri .diameter of the piston in cm. Upon matching the characteristics of the moment of winddriven wheel and pump.02i'" il Tkgm (273a) here. Substituting the value of in equations ( 272) and (273).During its operation. Multiplying M = 1 and Mav9 = 1/w by the magnitude of the dimensional loading moment from equation (269). the magnitude of which can be de termined by dividing the area circumscribed by the curve of the sinusoid during one stroke by the path' nadelby thel pin of the crank during a forward motion and a&oreturn stroke. the moment area will be equal to: M = ~ (271) (271) The magnitude of the relative average moment will be equal to: Mp 2 1 This moment is shown in Fig.. we obtain: Af.. When the angle 0 changes from 0 to 7r. The maximal moment is surmounted by the moment of the winddriven wheel during the start of the latter if the pressure pipeline is ~iIl filled with water. the winddriven wheel surmounts the average loading moment.total efficiency of the pump [see equation (258)]. the characteristic of the average moment appears in the form of a straight line parallel to the absdissa.= Pri. 222 presents the curve ofrhe working moment: the continuous line corresponds to the multiLaded slow engine. The maximal moment is obtained when the revolutions equal O.0 / (273) (274) the internal force orn the rod of the' puifnp..
a centrifugal clutch allowing the idle running of the winddriven wheel and operatihga piston pump. these. and III in Fig. which depends on the diameter of the pipes.ac..work . while the lower line 2. 2. since the piston pump requires a smaller number of movements. The moment of the rapid wind engine during its starting is several times smaller than the moment of the piston pump. d .local losses in the joints. when the moment of the centrifugal forces of the clutch is able to surmount the initial /359 moment df the piston pump. corresponds to the rapid engine. n_ thbeginninigf the operation. the pipeline. the roughness of their walls and the rate of water movement in them. Asalresult of this: 1. as shownby the continuous curve.rapid engine. The pressure losses are determined in the following manner: Sh . II. the moment of the slow wind engine is situated above the working moment of the pump. with a small number of joints and without valves along e e>o. the rapid wind engine could work with the piston pump if it were fitted with: 1. . which is parallel to the horizontal axis. the transmission from the winddriven wheel to the crank of the pump in the case of the slow wind engine . Determination of losses ef pressure in the pipeline. a. Z . v . 219 were plotted without .than in the case is simpler of the rapid one.with a long pipeline. and 2. We can see from the figure that. 41 v !(275 ) where: 2g ' losses in meters in the suction intake and delivery parts.diameter of the pipes. valves. length of the pipeline. which was compiled according 252 . .rate of water movement in the pipes. Theoretically.ffectponsiderably the:p 6jf ormance of the pump. a reducing gear with large gear ratio for reducing the number of revolutions of the crankdriven mechanism. The values of these coefficients in relation to the diameter of iron pipes are presented in Table 23.counin for the losses of pressure in the pipeline and assuming that the pump operates with a small number of strokes with a short pipeline (up to 30 m).coefficient. The moment of the piston pump attached to the slow wind engine is shown by the upper straight line 1. reducer. If the pump losses would. as shown by the dotted curve. the slow wind engine starts to operate at a considerablyy lower wind velocity than the rapid one. etc. The charig acteristicsI.
092 0*0820 0. is so 6 240 1? 230 30120 roughness coefficient K = 0. 4.0523 0.25.6 TABLE 23.012.D5 0 0 1 40 1 l 4  / 20 0 i o () 10 12 200 .0222 0..0386 0. 225 250 0.0314 0. pump 6.. the rough /361 estimates presented in Table 24 can be used..0338 0.0266 0. i. 5.10 . Key: 1. according to Darcy resembles The graph of the X mag I .e. slow For more accurate calculations ..9412 0. and finally.0488 0.0325 0. Manning's data. moment of the winddriven wheel 2.0224 0. CUTTER AND MANNING 40 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 0.Reynold's number is determined by means of formula (29).021 for smooth pipes.0352 0. pipes with very rough walls and a  SiR5 ScI Trp. o.SManning..0295 0. 2".0216 0. that of new pipes with smooth walls.0331 0. 222: Comparison of the characteristics of the momentsof a slow and rapid wind engine. matic viscosity for water equals v  1.0300 0.0524 0. Fig. correspond to pipes where the walls have a lower roughness L241.0285 300 0.. I according to Cutter approaches .02. 253 . .0268 For determining the coefficient Edfthe local losses.01 to 0. TJV5 . Re:= Vd v the coefficient of kineat t = 200 C. who assumed a roughness coefficient n = 0. where d should substitute k. rapid D5 .0307 .0220 0.0359 0.0458 0.0233 0. of the losses in the pipes.s to the data of Darcy.0321 0. and X 0 = 0. Lang's formula can be used =1. Cutter and This table can be used for rough calculations of the losses in the pipes. Re .0250 0.. number of revolutions 3. [ 21 ' H5 oc f 3 9.0425 0. rapid 7.0229 0. I 9nitudes 1S1 . I (276) where X 0 should be taken equal to 0..2.0287 0.0625 0. THE X COEFFICIENTS ACCORDING TO DARCY.0378 0.0240 0. for rough cast iron and iron pipes..
51 Kree t eoin ananale at a radius ofI..TABLE 24......30 Gate valve on round pipe at medium opening.. S=0... .... C ...p edoff If1 ... The output of the pump is equal to: Q5Nn H 254 ... ...... .............n eamewhed ed.... and therefore the calculation of head should be done for several numbers sof revolutions... AVERAGE DATA OF E LOCAL LOSSES OF HEAD [24] Designation of the local obstacle Re sistance coefficien Pipe inlet with no roundedoff edge of the Inlet opening. The characteristic of the pump is plotted in relation to the number of revolutions....10 Open gate valve on round pipe ...... c:ive gr l Ba ORlvce ......... In order to solve equation (275)..... ' Same at optimal relation Rk=(37)d ... reservoir.pe ine1pro1' 'I s.....to oc Icna vI ecive gri wl The graph in Fig. .. 1g=0...... openin wellrjundedpe out leadsolar capaclt.. 50 Sha transllOn bend of t n the ange p e h hgt . the output Q should first of all be determined in relation to the number of strokes....... I E"9n n c le ion water ). 223 shows the pattern of the changes in the losses of head in the valve and grid in relation to the rate of movement of the water in pipes of various diameters...... This graph can be used £ r determining the losses of head in the valve and grid of the given pipeline...... sof the pump piston. g=..... bendD% 2~ 1.
TT " 3 i 24 0 4 I  In computing the output Q. refer to the power of the pump in the point where its characteristic intersects the peak of the power 2 5 2cOpcEN .. on the work of the pump. 8a *pyee curve of the wind engine. the smaller the ratio Ehr/H. which is a K:term in ' the multiplier of.. the static pressure H is assigned. of: water "pvement (26a) (261a) in the pipe .the power developed by the wind engine at a wind velocity/362 < 3 to 4 m/sec. and consequently the velocity of the liquid moving in the pipe is small..n .. losses of pressure in the valve and in the With the increase in the number of revolutions. at different revolutions. the losses increase as well.I) grid 2. 219) by the point of intersection of ray I or II with the peak of the power curve of the wind engine. In practice.and (261d).  Q1J=Q. the output will be equal to Z  ! . 255 . Key: 1. their magnitude is determined by means of equation (275). which causes losses in the pressure head. This power is determined on the work characteristic (Fig. 223: Graph for determination of the losses in the valves and in the grid.. When the number of revolutions of the crank /363 is small. Introducing these losses in equation (261)... On the basis of equations((61). so that the curve of the pump characteristic approaches a straight line. velocity. Q2Qn where Q and n without subscript. and a constant pressure head is assumed accounting for the losses caused 'during'nbrmal' revolutions of'the crank.where N . we obtain at different revolutions nl: 0. the characteristics of piston pumps are assumed to be straight lines. The larger the static pressure. the equation of the power sjpent.785dhr.)equation (277) describing the power of the pump. Since the output of the pump changes proportionally to the revolutions of its crank.. the average velocity of the piston is also small. Fig. we obtain: ~ n uhl±h) S  (277) This equation serves to determine the points for plotting the power curve of the pump in relation to the revolutions of its crankdriven mechanism. in order to simplify the calculations.
proportionally to the cube of /364 wind velocity. 219). according to the power developed by it at each wind velocity. according to the change in the power of the wind engine. these rays intersect the curves in points of lower power. while the power of the piston pump changes proportionally to the first power of revolutions of the crankdriven mechanism. a curve i. Let us examine whether the piston pump can be induced to work in such a manner that the power required by it should change according to curve(A (Fig. we see that rays I. If we change h or n in this equation. the power can be expressed in a simple manner: SN_= Chxn. a cubical parabola. II. as shown in Fig.e. we can obtain instead of a straight line for the power characteristic of the pump.with the change in the number ofrevdlutiofls. that the piston pump cannot load the wind engine completely. in our case the piston pump. Taking the ratio of these equations we obtain: (278a). 218) through the peak of The curve shows in the power characteristic of the wind engine. and III of the pump characteristic intersect the curve of the power characteristic of the wind engine in the point of maximal power. while at higher wind velocities. Let us denote by C the constant for the given pump in equation (261) excluding the piston stroke and the revolutions from the constant in this equation. i.e. .Method of changing the characteristic of the piston pump according to the charasteristic of the wind engine. Examining the congruent characteristic of a winddriven pump unit (Fig. and for another wind velocity: Nx = Chxnx. This indicates t. 218). This is explained by the fact that the power of the wind engine changes proportionally to the cube of the wind velocity. and consequently for a given wind velocity we can write: N = Chn. This curve. passes through the peak of the power curve of the wind engine since it is congruent with the characteristics of the latter. what manner the power of the machine tool should change. Let us draw curve A which obviously corresponds to the highest output coefficient of wind energy E (Fig. under this condition. (278) 256 . in order for the unit to work at a maximal 5. 218. only at a certain velocity which corresponds to a certain number of revolutions.
then a power characteristic of the pump can be obtained which corresponds to the work of the wind engine with maximal output coefficient of the wind energy. h x and n x . change of the path of the piston stroke proportionally to the cube of the wind velocity and inversely to the number of piston strokes [equation (279)]. The characteristic obtained experimentally was very close to the theoretical one. can be obtained also by changing the number of piston strokes of the pump proportionally to the cube of the wind velocity. we can write: hence: or: N /365 Vi (280) It follows that the characteristic of the pump which corresponds to the characteristic of the wind engine. 2. stroke and revolutions of the piston crank at different wind velocities. was performed in the former TsVEI in 1935.hence: where Nx. this device was not brought up to practical application. Leaving in the equation N=Chn\ arnd 'N"=ChA\ the piston'stroke constant. Testing of a wind engine with the device for changing the number of piston strokes. However. In such a manner. Since: we can write: h=h (279) This equation shows that if we change the stroke of the piston pump proportionally to the cube of the wind velocity and inversely to the number of piston strokes.power. two methods are available for inducing the wind engine to work with the piston pump at maximal values of the output coefficient of wind energy: 1. 257 . the change in the number of piston strokes should be proportional to the cube of wind velocity [equation (280)].
50. The method of scaling was suggested by engineer S. i. Rudnev.Q and n = const to the characteristics related to'n :at<H = const. the given characteristic has to be scaled in relation to the number of revolutions n in order to establish the matching between the operating conditions of the centrifugal pump and the operation of the wind engine. the characteristic of these machines.. of the revolutions. which establishes a relation between Q. S. n. high output at low overall dimensions of the pump..related to the cube of the revolutions. H and N and the /367 / . 224). since the centrifugal pump raises the water with a high efficiency in a small range of revolutions. 1Y 0a 4Q \ 4 s k. 4  the centrifugal pump to the characteristics in S. Usually the characteristics of centrifugal pumps are plotted in relation to the feed (flow rate) Q.Q and N .Q. In this form. plotted in telation to the number of revolutiofs should be known. the characteristics n =(const. relation to the number of revolutions is based on the law of dynamic similitude. and long service life. the power N. Therefore. cannot be directly used for matching the pump to the wind engine. the pressure head H and the efficiencyyload ri are set out on the vertical axis (Fig.: 1. while the revolutions of the wind engines with load may change twofold during a change of the wind velocity from 3 to 8 m/sec. Operation ofT:Wind Engines with Centrifugal Pumps The main advantage of centrifugal pumps over the piston pumps is the absence of a piston with packings which wear out rapidly.' Scaling of the characteristics H nl Q of :4 co. N . the flow rate is related to the revolutions. set out on the horizontal axis of the graph. Therefore. the feed system of the pump may prove to be effective only in a small range of wind velocities if the pump is not properly matched to the wind engine.o So Ic: 1 number of revolutions n. the power is.e.: 1n Fig: 224: Characteristic H .) Key: 1rpm 2P/se 1. Method for recalculating the common characteristics of centrifugal pumps H . while the wind engine operates with a variable number of revolutions. 258 . the operation of wind engines with centrifugal pumps has also certain negative aspects: the centrifugal .purp operates with a high efficiency only at certain revolutions. i.Q with n = const for cen r 2 ( (281) (282) (282) (283) N trifugal pump.e. However. 3. for a proper matching cf thecentrifugalpu to /366 the wind engine.
I o a The curve. In addition. which is permissible in practical calculations as it changes _to an insignificant degree.1300. .7n. the work point on the char acteristicburve. the flow rate. It is convenient to follow the range'within which the efficiency of the centrifugal pump changes with the change in the number of revolutions and other magnitudes of the characteristics.Q will bepoint A..by means of The the universal characteristic curve of a . relationshipsH . the pump work the pressure head/"may reach 10% of the static pressure even when the pipeline is short.Q are given inthis characteristic curye J 0. H. pressure head. have the shape of elongated curves which l are closed below and also closed above if continued over a /369 sufficient distance. for example. and also to determine the values of these magnitudes if one of them is known.Q showsthe change in pressure depending on the flow rate Q and is called characteristic curve of the.8n. we see that withifn the limits n = 900 . 0.flow rate. However. the segment Hr gives the increment in pres C sure on account of losses in the pipeline. power: Ne = NA and creates a pressure head HA at a flow rate QA and an efficiency fn = nmax. The universal characteristic curve ofthis pup. at hr = const (see horizontal line) and assuming that the pump operates at n revolutions. the efficiency is almost constant /368 and only in the range of 600 to 1500 rpm does it fall 'to "6463%. 226). The change in pressure head during the work of a centrifugal pump is shown in Fig. For example. makes it possible to determine the optimaloQ. it must be assumed that the pressure head is constant during the change in the number of revolutions..centrifugal punp (Fig:~.pipeline.are.ln and 1. l. n = 7778%.2n.Under these conditions.of tl pipeline H . If the conditions of the system change. The curves corresponding to identical efficiencies of the pump. i:e.9n. power and number of revolutions of the pump. the increase in i. the ordinate a shows the magnitude of the static pressure. n.Q and N .the efficiency istic curvf the pipee (Fig.where Q. the efficiency of the pump n is assumed to be constant in the scaling operation.respectively. where Qx . the curve of the change in. 225. H.e. 0. thepumnp requiresa.s H . In order to simplify the scaling of the characteristics to a differentvset of conditions.'27). then assuming 259 . Let us examine. N and n . for example hr increases to hr. with a short pipeline.
let us write the equations of scaling the normal characteristics at nn = const totthe i characteristics'with variable n at constant pressure head Hn = const.I i ir b_ In order to preserve the 0. curve of the: pup. work point A is displaced to A . characteristics for different sets of conditions can be determined by Q S Fig.at means of calculations. I 200 4 Fig. which is convenient for matching the pump to the wind engine. 226: Characteristic curve ofiia centrifugal pump inrelatibn to the number of revolutions. On the basis of relations (281)(284). and the flow rate will be QA'consumed power Ne = NF < NA.1QAI(. previous flow rate of the pump..determining the type of centrifugal pump. The universal c characteri a st ic . Key: l.(284) 2'60 .09n larger than n.09n will be almost equal to N'A andiv\the!6efficiency of the pump will ".the 20o that the pump works with a constant of revolutions. it is possible to determine rapidly the main magnitude of the pump characteristics for various conditions of its operation. 2/min 2.7n.: hence: 7n n==n .".. 50* 4t ' s 0Nnumber . Key: 1. 227: Universal characteristic curve of centrifugal pumps. the created pressure head HA' at efficiency of the pump an' lI h6®00 soo / 2b0 _ I 00 I .e.be approximately 0. In the absence of the universal characteristic. The power of the pump consumed at a number of revolutions O'. the latter has to operate with a number of revolutions which is 1. i. The work point under this condition will be A 2 and the corresponding pressure head will be H'A. In such a manner.cI o . with this characteristic curve for.79n.the. curve. shows that thei pup can operate in the range of good efficiency under variable conditions by changing the number of revolutions [511. rpm .
2 1370 1.tic.= ) 3. 93 5. . 'to the characteri.testics for =1450 .72 8 2.88 27. according to equations (284)(286).4 40. Known .3 m = const.35 22.1 40 6 4 3.60 49.10 3.74 3.Q (known from the factory catalogue and from data of testing) and plot the curve Qx.) 2018 16.73 7.38 4 4 38. us scale the! characteristic of the centrifugal A's 'an example.10 = 2.5 169. .'35 7.2 52.10 54.19 4.variable and f. hence: where nx.85 5"05 5 0 27. let pumps showh in Fig. Nx  Solving this equation relative to the magnitude with the subscript x. we can scale the normal characteristicsH .charac. H.88 3.hence: .9 53.values for I n lculatedqvalues of characteristics. it is convenient to utilize nondimensional characteristics ofpumps 'with various coefficients of 'rapidity.82 t 2 3 0 2 4 4 5 6 8 39 6 37.74 hp The other calculated values are presented in Table 25. Nx. Qx.55 31 4 9. as assumed in the calculations.const. TABLE 25. under conditions of variable revolutions.. /370 (285) (28) (286) variable magnitudes at Hn ='const.. /i CHARACTERISTICS OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP .224 at n =.08 6. 228 /371 which shows the curves of a centrifugal pump in relation to the number of revolutions n at Hn = 35.6 1 450 1536 8. / I 'andiNO cnnat 2An= + number coHs4 x nx N H HQx Q of point p m n /see Im / _ 2 3 38.26 15.9 6. In scaling the normal characteristics to another set of conditions. is: N.35 1O.3 8 9 14 16 8:70 0.70 11. The first point.'67 5.20 The data of Table 25 are plotted on the graph in Fig. Tx in relation to n x at Hh = const.3 2358 18'.2 10. .72 6 7 10 12 35.8 4':'9 G 1 39) 1 3160 1 350 7 0 1.)0 12.
and subsequently the characteristics are plotted in relative values at Hn = const in relation to nx/n. of the relative magnitudes. left hand sides ' .Q.o.consequent y (wheeIs). ! (290) The values in the right hand side of these formulas are determined by.e. refer /372 The expression to the optimal conditions of operation of the pump. nx = (288) N. respectively. (290) for variable revolutions at H. 228: Scal'd hract eristic a centrifugal pump in curve .4 2 _. characteristics of the pumps H .stage. Q and n. of) n at H = const. a manner that the magnitude of Fig. Fig..: by nn. q i. while Tables 26 and 27 present the numerical values of the relative magnitudes for these characteristics. substituted in equation (287). ' ' l  i .7. Sest. 229 presents the curves of the/373 nondimensional characteristics of power and flow rate for two pumps with rapidity 82. H .the head created by each ly.5.. C. column A for l/n refers to both the right and the left hand side of the table..mi/sec. is the number of revolutions of a new wheel which in all its details is geometrically simi 5I 30 2O S 0 UI A 3.are obtained by dividing the right and to as well as equality of equations((284)(286).Q and N .0 and 76. and D).= Hn = const (the three columns on the right under the lettersB. its feed (for pumps with bilateral suction. . The.Q at 'Inn = const (the four columns on the left) and the nondimensional values of the characteristics scaled to equations (288).. 0 lar to the pump wheel of interThe dimensions of the . Let us remember that the rapidity or the specific number of revolutions of the pump.7.number of revolutions of the given centrifugal pump. corresponding to one .magnitudesi H. The rapidity is expressed by equation: n..pressure head in m.=co.1y" "X=. These tables give the known dimensional values of the characteristics H .. Qn. 26 2 .=3..!.meanscthenormal. n \ (287) where n rpm . 600 new wheel 200• are selected in such . to relation the feed equals 75 R/sec at a height of 1m and an e power of 1 hp. (289).T . if the pump has several stages must be divided by the number of §t es. Nn and nn. Q should be divided by 2). Q ..
0 I I SI I I 1.. For example. Let us find the main mag) nitude for the new set of conQ'n and N'n at ditions H'.122 0. Q. KNOWN DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PUMP WITH A RAPIDITY ns = 82.965 1.78 1'0 . Q3 = 10.470 0 15 0 .0 1.0 1 .792) 8.567 0. 224) to another number of revolutions and its corre" sponding optimal H.4 0. n'n = const by means of TABLE 26.315 0.8"7(0.N.4425 1. __4_5 . curve Nx/NnandQx/Qn in relation to nx/nn for pumps with various rapidities. in order to show how to use the saAs II known dimensional characteristics.0 nnaqam'"acens.087 0.580 1... for a pressure head H'n = 22. m.0 0. 229: Known dimensional characteristic. e " Fig.7.272 0.889 1098 5 6 0 0.0 0.513 0:7915 0. I i Analogus .onal Known 1Si' ia charac istic at varibe'. ". ._ pumps with different rapidities. 1 .27 hp. t I ' o \0 o.945 0.07410.492 = 4. .3(16 0. 0. 263 . vyu 4 >.933 0.150 0. tables should be computed for a series of Sii.932 00 0.92 X/seq _ .951 0.356 1.921 0..0.939 0.. the characteristics of which arx given in Fig.373 0.2 0. 224.060t 0. and N.730 1.8 1. 1V= 8.2 [ LI I " 1 T II I ' __ an example. the values of the other magnitudes corresponding to the optimal conditions of the pump. let us scale the characteristics :'in (Fig. would be equal to: /374 =1450 =14500. "..0 1. These tables can be useful in calculations performed in pract S2' /I L" i ice.3S0 equations (284)(286).iristic HQ= const N QBa character7 nan c I H^'=H r A 4 'i HIN Q 2. 0.6 0.92 =1 150 rpin.874 1.2 1.772 10 1. 7 100792= 7.136 0. .970 0 0. .183.
584 317 475 6. SCALING OF THE NONDIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS (TABLE 26) TO THE DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS (1 No.779 112 10 1.943 1.0 0. which is required for the operation of the wind engine with this pump.0 .__!___ _ h a t.TABLE 27. 1.521 0 0.516 0.513 1. we obtain the characteristics of the given pump at a variable n and constant H = H'n = const.04.9 9 .9 25.73 4.153 1.963 1.800 S t.0 19.931 t 3330.35 7.52 1. N .2 52.69 _.122 .ned by scaling) .8.55 6 0 27.6 1 7 1100 1079 10(70 1085 1110 1 150 1220 0 1.992 0.7 .49 2 96 4 5 612 10 7. 1.133 Multiplying the obtained values by the corresponding ratio :for the given pump presented in Table 26 (see the columns on the left). Multiplying the same values by the corresponding ratio in Table 26 right.508 0.6 21.60 1 1 2 3 4 6 11 13 2 0 1.Q.11 N. 1.630 1.8 '42 9 49 9 I '2 54.48 3.0 0.9 8 0734 1. = = N 3 .27 5.92. IIn 2 .ti NQ conA'I at n.wo _____ of' ump at variable n nd r .o 0.0 25.92 9.3 21. poiiins const (obta.=.0 0. i " I 6 .20~ ).920 0.165 1.27 4.7 22.35 4.89 2. Known dimen7own dim Known dimensional charactersio~al ic ha'r ' T = isicdonst at variablen and H = Hn te~s h .'n (abtained y Cscalang)) i I .758 .52 31 4 23. .0 0..303 0. KNOWN DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PUMP WITH A RAPIDITY n s = 76. The results of the computations are presented in Table 28.777 1.037 1. 1 i .6S9 0.405 0.Ni 7 0 1 S0.908 0:913 0.1860 1. for the new number of revolutions n'n = const. = ~ C B In Q 5 J  Q.63 3.2.555 1.586 0.)1 2.c aract Sharacteristic i of at n = 1150.33 1'221 1.110.12 3. TABLE 28.i. we obtain the normal characteristics H .608 I 1.Q.4 0 0.
then these magnitudes are recalculated to a different set 265 Recalculated charFig.Let us compare the obtained characteristics with the characterFor this purpose. 4o0 7C0 i = These figures show that the shape of the curves is maintained. 224. 4. 4020 5 Q. Key: 1.Q.ofa'centrifugal pump in relation to nat Hn 35.con. 0 1200 Oo O 3. i H . . R/sec 3. the coefficient of grapht: or 3. Qn' n and Nn are multiplied by the measured values of the relative magnitudespresented in the table under letters ABCD for a pump with identical rapidity and the dimensional values of the characteristic Nx. which are plotted from Tables 26 or 27 with similar rapidity coefficients. n . The main magnitudes nr." 1 I4I J1 I . hp 2.0o 2 25 . R/sec 2. 239 a hand b). rpm and n = 1150 rpm of the the catalogue of. Fig.Q for 2 1. Nn and nn from the catalogue or' the characteristic H . .3 m = const and H = 22 m = const.. 20 at n= const to the characteristics in relation to the number of revolutions at Hn = const or H'n = const 20 14 12 10 2 4 can be briefly formulated as follows Characteristic curves). points from Tble 28.Q: N . and according to it. fi~ 5 0 0.(see pointsQ' . soIS' .. 1 25 i17 . which give a clear representation of the changes /375 in the characteristics of)a centrifugal pump with the change in the parameters of the optimal conditions. The main magnitudes of the sets of conditions n = 1450 optimal conditions are found in'. the graphs obtained are shown in Fig.. rpm rapidity n s is determined. 230 and 231. Hx and nx are found for variable n and constant pressure head H. on the basis of what has been said. the nondimensional characteristic are selected. Key: 1. 230 and 231). rpm . let us plot the istics shown in Fig. Hn.OL . 230: H . 224 and 228. 228.$ while the optimal values are shifted to the left. Q . and the point of the right hand side in Table 28 in Fig. N'n and n on the vertical in Fig. nn < e l o0 4. GOST 254546 (see centrifugal pump. curve. hp 2. If the main magnitude Qn. left in Fig. Fig..Q do not correspond to the conditions of the suggested operation of the pump.. 231: acteristic..  I i . By means of equation (287) 239. 0 0 The sequence of scaling the /376 normal characteristics of the pump .
n T 'are obtained. Q' .B =30 O. O=A=0. are shown in Fig. the second line of Table 27 gives: i. d = 80 m.C =1 450 X 0. (b) (c) (d) The numerical values of ABCD are given in the right hand side of these tables.n at which': it is suggested to operate the pump.of conditions by means of equations (284). [5o]. that we selected a centrifugal pump characterizedby the following data for the VIME D12 wind engine: Q.: % rj.B. 16 = 2. the nondimensional characteristics of which are presented in Table 27.= !tj =0 60... according to equation (287). Thus n'. • k=2 step 3.\ Q= Q.6 X 0.A. 232.1 approaches the rapidity of the pump. 3.r = n. 2H."! n= 1450 r 224 m:. /377 recalculation of the characteristics of a cenAn example of .908 1 410 rpm =ND=4. The results of the computations are illustrated graphically in Fig. The congruent characteristics of this pump and of the VIME D12 wind engine. The rapidity of the pump is eaual.00834 = 4 6hp .1.65.303==9. The computed rapidity ns = 75. N'x and n'x is made By means of the table of nondimensional magni udes. where the determination of the 2'6 . ___VD. on the basis ofthe pressure head H. .1m nf= n.3s hpetc.60 X0.65.!. (285) and (286).1450 5. trifugal pump to the characteristicsas a function of the revolutions.1450 =.s N. Let us assume.=30 1'111r =0. Let us perform a scaling by means of this table.i.e. 233. Computation (a) of the variablesn'x. Q' and TI'. For example. to: n==\3.586=Oq  Q.
sional characteristics in relation to the number of revolutions: = nA. N = N'n .3 _ Recalculated charac' Fig. the new pressure head H'n. 3. Qx = nB. which is given in the catalogue for the given pump. Key: 1. nC. etc. Iabove a o 0 130 4 i 1400 1I 1500 I I1 1600 1700 lGO 1 1900 n. liA s2 4 11either L 20 These limits can be found/379 by means of the universal characteristic curve of the given pump or by the characteristics of the pump replotted for . we find from Tables 26. m /hr The result of the computatiorsis illustrated in Fig.Fig. 234. This is done as shown Irecalculation .. 267 . it is useful to know how the selected pump will operate under these new conditions. hp with the only difference that in this case we use for the calculation instead of the pressure head Hn.. E 0 0 10 20 280 560 30 4o0 6U 0 7 0 80 90 100 oX 840 1120 1400 1690 1960 2240 2520 2900 3080 3360 noG/m.. r m 3. k/sec 3this 20 .water).e efficiency are shown by a straight line (dotted line). 2000 2100 O /. 233: Congruent characteristic.30 . S1 Subsequently. the output Q and of th. teristic in relation to n at H = 24 m = const.as it is possible in practice to have a winddriv.S _______ _____ ~~~0 2. between which effective work of the given wind driven pump unit is possible. :'Inasmuch .en('pump unitcoperate at different pressure heads H. for example. n = nC N = N' D . rpm pump are given in column 5. 27 or from analogical tables the values of the parameters for plotting the dimen40 I409  1J . Characteristics of a winddriven pump unit at various pressure heads. and we find the main Q'n and N'oi magnitudesn'n (see Table 29) by means of equatiorns (281)(283).. 232: a cerittifugal pump :curve of. where the characteristic of the VIME D12 wind engine is given together with the a~' characteristics of the pump at various pressure heads.curve. This makes it possible to determine the limitSof the pressure head H.oftheVIMEID12 wind' engine and of the centrifugal pump. Key: 1. other pressure heads. power on the pulley of the reducing gear N hp 2. S 0 12. IL 1 I . /378 by changing the level of the water in the source (high.power N. The normal conditions for 2.
that a change in the pressure head.60 ' 840 a 7u a . .. . 4. 2 6 0.30 10.575 I4 12 .e p = lFT r~ {ol rTh Ii ipropeller t l I .. i.33 9. the to 5 m). 3. It is convenient to use pumps which are _.. Qn = 2. small number of revolutions of this pump.. Consequently. first stage . 235 presents the nondimensional characteristics of a propeller pump Nn = 183 hp. Hn= 4 m. 236. .pm . makesit posi) 3360 __ 0.e. at a given gear ratioi the pump starts to feed the water. 2.passing/380 to a new set of conditions of operation of the winddriven pump unit.. The change in pressure head effects only the Ki. for powerful winddriven pump units which raise I 1 I H2 L  7 2i 4 50 60 I I the water to small height (up In addition. We shall note further. Icur~e cfthVIVED12wind engine .62 5 24 4 6 7 3 8. .9 7.98 30 16. Fig..76. 234: Congruenitcharacteristic .16 725. appear in a common bundle which passes through the peak of the power curve of the wind engine. Key: 1.2 1450 1620 1 775 11025 The curves of the power of the pump at various pressure heads. 0 280 20 5. The characteristic of the beginning of :'waterl feeding ted curve below [501.w 1=:28 2 'o.TABLE 29. the output coefficient of the wind energy can be assumed to be practically constant and equal to maximal output in the operation of a winddriven pump unit.. "ITI :is shown in these graphs by the dot i0I!  I iI . o . 268 hp rpm pump gear ratio 1 = 1:28 line of the beginning of water supply chanical actuator. characterized by their high output. the lower the wind velocity at which. .6 m 3 /sec.. The smaller the pressure head.orTom.6 5. This characteristic is shown in dimensional magnitudes in Fig. nn = 500 rpm. . tions Poer N' n hp. 1120 1400 1580 1960 2240 2520 28W0 3090 3nepm.nd of the centrifugal pump at various water heads. sible to solve in a simpler way the problem of designing Sreducing gears for the me Fig.Hh m .3.2 125 8. ln: = 0.42 m / n ' n :. does not require any change in the gear ratio of the winddriven wheel to the pump. MAIN MAGNITUDES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AT VARIOUS PRESSURE HEADS Hn 1 Pressured vari ous condi. 4.ac.iof the water supply by the pump. • .41 eaos under 8 2.
6I L. The char acteristics at the gear ratio 2'69 . It can be seen that the supply of water starts at higher wind velocities at low gear ratios (see characteristic i = 1:20). rpm gine. 236: Dimensional characteristics of a propeller pump N = 183 hp. 235: Nondimensional characteristics of a propeller pump N = 183 hp. In examining the characteristicsin Fig.o I!" o./382 amine the superposition of the o M o 10 3 05 o .'43. n = 500 rpm. driven y. 1   '  to 1:20. i = 0. 1:30. Let us ex. the operation of the winddriven installation will be unstable and the unit will (. h 2. the characteristic of the power of the pump exceeds the limits of the power curve of the wind engine. 1:35 and 1:40... 3 ber of revolutions corresponding to the wind velocity. the characteristicsof the .. In this case..4. m /sec 2 rpm "i.i 3l . o d.6 m 3 /sec. m /sec 3. =. 9.~ be utilized in this case.optimal 5. 232 on the characteristicsof the VIME D12 wind engine. The position of this characteristic curve at the indicated gear ratios is shown in Fig./H = . then with the increase in the num S o.. If •we i_ /_ induce the pump to work at large gear.ut Pchanging the transmission. 0 S i 2. 8 . Q = 2. Ai3 o06. o ' ..e. . 1. at gear ratios of winddriven wheel to pump equal Key: 1. pump characteristics over the characteristics of the wind engine at various gear ratios...76. i _ 3... 4. operate at a low 5. 1 . _// I " i cities which occur most frequently i. .1 we see that by properly selecting the gear ratio of winddriven wheel to the pump.. Consequently. those wind velo 0. Let us superimpose the characteristicsof Fig. n = 500 rpm. 07 pump can be obtained at various pressure heads witho. 237. H = 14 m. Fig. 1:25.ratio (see char Sa 25 2 04 acteristic at i = 1:40). Key: I.O nl . Q4.. its power will change more rapidly than the power of the wind en Fig. cannot. 234. . 1. . pump unit at various gear ratios. . 45 m/sec. hi 2.
237: Congruent characteristic curves of the VIE D12. Let us note that the limits of the optimal gear ratio are insignif. Method of matching cen4 2 4.wind. In order to find the velocity of the wind corresponding to the maximal annual output. with which the wind engine will operate or in other words.of the centrifugal pump changes insignificantly with its passage to another set of operating This makes it conditions. 960 etc. in order to obtain the optimal conditions of operation of the entire winddriven pump unit? Since the efficiency. In selecting the required gear ratio. hp 2. and 1:28 occupy the optimal position. it is easy to determine the magnitudes 'n. 2900. 1450. what is the velocity of the wind to which the power of the wind engine corresponding to a given pressure head H'n should be related. N'h and N'. 2000.'Idecreases rapidly to zero (Fig. engine and the centrifugal pump at various gear ratios. rpm. It was shown above that the efficien cy.C oopoO . it is sufficient to calculate V 3 t for each working velocity of the wind from equation (252) in whicE all the 270 . o20 30 40 so IO 7 O "090 f10 Itu 1I0 r O into consideration in its determination. we can give any number of revolutions to the pump.It !1:30 .. number of revolutions of the winddriven wheel 3. which should be taken S. The next question to solved is what is the power of the pump corresponding to the actual pressure head. icant. In the selection of centrifugal pumps to wind engines. the matching of the pump to the wind engine should be done in such a way that the optimal minimal revolutions would correspond to the wind velocity at. the normal power of which is several times higher than the power of the wind engine according to the catalogue. 232) with a change in the nofrmal number of its revolutions n in the direction of a decrease. possible to utilize centrifugal pumps. i. for the new set of conditions of different dimensions of pumps. . Knowing this pressure head. while the data of the catalogue refer to the number of revolutions of electrical motors.serpoo. m/sec 4. by means of equations((281).eca /383 Fig.e.which the maximal annual energy flowing through the winddriven wheel is obtained. These conditions are caused by the pressure head which the pump is supposed to develop. rpm trifugal pumps to the wind engine. Key: 1. the problem of the operating conditions of the pump should be solved first. (282) and (283).
000654.' table.0. the normal power of the pump working with TV8 should be determined at a wind velocity V. we obtain the optimal conditions of operation i of the winddriven pump unit.5 5=7.. This calculation was performed for annual average wind velocities V 0 from 3 to 6 m/sec. 1.42 r= The average hence: 1 67 v.5mE/ N.=T. The result of the calculation is presented in the graph of Fig./385 the normal power of the centrifugal pump should not be largely different from the power of the wind engine which it develops at a wind velocity V = 5 m/sec. 238: Graph for the determination of the optimal wind velocity. Fr' example. 5 = 0.35. s 19 h Key: 1.v /sec Fig.magnitudes except for V 3 t are constant and the occurance of tp from M.hp In the selection of a centrifugal pump. . i.= 1. at an average annual wind velocity of V 0 = 3 m/sec.94 . .a 2 a.0.65. GOST 254546 must be used. where the characteristics of various types of centrifugal pumps are recorded.62 7. It is very convenient to use these graphs as 271 .e. It appears that there is velocity V (see the velocity on the horizdntal scale against the point o intersection of the dotted curve with the V 3 t ).82.which corresponds to this wind velocity.N. Pomortsevs. n = 0.6C5= 3. the maximal output is obtained at windvel6cities Vy = 5 m/sec.: V.b.67 times larger than 4 the V 0 .5 .=N. working wind velocities V m/sec In regions with an annual average wind velocity of V 0 = 5 m/sec.5 1. i. 3. we Cat) 0..=6 6.e. in thousands 2.51.5 8. For TV8. This optimal velocity of the wind is approximately 1.0. M. Consequently. have: N. .5 .55Vo. V. (291) 1 7S X i In selecting a set of conditions for the operation of the pump.=.: N.= No = O00654D^]V I ' .35. 7./ 3 84 at which the maximal annual output of the winddriven installation is obtained for each average annual wind velocity V0. 238.5 .
MS . tank 3. type. 2.I Y0 N " • 220 I0 4  SJK 6 .9 9  2290_ _3 . M =   5 t7 80   30 M 5 74f4 0 145 MO5 / _44_ 0 0 90 *450 60 80 70   I Ji 90. .6 + I S 0 /   t j4 . aux.0 to 0  .I = an Key: . ft   pumps of type Z " .. 3 5 S 7 tO 20 J 4 0 9 0 0 0 2 6 700 305. 12 4 E2 0 jrI i . zo 2 S00 1 M 084. ..
. . tank 4. Key: 1. aux.t00 3 4 S 6 i. MS ORIGINAL PAGE IS OF POOR QUALITY 213 ./sec 2. ma/hr 3. 00 770 60000 ~ I 61000 I11 500 ti $ _00 • 2 A 20 390OA 4 4 F. 9 G ftf 5 7/670 9 o fugal pumps of type "MS".0 Z 30 4O 50 6so 0 . 0 10/0 .
MSo 2720 ' o 21 "" QU vu 2. MS 274 .t to so tatonk 2.5 6 7 3 9/ f Ke 1.
the make of which .multiple stage with horizontal parting of the housing.2K132900 is given in the contour of the field. coefficient of rapidity. and normal number of revolutions nn = 2900 rpm. select a pump for operation with a head up to 10 m and an output up to 20 m 3/hr.and b). Under these conditions H = 18 m and Q = 5. which gives the tracings of the limits of output Q and pressure head H at n = const. the efficiency of this pump is equal to n = 0. impeller. with horizontal parting in the housing and with oneway inlet impeller.are the velocities in the head and suction parts of the pump at the sides of junction of the manometer and vacuum meter. "MD" .multiple stage.multiple stage ring type. The region Q and H of each pump is traced and inside this region. letters .. "MS" . in m/sec. The optimal conditions of operation of the pump are marked by means of a thick vertical line. figures after the multiplication sign in multistage pumps number of stages.applied to a given standard (Fig.. vh and v. 239a. It can operate with good efficiency in the limit of 615 m head and an output of 3 to 6. figures after the dash. rounded off. Example.diameter of the inlet .type of the pump. the make of the pump and its: normal revolutions per minute are recorded../386 !1Pr" single stage propeller pump.single stage with twoway inlet impeller: . coefficient of rapidity n s = 130. 1/25 of the dimension.he following1letters: . In the table of GOST 254546.5 Z/sec. figures before the letter .. b. d. 239.5 R/sec. rounded off. with oneway inlet. The make (notation) of the pump consists of: a. 239a. c. 1/10 of the value.a. The 2$j5 . cantilever. Examining the graphs in Fig.pipe in mm. with oneway inletlimpeller .single stage. The "K" "D" "M" type8sof the pumps are denoted byt'. This is a single stage overhang type pump with a diameter of the suction pipe of 50 mm. let us find in the left corner below the contour of the field of the recommended limits of head H and output Q of the pump.1.. the first impeller with twoway inlet and the other impeller with oneway inlet. The total head with which the centrifugal pump actually operates at the site of the installation must be determined by the equation: l=M + V V (292) where: M and V are the readings of the manometer and vacuum meter reduced to the axis of the pump in met6rs:of i'i iquid column.62. Using the graphs in Fig.
In the latter case. Therefore. During the leakoff of the water from the pump and the suction pipe. As soon as the container is full.type lock D. The delivery of the water can only start at a certain minimum number of revolutions. = 1. always be primed mount the pump below the level of the water source. dr supply the installa In this case it is necessary either to tion with automatic priming.Ycase.5 mm.4= 7. Under thse conditions. n = 83.\ A pump with a different characteristic is needed for an output of 4. during the operation of the pump. without which the feeding of the water does not start. the constant revolutions maintain the pump in operation throughout the whole period. 240a). An ob.illet us say. the water is partially guided from force pipe A via pipe B into container C with foa t. the pump operates with variable revolutions which decrease in some moments down to zero. the pump corresponding to this condition is of the make 2 2/2 MS 8 x 4 . The situation is different in the case of the pump operating with a wind engine.server standing behind the wind installation. therefore the pump is primed only when it is started. nn 290 rpm. 239a. The power' neded for the operation of such a pump equals: N . According to the table of GOST 254546. He may assume that the water is not delivered by the pump due to an insufficient number of revolutions.2900. 240b. In the former case. according to the changes in wind velocities. so that it would (see diagram in Fig. n = s 0.3 hp. Since the moment of starting of the pump is quite small. 34 hours. the manual method cannot fully insure the priming of the centrifugal pump op erating with a wind engine. the float closes the tap. even manual priming is no difficulty.power needed for the operation of this pump should equal: N. then the water may leave the pump.= . seeing the rotation of the winddriven wheel. while in k:the latter. Pipe E is fitted with 276 .55. the water flows from the container via pipe E into the suction pipe and fills both it and the pump. In the graph of Fig. as shown in Fig. 6 5 hp Priming of a centrifugal pump working with a wind engine. A centrifugal pump with an electrical motor or with an oil engine works at a constant number revolutions.5 R/sec at a head of H = 70 m. the wind engine will rotate the pump without any delivery at all wind velocities below 45 m/sec. One /387 of the main operations in starting a centrifugal pump is its priming with water and the removal of air from the chamber of the pump. And if the velocity of the wind does not reach 45 m/sec in the course of. This is a fourstage pump with a diameter of the suction pipe of 62. may not realize that the water is not delivered due to its absence in the pump.
D E F G 207 . 3. power of the piston pump may Fig. 241. /388 container with a capacity of 0. 7. 5. the water delivery will take place as soon as the pump is started. 2. as shown in/Fig. The . consequently. while at lower velocities. can be avoided by means of a device called the automatic connection of the centrifugal pump at certain numbers of revolutions of the winddriven wheel. as well as on the magnitude of It should be assumed that a water losses through the foot valve.5 m 3 insures the. The centrifugal pupp. also in the case that an auxiliary piston pump is attached to the w nd engine. Valve G is open all the time and closes only when the pump stops working for a longer period of time. In addition. winddriven pump unit has an . the wind engine rotates the pump B without delivering water. When the wind engine operates with an additional piston pump. the flow of water willibe continuous even at a >l * wind velocity of 3 m/sec. The capacity of the container depends on the capacity of the suction pipe and the housing of the pump. 4. 240: a) Diagram of the disposition of the pamp below the level of the water source.starts to:deliver at D wind velocities of 45 m/sec.priming provided that the pump does not stop for more than 24 hours. Key: 1. the pump will be constantly primed. as soon as the engine starts operating. tower of the wind engine centrifugal pump water source B C not be higher than the power at which the centrifugal pump starts to deliver the water. 9.additional advantage. In this case.. This diagram of operation of a 1 • 1 ure. 6. 8. the piston pump starts to deli/3 8 9 . Unnecessary losses of energy on account of rotation of the centrifugal pump at low wind velocities. b) Diagram of the automatic priming of a centrifugal pump. ver water and primes the pump.reflux valve V which does not permit the water to enter the container during the operation of the pump.
8 . paration flour for baking and when the millstone operatesat top power: p 500'9kg/i 2 Adding up the moments of the r:ingshaped areas on the working sui face of the millstone.drag per . Characteristic of the millstone. .unit working . 2L The utilization of wind engines for operation with agricultural machines is of great. . The forces of friction between the /390 working surfaces of the millstone dreate a moment Mm which is in fact the sum of the elementary moments dM caused by ringshaped areas dS. .p2 .. whenever there is a wind. trough the millstone (Fig. Operat ion of Wind Engines with Millstones and Agricultural Machines. importance for sovkhozes and Grinding.. Fig. 241: Diagram of the parallel operation of centrifugal and piston pumps. preparation d6 kolkhozesi.. . 242: Elementary area of the working surface of the millstone.~ processing of grain. 242). 2. In the presurface of the millstone.I. woodpulp etc.r).51. r• 2 (' ) ' (293) 2 p(R I 27.processing.: the given machine tool. which determines the flexible graph of loading.e. f !z. The torque created by the wind engine must surmount the moment caused by the friction forces of the millstone. Key: 1. dr where: p .. dr. situated at various distances r from the axis of rotation of 3forage.. \"j . centrifugal pump 3. we obtain the overall moment of drag of i. piston pump 4. can be carried out any time during the day. tower of the wind engine. which takes place during the grinding of grain into flour. The elementary 'ringshaped area is equal to: The moment of the forces of friction on this ringshaped area can be expressed as follows: dM ==pdFr= p2rdrr\ hence: d Fig.
In addition. this pressure is created by the stone mill's own weight. i"ll and of similar agricultural machines changes proportionally to the revolutions of the stoneGmill. In practice.radius of the throat of the millstone.we can determine /391 the power which is required for its rotation. we obtain: N = An. in any desired manner by changing the feeding of the grain and the degreeoof its grinding. it depends on the sharpness of the millstone. ro . In the simplest mills. In this equation. Denoting the constant magnitudes by A. this drag can change due to changes of pressure between the working surfaces of the stone mill. we obtain: 3". ' Consequently.h. This makes it possible to adjust to the work of agricultural machines according to the charactertcs which are optimal for its operation with a wind engine. the characteristics differ markedlyy from a straight line. angular velocity of rotation of the stonemill'. external circumference.inh' the feeding of the grain. except for the revolutions n. while n is the number of revolutions per minute. (294) For :. in small grinding mills of the "farmer" type. where no grinding takes place but only feeding of the grain 1>ito the milling belt. . where: n w  mechanical efficiency of transmission. Substituting in equation (293) the values of the moment and of the angular velocity w = rr/30. given dimqnsions of the stone and for a given type of grain. The drag of the working surface of the stonemill:)changesalong with the change . the characteristics can be changed. the characteristics of the theoretical power should be represented graphically by a straight line which passes through the origin and subtends a certain angle with the axes of the abscissa. This equation shows that the theoretical power of the stone. on the hardness of the process~d material and on the amount of the grainl Knowing the working moment of 'the stonemill. 279 . all the magnitudes in the right hand side of equation (294) are constant. In such a manner.3~ Op(R3r. the pressure is created by a special spring.radius of the millstone including its. the force p is unknown.Here: R .
straw experimental of be constructed on the basis characteristics assist in These cutters.. others can only /392 centrifukal(pumps. and retically (piston data (stone mills. this would be quently.. A stone mill of 6/4 arshin with a diameter of 1067 mm requiresat full loading a power of N = 16. have to be made from. etc.The peculiar feature of operation of wind installations require characteristics of./sec and 28 rpm this wind engine has The velocity is found from the following relations: a power of 12 hp? The number of revolutions of the wind engine at a wind velocity of 9 m/sec can be found from the relations: nl Vl hence: =28=32 n = 28 = 32 rpm Consequently. winnowers.8 hp if at V = 8 m. then it is easy to see that a power of 12 hp corresponds to 150 revolutions of the stone mill /393 20 . only the maximal parametersare given in the catao. '~ . the gear ratio of the revolutions of the stone mill to the revolutions of the wind wheel should be equal to: If we were to solve this problem by means of a characteristic of the stone mill N = f(n) (Fig. generator). each stone mill should have its own engine. several departures choice of such a unit. th& If the normal power of the wind engine is smaller than the nominal power of the stone mill. all right and in such a case the unit would operate most effectively. of a'wind power unit and conditions determining the optimal operation these € onditions. while the revolutions should be found from the characteristics of the stone mill at which the power of the stone mill equals the power of the wind engine.). Conse. Example...a power of 16. the power tools in relation to of the conjtru9ieoer of the characteristics can be designed theoSome the revolutions. 6'transmis in "to design the For example.. the revolutions of the stone mill amount under these conditions to 176 rpm. logues for the existing stone mills of various dimensions. What' is the velocity of the wind at which a'type) D12 wind engine can develop.8 hp. with acordanc~ in . crushers. then a certain velocity of the wind should be sought at which the wind('Iengine can develop the required power. 243). in the practice of kolkhoz flour milling.. However.
the general :.find.is the transmission must be made in such a way that it can give only a 100 revolutions at the full power of the wind engine. Key: 1. N = 5*:3 hp at n = 40 rpm. D10.5. 28 1 . rpm revolutions. compiled by the 'author ii whic'h one can'. then the latter will be underloaded and consequently. the i = 2.per minute. and then down withthee characteristic curve' In such a manner. Dividing 150 revolutions by the number of revolutions of the wind wheel which it developsr. in the/395 given case the gear ratio will be equal to: _i= .l ' gear ratio: Fig. the stone mill is less than the power developed by the wind engine.8. then If a 6/4 stone mill' .readily.r Fatio  .. N = 20 hp at n = 20 rpm. hp 2.of t revolittions of va'ious stonemfv 16  mills b gines f t. Berevolutons different power': o wiod en The upper part of the nomogram 0 /• ' 4* / contains approximate characteristics of stone mills (poweroin relation to constructed on the basis Srevolutions). n = 28 rpm and D16.at a power of 12 hp. 24 3 : Characteristics of the stone mill in relation to the revolutions. connected to the same wind engine. atO n = 32 rpm.ge. we obtain s5 the gbnera. 244 illustrates a nomogram. Only the upper part of the nomogram can be used for wind engines of other characteristics.3 hp to the intersection i:r . A VIME D8 wind engine Example.N = 12 hp atv. D8. of the stone mill 6/4. Consequently. The lower /394 part of the diagram contains rays : for wind engines of known power and 0 40 so so0 12014oo. whichis obtained by passing a line from the scale of the 5. with a stone mill of diameter D = 550 mm ensures full power of the stone mill at its maximal revolutions 350 rpm. S/I 0o20 of tracihgs of the output according to revolutions whichvwere recalculated to the characteristics of power according to revolutions. ray to the intersection with that the transmisprovided mill stone any wind engine will mill with for the work of "required power the If sion is suitably calculated. N = 8 hp D12.5.n60p Fig. the wind engine will work with a low output coefficient of wind energy at high wiInd velocities. such as VIME D8.
At this moment. "the.=50 SO 100 systems of windmills.. thelrod dyoke 22'.so Sopo. Zhukovskiy's equation: 2. .ransmittedthrouggh 11. engines.C. Which strings thrown across blocks 55. which is used in the improved Key: I. which is en4i tirely acceptable in the older 1. the short external ends T g'F'down at the same time with the shaft and the stone. 245). 244: M. mills this is done manually by means of wheel A. However in the rapid wind engine.. Fateyev's nomogram These difficulties can be solved for matching stone mills to wind *by means of automatic regulation. \D S 2 this operation is hard to accomplish i. Fig.44. The location of the working surface of the stone mill on the belt and the forging of the grooves or' the working surface are shown in Fig. sensitive to even weak wind gusts. = 4 !/ °7 Z the runner and the bedstone In the common wind(Fig.. since they are not sensitive to sharp changes . 244:nomogram and regulate the stone mill.. C 300oo 3 . revolutions of the stone mill 245.to stand by the mill Fig. 246 illustrates the di~agram of an automatically regulated windmill with two millstone sets. 2. The action of the centrifugal regulator mounted on the girder 'in. .. Fig.82 .. which is obtained by increasing the slope of the connected with yoke 11 by means of is inclination. .   S'z 0 /1  I d61 4 .e. to levers 33 which support the step bearings of the shaft of the stone mill. and together with it the long end N of the yoke 11. igen = ns/nw general 3. and the feeding of the grain increases.1 in wind velocity and the miller has time to adjust the technTj7 f D16  __ logical process according to the velocity of the wind. E. front ofl'the' mill. During the increase in the number of revolutions. the miller would be compelled.e. Regulation of work of the stone mill con " sists in changing the height of the cleft h between the working  surfaces of the stone mill i. /396 which has lighter wings. the centrifugal loadsUC come apart and lift the clutch. is . 25. The ratio of the angular velocity of rotation of the regulator and the angle a which is formed by the lever ''with the centrifugal /397 loads at their ends is given by N. the height of the cleft h between the stone mills diminishes. power spent on the work of stone the mill gear ratio modelsof windmills. . tested by the author. Sthe 1 Method for regulation of ? stone mill.
equation (297). 11.aI 12 _ u . are known from the For construction of the regulator. . wings of known characteristics. G0. assuming that the maximal initial height of the cleft between the stone mills is equal to h 0 .en'g 9 where: w is the angular velocity of rotation of the regulator.o . Other indications are given in *~ Fig.81 m/sec 2 .e'strial gravitation. 2. a complete computation of the regulator 'for windmills can be made requations((295). it is to determine the height of the cleft h between the working surfaces of the stone mill in relation to the wind velocity at any point in time. travel of the clutch H changes proportionally to cos a.c _ P Oj (295) I5 e _ 6leepreoI7 Bo8 . 5. acceleration of 10 c" 11 Eer _t C. one should use the dimensions of the system of regulation which were determined on the basis of constructional considerationj. 7. i" o 1) i (297) r by means of All the magnitudes in this equation. (296) and (297).!4t 11711 eC 5 the terr. In determining the magnitudeswhich enter. 246: Q/2 L = SP. 12. By means of this equation.shown in Fig. 4. l1a. 15. 6. 13. (296) flour 9. 15poa nu me aor 15 _easy Fig. = S L1 + L1). 245: Manually regulated stone mill. 16. 8. 3. 14. such a manner. w is In also known for each wind velocity. 10. 247. (297) cos . 283 . According to the symbols'. wenobtain the change in the height of the cleft in the following form: h = h 0 C_ 11. bin section ab runner bedstone ragging grooves grinding belt throat shims The cos a is found from equation (295). = 9. hopper jolting millstone rim runner bedstone shaft pinion discharge of cos C. with exception of w. The height of the cleft h changes proportionally to the travel of the Since the clutch H of the regulator. Key: 1.
ar Fig. the straight line forming a certain angle with the horizontal axis. it 1 = k i The centrifugal loads"'M are chosen with a weight.<w1v. 246):. The computation is presented in Table 30. Gl= S(L. a weight G = 700 kg and the following dimensions of the arms of the levers (Fig.. height of the cleft between the working surfaces of the stone mill 2. the slope of the curve changes according to the automatic. 246. k1 =0. = 0.+ 1 ).] 2 84 . the larger the loadthe steeper the curve. the curve is obtained by changing manually the loadji.10 m. the magnitude Q will be equal \__Q__ kg 3 r3 . 246: Diagram of automatic regulation of stone mills.).L=Sl. change of the load depending on the magnitude of the gear ratio of the revolutions of the wind wheel 1. We know from what has been said above that the theoretical characteristics of the stone mill change ?as a function of the revolutions in a linear manner. 247). P of 58 kg each. hence: c C (298) For a stone mill 6/4 with Example. 3Substituting these values in equation (297) at constructional dimensiorsof the centrifugal regulator adjusted to the S o1: o70 80901000 3040o0 2 060pOU crpoG. Key: 1. [Translator's note: Errata checked and found to be illegible. to confer to the stone mill the characteristicwhich pass t rough the peak of the power curve of the wind engine. L = 1.peruyno. we obtain cos a for various revolutions of the windmill and the corresponding clefts between the working surfaces of the stone mill 6/4.\.e. In the case of a centrifugal regulator. revolutions of centrifugal regulator 3. 2 2 IL1 2 to: I 1.5 m.12 m.e. makes it possible to correct the conditions of operation of the windmill unit.3 m.. rpm type VIME D16 windmill (Fig. i. The relation between the height of the cleft h and the revolutions is shown in Fig. This simple automatic construction not only permits regulation of the work of the stone mill but .
Let us recall that in the manual method of regulation like in t . the output 2B5 .automatic 2 3 O6opoTu serpo oiec3. revolutions tion of the main rolls which takes the stone mill place at a rate of 133150 rpm. 244 for determining the Centrifugal Fig. w 060pcbl sepPoB3 11 . The ZD corn millfodder crusher (Fig. one of the peaks of the Swhich will pass through as shown power curves of the wind engine we see by curve i in Fig.with indication per hp/hour.a correct gear ratio i of centrifugal regulator to the wind wheel. the stone mill will operate under optimal if the transmission between "i ncv. a as works rpm. The output is obtained in relation to grain. i. 247: regulator and its effect on the characteristics of the stone mill. 400450 both rolls work with the same number of revolutions crusher. gear ratio the steeper mill. and the specific output i. the wind gear ratio of the revolutions of stone wheel to the revolutions of the mill. one has to utilize the nomogram shown in Fig.0 to. 249. and in this case the machine mill . we obtain a series of curves. When ns one couple of pinions is disengaged from the transmission of the machine.'presented in The experimental performance of the corn the wind velocity Fig. Hence the that at. S:2conditions 1 wind wheel and stone mill is properly selected. Operation of the TV8 wind engine with ZD corn mill.blow. theoretical animal husbandries for the grinding or 2. 247. 248) is used in Key: 1. regard to Table 31 presents the output of this machine with of the quality of the product grinding and crushing. the revolutions of the regulator. ones.e. The serrated rolls of the manw rotathe during grain the grind chine of 3.e. The the larger the. revolutions of crushing of grain for the po paration of the wind wheel /400 fodder. power curve of the stone L /399 By determining the various gear ratios between wind wheel and regulator. which makes the of and the revolutions at a variable feeding to work under optimal condiit possible for the winddriven unit tions.
148 2. cos d'!at. the output curves are given for various degrees of coarseness of grinding in relation to wind velocity.04 1.96 .08 1.TABLE 30: DETERMINATION OF THE HEIGHT OF THE CLEFT h BETWEEN THE WORKING SURFACES OF THE STONE MILLS OF A VIME D16 WINDMILL Computed parameters Wind velocity (m/sec) I i 1 8 9 L1 s . Since the stabilizing regulation of the wind engine ensures the constancy of the revolutions at any wind velocity above 8 m/sec.400 _ der these conqitions were 390per minute.2 0w= Trn/30 cos a 9.0 0.07 1.3 ..1 10t 0.54 0t5 O it SXf "sented Thevoverall output prein Table 31 was given by the corn millfodder crushe' at a wind velocity of L. 2 "FArmer".=3 M [ .8 9. "'increasing the number of revolutions so that it i§ not possible to determine by eyethe'exitent 'of overloading of the wind 28 6 :/40 . (Fig..81 Lt OD .3 6. the load can be increased in .vertical.. the output characteristics of the unit presented in Fig.535 0.8 . 251 and 252 were obtained.8 0. . . In the left hand side of the figure.0.such a way as the wind velocity increases that the curve! becomes a. . 2 "Farmer" Fig. 20 23 13 17 Revolutions of the wind wheel Revolutiosfof the vertichl Revolutions of the centrifugal 69 39 51s 60 reguLator Angular velocity o the centrifugal reguator 4.33 1OD=0. in relation to the revolutions of the wind wheel. The No.99 0.71 26 78 g 78 29 87 87 2 0 8.VIME  . wind engines and "No.2 0. 2 Farmer". .' h. ooverloading the wind engine withbut.6 0. 2. 2.1 5..37"a.OM=. Operation of the .)Q ) 0.e o 1. 250) is widely used for Asua result of the processing ofctesting materials for. 52 .D12 wind engine with No. 248: The ZD corn millfodder crusher.61 h=h.25 7. . h =2 . while in the right hand side. coarse milling in animal husbandry.36 0.
very coarse grinding 253 and 254. m/sec effect of these factors on the 3. 1.re).: moisture content content of of the the straw. ue 3a i=i7 velocities above 8 m/sec.: moisture i.62 100 160 825 1700 117 23s 0.Qrr. Grinding milling have a dia. wind wheel . 5 7 4 C Srp6C 6 00 . length of the cut. 0 engine with straw cutters.oTI1 6 The output of the unit in relation to the coarseness of S milling is presented in Table Performance of the wind /403 + KM o 4 6 8 10 /A 32.l mill in elation to wind velocity machine depends o many factors.c .of the Fig.illustrated graphically in Fig. coarse grinding 7. ness of the knives. etc. Tests with the straw cutters system show "Goliwer the "Goliif' Performance of the corn.5 287 . to a larger extent than corresponding to the power. OUTPUTOF THE ZD CORN'MILL OPERATING WITH THE TV8 WIND ENGINE crushing grinding Characteristic of the grinding of barley Specific t Specifc than 50% When tpt Dutput output hr per welg of the Type of particles inthe V=81 g (kg/h (kg/hp. The 2. rpm performance of the machine is 4. the load should not be increased oop. sharpKey: kg/hour 1. 6.engine. 5. medium grinding 8. and revolutions of the wind wheel i.5 n 1.0 5 2. fine grinding TABLE 31.e.5 310 5 310 500 800 35 .of the wind enginelat a wind velocity V 6 of 89 m/sec.5 1. I 8  0 i0 I 7L a Th.m/sec) er h meter (mm) Fine grinding Medium grinding Coarse grinding Very coarse grinding and crushing 2/~. 249: the power and output of the irltthat Fmig. Therefore at wind  i Y0715 epoac . t 10 15 20 Z itG/ 4 0.e.
5 46. 1il m coarse Very Ing. we obtain /405 .aln a' se: 'f "unfavorable conditions which are similar to those obtained with the wind engine operating with a rotary pump i.we obt. As the. in this way the work performed by the straw cutter is smaller and consequently the wind engine is in a position to.5 :o 2.wind velocity increases. while a complex mechanism is required in order to increase the effec" tiveness of the winddriven pump unit working with a rotary piston.5 go 3.9 t107.0 70. 0utpt (kg/hr) at V=8 /sec 600 Specific output (kg/hphr) 320 910 24.e.0 1.5 no 1 0. 250: The "No. 2 Farmer" grinding mill.TABLE 32. prove the characteristics.0 2 Coarse millin 2.0. I: Since 'in the .Oto 1. the wind engine can /404 velociwind low at only work with maximal E ties. OUTPUT OF THE VIME D12 WITH THE NO. be processed is performed manually. However. cope with the load. the loading of the straw can be increased as well.5 Meium mill:ng Medium mll~ng 1.0 1400 The power characteristics as a function of the revolutionsis represented by a straight line: by superposing it on the characteristic curve of the'tind engine . 2 "FARMER" Characteristic of milling Diameter cf particles (in Type of mm) when they formmore than 60% of the amount milling milled by weight Eine milling 0. smaller to loading of the material amounts of straw can be fed at low wind velocities.0 2. se) of the straw cutter.. no special mechanism is required in the given case in order to imFig.5 i. in the range of ve1ocities 48 m/sec. In such a manner.
. i.o~ P. coarse milling.  a characteristic curve. are not as closely revolutions of a pump with output output. etc. output d.0 L 1_ 06. the 1. a. milling. very unue coarse milling. m/sec c. 252: Characteristics of the output of the VIME D12 wind engine with "Farmer" in' relation to the number of revolutions..0 " 9.0 dClopolb G.e o:tmadhine Iwo which passes through the point of maximal power of the wind engine.below. etc.0 5.e. parameter./. This is explained by the fact that the main cutters.1* I / charicterfstic curves of the straw cutters. very f the given power :out. and the output depends on the feeding. the correspondKey. have no shape which could be obtained by means of computations. In most of these machines. naturally. 1.. Generally speaking. the feeding of the material to be processed is to be processed is'performed manually. i.'J 4. 247.e.00T :10 40 50 3 1e Sb i and output which characterize the work of similar mabilli Fig. the sharpness of the working surfaces of the stone mill . the teeth in the case of the saw. o _ I b 8.O . in )grinding mills. deengine wind . 2. Another factor which . the courseicof time and consequently the performance of their work Key. Therefore. medium milling. revolutions 0 .. revolutions of the ind wheel per e. i.for the stone mill. ence . kg/hr b. chines.e. revo 2 89 . The properties of these tools changes in. a similar characteristic is obtained to that S_ shown in Fig.of the pends on the individual habits of the servicing personnel. 251: Characteristics of the output of the VIME D12 wind engine with "Farmer" at various degrees of grinding in wrelation relation to Fig. the knife:liin the case of the straw cutter.0 .put . root S1definite. 3.affects to a great extent the characteristicsof agricultural machines is the tool which performs the processing of the material. ' saw. wind velocity e.
Therefore. I I . 238 should be used which indicates the wind velocities Vy at which the wind gives itsmaximal output during the year in a region with a given /406 average annual wind velocity V 0 . For example.  1 S7 . Adjusting the agricultural machines to the wind engine. TV8 and VIME D12 for wind velocities Vy which were calculated by means of equation (291) and were rounded off.o . hp 2.8 hp while at the end of 8 hours of work. In order to determine the gear ratio of the revolutions of the tool to the revolutions of the wind wheel. The initial parameters in adjusting agricultural machines to wind engines are their power N and the number of revolutions n.. 253). it increased to 1. Key: 1.for their movement. Table 33 presents the power values on the shaft of the wind wheel in wind enginesVIME D5.. IIl 111 1 . The same table gives the values of the power of the tools at which they give the highest annual output when connected to the wind engine at a given average annual wind velocity. the power expenditure was 0.6 hp while the output stayed the same. the graph illustrated in Fig. dry straw). 7 +changes. kg/hr 29 0 A . L10 ' .following sharpening of" theknives increases twofold With sharp knives (see Fig. 253: Power expenditure on the straw cutter in relation to the time of operation from the moment of sharpening of the knives. The normal power of the machine should correspond to that value of power of the wind engine at which it gives the maximal output throughout the year in a given region characterized by a given annual average of the wind velocity. hp 2. in selecting a certain machine. and along with it the required powerI. the number of revolutions of the wind engine corresponding tothe power are also presented. . hr 2 0 *7 •N "_ I I I i iengine i I tooa .0 I 111 + I l I 9t 11 S' Fig.. 254: Power expenditure ofitthe work of the straw cutter in relation to revolutions and output (fresh. Key: 1.0 + . the power expenditure of the straw cutter "Goliaf" during 8 hours of operation.I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8qac Fig.
these conditions it would only work a small... 0.region with an average annual velocity of the wind V 0 = 4 m/sec with a wind engine VIME D5..... 5 Power of the machine (hp) ...TABLE 33..8 60' 70 9... Low Speed Power of the wind engine erWr Oofthe machtine (h) 9wer of revo utions or (hp). In this 291 . where n is assumed to be equal to 0. since under... as well as to determine the gear ratio of the revolutions of the wind wheel to the revolutions of the machine if the latter are known.and determine the gear ratio.0 *16 45 '25 7. 2... 2. Rapid Power on the shaft of the wind wheel N)(ihp). Rapid Power of the wind engine (hp) .7 1. ....5 1. POWER OF THE WIND ENGINES AT OPTIMAL WIND VELOCITIES Vy IN RELATION TO AN ANNUAL AVERAGE WIND VELOCITY V0 Parameter Parameterd VIME D5.. the mechanical efficiency.2 2 0. it would be more convenient to connect this machine to a TV8 wind engine.0 VIME D12.... 130 o' 3. At a wind velocity V 0 = 3 m/sec.. i1 . Examining_:!Table 33.. 16 Numberof revolutions or the wind wheel. Table 33 makes it possible to determine the wind engine in com....7 given power of the wind engine (hp).....2 1.number of hours per year... Determine the wind engine which will operate optimally with a root cutter with a power N = 0..8 3.75 200....... we find that this machine works in a'.0 20 6 1 40 50 TV8.0 2.. Power of the machine corresponding to a vra e annual n sec) velocty v 3 4 5 6 timaL wind velocity Vy 5 16 s 9 0.75 hp at n = 80 rpm.5 The power of agricultural machines is determined by the relation: Np = Nl../407 bination with which the work of a given agricultural machine will be optimal knowing its normal power.39 Number of revolutions of the wind wheel ...j 4* 14 7....... Example 1......73 2... i 5.65... while the gear ratio of revolutions of the wind wheel to the revolutions of the machineis equal to: It is not advisable to connect this machine to a VIME D5 wind engine in a region with an annual average wind velocity V0 = 3 m/sec.8 2 12....5 2..
This machine a power of the TV8 wind engine as V 0 = 56 m/sec. . in adjusting a certain power of the machine to the wind engine. not only the type of the wind engine should be considered. it is not required that the power of the machine corresponds to the maximal annual output of the wind engine. but also the average annual wind velocity at which the machine will The same machine will require different dimensions of wind operate. the normal power of which In Table 33 we find that this power corresponds to equals 5 hp. engines at different values of the annual average wind velocity. Thus. Determine the type of wind engine which would be fully loaded with an oil cake breaker. When the wind engine works with several agricultural machines. since in this case the wind engine works simultaneously with several machines. can give a satifactory loading also with type VIME D12 wind engine as V 0 = 45 m/sec.case the gear ratio will be: Example 2.
52. it is imperative to know the amount of consumed water for the needs of a given hus. bladed 'low speed wind "hgine isrequired which is characterized by a. The deep bedding of the water in pits or wells requires a piston pump for its lifting to the surface. net of distributor pipes which feeds the water to the places where it is consumed./409 bandry. while lifting of the water from open resevoirs or small pits which have a large output can be perIn the first case.). Winddriven pump installations can be divided according to their purpose into: 1. 3. pump equipment consisting of a pump. etc. winddriven irrigation installations. actuatator. devices for priming and discharging the water. The wind and topographical conditions of the place determine the system of regulation of the wind power unit and the type of equipment (the intake. winddriven pump installation for water supply.. etc. suction intake and delivery pipes and various devices which ensure the correct and most effective operation 6f the pump installation (air chamber. winddriven pumpsinstallations for drainingimarshy an d ts: fos'deeplyflooded land. net of pipes. which lift the water for irrigating plots of land. these lift the water for drinking and domestic needs.) 29 3' . wells and resevoirs. the wind engine. Ardhimedean screw etc.large moment of stopping and small number of revolutions.a sparsebladed rapid wind engine is required which is characterized by a large number of revolutions and small stopping moment. the nature of the source and its output and finally. 255. The constructional diagram of the commonest type for the water supply of animal husbandries is shown in Fig.CHAPTER 14: WIND DRIVEN PUMP INSTALLATIONS /408 Wind engines are widely utilized both in the USSR and abroad for the lifting!of water from Pits. balancer. resevoir or tank for storing the water on calm days. 2. the relief and wind conditions of the place where it is suggested to sett up the winddriven pump installation.designed for operation With a piston or centrifugal pump. 3. For designing winddriven pump installations. 2. 4. WindDriven Pump Installations for Water Supply The main components of a winddriven pump installation are: 1. a multiformed by means of a centrifugal pump. while in the second case .
daily the obtain we consumer by their number n and adding up. Multiplying. but also for irrigation. taking into account a water reserve for (. water expenditure Q: (300) Q=n 2914' . The winddriven pump unit should be/410 chosen in.. in adjusting a certain winddriven pump unit to a source with a limited output. for the given husbandry. the!standard pe requirements q liters per day. purposes drinking for lifted not only The amount of water which can be supplied by a winddriven pump installation per day.e. The expenditure of the water Q should be equal or smaller than the output of the source Q6 i.The daily expenditure as well as the output of the water source determine the power of the winddriven pump installation. is determined according to the existing standards of water .2 to 2. from 0.and when Constructional Fig. A water deficiency in the source can disturb the normal operation of the wind engine and may be the reason for cluttering of the well by engulfed sand. in order to diagram of a winddriven ensure the supply of the husbandry. wells with a very high out3 The water from such wells can be put are found. a.L2 calm days. 3 characteristic feature is a small output.] In such a manner. Water from pits and wells with a limited output is usually hauled'only for drinking The latter type is most common in steppe regions. reaching 30 m /hr. such a way that the inflow of water from a given source should cover the expenditure. water of the basis of the required amount Usually the water from open resevoirs which have a large output are used for production and irrigation purposes. the following rule is obtained: . Their needs. in adjusting unit should be determined on the of power the an unlimited output.: _(299) Ti' ' S . other water sources should be considered where other winddriven pump units can be set up: pump unit to a water source with winddriven the b. the power of the unit should be established on the basis of the output of the water source. 255: the latter is deficient.0 m /hr. However in certain regions of our South.
... 256... see w1t a ........ according to the standards of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR. rabbt chicken.5 40 o..: by utilizing the energy of the wind.. calves fHom 6i u Aa With in without a rspie water...... from 26 months i summer safe... so so o 30 33 2 20  17 59 ......... 1..........75 The distribution of water consumption in the course of one day /411 is shown in the graph in Fig....... In order to fully supply the consumerswwith water... 9 months .. ... the power of the winddriven pump installation should be calculated not Ver daily water feed.pie 10 711 months of age .. TABLE 34: WATER CONSUMPTION BY ANIMALS [151 IDaily water conmikig ow . in te summer) ......... sm...... t is the number ofdays in the calm period.... The calm period is defined as dayswith an average wind velocity of 2 m/sec and below.................... working horse ................... 257.For example....... On windy days.. ..... number of . 60 60 40 64 working ox. 295" ... in the winter.. the wind installation should ensure the daily water consumption and should store the water for the subsequent calm periods. but per the amount which would ensure the consumer with supply on both windy and calm days...... with a duration of 1 day and more........... male swine .. .................... which illustrates the water consumption in a cattle yard in the presence of an automatic drinking bowl. preparation of fodder and sanitaryhygienic measures is determined by the following figures given in Table 34..... days with an average wind velocity higher than 2 m/sec betweentwb adjacent calm periods.... ....... the variation in the average daily wind velocities during a certain period of time took place as illustrated in Fig. the length of which may be 12 days....... Let us assume that for a given region. in the witer... sow with piglets up to 2 months pTet...... see goa... co ..........9 fattened pigs............ T is the.......... the daily water consumption of animals including watering places............. where the hatched areas give a /412 picture of the fluctuations in wind velocities. foal from 612 months of age ...
. when the period of calm days t is longFig. .. the magnitude of this stock is determined by the expression: Graph of the possible daily fluctuations in Saverage average daily wind velocities. 27: 2. 4 6 4'7/ 17 ]1 1i ~ / ~ in the same regions. in addition. there are cases when the average daily wind velocity does not exceed 2 m/sec for a whole month. the installation can. According to the graph in 24 2 4 oK 11 LqcY C L 10 i 2 3 Fig. Key: 1. 4 of water stored in the resevoir can be determined in the following way. the amount i .Such a graph is entirely possible since. est.2) If there is a large variation in the daily water consumption. 256: Daily graph of water consumption for animals. 2. 3. There are regions.haud water into the stock the amount of which we shall assume to be equal to: the daily requirement. water.can be fed to the winddriven pump installation in an amount which would ensure the supply to the consumer under less favorable conditions of wind. where the calm /413 periods may last from 23 days. it should haul the water into the stock during the period of calm days.aisregarding the water expenditure required for covering the peaks of the graphs of water consumption. The wind installation should ensure a daily water consumption or a daily expendQ M3a iture Q m/day. hour 6f the day 7 I 257. wind velocity V m/sec wind calm days (301) In such a manner.the sequence and duration of the calm periodsdo 4 _ Sbut not obey a certain law. the power of the winddriven pump installation should be calculated for an overall amount of water which is equal to: <Q =Q+ + . 296 . 4. . Fig.. This is a rare occurrence but it does happen. Key: 1. Under these conditions.consequently the amount stocked per day will be equal to Q/T. (30. and the number of windy days T is smallest.
In this case, the overall amount. of water is:
\Q;=±I " "
V( :
\
(303)
Power of the winddriven pump unit. The power of the winddriven pump unit required for supplying the daily water expenditure is determined by equation: (304) N60 ; where: Q is the daily water consumption in m 3 ; /414 tp is the number of working hours of the wind engine per day; H is the pressure head in m, which is determined by accounting for the losses in pressure heads; n is the efficiency of the pump. If in addition the unit is supposed to feed water into the stock in order to be consumed on calm days, the power will be expressed according to equations('(302) and (303), by: N =N(1
+
(305)
or accounting for the inconstancy of the consumption:
(306)
In addition, the volume of the tank should correspond to Lthe volume of water supplied by the winddriven installation over and above the daily consumption. If the amount of supplied water is determined by means of equation <(302), then the volume of the tank should equal:
hence'
W = Qt. (307)
If the water in the tank mu:st < suffice, also for covering the peak of the graph of water expenditure, according to equation (303), then the volume should equal:
hence
W'Q+Qt=Q (r
1)
(308)
However, it should be stressed that a winddriven pump installation which ensures complete water supply to the consumer on account of the wind energy, is practically unsuitable in regions with long calm periods.
2971
Let us assume that in a certain region where it is planned to set up a winddriven pump installation, the duration of calm periods average.s 5 days, while the number of windy days between two calm periods is T = 2 days. Determining the required power by means of /415 equations (305) and (306), we obtain:
N,=T(I+ 2+5)=4.,V
In such a manner, for a 5day calm period which was preceded by two windy days, the power of the winddriven pump installation should be 3.5 times larger than the power needed to lift the water in the course of one day, and 4 times larger if the peak of the consumption graph has to be covered. Under these conditions, the tanks for storing the water should have the following capacity:
i! w'=Q (t +1=Q (5+1)=6Q
How will the winddriven installation operate if two windy In this case days will be followed by letus. say two calm days?
the required power will be: .
SW=Qt=5Q.
.
N, =N (1 +) = 2N. 2N' (2 2)= 2.5N. The examined examples show that a winddriven installation calculated for 5 calm days would stand still during' ,',jalm periods which last less than 5 days and would not supply the required water to the consumer if calculated for a smaller number of calm days. Our conclusion is that in regions with low wind velocities, it is not advisable in practice to design winddriven pump installations toqc.o ver the, water supply of the consumer only on account of the wind energy. 'the winddriven pump installation can supply the Evidently'l consumer with water only in those regions where the calm periods do not exceed 23 days while the windy periods between them lasts no less than 12 days. A winddriven pump installation with a reserve engine which does A suitable renot work with wind energy would be more advisable. rural condiunder installations pump winddriven serve engine for actuator. a horsedrawn tions is In this case the tariks for storing the water can be much smaller i.e. to contain no more than a oneday supply.
S298"
53.
Water Tanks and Water Towers in Wind Pump Installations
/416
Wind pump installations can not operate without a resevoir or a tank for storing water. In the absence of a tank,I the wind engine would have to work only at the time of water consumption i.e. with interruptions;the wind installation would have to stop as soon as the it consumption of the water stops, ":and
would have to start again when the requirement for water is renewed. However, in order to start a wind engine 'wi which is charged by means of a rotary pump, a wind velocity of at least 4 m/sec is required&. while the operation can take place at a velocity of 3 m/sec. The initial loading moment is approximately 3 times larger than the working moment. In such a manner, the intermittent operation of the wind installation as a result of the absence of a tank or a water stock, would be the reason for frequent idle periods in the operation of the wind engine not only when there is no need for water but also when it is needed. Such an installation would be of little use in practice.
The water tank is the main element
in any wind pump installation. The wind Fig. 258: Wind installa energy can be accumulated in the form of the water stored in the tank on calm tion with a 20 m 3 metalAs a result of this, the idle perdays. lic tank in brick walliods of the wind installation are shortened ing. and at the same time the production becomes cheaper, which pays the expenses for the /417 construction of the water tank. The daily water consumption is characterized by for example, the water conlarge fluctuations as shown in Fig. 256: than between 6 am and higher sumption from 12 md until 2 pm is much period of time can of short a within 10 am. This maximal consumption The presence of water installation. course not be ensured by the wind peak consumption the cover stored in the tank makes it possible to not in the given or works regardless of whether the wind installation moment. Let us present a few examples of the construction of resevoirs Fig. 258 illastrates and tanks used with wind pump installations. 3 eapacity. _The; m 20, a wind pump installation with a tank of cylindrical tankmade:of iron sheets has a diameter of approximately It is surrounded by brick wall2.5 m and atr.height of about 2.8 m. The brick wall prevents the water from ing up to a height of 2 m. freezing in the winter.
29 9'
S =_.
3tank
Ironconcrete storage 'tariks .the:construction of which is sh6wn in Fig. 259, are quite common. Approximately 8 tons of cement and about 600 kg of iron are
needed for the construction of such:a storage
with a capacity of 30 mS;
_ I,
,resevoirs, 1935. 
these are distinguishedby their great durability. The construction and computations of ironconcrete storage tanhk are presented,for, example, in the book of
a
o,
rezerB. A. Shebuyev, Zhelezobetonnye '
vuary, bdu9:e:ry i silosy,
bunkers and silos] Moscow,
LIronconcrete
. /I .Stone
be
_
resevoirs are durable and can
[Pages 418 and 419 are missing in the available copy of this book.] In the woody regions of the northern/ 4 20 ig. 259: A 30 and central strips of the European part Fig. 259: A 30 m ironof the USSR and in Siberia, it is most concrete storage tank.
convenient to build wooden water towers. The height of these towers is determined depending on the losses in pressure head in the distributor net and on the height of the points of. : water consumption. If the water from the tank is also utilized for extin, If the water m. guishing fires, then its height is taken as 1218 tower is water the of height the then is only used for drinking, taken as 810 m. Key: 1. section at BB For the sake of illustration, Fig. 261 presents the general view of the construction of a wooden water tower. Wooden tahks are most commonly used with such towers. An example of a wooden cylingeneral height of /421 di'ical tank with an internal diameter of 3.7 m, a The Fig. 262. in shown is 1.85,.m 2.35 m, and a filling height of made rings with fastened is and thick tank is made of boards 5 cm mm. 16 of diameter a of round iron with If the tank is fastened with packed rings, then it is given a conical shape, as shown in Fig. 26.2, right. In order to. prevent the water from freezing, the tank is 6ncased in a skeleton frame cabin with double casing filled with a heating material which may be sawdust or another cheap heat isolating material.
00'

__O f 1
_
Sgrooves
1S'u,....
2c
S3tened
__
.. 3, 3 ,/ ,s Q1
OPWC.a.. B;e6.
All the wooden elements of the main construction of the tower are connected by.means of Below, the and bolts. feet of the tower are supported on foundations made of rubble or concrete blocks and are fasto them by means..of connectwhich pass through ing bolts: the rods consisting of two logs for each pair of feet, (Fig. 263). tower has a planking and a lining: the space between these is filled with a heating layer which protects the tank from the cold coming from below. A duct passes along the axis of the tower from the floor of the cabin to the well, consisting of a skeleton frame with double casing; a heating filling fills the space between the walls. The duct serves for heating the feeding and The pipe prooutlet pipes. vided with valves for switching the water into the direction of the tank or directly to the consumer and it is mounted in a timbered pit situated at the base of the tower under the duct.
B
m7 N6ia .noDDw "" 5
,
Fig. 262: Cylindrical and conical wooden tanks. Key: 1. cross section through the riveting of the conical tank 2. section through the riveting of the cylindrical tank 3. socket for fastening the rings/ 4. adjoining bottom with the walls and passage of the pipesthrough the bottom of the tank, 5. rubber spring 6. sections along AB 6a. sections along CD 7. top View
The tentative requirement in materials for the wooden tank shown in Fig. 263 with different The capacities, is presented in Table 35 (see also Fig. 264). for wind laboratory the table was compiled according to the data of power utilization VIME.
54.
Standard:
Designs of Wind Pump Installations.
/423
The mass distribution of wind pump installation in the USSR dates back to. 1936, when about 1300 installations with the wind engines TV5 and TV8 were constructed in various regions for the lifting of water. Let us characterized,two of the most common installations in more detail.
301,
~do3
d=
"' oc 0d . S By r o.0o
,.
e
The wind pump installation with the TV5 Wind engine. The wind pump installation with the TV5 wind engine (Fig. 265) is one of the most common instalations in the USSR. Due to /424
power it is suitable for
0',4
iits
,
use in many kolkhoz and sovkhoz husbandries. The TV5 wind installation
P4e3C11
Vd
e
7
is mainly found in "1the steppe
S,.regionsand . is used for supplying water to the cattle in the field. It is recommended also to build these wind pump installations in animal husbandries when the water sources are at relatively large distances from the cattle yard. co:he,Joutput of this installation with a rotary pump was computed by means of equation (264) and the characteristics constructed according to Fig. 219, on the condition that the characteristic
d 20
Fig. 23: Foundation under the feet of the water tower. Key: i. bar 3. bare layers
4. concrete or rubble foundat
n. b
of the pump follows ray I.
The result of the computation
5. bolsters
6. groove in the floor of the wood 7. cut along 1l.
is presented in Table 36.
The.measured expenditure on a type TV5 wind pump installation consists of the following losses:
'
1. Wind engine with pump
equipment ............. k 2. Tank for the storage water with heated cabin..................k 2
3. Construction of cap

Sof
__ _
,

t
Main dimensionsof Fig. 264: wooden tanks.
and base under the wind engine............k 3 4. assembly and hoisting of the wind engine....k 4 K = Zk.
The sum of the major investments equals
The annual expenditures for exploitation consists of the following elements: 302
TABLE 35. TENTATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR MATERIALS FOR WOODEN TANKS 4.
oN"
>
0
0

,i I
4
10 15 20 25 2.94 3.38 3.71) 3.86 t.82 2.01 2.20 2.47 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 8 6 7 9
4
'12 16 16 16 131.8 187.7 225.9 284.8 1.49 2.15 2.74 3.65
* 30
35 40 50
4.10
4.34 4 52 488
2:61
2,74 2.83 3.0:3
6.0
6.0 6.5 7.0
6."0
6.0 6.5 7,0
8
9 9 9
19
19 19 22
376.3
438.3 494.6 646.6
4.40
4.91 5.93 7.16
60
5,18
3.20
8,0
8.0
10
22
80418
9.11
1. Damping of the structural part l 0.054 k 2. Damping o the equipment
/42 5
y2 = 0.07(kl + k2) 3. Routine maintenance of the
tank "l,"y, = 0.02 k
2.
4. Routine maintenance of the equipment
4
= 0.05(kl + k4).
5. Maintenance of the windmill installation.....y5 S.6.
\
Lubrication and cleaning
materials.... y6
Si
_.
Sum of the annual expenditures:
The cost of 1 m 3 of lifted water is obtained by dividing ithe annual exploita
,



Wind pump in" Fig. 265: stallation with TV5 wind engine.
tion expenditure by the amount of water lifted in the course of the year c s/,rut_ c'=yetc. . "Y QY m where Ey is a constant magnitude, while the annual production (Qy) changes with the change in the average annual wind velocity. c,
ORIGINAL PAGE IS OF POOR oUALITy
30
and a grinding wheel with stone of a diameter 550 or 710 mm..= of the most rational methods of utilization of the wind energy. to be set up in combination with a mill for the water supply of kolThe general view of such a wind installation is shown in khozes. we find the costs in relative magnitudes for other average annual wind veloci ties and head values (see Table 37).. this excess should be utilized on some other type of work for which no particular location of the wind installation is required. The wind engine sets in motion a rotary piston. ~d % 10 20 :wind velocities 3 2121 1060 (m/se) more : 10230 12 4 4000 2000i 5 5600 2800 1400 1 120 6 7200 3600 7 i 9000 . 60% of the annual power remains unutilized.: ../427 tion. Fig. 266 5 700 1 12 5 1280 Consequently.330 0 186I 930 800 2 l40 1800 14f40 300o 2 250' O 1 800 13 4A0 1710.TABLE 36. The work of the wind engine for water supply and milling represents one :.. '   for water supply and milling. the TV8 wind installation is recommended kolkhoz farm. not fully load a TV8 wind engine. more t:han. Milling is one of those types of work which can be carried out in any Therefore.l.. 46 0 1 560 '040. 40 50 60 .500 30 70 710 1. calculated for _ . we can write: relating the cost C to an average \ _annual wind velocity of 3 m/sec and a head H = 10 m. 266.5 . 80 530 425 355 303 1000 "800 670 570 1200 1030 900 1500 128._.  : r an annual average wind velocity of 3 m/sec and a head H = 10 m. meter of which is established independently of the head. OUTPUT OF THE TV5 WIND PUMP INSTALLATION WITH ROTARY PUMP d = 3 3/4" TotalI. the diaFig.. The TV8 wind installation nr  l. by the derived values given in Table 37. In order to decrease the cost per unit produc. The water is fed into a 304 . 266: The TV8 Wind instalThe work required for the water lation for water supply and supply of medium kolkhozes can milling. " i:= ::: The cost in rubles is obtained by multiplying 422.
22 2.j Ther TV8 wind installation used for the preparation of fodder. 5 57 4 77) 7030 ..92 1.86 2.84 2. 6 '7 3. When the wind engine works with a rotary piston and with a characteristic curves passing through ray l (Fig.76 3. TABLE 38.37 0. . 267).3 3.70 4.48 3.the output is obtained from Table 38. The TV8 wind engine can supply: energy in excess for the work of fodderpreparing machines which is sufficient for 160 head of cattle.30 0. RELATIVE MAGNITUDES OF THE COST OF 1 m3 OF LIFTED WATER IN RELATION TO THE ANNUAL AVERAGE WIND VELOCITIES AND TO THE HEAD STotal head 10 20 30 40 50 nnal average wirnd velocity: tn/sec) ota 3 (in m) s 0.10 .38 1. or adobe walls in the southern steppes regions.5 m and is a very simple construction with log or frameWh@ k > walls.46 0.700 8 500 6 340 5 OS) 4 230 3640 29000 I 80 880 1630 2 500 3 180 14 5UO 9 700 7250 5 800 4820 4 140 3 630 4 1.TABLE 37. 21.3500 2 340 1 750 1 400 1170 1000 13100 6 550 4 330. The wind engine operates /428 with a transmission (Fig.96 tank with a capacity of 20m 3'mounted on a wooden tower with a height of approximately 8 m.11 1. 150 pigs and about 50 sheep.700 it o / . 48 1.62 124 1. The station of a grinding mill has dimensions 6 x 6 x 3.22 2.35 2.0 i.58 80 8 4:..70 2. 3 3.9). OUTPUT OF A TV8 WIND PUMP INSTALLATION WITH ROTARY PUMP Wind yelodity (m/sec)  Total head more LitersPirhouir 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 £/hr 33400 1.85 60 70 . by means of which anoil cake breaker 305 . 175 horses.74 1. 3 260 2 620 2 180 1870 20 000 10 000 6 700 5000 4 000 3 340 2 860 25 400 12. 1 2 3 4 5 0.
)without washing of the grain. The /429 TV8 wind engine can supply up to 8620 hp hr in a region with an annual average wind velocity of V 0 = 4 m/sec and up to 19200 hp hr in regions with V 0 = 6 m/sec. since it is not possible to do the cutting of the root crops in stalls due to the possibility of damage. in relation to the average annual wind velocity. Other agrisituated cultural machines in separate buildings are set in motion by means of a counter shaft. The wind engine can operate simultaneously with the fodder workshppuand with airotary pump. The amount of milling supplied by a TV8 wind installation operating in a medium animal husbandry workshop. The straw cutter is set up outside the building under an awning which covers part of the transmission to which the Fig. A water tower with a 20. One can see in this table that in. this power can obviously be utilized conveniently for milling. milling of the grain assumes the role of a storage 306 .presented in Table 39. is.a wind installation which operates with several machines. Therefore. a mill with a diameter of 550 or 710 mm should be added to the fodder workshop. as are a root cutter and root washer situated in another building on the other side of the gear exit.. 7 m/sec and above.A:if the head does not exceed 50 m. The transmission and the rotary pump should be disconnected during the operation of the wind engine with the grinding mill.and a corn mill situated in a separate building on one side of the gear exit are set in motion by means of belt transmissions.. Since the excess power of the wind engine during its operation in the fodder workshoDp accumulates mainly during the night hours. which however do not load the wind engine throughout the day.m3 tank was constructed in order to feed water directly to the automatic drinking bowl in the stalls. shaft of a horsedrawn actuator is connected by means of a Hooke's joint. The latter is tif: set up as a reserve for opera timn mof the root cutter and root vasher ' on calm days. 267: The TV8 wind installation operating in a fodder workshop. Under strong /430 wind. amounts to 49 40 hp hr. The amount of energy required for preparation of fodder in the workshop. the rotary pump can be connected in addition to the grinding mill.
a TV8....... which is stored in the form of the finished product i. Experience with Exploitation of Wind Pump Installations for Water Supply in Agriculture When properly mounted and with suitable maintenance.. Total 658 4 940 7150 57.e. For example... 55.....ihg ex enditures in manpower...10% 475 36... 1.e. 158.80 r 6. Oil Cutting ana wasinlng Qfro ot ops .promoted a 25% increase in the milk yield of cows and gave an economic gain in manpower amounting to 21000 rubles.60 10..4 2642 920 340 'in %oftl over energy esuied hi u y a rage: ocUty 0 .. :.wind installation operating cna mill'producing farm with 250 head of cattle.. ofthePlastunov'. had an economic gain amounting to 32400 rubles *teto the de6reas' .!3% 2 3 .2G 100% 63.87 10% 100% battery of the wind energy.2t0khZ'in Donskoy stanitsa .regin. i18 5 . . An approximately similar eco nomic gain is obtained in other kolkhozes and sovkhozes which have wind engines installed b their farms [146].!'i6l22s1..n ____i sed sm/se 30... [Translator's note: a large Cossack village] ::307 .. prcessedI odu .1j5 ' Milling grain by means of the unutilized energy in the fodder shp atVo=4 m/sec Same at VO = 5 m/sec . PERFORMANCE OF THE TV8 WIND INSTALLATION IN AN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY e f prn Sa ' "Ene for t expenditure processin..TABLE 39... The No:.71.40 31 90 . wind installations have a long life and a high productivity. krasn odart. which had an installation of tfreewTV8 wind engines for water supply and preparation of fodder for 3000 head of cattle....9o e.ritory.80 I. 2i 2:50 Lifting of water .. Krashodar territory... Same at V0 = 6 m/sec.... . .19. in the kolkhoz "Sotsstroyka".70 .. the flour...90   74.75n.. .rq/sec ..o7 cake milling .. . Total 98 ?s38 390 3680 8889 14464  42.ive Grain milling...30 13. " ...
The daily output of the installation is shown 1 through Sept. 25 m of this is formed by a concrete' pit and 27 m. lifts the water from the well into a 19. The VIME wind power laboratory carried out observations on this installation in the course of oneyear. The broken lines above the hatched areas by the hatched areas. 308 . the water is /431 lifted by means of a horsedrawn actuator mounted on two horses.. Fig.5 m 3 capacity tank. A wind engine with a 3 3/4" 'rotary pump. for a period of 12 months starting with Oct. 30. table cultures (top dressing) during one month in spring. 7 horses were sufficient in order to supply the water to the consumers. Prior to the construction of the well and of the wind pump installation. 268: The TV5 wind pump installation in the Leski village. After construction of the wind pump installation. The well has'a depthhof 51 m. this wind installation has been operating effectively for several years. constructed in the kolkhoz of the Leski village. counting from the dynamic level. The observations were processed in the form of graphs which are presented in Fig. Kiev region. The travel of the pump piston during its operation from the grinder amounts to 200 mm. The output was determined by counting the number of travels of the pump rod and /435 determining the wind velocity by means of an anemometerfour times daily. 269.. The height of the water column is 25. The shaft of the horsedrawn actu" at dr is directly connected with the shaft of the grinder by means of a Hookers joint.by thewell.3 _ S Fig. on the stopping place of a field team.periods. the lifting height is 30 m. During prolonged calm.'. during a travel of the piston of 400 mm. 268 illustrated a wind pump installation with a TV5 wind engine. the water is used for irrigation of vegeof cattle. Due to proper use. 22 horses had been used for the daily transportation of the water to the consumer. The water supplies the drinking needs of about 700 kolkhoznics working in field teams as well as for watering places of 260 head In addition. Kiev region. show.' the change in the average daily wind velocity.5 m.
38 2 4. average monthly 7. 268. 2 11 6 18 '0 22 '4 2b 28 ) k Fig. i :5 . _ h 20 22 24 .€ 2 2p 2 H1 p 2c0 y26283 IC e 1 2 1e 2 . c =8..s6 'd %I 1 e . / I •.e /dae 4 iea 626 8 28 30 m 14 16 1 K.10i . 5 p 50 4. m 3 /day 4. i 1I2S214 1 i A rl 2 22 M I I 30 May 40 C 60 1arch 16 1'2 2 4._. Key: i. MeC. m/sec 6. . 2 4 6 0 2. 1C4 1 122 4 Key:1 16 18 2.0 22 24 26 2 8 ! 3  '1p198 i .0: 12. May .0fT 6i 6£ ! 6 I H 54.. 6 0I r1 I 20 22 4 2 I O 8 ri ._... February 11.aP7 a 3411 .tp P4. S 20 . 269: Graph of the annual operation of the TV5 wind pump installation shown in Fig.1 L t i LI . average daily 10.32iiy .. January 5. April 13. March 0 '. 8 7 4 m/e average'daily 2 1 .. 8 __.Ze4 :. = 2 .. 2504 . December 9. November 8. 5 .l.. October 2. days 3. . 2 1.1 OxT6pb6 JIOcp.:y73.cyT. .
2 28 30 1 _3 2 4 1 4.L  Fig. loading of the wind engine. 9.~Mec. the output coefficient of the wind installation amounted to 2. r. it is nevertheless convenient for the husbandry to exploit this installation.The TV5 wind engine with a 30 m 3 tank can cov'er the water supply of the industry almost completely.Mei. the wind installation presents no fire haza d. r20j 6 1022 i 73%. 6 T H IVc. k eK Wind pump installations are sometimes used in agriculture for the transfer of 8 ABr. 2 0 2 "0 :&i:_ 2 4.34cT fuel by pumping.' Wind pump installations are also used for production purposes in local industries.07 4 2."locity S0 0 12 I C 14 16 1 Oki0b V > 2 2 24 26 28 30 4 C.3eK jUQCP. Mec. 4.VCTI 4 vcp. 268 (continuation). The overall amount of water consumed per /436 day is 14 M . In addition.6. in one of the brick factories in the Kiev .2 30 3 wind pump installation with 6. region. . Key: 1. 8.0 t S20 24 6 8 5p001 60 40 a TV5 wind engine for the transfer of fuel by pumping 4. of two horses connected to a horsedrawn actuator amounted to approximately 7. 6 02 2 For example. 5.5% of the time of the annual number of work hours of the wind engine. 2 4 6 S. 270). 2. ' 0 '3+1 . 269: Graph of the annual operation of the TV5 wind pump installation shown in Fig. The husbandry needs approximately 1 000 tons of fuel while the wind engine can .1 ceK. .l .. one of the agricultural machine stationsin the Stalingrad region has a 1 Cejp .5Mc l. 10i 2 14 H li 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 into storage tanks (Fig. SOcplC18T.=MCeK< cp.CyT.'4. 3.cT 4 26 .cy=r. p32.C 6 I 20 22 . 7.p6cy 16 20 22 24 4 vep. a.=23 1 y H 1 Of this wind installation a The average daily output .me =4. 6. m/sec days m 3/day average monthly average daily June July August September transfer up to 15000 tons per In spite of this small ye'ar.=24M3cy 2 3 S_ mounted to approximately 30 m 3 at an average monthly wind veThe work of 5 m/sec. there is a wind pump installation for the feeding of water for clay mixing. 4. For example.
56..i j. set up in a kolkhoz. which has 353 head of large cattle. 89hMead of /437 and 77 horses. 163 head of pigs.. in the Chesmenskiy. . the disposition of the irrigated area with respect to these sources. Chelyabinskaya provnce. the following types of water management can be distinguished [14]. therefore it does not appear in the figure).. 270: TV5 wind installation mounted on fixed iron concrete for :fuell transfer by pumping.18 6 12.. 271 shows a wind pump installation type TV8. h = 450 mm rotary pump from a well with an out3 put of 11 m 3 /hr into two 28 m installation wooden tanks. These tanks are Fig. This wind installation li "ts the water by means of a d 5 3/4".. 271: The TV8 wind pump of installation in a kolIkhoz A the Chesmenskiy regionj Chelyabinskaya province'. 98 head of young stock. columns with a height of 4 m and have a skeleton frame cabin with heated walls (when the picture was taken... . with an actual head of 17 m.oili.... output in m3/hour . at wind velocities of.. This wind installation supplies with water a kolkhoz with 63 cattle yards. Fig. feeds the following amounts of water: i1. S~ Fig.The TV8 wind engine is used for supplying large amounts of water from wells with a high output to the kolkhozes... the climatic and s.. region.5 2. 311 ..required water consumption. conditions as well as the agricultural works and the economic possibilities.iL  tion satisfies entirely the . 3 4 4 4 6.it I JL~ .!ifi/i{iir / Ssheep . WindDriven Irrigation Installations Depending on the nature of the water source. The total amount of water consumed per day amounts to about 55 m 3 The TV8 wind pump installa .5 5 9. the cabin was not yet ready.
ias to promote gravitational feeding of thewwater to the lands situated between the channelv: and the river. Wetting works. The utilization of wind engines for irrigation has not yet received full development. Constant irrigation from rivers. the retention and utilization on the spot of atmospheric precipitations. The construction of used on calm days requires great investments. Such plots can be irrigated from rivers and open resevoirs as well as from wells and pits if the output of the latter corresponds to the required amount of water for irrigation.irrigation management can be divided into two main systems depending on the location of the irrigated area with regard to the water source. The permaneht. nevertheless wind engines may play a very important role in this matter. The irrigation system in which the lifting of the water to the land to be irrigated is performed by means of pump installations is called mechanical irrigation system. technological standards. since many cultures require regular watering schedules and a certain magnitude of hydromodules which wind engines cannot supply due to the inconstancy of wind tanks :for storing the water to be energy. The water expenditure for irrigation in various regions and for various cultures is determined on the basis of existent agr6. III. Irrigation of the terrain by the construction of storage lakes (ponds) to be used for domestic needs and for irrigation. The gravitational system can be set up in the vicinity of rivers whereby the water is collected into a main irrigation channel which is tracked at a certain inclination so . IV. The amount of water in m 3 which is 312' . in the present state of wind technology. by gravity and mechanical. Therefore.e. II.. and where the only water source are wells and pits. storage lakes or ground water by gravitation or mechanically. i. Small plots of 1025 hecta:res as well as gardens are most suitable for irrigation by means of wind engines. This system makes it possible to adjust to the complex topographical conditions and to utilize the /438 ground water which is extremely important in the steppe regions which are removed from rivers. It cannot be stated that wind engines will be widely utilized for the irrigation of agriculture. Periodic irrigation (high water) performed by means of irrigation channels (in the period of high water in the river) and byyliman water by holding back the spring waters.I. wind engines should be recommended for the irrigation of cultureswhich do not have a rigorous watering schedule.
August The magnitude of the irrigation rate is variable and depends on many . 272: Graphs of hydromodules: anonte isted. 3:13 . Key: 1.9: cotton climate. natural classifications.'. . liter/sec 2. Md. cantaloupe 14 alfalfa I0. 20 3 10 A.tare'of a given culture per season is called standard irrigation requirement. 9as nacottoural classifications.the irrigation rate for clay and loamy soils amounts to 400600 m 3 per hect.. soil. while for Central Asia and Southern Kazakhstan. 1 0' r l l l F /i 4 30 10 20 30 1 0 0 10 IO 20 30 10 1 . bvariable and depends. July 13. requirement changes depending on the region and the irrigated culture. etc. For example. it amounts to 4200 m 3 per hectare. :sorghum 13.. June 6. . .required for the irrigation of one hec.fdctors such as climate.wheat 12. cantaloupe 3. The amount of water in m 3 per hectaiV in one watering is called irrigation rate.September.. Fig. Augusteo. July 7. cultures. in Crimea. The net standard irrigation requirement for vegetables in the same regions is 3000:~aand 5000 m 3 per hectare.y 3. green gram 14.r. April 1. respectively. aOl1falfaa 11. March 2.aeof alkaline clay soil. in the UkraineanCrimean regions. March 8. soil. The irrigation rate for . the net standard irrigation requirement for wheat amounts to 2500 m 3 per hectar'.o.while it is 300400 m 3 per hect.ryc 20 30 10 20 Mpr A ce. 10. May 5.2 0"6 a 3 4 5 6 7 8 ?£ 1 1b o 1 o. April 4. The standard irrigation requirement is fulfilled in several stages at the determined time of watering. Cern6ph I .o 0. For example. hydromodule. green gram13 7.2 30 10 20 30 10 20 20 3 W 10 10 2 20 :10 10 20 0 0 20 6. The magnitude of this.
this wind engine can set in motion 31. fugal pumps of any system. as shown in Fig. this graph /441 should be used as a guide. The water expenditure per second. while on the abscissa the time of watering is indicated. The hydromodule for a complex of irrigated culturesis represented graphically in Fig. a preliminary watering graph is obtained. 272. * In determining the overall power of a winddriven pump installation.tomatoes equals 300500 m 3 per hectare. The VIME D12 rapid wind engine with a power of 14 hp and the VIMEGUSMPD18 are most suitable for irrigation purposes of all the existent types of wind engines for operating at a wind velocity These types can be adjusted for operating with centriof 8 m/sec.. it is leveled by eliminating as far as possible the peaks and windLowpower Fig. Multiplying this magnitude by the 0 composition of the given culture in the crop rotation in per cent. as a . 273: a As a dips of water expenditures. Since the peaks of water expenditure on the preliminary graph are not suitable for loading the net of channels and of the pump station (see upper graph a). 272.while for potatoes it is 400./440 600 m 3 per hectare.e. In determining the power of the station.4 . As installadriven irrigation a more uniform hydromodule tionresult.is most suitable for the irrigation of small land plots up to 5 hectares. in graph is obtained. obtained by dividing the irrigation rate by the duration of watering in seconds is called the watering module. we obtain the irrigation module or hydromodule of the given culture. The water expenditure per second in simultaneous time intervals is laid out on the ordinate. this graph is fitted i. JThis graph shows in addition to the time schedule which should be observed in watering. result. also the characteristics of loading of the pump station. The TV8 wind enginel. the power should be distributed among the separate irrigated plots taking in considerationithe location and relief of each plot. The availability of wind engines produced by our industries should guide the selection ofacertain type of wind engine.
2mill. 8waterbed.whence it is distri 3 I\ _~ i _ __the buted to the plot. Similar wind installations operate with ~otary pumps and collect water from wells.5 . One of the structures of the winddriven pump installations is a basin for storing the water. water supply on calm days. 64trough for transfer of the water to the waterbed. The capacity of the basin as well as the power of the wind engine should be extremely high if they are to cover. Fig. 5construction for automatic priming of the pump. according to the computations presented in Section 53 [see equation 808)l. with pipes which transfer the water to the plot. The basin for water storage is a no less complicated matter in irrigation. 273 shows a lowpower winddriven irrigation installation with a power of 23 hp which lifts the water to the waterbed.fully the . 7intake. 31. The presence of the rotary pump ensures priming of the centrifugal pump without any additional accessories. 3grinding mill "No. Such wind installations were used in the southern regions of the USSR for irriga4 ting gardens. An open trough made of planks for feeding water by gravitation is a cheap construction but suffers from great shortcomingsi As a result of the intermittent character of the operation. 274. 2 Farmer". Fig. The construction diagram of a winddriven irrigation installation with a D12 wind engine which feeds water from an open waterbed to a trough through which it is transferred by gravitation to a basin situated at a higher point of the irrigated plot is shown in Fig. They are found in large numbers in the United States. 274: Construction diagram of a winddriven irrigation installation with the VIME D12 wind engine: 1wind engine. the planks of the trough dry out and slits are formed in the joints between them through which the water leaves the trough so that the latter works with large losses.at the same time a rotary and /442 a centrifugal pump. Sometimes a wooden pipe or a galvanized iron pipe is added for delivering the water from the basin. 4centrifugal pump.
The TV8 Fig. losses due to seepage The experience of utilizing wind engines for irrigation in the USSR has been garden and vegetable obtained _ from cultures on small plots only. by multiplying the irrigation rate by the number of hectares of the irrigated plot. 276). Fig. 275: winddriven irrigation installation in the Saratov region. These losses can be diminished if the storage lake is protected from the wind by means of some plantations. 316 . 275 shows a TV8 winddriven irrigation installation built in the "Proletarskaya volya" kolkhoz in the Saratov region. in strong winds. the wind engine can store water long before the beginning of the irrigation season. a multibladed wind engine is set up above the well and a waterbbd is built next to it. and together with the centrifugal pump. depending on the climate. a well is dug on an area which rises above the plot of the garden or vegetable garden. When the wind installation feeds water for irrigation._. In such a manner.The capacity of the storage lake is large even in the case that it is calculated per one watering.. The wind engine works with a rotary pump d = L4" i and a piston pump d = 5 3/4". and stops only for examination and maintenance of the wind installation./443 everit is not recommended to plant trees on the barrage forming the wall of the storage lakensince the roots of the trees can weaken the ground and increase the 6f '1 the water. the wind engine works with a stone mill with a diameter of 810 mm (Fig. How. The river water is fed /444 into a wooden trough from which it goes by gravitation to a 10 hecta're'plot of the garden to be irrigated. which works alone when the wind is weak. Jt' The main drawback of open storage is in addition to infiltration lakes of the water into the ground. Xte ~ . the large volatility which averages from 5001000 mm of the thickness of the water surface per season. For this purpose. The water moves in the wind engine as long as the wind has a sufficient velocity.
jegion along the river Ural where more than 800 homemade winddriven irrigation installations were set up. 8.8u. rectly to the irrigated plots.wind engines guide the water from the river by means of rotary pumps di . 7 1 Construction diagram of Fig. 3.. 4.in the Gur'ye . 276: the wind installation shown in Fig. 275. VD8 miwind engine wooden trough grinding mill centrifugal pump VD8 m winch guide rods movab~legqte river 317 . I 5I lneij 6 7: Worth mentioning is the experiment of irrigation of vegetable cultures'performed. 5. 2. 6. 1 7. Lowpower homemade&. Key: 1.
The virtue of goatskin windmills is the simplicity of their construction. The building of the millj: with the milling equipment is freely supported by its lower girders on a foundation with a stanchion in the center. Limitation of the height at which the shaft of the wind wheel is situated. The following shortcomings and inconveniences of this construction resultifrom the above facts. Hence the name goatskin windmill. The rotation of the wind wheel is transmitted to the stone mill through a simple transmission. The main drawback in the construction of goatskin windmills is the requirement for rotating the entire building of the windmill together with the equipment during the adjustment of the wings/447 to the wind. the fineiadjustment of the various part of the windmill is disturbed and so are the supportsof the stone mill. The building of the mill. the whole building of the mill with the milling equipment is tiunediwhich requires a large muscular effort during rotation of the mill to the wind or its removal from the wind. which is freely supported on the foundation is unstable and this. When the wind wheel is adjusted to the wind.. 2. 277) has the following construc" tional features. there is no vertical shaft and therefore the construction of such mills can be performed by the kolkhoznics themselves. There are two main types of windmills: goatskin and tentshaped. 3./446 mission from the wind wheel to the stone mill. 1. since with increase of this height. In some old small windmills. Large expenditure of effort in rotating the windmill to the wind. 2. Types of Windmills Wooden wind installations which are homemade and operate with one or two stone mills are called windmills. the foundation was made in the shape of a goatskin or of tilted stools between which the stanchion was fitted. 1. The goatskin windmill (Fig. The main camoperated wheel of the main shaft is connected to a pinion which fits directlyQn~ the shaft of the stone mill. WINDMILLS /445 57.hinders lifting of the wings to a larger height and the increase of their span. with simultaneous rotation of the building together with the whole system of transmission. The mill can be rotated about this stanchion when the wind wheel has to be adjusted to the wind or when it has to be removed from the wind. 3. During iadjustment of the wind wheel to the wind. Very few metallic details are required in one trans. 4. the entire 318 .CHAPTER 15'.
i . I . The shaft of the wind wheel with the bearings is mounted on the frame and the rafters of the roof are fastened.. Key: 1... 3630f. L I i  I. 278) usually hs a 8side tower which is covered on outside with a 1/2... 277: Section through a goatskin windmill.. i n t it All the milling equipment is placed inside this tower. . 1. SI.stabilwhich da+mirnishes its ity. the latter are built in the shape of a tent hence the name of the tentshaped windmill. 5..wind. 2. IF iii .. 58. 4.. • I !Iii TI 1the Sboard. The tent can be rotatedIduring the adjustment of the wind wheel to the wind or during its removal from the :. m The tentshaped windmill (Fig. 3. The tower ends upward in a rim on which a frame made of thick bark is freely supported. stone mill flap vame fastening post casing The construction of the tentshaped windmill has the following characteristics.  Fig. Due to its construca tional design.building has to be made taller . 7  __  ffreer'flow  15 m4. . Technical Characteristics of Windmills Tentshaped windmills are much more sophisticated than the goatskinaiTwindmills from the standpoint of construction. 2. Due to thit 319. I S_ .. The tent is lighter than the body of the goatskin windmill. therefore less effort is required in rotating the tent during adjustment of the wind wheel to the wind than in the case of the goatskin windmills. The rotation of the stone mill in most tentshaped windmills is accomplished by a twostage transmission. the goatskin windmill cannot' be made with i dopen walls which would allow of the wind.. The tower of the tentshaped windmill permits the lifting of the wind wheel to a large height.1 The diameters of the wind wheels of this mill are therefore made not larger than 15 m. 3...
wings withvanes ' which are adjusted edgeon to the wind. the manual 320 . : which are usually used only for adjusting the The windroses wind wheel to the wind. . the tent in such windmills li'des:'during its rotation on wooden bars. tentshaped windmills can be automatized with regard to adjustment of the wind wheel to the wind by means of a tail or by means of windros. the tower The torque which surmounts the resistance undergoes the longest.. Hence we see that in the given case. the brakes are obviusly used 6nlyunder exceptional circumstances.. However. when the operation of the windmill is properly organized. especially ifit works in the absence .behind the tent..on brackets. by winch oes. The wind load affects . it is advisable to rotate the tent manually. If no covering is made. Therefore. In some of the simpler windmills. premature destruction by covering etc.itent is placed on rolls. should have its brake put on because when it stops. caused by friction in ti 'supportIc the tent loosens the joints of the tower.. the rotation is performed by transmission with 23 pairs of pinions. it possible to leave the tower of tentshaped windmills open. 279). and close only the building below where the milling equipment is mounted..ly the wind wheel. In addition. twists the.factit is easier to rotate the tent than the whole building of the /449 windmill. An improved windmill is one in which the tent has a rail supported on rolls or.of any wiia and besides it is not desirable to have the windmill stop under the wind. are suitable only for windmills which have either sail wings or wings with folds Which iake. in taken it with iron sheets.it pbssible to reduce thei± working surfaces or fially. since in such a case it is possible to remove the wind wheel from the wind also when the windmill is not required to operate. rolls which are supported on rails./450 b 4. open tower is less durable should be However. rotation of the tent is performed manually by means of a socalled lead. the wind may pass in front of the wind whee:l which if not being slowed down.iouned6. it is advisable to putty in and paint those parts which are exposed to the effect of atmospheric precipitations. If the wind wheel is built with rigidly fastened vanes.and other devices.s pports. 278.especially ifothe. with a roofing.. the fact that an the wood should be protected from Therefore. etc. contrarily. (Fig. in this case the windmill. This transmission is rotated either manually or as in the windmill shown in Fig.e's . .' trip. being removed from the wind. rayoverspeed. consideration. which is not feasible in thev goatskin windmill. Usually. the wind wheel in these windmills can be raised to a large height due merely "to a tower constructed in the shape of This makes a girder. Tentshaped windmills differ:merely by the metho'd of'" ' rotating the tent and by the disposition of the windmill.
... . with propeller... 4 J "but ._ ..o Ha.. A certain shape of wings was selected not on the basis of theoretical consideration . rather depending on the ' knowledgeability oflthe \ /451 farmer who built the given " . lated under strong winds.200 at the... i... .. direction of the wind tent flap fastening post stringers In some tentshaped mills..(linternal tip.. S .. convenient when the power of the windmill has to be regue.... However it is much simpler to make wings with a S: constant rigging angle..method makes it possible to regulate the work of the windmill better than the wind' ' roses\which can only adjust the windmill to the wind. The wind wheel can be put into any position with regard to the wind by the manual method.. at the tip from 0100 and at the base from 16300...100 at a distance of 2/3 R.. Key: 1.. Fig.. which is .. has a The out put coefficient of the wind energy of such wings is approx1/1. iof ' twith i'/ . 4.. I 4 'I.l Se pa ... 5.... the wings are made a constant rigging angle Lof 1 \imately theYvane. the wings are made with a variable rigging angle.. blades...e. windmill.. 278: Section through a tentshaped windmill.. g4 1/. about 1/5 R .. 2.. Shortcomings of the wings windmills.. In the simplest windmills.. HY . 3.. 321 ...!300 where R is the length of the wing counting from the axis of the shaft up to the tip of the wing.5 of the value of wings ..: at the external tip of the wing. . which magnitude of 1415'....150 at a distance of 1/3 R....
bringin g 2. coarse. i. torn linen on the sail wings. 59. Key: 1. windrose.the designed shape. The results of tests performed with 3 windmills are presented in Table 40. forming a propeller blade. The bet 1 2 BpoaH atep \ ter their condition. etc. which decrease several times the lifting force of The power of existing old windmills can be increased by simple reconstruction of the wings. /453 '3 2''. The results of tests withold windmills created the impetus.!Windrosels for djusting the windmill to the wind. Increasing the Power of Old. from 410%. The output can be increased more than two fold by placing the wing with the right rigging angles of the bladb transf.the'output could be a considerably inereased without any complicated constructional transformations. .wings in working windmills "'to. revolutions of the wind wheel and of the output showed that these work with a very low output coefficient. the' shape of the . the higher  ! the wings and consequently. Testing of several operating windmills with measurements of the wind velocity. Windmills Fig.er bars which are called fastening posts. one can often see wings in_ ' poor shape with cracks. transmission) are also in good condition. closely fitted. However.The wings are the main part of a windmill.for the task of reconstructing old windmills in order*to increase their power. decrease to the same extent the output of the windmill. tent By merely .  the output of the mill if of course the other parts (stone mill. Proper maintenance of these wings or their replacements by new wings of a better shape could increase the output of old windmills more~than 3 fold.(1/2 in)boards on the planking of the wing. Wings with streamlined profiles and right rigging angles of the bladescan increase the output 3 4 fold in accordance with the required rapidity.e. 279: . The main cause for the low output '6'fexisting windmills is the unsatisfactory condition of the wings.
but such wings would be distinguished by high rapidity and would have to be factorymade. Fig. it is easy to make wings without coefficients of the wind energy between 0.35 and 0. The simplest new wings (Fig. . 282. Models of these wings were tested in the: wind tunnel of VISKhOM and in the tower of TsAGI.. 45 "L8 58 0 70 127 6 1)2 38 50 14 78 7 i v 15 83 7 .testing prior to and after reconstruction that the output of existing windmills can be increased 23 fold when the old . .3 3 .L Revolutlons of stone milt/4 Output 72 10o1. The aerodynamic performance at rigging angles /455 of the blade tip r = 6'... Understandably. .r .. the results of which are presented in Table41..5. .40... ia comparison of the figures obtained during the. Woodenmetallic tentshaped ~indmill 20 m D .. . .. tinguished by low rapidity and relatively high output coefficient of the wind energy. Revo~utons cstonem. while Fig.TABLE 40. . . s aev°u ° stone i e / :o o 74 io 9 0 0 138 122 180 135  Tentshaped Windmill D = 24. from':.... and forging of the stone mills was performed i.. below.after reconstruction of these windmills. .. 280 and 281) were mounted during the reconstruction of windmills. grooves were notched on the working surfaces according to Fig. their transmission with wooden teeth of the gear wheel and pin teeth of pinions is calculated for a rapidity of the wind wheel Zn = 2... The existing windmills are distinguished by low rapidity. new wings of the simplest construction were elaborated at VIME..8 m with sail win s Revolutions Eo stone mill 874 R uI so 6 63 6c 01 8. 281 shows the construction of wings with semistreamlined profile.21 81 87 8 9 97. w = 100 and fr = 200 for semistreamlined wings are presented in Fig.. Which wre dis... .a 3. One can see.(kg/hr Outpu ons (kg/hr..8 88 ' I 7   An experimental reconstruction of windmills was performed under/454 the authors supervision in 19411942 in the Chuvash ASSR. .4 m Output (kg/hr).15. .02. Tests Were performed prior to and.. 280 illustrates the construction of wings with plane propeller blades. Revluons owin weeLpm. 245. ..e... PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF OLD WINDMILLS Wind velocity (m/sec) Parameter 4 5l 6 7 8 9 o0 i 12 Goatskin windmill D = 15..
The main shaft makes an angle of 80 with the horizon.w here the blades have a semistream/ 14 57 lined profile (Fig. 324i . designed the construction of simplified windmills of a new type VIME D8. in order to help in such a manner the kol Simplification was khozes. . These windmills are made entirely of wood with the exception of fastenings. required by agriculture is so large that the industry cannot supply all the kolkhozes with 3 _ _ _ _ factorymade wind engines within a short time..ifoursided roof covers the upper transmission and protects it from atmospheric Vrecipitations. fastening posts flap wing blade VIME. axis of the bush and rods (Fig. The number of wind engines S. 4.  60. achieved by eliminating the automatic devices on the basis of experience with exploitation of old windmills which were manually controlled.1H _1 _ T wings are replaced by new wings which are as simple as the old ones but have the right shape of the blade. Fig.. The New Type of Windmill /456 kolkhozes take the initiative of constructing windmills on their own. The wing flaps are fastened in lugs of the main shaft by means of wedges. The tent with . 5. The head of the wind engine is built on the principle of tentshaped windmills. Therefore. number of fastening posts 3. 281). D10 and D12. 2. 280: Construction of wings with plane propeller blades. "ii " SMany 77. section through fastening posts. Key: 1. which 5 has a great economic importance. 283) The wind wheel has four wings. 7i 7 the kolkhozes out of local materials may increase considerably the rate at which wind power is utilized. under the author's supervision. which is caused by the inclination of the legs of the tower. A gear wheel is fasteneddon the main shaft behind the vertical axis and it is engaged with a lantern wheelopinion fitted on the vertical shaft. the construction of Windmills by '.. 6.
mounted below under the platform of the mill.when sufficient lumber is available.Transmission of the ro J i7 ! __ . Key: 1. an annex is built in the front part of the skeleton frame which increases the area of servicing.second pair of gear engagement. The gear wheel fitted on the vertical shaft is engaged with the lantern wheel pinion of the stone mill. 325 . The exploitation parametersof these windmills are presented in Section 61. grain cleaning. A skeleton frame building with a foursided roof and the tower of the /459 wind engine in the center of the building is constructed. Kiev and other regions of the USSR. I tation from the vertical shaft to the stone:. fastening post 2. Kursk. thrashingetc. when there is a strong wind. Fig. J S. For the sake of convenience in servicing the milling !equipment. Such windmills are built in the Ryazan. flap The wind engine is mounted on a wooden tower of lattice cons struction with a height of 9.mill is performed by means of a. all the milling equipment is placed in a closed building. In such a manner. These wind installations are intended for grinding the grain in kolkhozes.5 m. for this purpose. the tent is rotated by means of the lead as long as the wind wheel performs the right number of revolutions. a lead is fastened behind the tent on bars of the supporting rframe. 281: Construction of wings with semistreamlined profile. blade 3. they can also be utilized for other types of work which requires low power such as preparation of fodder. Limitation of the number of revolutions of the wind wheel is performed by its removal from the wind. For this purpose. The wind engine is started/458 by manual adjustment of the 'TiI 3 on3 wind wheel to the wind. However. the lead consists of three poles which are joined at the base of the tower into a unit and are suspended on bolts made of 3/4" iron bars. The tower is covered with a 1/2 in board below the plane of rotation of the wind wheel.
. with D= 15. 284) above described "T of VIME design by the is . OUTPUT OF WINDMILLS BEFORE AND AFTER RECONSTRUCTION uWind velocity (mLsec) Output ( I Windi ll With stone mill 6/4 ore constru tion er consruct on With stone mill 6/4 Before construction After construction s . Fig. the tent rotates by means of a transmission situated in the tower.326 . PHC The VIME D16 windmill (Fig.94 02 The wings have a straight blade with semistreamlined aerodynamic profile (Fig. 285) and are distinguished from the simple wing by the fact that the  fastening post passes:throughthe flap (.06 q0. 282: Characteristics of wings with semistreamlined profile. 281) by forming a rigging angle at the tip of Tr = 5%. of the wind wheel is windmills. forming S 2 the streamlined profile of the wing. which encircles the blade opposite the ribs. . Ii MA 0.r2 i and the submast support forming a skeleton frame to which ribs are fastened by means of nails to the sides. Key: 1. made by means of wedges just like in thesimtplest The wings of this mill can also be made with a semistreamlined/460 profile (Fig. distinguished from te simplest windmill fact that its power supplies two windmills.wor 60 160 80 0 WFidmill with. 'a The casing of the blade is made of a board with the thickness of 6 mm and a width of 100 mm which is nailed onto the ribs through a strip of galvanized iron.D wor t ore const ucton Wer recons ruc lon with90 reforged stone mill 12. Attachment of the flaps to the shaft 2.1 014 r 2 v . m/sec TABLE 41.5 m wings 55 30 0. When the wind wheel is adjusted to the wind.5 m wings tdid not 6 '2 30 /to 115 55 didno .
.. .. at a wind velocity of 8 m/sec .Fig. 2.. 283: Simplest wind..... tower the of Height Construction of the main details for .. 327 .. 287. 288). .. Technical Characteristics of D16 Windmill 11 ....to the design. The shaft of the windmill is /461 made entirely of wood (oak) with a diameter of 550 mm in the bulging butt............. S__ 4 nT .. mills which have been built in the USSR have parts and details which are almost identical Fig. The front bearing is made of i't Lthis 2o  pocket the oil is fed to the journal of the shaft by means of a small scoop which is fastened to t462 the front side of journal (Fig. 0.. . A large number of wind VIME D16 windmill........ caused by local circumstances such as availibility of materials........ I C~ iI In order to get acquainted with the construction of certain details of windmills.... The wheel and pinions are wooden of standard type like in the existing windmills (Fig... 25 hp Coefficient of the wind energy.. the foreman. ... 2 m Power on the shaft of the wind wheel... at V m 11 ..... D16 windmill.30 Rapidity. The ring attached 2.. ........... ....radially and M mounted in a cast iron shell which is fastened to the frame by means of 4 bolts (Fig.. .... Number of wings .... 'T .9 Number of revolutions of the wind wheel 26 rpm 8 m/sec . Any deviation from the generally convenient construction forms are usually mill of VIME type..... The rear ball bearing is thrust. etc....... 287.. ....... 287. . ... The ring attached to the shaft moves on two rollers fitted on the axis by means of two ball bearings each........... we present the description of the main parts for the VIME D16 windmill which are representative of the construction of homemade and semihomemade windmills... 284: rotation more advisable to make the y 1.npase .. 284 shows a general view of wings with a semistreamlined profile... rubble walling a cement mortar shown shown in in Fig.. .... 289)....... The VIME Fig. . direction It ofis front bearing on a roller support as ......... 16 m Diameter of the wind wheel ...:... re Fig. 4 Width of wings ...... experience of in...............
. 293): the conical pulley 2 is attached to vertical shaft 1. 'which is quite normal for 6/4 stone mills as mounted here. /464 328 . Key: 1. attached tent rim.~~ x of the Front bearing main shaft ina windmill. yoke This pinion is engaged fitted on vertical shaft 7.m/sec. the pulley is frictionally engaged with a similar pulley 3. which has conical p inion 5 at its other end. the moment required for rotatSing the tent amounts toabout 1010 kgm. 400 SO sI  loads are perceived by 24 rolls while the lateral loads are perceived by In such a system of sup8 rolls. Thesuch a manner.34. ings of the horizontal and vertical shaft while below. Fig. at a. The roller support of the tent consists of 16 horizontal roller supports and of 8 supports which /463 are made of both horizontal and lateral rolls (Fig. fitted on horizontal shaft 4. 285.wind velocity of 8. with a large conical pinion 6 which is the rotation of which through a couple transmitted to toothed rack 9. skeleton lean on 8 angles which are suspended by 2 squares. the rim of the tent is attached to the bars 2 ~of _oo the squares by means of bolts. the rim leans on support attached to the rim of the tower. The tent (Fig. 290) is a large skeleton frame The stanchions of the casing planked with a board. are mounted the bearon it lies above these squares. the latter are made of bars and are shifted with respect with each other in the horizontal plane The frame of the tent at an angle of 450 (Fig. the stone mill will make 182 revolutions per minute. scoop for lifting the oil 2. the vertical The mechanism of rotation of the S . 291). Wings of the t he roller VIME D16 windmill with streamlined profile. 286: . ports. The overall gear ratio equals I : 7. 292). In such a manner. of cylindrical pinions 8 is to the internal wall of the tent is built in the following way (Fig. Fig.liii The gear ratio of the upper couple equals 1:3 while that of the lower coupe of pinions is 1 2.
r A special branch 10 mounted on the bush of the frictional / L _t T pulley which is fitted to the H . section along II is better to replace the wooden 8. This construction it possible for the wind wheel to remove itself from the wind. for 7which 7 5 _ae. 9  .  horizontal shaft connectsand disconnects the frictional pulleys.Cast iron pinions can be used instead of the frictional pulmission must be connected when . ring 2.makes :./k . stop In the opposite case the pul5. Kiev region. the horizontal clamps and 2. wedge leys is acceptable when the tent rotates easily on rollers.~.. which ~~29 . body of the roller pulleys by cast iron conical 9. is the pinions must be connected when the wind engine Fig. o o this purpose.: breaking in storms.. The tower of the wind engine has 8 legs (Fig. 3. at rest. 294). This mechanism is not characteristic and/46 5 is used here for the first time in windmills. a high resistance to torque. 287: Roller support of the front bearing on the main shaft. horizontal shaft 4.S "  . /466 tical shaft). a wooden wheel 11 is rotated from below by means of cable 12 is fitted on the same horizontal shaft which S i . this mechanism is' set in motion manually. roller bearing pinions with a gear ratio of 1 : 2 (small pinion on a verIn this case. 6. carries the conical frictional pulley. r~ showed that the frictional transmission with wooden pulKey: 1. _2_6 The experience of exploitation of the first D16 wind mill constructed with this mechanism in the village Kolonshchino. by means of which the following is achieved: 1. carriage leys may slide through which 6. . . I _ the wind wheel is at standstill. It 7.which protects it froi'. roller mayocause their ignition. of disposition due to the convenient with regard to the leg of wings of the a more convenient situation the distance to decrease possible it makes the tower.. When the wind wheel is adjusted to the wind.Il Komo 2 3 On l b2ll .
B." The TsAGI D10 windmill. The wind wheel hasiaa /468 rear reduction gear of an autom o bile is used for transmission transmis.controlled flaps (acdording to asuggestion of B. The windmill operates with a 6/4 stone mill. axis of the vertical shaft 330 . the production of the first series of mills was started. yoke level2. B. This mill was built by TsAGI I1 f oo_ IM E 41jfl . G. portsof the ball bearings on the main shaft as well as the upper 1 I i i conical transmission are mounted in it. The. section at theAB Agricultural Mechanization (UNDIM) built the D10 windmill of woodenmetallic construction in 1945 according to S. Shamanin. engineer M. The head of the wind engine is made of cast iron and the sup. Sorokin in 1945 in a kolkhoz of the Moscow reC diameter of 10 m and ha. Regulation of the revolutions of the wind wheel is automatic and is performed by means of . The UNDIM D10 windmill. Ukrainian) Institute for /1167 Fig. The test of the first mode£iof this mill gave satisfactory results and hence. Perli's project (Fig. lower and Uppper Fig. wheel to the vertical shaft.s 3 wings with streamlined blades. o 05 between the support of the front bearihg on the shaft and the Increasing axis of the flaps. Key: 1. 289: of the rotation from the wind sion of the windmill. this distance leads to increased load on the front bearing which I I' "j is not desirable. The gion. S. like the blade in the regulation system of V. 288: Rear bearing of the main shaft. 295).1 ia XonyT A 2 Ce Jne n3 AR 33 S. Key: 1. ' the latter rotates with a large number of revolutions by the action of centrifugal loads. Kazhinsky) which are built into the wings.
average diameter of the tent rim.I! iii T 'i L i.1 3'312 . ' 1945 in the village Kolonshchino. to rotate the head during the adjustment of the wind wheel to the wind or during its from the wind. A lead made of two ' poles is situated behind the girder. Illremoval small iron carbide girder. . Makarov region'.k 1 mill of an improved type with the above described VIME D16 wind engine was constructed in Oi. a separator and the first transmi~sion are sit uated on the third floor. . rim 3. 291: Frame work and rim of the tent. the / Fig. 290: Tent df a windmill ILI A pulley is fitted on the lower end of the vertical shaft.I .II Fig. 2 Farmerg". fastened to the support with balls) which are placed on4. The equipment is distributed on the three floors of the building. The first floor also contains the transmission with a pulley situated outside the building for utilization of the windmill with other machines such as thrasher. 3 ' The building of the wind/469 mill is made of brigk and has a cylindrical shape.4ithe ring of. mill. Key: I. a 6/4 stone mill is set in motion by means of abelt transmission. . while the outlet of the flour is situated on the first floor. iI An improved type of windAn experimental wind 2o6o 2 . 296). ii i li . I "second transmission and two revolving wings are situated on the second floor. from it.aa hulling mill. this lead leans with its lower end on a rail which surrounds the building The lead serves of the mill.. Kiev provinle (Fig. frame work 2.. Two "No.This reducer is mounted on a v J I . the upper corona of the tower.
10 is a normal number. etc.which equals the excess moment of the wind wheel and can be determined by means of the following equation: In order to limit the number of revolutions of the winduiwheel and to protect it from overspeed.  1 Fig.. fastened to axes. These consistof 12 streamlined stubwings with an overall area of 2.going from the vertical shaft of the wind engine to the transand generator of an Smission Z . which are directed downward through The axes rotate in the bearings the flap.25 m 2 . under the action of the centrifugal forces a flyweight ~nd ofa rod which are hinged 332. The electricity is consumed only for lighting of the mill building. 4. 293: Diagram of and of the rod overcome the force of the rotation of the tent primary tiebeam and rotate the surfaces with by means of transA the plane in the direction of movement. while the number of the brakes developod braking moment MTr.o6 . the diameter of the wire is The overall surface of '1 loops is 115. 3 mm. . th Ja diameter of 20 mm. . rim of the tent toothed rack rail lateral rolls horizontal rolls rim of the tower tion showed that the "Farmers" which do not have regulating devices are less convenient in operating with the windmill/470 than the stone mills. spring is fastened with one end to the rod connecting the brake surfaces and wit'the:othe end to the flap of the wing in the vicinity of the shaft. j 3 " Sof t 2with small levers attached to the axis of When the number of revolutions the surfaces. the brake areas go edgeon in the direction of rotation. 3. air brakes designed by the author are placed on two Wings.o. while when the number of revolutions exceeds the normal number. The practice of exploita /2/o"6a6 .the grain up to the 'Varmer" and to the hulling mill is performed by means of four drag conveyors. osoi 5Lifting Sio i a ""6 . the centrifugal forces of the. 6. S saw. fyweight Fig. 5. The diameter of the spring is '140 mm. 292: Roller support of the tent of VIME D16 windmill Key: 1. (Fig.M1 3_ S 73Pb 7H automobile type with storage battery are situated on the fourth floor.. 2. mission. 297). A belt transmission I (/ o0 .
The lowest wind velocity at which the number of revolutions has to be limited is V 1 = 8 m/sec.(Vz V) (a) /471 In addition: A!f CSOW R. / Ii where: V 1 is the velocity of the wind at which the number of revolutions of the wind wheel should be limited.'of the brakes S for the VIME D16 windmill. Assuming that the maximal number of revolutions of the wind wheel is n = 32 rpm at a wind velocity V 2 = 12 m/sec..1.tthe wind wheel .28. 295: D10 windmill.must be removed from the wind at the angle y at which the power of the wind wheel does not increase.103. Substituting numerical values.. . 294: 8legged tower. (b) The overall surface is obtained from equations (a) and (b): S(V2 (3 0 9 ) I _ ... V 2 is the maximal velocity of the wind at which the windmill is supposed to operate up to its removal from the wind.N ..7. Jl r"d  p. and M = 0. 3. R 1 = 7 m ) 2 25 333 .2 P  2 " . we obtain: CRi (W2R +v) (309a) Fig.83 (122 .2V 21R (309). we obtain: s 12 900 0. 0 7 3 1225j For the wings VIME D16.area . Subsequently let us assume that the angle suspended by the stub wings and the flow is _ The UNDIM Fig. T . We assume a wind velocity of 12 m/sec on the basis of the fact that when the wind has a higher velocity. Substituting the value of W' in equation . let us de/ termine the overall ..14.82) 1. situated on radius R : Cx is the drag coefficient. W is the relative velocity of the air flow which dashes over the stub wings of the aerial brake.28. and C = 1.. a = 900.
When 6 stubwings are mounted/472 on each o&f the two wi ngs. while Table 43 presents the potentialannual output of these mills depending on the average annual windvelocity. the cost of milling:. S. Performance Characteristics of Windmills In the exploitation of wind installations.. D12 and D16 windmills. . the. . A 42 presents computations of the power of VIME D8. D16 wind engine. out the year. The hours of the annual operations IK'.area of eah"'equals: 20. Hence.a.fTabib . D10. . D12 and D16 wind engines. type of windmill of oftype Prof windmill of 2. performed by VIME in various regions of the USSR. The idle periods of a windmill in the presence of a wind lead to a decrease in the annualpr6ductivity __ and consequently increase. .  When two pieces are mounted o/473 each of the four wings: 3_ These brakes work entirely satisfactorily upon. on the assumption that they start to work yekt with the rIME at a wind velocity of 3 m/sec. it is imperative to strive for utilization of the working velocities of the wind through Fig. 296 of 4 m/sec. The testihg of windmills in. the VIME D8 windmill assuming impoved that itvstarts working at a wind velocity An Fig.ngthe6 61. ope'ration was.:: windmill.: presented in Table 43 are given for: 1. as well as their output and number of revolutions depending on the velocity of the wind. it follows that the exploitation of windmills should be organized in such a way that the latter should operate:1Va thetime when there is a wind.188 mP. for DiO0. 295a: The TsAGI D10 windmill.
while this increase is not noticeable at low wind velocities. at wind velocities above 5 m/sec..i Si The Fig. Key: 1. (by signaling): is the wind velocity which was measured every 2 minutes with an anemometer.* . data of these tests are graphs 298 and 299. 297: Wings with aerial brakes of the windmill shown in Fig. The calculated outputpdf these/475 windmills were presented above.. 299 shows that after forging. obtained as a result of prolonged observations of their operation in kolkhozes of the Ryazan. n is the number of revolutions of the wind wheel. i. The VIME D10 windmill was tested in the beginting with a stone mill which had been running without forgitg and then with the same stone mill which had been newly forged. /477 According to Pomortsev'sdata on the occurrence of wind. The exploitation parameters of three windmills of VIME type. the results of short time tests performed in kolkhozes with windmills SVIME D8 and VIME D10. 335 . spring The graph in Fig. .. the possible number of working hours at average monthly wind velocities of 34 m/sec should amount to.1O . Hence we obtain the actual and calculated (potential) coefficient of exploitation /4 (see Table 46). The following measurements were performed during the tests. 400500 hours a month. the stone mill increases considerably its output. rod 4. Q is the output which.. view from arrow A 3. are presented in Table 45. the output increases up to 50%.was measured every 2 minutes by weighing. in Table 42. OPa . stub wings of the aerial brake 2. As an example let us present 2npe . at the same time 3. 296.. the curves are noticeably divergent..= i V "V 7ihi. This was done in order to find out the effect of forging of the stone mill on increasing the output.w 0.e.
10 .. .. ...... Output (kg/hr) .90 12..3 50 230 Power on shaft of wheel (hp) .. 1......... 32 38 43 310 o60108 150 175 218 Windmjill VIME D12 Power on shaft of wheel (hp).7 13 13 17 30 22 26 . 0 ..3 ti.5 45 180 10..3 40 130 7. Revolutions of wind wheel rpm......5 25....47 2. Output (kg/hr) ....D....Windmill VIME D8 ...30 Revolutions of wind wheel rpm..7 16...TABLE 42.26 11....3 :i VIME D 12.......016...0 18 00 .O .. 1...01 2... 8 10 5310 6 755 185 289 6 522 752 290 452 7325 8 0)2.....9 23.D16. VIME Dto.3 27 40 2..0 17. 4j VIME' . .65 21 20. 0....... 33 880 1200 TABLE 43. Output (kg/hr) .....43 1..63 10o 1 19 45 1. . 40..95 7...2 32 70 3..03 3....o 13 32 17 144 29 .42 5.... /Windmill'VIME D16Power on shaft of wheel (hp). CALCULATED ANNUAL OUTPUT OF WINDMILLS 9Annual' average wind velocity ' Type of Windmil .46 8. 12..5 38 100 5.. Output (kg/hr) .5 3... Windmill VIME D10 Power on shaft of wheel (hp) . 0.......92 4.... CALCULATED TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WINDMILLS Working wina velocity (m/sec) Name of characteristi  3 j 1 s I 7 I 9 .21 158 25 2S 32' 36 520 220 270 360 Revolutions of wind wheel rpm...... ... . 16 6755 416 6755 1224 7525 649 7 525 2029 8025 8025 io) 200 S3'36~' ..5 20 23 26 264 420 615 37 50 Revolutions of wind wheel rpm..2 76 6.... VIME .. 0......
revolutions of the stone mill TABLE 4 56 Type of No.71 Windmill VIME D8 "M Junett6 JulY.30 3. 3 '6 ' 40 300oport 60 LO0 120 2 (pocrOr ae8pC / ei: aWCpnHoGa Fig. NOi 337 .18 3.. 15 to VIME DI2D88. VELOCITY Wind.2 A rge rrs our 8230.0 r/ HT 3QI 6    6o     •.TABLE 44. VIME D8. 298: Characteristic of the output in VIME D8 windmill: Aoutput in relation to wind velocity..70 4....26 9 1. kg/hr 2. 4. Boutput in relation to the number of revolutions of the stone mill. ACTUAL OUTPUT OF VIME WINDMILLS (kg/hr) IN RELAT.QON TO WIND. 61 VIMEE D1O Oct.i... ing f prk1 Rso . 4 10 25 50 6 50 7 100 15 170  9 270  ...28 to.. .. 3707 .y 15 82 ": 4467 7 I 7875 z5 62 v. Key: 1. wind velocity m/sec 3.F 9 2U.. .58 O .velocityl Type of Windnmill VIME D10..
304 2.m.087 0. COMPARISON OF THE EXPLOITATION PARAMETER OF EXISTING OLD WINDMILLS WITH THE PARAMETERS OF NEW WINDMILLS TYPE VIME. built in 1910 Tentshaped windmill D24. Type of Wined 1 Goatskin windmills D15.... .4'. province. .Ryazan provinc'e 0. i Kiev. Ol'shansk.TABLE .region. .. Ryazan province VIME D10 windmill in 1944 in the Solo chinsk r gion'..79 130 6..70 0. Cher" 133 6. b~iilt:j ' 125 B 12.. .. built in 1937 VIME D8 windmill built in 1943 in the Ryazan region.6 20 10 . Mensk.9 0. Baryshev region.8 m...3 0. 0.Coefficient ofxploitation Type ofMill. actual _actual S 0.74 p4 ovskaya province.46 .70 S..03 O26 0 117 0..region.161 0..5 0..176 possible) 0..26 Tentshaped windmill D20 m.30 2..5 338 . KievIprovince.. TABLE 47.
. Table 47 presents the exploitation parameteresof old windmills. and of new ones constructed in the Ryazan provinceand tested by the same method For the sake of a more in 1944. when the wind had sufficient strength. convenient comparison. In order to show the increase in the output of new windmills above the output of the old ones.the windmill during the night. the last column of Table 47 presents a calculation of the output per m 2 Of the area marked off by the wind wheel. tested by the author in 1940. Obviously. 299: Characteristics of the output in the VIME D10 windmill: 1. after forging of the stone mill. prior to forging of the stone mill. idaily working wind velocity was .J SI S I 'I It should be assumed that the tested windmills worked with a low coefficient of exploitation not because of slow wind but rather because thLe.339 .not fully utilized. Key: aoutput bm/sec . the mechanics had no obligation to operate. 2. I 6 F b Fig.
VIME D12. the use of special generators (compound. reserve unit with thermal engine for operation in periods of prolonged calm weather. 300: Automatic cututhnow being investigated experimentally. switches. 2. special type generator suited for operating with a variable number of revolutions. generators) which are suited to variable numbers of revolutions.of wind and thermal or hydraulic power stations is Fig. wind engine. . The exploitation of the following wind power stations . as well as of automatic voltage regulators makes it possible to elaborate in wind power stations a current which is suitable for practical purposes of lighting and for power loads. when the storage battery is insufficient..'In ing: 1. The main obstacle in applying wind engines for obtaining electric energy is the irregularity of the wind energy. it is not possible to ./481 supply of electrical energy to the consumer in short periods of calm weather. 4. 3. 300 and 301 illustrate one of the first automaticv.Crimean TsAGI D30.CHAPTER 16. out. 301: Diagram of matic7 cutout. 'i Therefore it is hard to build a storage battery with a capacity which can supply the consumer with electric energy in a satisfactory 310 .6 WIND POWER STATIONS /480 Although wind power installations have not yet received wide distribution. S. the storage battery is supplied with an autoFig. the switch. nor can the number of successive calm days be foreseen. However. the theoretical and experimental elaboration. The main elements of a wind power station of the average type are the follow.( "ii S. and of the Kursk system of UfimtsevVetchinkin makes it possible to accelerate markedly the practical construc~ tion of wind power stations. There are 10 to 40% calm days and days with nonworking wind erast their alterh. Fig. " The parallel operation:.?of this method in the USSR makes it possible to solve already the practical problems of building wind power stations of both low and high power.ation velocities per year. storage battery which ensures the.
revlUtions fluctuate within the limits of 315% depending on the regulation system of the given wind engine. Type. bue to this :fact. or with mixed excitation. from. The irregular. ?. GAU and GBF. bipolar 'shunt winding of ex I341 . main current of the shunt winding and we obtain the diagram of a generator with compound excitation (Fig.. Alternating current generators.iis fulfilled by constant current generators which are mounted as a rule in lowpower wind power stations.4"8 m/sec. of wind engines. This generator may be of a purely shunt excitation type. the number of revolutions is constant if the wind engine is automatically regulated. Due to thi8fact. The additional winding is connected in such a way that its magnetic current ?addsptothe.th the main shunt winding. .. GBT generators are mounted on STZ and KhTZ tractors.of synchronal .and have a /483 power. the generators used with them are made with a large magnetic saturation and they are also supplied with voltage regulators. Generators which are usually mounted on tractors and automobiles are used for lowpower wind power stations. while at wind velocities above 8 m/sec. of 608 W. in which an additional series excitation winding is found aside. is their low efficiency. and asynchronal types can be used in highpower wind power stations for operation in parallel with other powerful thermal or hydraulic power stations in the general circit. 302. 303). This condition . the generator connected to the wind engine should ensure the constancy of the voltage during the fluctuations of the number of revolutions. The shortcoming of these generators which are known under the trademarks GPT. 62. a voltage of 6 V. :1001000 Wcl. wind engines work at low wind velocities. th'gy permit fluctuations of the number of revolutions within large ranges and this corresponds entirely to the irregularity of the op. with variable number of revolutions. the diagram of which is illustrated in Fig.of Generators for Operation With Wind Engine and Voltage Regulator /482 '1.. eration characteristic. thewind power stations should have a reserve engine which is not dependent on wind energy.Since these machines work with a variable number of revolutions. Usually.manner. In such a manner.< Shunt generators of constant current are used for operation with wind engines.
The generator can be used with a wind engine with a diameter of the wind wheel of 3 im. 302: Diagram of a constant current shunt generator: 1generator..in the anticompound winding i..V is intended for working on autobuses. 303: Diagram of the shunt generator with compound excitation. GBF 3brush generatorsv are mounted on passenger automobiles M2 and ZIS101. citation shunt winding. excitation and they operate with an automatic The regulator permits voltage regulator. The change in the power of the charging current at variations of the number of revolutions in the range of 6003200 per minute is shown in Fig. This regulator ensures constancy of volatge in a range of revolutions form 13003000 rpm with load. with a power of 250 W and a voltage of 12'. it demagnejtizes the poles. It should be mentioned that the limitation of voltage will occur only in that case that the generator works with a storage battery r or under great loads. i. .e.' of the shunt type.aR p b . 2brushes. 1generator. The GA 250/12 generator. since in this case there is no working current and conse Fig.o. changing the number of revolutions when working with a load from 11002100 rpm. Due to this fact. It operates with an automatic voltage regulator of type RRT.13shunt winding of excitation. the voltage in the clamps of the generators changes little even at 3 Fig. 3 0 4 . Ppole. large variations in'number of revolutions. Key: awork barm cexcit. reaction of the armature winding on the distribution of the magnetic current in the poles of the generator is used in this case. . The advantage of the 3brush generator is that it can work in charging the storage battery without any special voltage regulator in a range of revolutions from 7004500 rpm. while the voltage is maintained constant. 4additional series excitation winding quently no reaction of the armature./484 The current created by the winding of the 6k armature has a function which is anaagous to that of the current. ex2brushes. they are bipolar with shunt winding of excitation. The voltage will change greatly under incomplete loads or under conditions of either operations. The plus end of the shunt winding of excitation is connected to a special third brush which is displaced with regard to therztidraL The effect of the by an angle of about 600. their voltage 6 V. Their power is 6080 W.
I i J . According to data of the wind power laboratory VIME elaborated by electrical engineer I. 2 This generator can be 0" to 8so used with wind engines which have a diameter of the wind wheel from 33. B. a0o0 160 12000 2400 23X 3 2 o us 1. Such generators can work with wind engines which are characterized by a lesser irregularity of operation and a higher power. Vershinin and G. Curve II corresponds to a l. Conditions of operation with constant resistance in the circuit of excitation'. the slope. A.'to the right . and are intended for work in regions with an annual average wind velocity below 5 m/sec. rpm velocities. we shift the characteristic curve'.voltage regulator and r ensures the constancy of the a range of revovoltage in  lutions of 9503000.ythis angle is determined by the magnitude of the excitation current In thec'ircuiit' of the shunt winding of the generator. The characteristic of the shunt generators in relation to the number of revolutions at constant voltage is represented graphically as a straight line which makes an angle with the horizontal axis of coordinateq.Sl64I I .I . i j  The GT 1000/24 generator with a power of 1000 W and a voltage of 24 V works with a RRT. and this is obtained by regulating the load of the generator. It is desirable to have constant voltage in the operation of a wind power unit. By introducing a resistance in the shunt of the generator.5 m and are intended for working in regions /485 Key: 1. Pechkovskyy 343. Fig. as shown in Fig. Constant current generators intended for general use have a magnetic system with normal fluctuations.: .medium magnitude while curve III corresponds to the minimal value of the excitation current.andthereby dedrease. as a result of which their characteristic curve: Jahas d a ilarge slope (with respect to the horizontal) and is distinguished by a low range of fluctuationof the number of revolutions. 305. amperes with high annual average wind 2. Curve I corresponds to a maximal current of excitation. 304: Characteristic curve cfthe GBF generator. as well as with wind engines which have a diameter of the wind wheel of 5 m.
306).' '1344" .. S3 I ' l t< t I  . then it has to switch off automatically. At the same time its revoin number and the voltage of s increase utio . the storage /48.The voltage of the generator increases with the increase in'L the number. This generator has a softer characteristic N = f(6) and it limits the maximal charging current of the storage battery... RoQ3 voltage in the clamps of the generator fa 1ls and if the storage battery is in a state ofnormal~:chage its voltage is higher than the voltage of the generator. Due to this fact. The increase in the current passing through the compound series winding enhances its counteracting .. medium 3. Fig. the Fig.. work a shunt generator with anticompound winding. If the number of revolutions of the wind engine decreases so much that the generator passes to operating under the conditions of a motor. Key: 1.of a shunt generator with different excitations.'thhe generator is restored. the voltage of the generator appears to be higher than the voltage of the over to conditions of charging. 0 2.. role of the storage battery in the given case is to level off the fluctuations in the power of the wind engine and to maintain a normal magnitude of the vvoltage in the clamps of the generator.and the current in the anticompound series ) iwinding increases at constant resistance of the external circuit. minimum la. The  KI I I 1 io/ Ioo 11C. 11 Ou IG K 2 3UJ The simplest way of achieving such a regulation is by connecting the storage battery in parallel to the clamps of the generator (Fig.nO.i'of revolutions and the current of loading. maximum 2. 305: Ch'r iicoi urve.6 battery assumes a part of the load at the extent of relieving the wind engine. 306: Connection of the storage battery to the clanpsof the generator (with buffer) Key:[Itlload 2storage battery 3R Pr Maintenance of normal voltage can also be /487 performed by means of automatic connecting and disconnecting of a part of the load in rhythm with the fluctuations in the power of the wind It is suitable to take for such a engine. With 1 the decrease in the number of tevo7 1O U4O [l r lutions of the wind engine. With the increase in the power and the number of revolutions of the wind engine..
and'. F'r wind charging units. The RR regulatorrelay (Fig. etc.fora wind engine.5_and 3. the current of excitation decreases RH R~ and the tension in the generAs ator starts to fall.. that the voltage can be considered practically constant.examples of wind power units. electromagnet:3 surmounts the force of the spring and Fig. which protects the storage battery from discharging in the generator. 307). 308: VR voltage regulator Key: 1. The action of the regulator consists in the following.it'smounted on the generator itself (Fig.5:m are used. as result of this. Voltage regulator. body of the generator a frequency of up 30 periods per second. Wind Charging Units Lowpower wind power installations intended for charging storage batteries are called wind charging units.whileithe generators are of the autotype. Fig. 63. The regulator relay is intended for operation with GA 250/12 generator. the armature starts fluctuating with 2 fpnyare.adescribed above.onthe main current of excitation and consequently limits the increase in voltage. it has inverse current relay 2 of type TsB. . this leads to an increase in the additional resistance of the excitation winding of the generator. A vibrational VR regulator is used for operation with the GBT and GAU generators. so small and frequent. at the same time re" sistance Rn wilabe removed' from the shunt circuit. rapid wind engines of lowpower and a diameter of the wind wheel /489 between 1. + o o ni " Yeln . is also of the vibrational type. the spring approaches armature 2 to contact 1 (Fig.pulls 2 armature 2 :to its own /488 side. 308).. When the voltage of the generator is below the normal value. 309). in addition to its own regulator 3.l effect . ./p/ op~ . Charging of the storage batteries is tmobile the most_ convenient load. . 307: Voltage regulator for a dec generator.. It is manufactured as an independent instrument and is mounted separately from the generator.. As soon as the voltage rises above the normal value. Let us examine a few . winding of excitation 2. and consequently the fluctuations of the voltage become.
Fig. B. This unit (Fig.winding. the blades rotate in the bush under the action of centrifugal weight which are mounted on a rod fastened to the flap at an angle 900 with the cord of the profile in the lower section of the blade. charging unit has a twoblade wind wheel with a diameter of 1. the unit is erator.. For 0 . Each battery consists of two When one of them feeds sets. 2inversecurrent relay. unit envisages its use as a 9current winding. lPkW and a voltage of 24 V. The general appearance of the unit is shown in Fig. The.. 13 into it resolving by of current is performed the opera41in during while parallel in united are charging.excitation.. The wind engine SLwind is regulated by removal of the 16 wind wheel from the wind. 4storage bat24 type generator with a power tery.5 wind The VISKhOM RD1. 310 and 311) has a rapid wind engine with a twoblade wheel. This system of regulation was suggested by V. . 104shunt winding. 6relay armature of inThe electrical part of this verse current. the groups circuit. 7conduit. The conbeing is other the station. 36.and a voltage of 6 V.5 m. The inlatorarmature. Vershinin. ' .attached to the head of the In regions with wind engine. type generator with a power of 250 W and voltage 12 V is Kopnyc r HCpTOpa . 8coil. 313. 12 V and 160 V.. . 16main starter:' batteries.4 L i is somewhat displaced from the A GA 250/12 vertical axis. 12voltage regupower radio stations.14equalizing winding. Shamanin. The electrical part of the unit was elaborated by I. winding. In the process of regulation of the flaps.The VISKhOM D3. 312. .5 wind power unit. this purpose. charging installation for low11core disc. general the in series in connected are tion under load. the electrical circuit is given in Fig.5 wind charging unit. S._ 13current wind/491 stallation is intended for ing. wind wheel is attached airectly to the axis of the generator of type GAU with a power of 100 W. 309: Electrical circuit of the high average annual velocities. 15charging two groups of storage winding. 5generator. given a voltage of up to 18 V which is reduced in charging in the rheostats which are found in each batteries. equippedwith a type GT 1000 3voltage regulator. the wind wheel . The 100 W RD1.. RR relayregulator: 1autobus genabove 5 m/sec. they 9 13 SI 12 In order to the generator is the beginning of group of storage ensure sufficient voltage in charging the battery..2 . charged. the of the instrument to a 12 V source battery storage V 160 the of necting for charging During the groups.
which is attached directly to the axis of the generator.v'V. The extent of loading of the reserves in one station throughout the year can be seen in the operating schedules (Fig.vicing personel.. Fig. UtkinEgorov.. Si same power (Fig.VISKhOM UD1.ser. whereby the output of the reserve is shown by black columns.. gave an electrical durrent with small fluctuations of voltage despite the absence of automatic electrical equipment.5 wind power unit. used in wind engines of this type (see Chapten IX. It is used for automatic met'6i6dgical stations. Krasovskiy. this achievement is due exclusively to the regulation system of G. while the output of wind engine is illustrated by the hatched columns. Section 35.. 64. 315. Sabinin and N. 129). The first wind power station in the Mediterranean region of teh USSR which worked with a TsVEI D8 wind engine. Fig.' This wind power station worked 6200 hours per year at full power out of the possible 8760 per year/ It is understandable that such a number of hours per year with full load is only possible in a region with high wind velocities..5 wind charging unit of the /492 .. This unit is computed for operation with a generator with variable current' in the course of up to bneand :a half yearswithout :any. 310: The VISKhOM D3. LowPower Wind Power i _ Stations The windswhich blow:' on I[ the shores of seas and oceans . V. Due to the high wind velocities.while VIME D5 corresponds to the upper figure. are distinguished by their high velocities and they represent a powerful source of energy.regulation of the revolutions of the wind wheel.. many wind power stations work several months without any reserve. Kh. With regard to the small fluctuations in the voltage ofthe electric cur/493 rent. The characteristic feature of this wind engine is the highly accurate. 314) was designed by V. a and b): VES D12 corresponds to the lower graph. 347 ..
As a result of this. working alone should be built whereverv the cost of other energy_ sources is very high. 14storage battery switch.5 wind power a~rt: unit: 1generator. ." 14 10set "I ful wind stations working with constant current are hard to realize the cost of the obtained energy ILII e b dand i Stions is very high. 5storage battery connection clamps. The useful power of a wind installation working with a mechanical actuator is expressed by the following equality: N N==N 348 . 3voltmeter. 311: Electrical circuit of wind installations have advantages if they:<operate with a mechanical the VISKhOM D3. 17storage battery. Wind power installa. 13instrument lamp switch. 11portable lamp outlet. amast of the wind Key: engine bloading circuit ""of S the unit actuator and the electrical energy is utilized for auxillary purposes such as lighting of service buildings. 12vi: voltmeter transfer switch. 6wind engine starter button. power . 8storage battery fuse.The construction of wind power/ 4 94 stations in regions which are far removed form thermic energy rec(ia sources makes it possible to reduce considerably the transport of fuel which is usually fraught with large difficulties E39]. Thermic Stations and Hydropower Stations The wind power station working alone has an important shortcoming which consists in the fact that in order to ensure uniformeiii feeding of the energy. 15switchboard or instrument pan'lli ghtcl6generator circuit fuse. thes'e Fig.a'M aca a ohr a 65.e. charging. storage batteries and a reserve thermic engine have to be up.. A wind installation which is used for servicing electrical lighting and mechanical loading will have losses in both mechanical and electrical machines i. 10fuse in switchboard outlet. 2regulator relay. 4ammeter in the ciruit of the storage battery. However. in this case large capacity storage batteries are not required. Circuiit. it will be less avantageous. 7line cutout for unit charger. 9line fuse of unit charger.with Large. etc. Parallel Operation of Wind Power/495 S2 Stations in a General.
2inverse current relay.56 useful Fig. " Tii m := 0.7. 0.e.8 __ 7' . ng = 0. iI power.If the wind installation supplies electrical energy for power loading.L •  stations is in this case an enormous battery which absorbs the excess electrical energy and covers the load of the wind power station In this case it is not on calm days. Q 512. N.8.0.56 i. the efficieny of the generator. stations.8. 312: The VISKhOM RD1.=lN 0. By parallel operation of the 5shunt winding of the generator.6 to 0. [319 . wind power stations.5 wind charging unit. it is possible to solve problems related to the 7shunt winding of the relay. 6series winding of the relay. take the upper limits of If wettii the efficiencies of the machine.installation which increase the cost 68 V. the mechanical 4the . we obtain: N." In such a manner. inparle'lIwith circuit electric thermic and hydropower stations. 1/1. are the wind power stationsoof high power which work in the general a o0em? the.8. our wind installa.8. ne = 0. Key: alighting load stable operation of the station./49E .512 = 1.8= N. 4pushbutton of motor starter. I T0A 2o2 Of extraordinary interest for the electrification cf the socialist economy. Istorage 3storage battery 6 V. Nw is the power of the wind engine.8J: 0. of the energy obtained in wind power +0.7 to 0.7 to 0.5 wind charging unit: 1generator 100 W. without overloading the wind engine and the generator and excluding the 144 Ahr. efficiency of transmission from the wind Swheel to the tool. the efficiency of electrical engine..(I : tions would give in the second case 0. Fig: 313: Electrical circuit ofnecessary to have storage batteries with low efficiency added to the the VISKhOM RDI. The general circuit of large power . then its useful work will be equal to: where N' is the useful power.
. danger of overload.requires a additional exciterand are stable under overloads. a number of revolutions which is lower than the synchronal number. do not A draw. This can be performed by an automatic synchronizer. Synchronal generators require for connecting into a net of alternating currents a complete preliminary synchronization of the generator with the net. which is hard to proventi . All this requires the. the generator requires a separate exciter. The reliability of this generator consists in the fact without deterioration bf the latter and thatitworks:intlcircuit has a high power coefficient cos 4. . creation 'f mechanical electric ' :devices for automatic regulationnof the wind power station. The :asychronal generators allow a certain small fluctuation in the number of revolutions at constant frequency obfthe :.in parallel operations of wind power stations with alter nating current. electrically. When the number of revolutions 350i wind power unit. 314: The VISKhOM UD1. The former has a strictly determined constant number of revolutions which depends on the frequency of the. Operation of the wind engine with asynchronal generator. Complete correspondence of the characteristics of the wind engine with those of the generator is required in order to obtain satisfactory byt teasynchronal The powersupplidi operation of the wind power unit. synchronal and asynchronal generators can be used. .Both . i.circu"t. generator into the circuit equals O~at.circuit. .I ac . they are cheap and of simple construction.5 Asynchronal generators have a number of advantages over the synchronal one. back of 'these generators is that they charge the circuit with reactive' current. Fig. This generator is less suitable for operation in wind power stations due to the following reasons: elaborate synchronization. movementsin the system so as to obtain a reliable operation.e.  / Generators for parallel op eration in the gneralfctit. S. Their efficiency decreases markedly with the decrease of the load. The load has little influence /497 on the magnitude of the efficiency.
900 / 9 10 11 12 13 1415 2 . .or ..number of revolutions.. AuJust September Octoember November December. 13. a 4 5 Ra.. 200 . 14. July 11. . 5.oil Key: 1. a circuit breaker connected with Fig. gulation of the wind power station is required either by regulation 9. The overload of a synchronal generator is permitted to a much lesser degree than in the case of the asynchronal generator. June 10.123. output 2...' exceeds the synchronal.3C / . 7. ". lBuameaora i which changes proportionally to the slip and 0 power which corresponds to the synchrohal_.e" sIt The operation of a wind power station which asynchronal generator takes place in the following sequence. 1. number.llo. eMay engine..ircuit by the generator adecreases when the number of revolutions increases above this value. 851 . the power increases rapidly and reaches its maximum by a 5% slip. .. __ The wind engine which is started at a certain wind velocity picks up iniAAiiin revolutions and as soon as 4 5 6 7 " ..number is reached.ea an. 6. 8. a reliable reresult of this. nects at this point the electric " . 12.the' wind. The wind engine and asynchronal generator should be calculated for a possible overload of up to 60%. The inverse current relay discont subsequently the wind power switch.. its' role of generatpr."Bupa6ora _00 45eps2 400  .thec.. As.A:m tion of the asynchronal generator takes place between the highest < 6 b 7 8 / :: .in. The power . 4. reserve reseanuarve February March April May 8.power .I . 3 .1415 the synchronal" . Operation of the wind engine it with synchronal generator. bD12 a centrifugal regulator connects f tie power station to the the crcuit general..0 'l S S::' . station feeds current into the general .i . 15.'The operation of a wind engine with synchronal generator requires a regorously constant number of revolutions. 3. In such a manner.fed into. wind power station (WPS) ' eircuit until.. veloc ity decreases below a certain value. 315: Operating schedule of a wind power station: aVIME D5 wind power station.. 8 910. the opera 25 2.
on'the parallel operation of wind power stations were carried out for the first time under the *352_. 66. automatic regulation of the excitation. In the operation of wind power stations with regulation: of the wind engines. automatization of the wind power station is more complicated with the synchronal generator. overloading of the unit. If the wind engine is regulated in such a manner that the number of its revolutions is limited and does not reach the synchronal. . the wind engine which is regulated under the effect of centrifugal weight. The only difference is that the wind power station working with synchronal :generator must have a synchronal automatic device which acts on the maximal switch of the circ u it onlyjaftera certain.. In the opposite case.wind velocity. then neither the synchronal nor the asynchronal generators can feed enough energy into the circuit at any wind velocity. Protection from overloading can be accomplished either by corresponding regulation of the wind engine or by additional mechanical device (hydraulic slip clutch). the wind engine must be regulated so that the number of its revolutions does not fall below the synchronal: number. which permits slipping during the increase in the number of revolutions. when regulation of the wind engine is performed.will develop . number. In such a manner. Since the power of the generator grows according to aihralmost vertical curve. number of revolutions of the generator as well as coincidence 6f the phases is> reached.cn additional devicenis required which would protect the unit from overloading at high wind velocities/ The operation of wind power stations with synchronal generators is performed according to a diagram which is analogous to the asynchronal generator. b6th with asynchronal and with synchronal generators. with the increase in. However. and cause'. the generator may lose its synchronicity under . the latter as well as the generator must be protected from overload.a power which is proportional to almost the cube of wind velocity.of the wind engine or by regulation from the electrical circuit ofthe /4 9 8 station.. Loading of the synchronal generator can take place only at synchronal' velocity and is determined by phase shift. connected with a power factor meter should be introduced in order to improve the condi tions ofthe circuit. In addition. The electrical protection from overloading is made by switching from the synchronal generator to th asynchronal 1one.' while maintaining its number of revolutions. Experimental Testing of the Operation of Wind Power Stations Connected Parallel in the Circuit [53] The experimental investigations . /499 .conditions of overload. Therefore.
Asynchronal operating conditions. The computation diagram of the experimental installation elaborated by I. B. When the wind power station works with a limited power of the generator which is achieved by automatic slip regulator 9. a. b. When the wind velocity decreases. 316. the knife switches. is performed in the . Knife switches a. and consequently. the power supplied by the generator is below the calculated one. Sabinin in the TsAGI wind power laboratory. the circuits of the bcd rotor and knife a of the stator circuit should be connected prior to starting the wind engine with inductive generator. the generator intercepts the load in the circuit iacc6ding t6 the given slip. accerding to the diagram. The diagram illustrates the manual connecting of the generator by means of knob 6 which acts on the solenOid ~of automatic circuit breaker 2. Vershinin is presented in Fig.5 3 . b.'circuit andif the number of revolutions of the rotor increases.following order. The operation of the instrument. As soon as the wind engine conveys to the rotor a synchronal velocity. and e are connected while b and c 3.circuit. The wind power apparatus by means of which these investigations were performed consisted of a rapid wind engine and an inductive machine which worked in the capacity of a generator under asynchronal and synchronal operating conditions with a steady power of 5 kW at 220 V in the. the relay of the reverse current is automatically disconnected. 316. The transition of the inductive generator to synchromal conditions (Fig. the circuit is closed by means of knob 6 of the automatic switch 2.guidance of G. Protection of the generator from overloading in the absence of a maximally depending relay. which is measured by tachometer 3 and 4. Kh. The automatic device connects the generator tqthe. According to the diagram in Fig. Synchronal operating conditions. 316) is performed by means of the automatic frequency relay 7. is performed by means of fuses. This diagram allows operation under both asychronal and synchronal conditions however it is inadequate for a powerful wind power station since it lacks several elements of automation and protection. the sequence of operation of the instrument in connecting the generator is maintained the same as in the case of the shortedout rotor. The only difference is that knife switch d which shorts out the /501 rotor must in this case be disconnected.
S. When the wind engine works in parallel with the synchronal generator. This is explained by the fact that under conditions of a steady synchronal number of revolutions. action of Shamanin). 2. Any extra moment causes slipping of the clutch. Changeover switch f is placed in the left position. by rotation of the stator.are switched on prior to starting the wind power station. which are maintained constant by the circuit. and thus connects the rotor to the constant current machine. the power of the wind engine will bellimited by its regulation since in this case. Subsequently.52% and set in motion the centrifugal regulator. 1.)one has. the frequency relay 7 closes its left working contact. the centrifugal regulator which limits the number of revolutions of the wind wheel cannot limit the power of the wind engine. con4 nected in parallel. Protection of the wind power station from overloading by regulation of the wind engine.crelse the wind engine must be connected to the generator not directly but rather by means of an intermediate hydraulic clutch. If the generator ceases !to be synchronal as in the case of a considerable load jerk.o the net. by means of an additionalsmall wind engine whose blade can be longitudinally displaced along the axis of the flap under the /503 its centrifugal forces (Fig. the inductive generator becomes synchronal and continuesv to work synchronally. 317) (suggestion of V. The current of the slipping frequency flows around the second reel of the frequency relay which is connected in circuit 1 of the rotor phase while the knife switch is disconnected. a current is created which has the same direction as the flow of the reel. the revolutions of the wind wheel may increase by 1. As a result of this. In the latter case. either to act on the mechanism which changes the angle of the blade by some kind of device from the side which is not related to the revolutions of the wind wheel. testswwere performed with three devices which acted on the mechanism of rotation of the blade tip without being connected with the revolutions of the wind wheel:. when the current of the slipping frequency assumes its maximal value of the negative wave. 35 4 . In studying the operation of D10 wind engine with stabilizing regulation to synchronal conditions of a wind power station. the centrifugal regulator cannot act on the mechanism which rotates the blades at the required angle of attack. corresponding to the connecting of the excitation rails of the reel in frequency relay 7. with the "Askaniya" oil regulator. In order to prevent the wind p6wer station from getting overloaded. the diagram provides for automatic switching off of the generator. Under the effect of the overall flow of the . 3. inductive generator 1 is connected t. reel. The power of the generator is limited by the /502 operation of a hydraulic clutch which can only transmit a limiting torque established depending on the power of the machine tool.
i. 3tachometertransmitter. the position of the rotating blade tip was determined entirely by the magnitude of the linear displacement of the regulating clutch a in millimeters. Such a plot is presented in Fig. which is inadmissible. the wind wheel must be changed to less efficient operating conditions when the wind velocity exceeds 8 m/sec. d. 5wind rotors. omeasuring instrument. the wind engine overloads the generator by 100% starting with Fig. tao= 10. 9slipping regulator. 8excitation rheostat. recorders. In order to prevent overloading of the installation.ethan 10 mm.Z). 15. 10mtor.3 m/sec. 318 for . In such a manner. I (ii dKuia. Key: a. 1.of tie beam of the spring for automatic cutout.Mor3C _. the regulating clutch connected with the rotating blade tip must be displaced with respect to its initial position by nor. to the tachometer gauge current breaker switch to the tachometer gauge wind velocities of 9. b. 6onoff button. lizers and along with them the blade tip under the required angle of attack. asynchronal generator. It is easy to determine the magnitude of a at which 3 25 .e. By means of the experi': mental characteristicsM and = f(a. obtained for various positions of the regulating clutch. the dependence of the power of the wind wheel on wind velocity at each a 'at a constant number of revolutions can be plotted. 7automatic synchronization device. 4tachometerypgauge. ice. 316: Commutation circuit of an experimental windipower station for studying parallel operations in the general circuit.. The wind engine works ji /504 most efficiently at a = 10. So o I 7M _ joO f I d 0 7. 13. which is kinematically connected with the wing stabilizers. c.__ Each one of these mechanisms is connected to the regulating 1204 clutch which rotates the stabi:. at the smallest inclinaHowtion angle of the blade. 17 and 20. 2automatic circuit breaker.
.on g stabilizer and turns the blade. 317: V. 320 depicts the curves of wind velocity (lower curve) and of the clutch course a correspond. revolutions of the wind wheel may increase by 1.of the installation power by means of the graphs in Fig.the course of which is measured by The results of the tests magnitude~a . nevertheless.the regulating clutch must be I 'I i o shifted depending on the wind velocity in order to maintain the constany. 11wing ois illustrated as a function of the wind wheel. wind velocity during operation of wind power unit with the indicated above 3 additional regulating devices. 2lever. TheoAtracings of the course of the clutch during operation with the first and second regulator showed that these regulators do not give the required change of a as a function of V for maintaining the constancy of the wind engine power. the course of the clutch. This increase in the number of revolutions immediately leads to a shift in the sator 2 . When the wind engine operates with stabilizing regulation to an asynchronal generwith slipping regulator. 8lever. The even pattern of variation of the centrifugal flyweight \of the the entrifugal flyweight . 6clutch. 7regulating 7regulating magnitudesag yielded recordings where the clutch. The pattern of the clutch fluctuations depending on wind velocity is shown in Fig. 9rod to the yielded recordings where the Sof course of the regulating clutch stabilizer. 319 where the upper curve shows the change of a during the operation with "Askaniya". the change in wind velocity is shown by the lower curve. 3slip clutch.. More satisfactory results were obtained in the work with the fly suggested by V. 5spring. no additional 356 . assumed the pattern of a course with peaks. Fig. 10flap. 1fly. Shamanin's device for limitation of the power of wind engines which are regulated device for shifting the clutch by rotation of the blades under the action of centrifugal forces:magnitude a is needed in the given case. 4rod. as an example. Shamanin. S. 318. Continuous variation of wind velocity must be accompanied by a corresponding change in the magnitude of a. _ S . the fluctuations in a.the plot was made for a 4 kW power generator. S. In such a manner.5 to 2% as compared to the normal number./505 ing to these velocities.the _ Fig.
the pulsating action of these forces is manifested india sharp pulsation of the torque of the wind wheel as can be seen from the equation of the power of the wind engine N.tude and direction causes a positions of the clutch dependgreater pulsation of the forces ing on wind velocity. Such operating conditions of the wind wheel can be fully provided for by the hydraulic clutch connected in the transmission 3. Although the causes for t   t 2 the pulsation of the moment are not entirely known.reflected in'the .Lth a synchronal generator in the general circuit. . But since the revolutions of the Key: 1.. When the wind engine operates . expressed by means of the torque /506 M and the angular velocity w: C . is technically solvable. The wind veloFig.. the problem of automatic protection of the wind engine from overloading in the case of operation with a parallel synchronal generator in a high power circuit and with wind velocities exceeding the calculated values. . significant fluctuations in the angular velocity of the wind wheel are permitted. it is extfemely important to exclude the possibility of transmission of the pulsating moment to the generator. the following assumptions can be forwarded on this matter. the pulsation of the power on the whole corresponds to the pulsation of the torque..i SI clutch course shows that this device provides for constancy of the wind engine power with fluctuations between more or less narrow limits relative to the given magnitude. 318: Variation of the power city which pulsates in magniof the wind wheel at various . /  . the peak of the torque decreasesto a smaller or greater extent.. In such a manner. . V m/set with a synchronal generator are maintained reasonably constant. which rotate the wind wheel.57 1 . which isimmediately . kW wind wheel during the operation 2.power curve which assumes a more smooth course.as for example during operation with an asynchronal generator. When the wind engine is loaded in such a manner that in_ . N = Mw kg/m/sec Since w = const.
This assumption was experimentally tested in the wind power laboraory if TsAGI on a wind wheel model Dl10. 2. 321. G. a course of the clutch a series of theoretical and experimental studies. Key: 1. In such a manner. What is needed in this case.in relation to wind velocity. At the same time the number of revolutions is limited by the circuit /508 itself. Sabinin arrived at the conclusion that it is absolutely superfluous to regulate the torque at wind velocities exceeding the calculated values in the case of a winged type rapid wind engine (Zn = 6) which is connected in parallel. Consequently. Operation of a wind engine connected iniparallel without regulation. the number of revolutions of the wind wheel will slightly increase without disturbing the strictlyl constant revolutions of the generator. wind velocity 358 . It should be assumed that the operations of the wind engine with synchronal generator in the presence of a hydraulic clutch can be entirely satisfactory without any additional devices for limiting the power of the wind wheel which is regulated by means of centrifugal flywheels. the power on the wings of the wind wheel not only does not increase but even decreases." wind engine. The characteristic of a D10. during the operation of a rapid wind engine connected in parallel. Kh. Zn = 7. i = 3. This clutch permits slipping of the leading mechanism of the wind engine to the main shaft of . is merely a simple device which acts only during accidents in the circuit or following sudden removal of the load. It appears that starting with wind velocities about 12 m/sec.relative the generator. whose overall power is several times greater than'tlepower c the. On the basis of 2 Fig.. i = 3 wind engine connected in parallel and operating without regulation is illustrated in Fig. 319: Tracings of thercourse a of the clutch during operation of the wind wheel with the "Askaniya" device acting on the clutch. the danger of excessive overloading of the generator and of the racing of the wind wheel with increasing wind velocity is excluded. Zn = 7. between the reduction gear and/507 the generator.
By the dimensions of the wind wheel D = 30 Fig. On its internal side.tion system. Sabinin and N. The the and and was the blades which rotate freely about their flaps under the action of stabilizers of the G. analogous to the profile of an airpane win.with a diameter of 3. The wind wheel has a o * diameter of 30 m and has three S. wind velocity . A steel rim . Fig.8 m. the the engine tower tower was was 23. a 6 SI width of 3. this station had no in the USSR or abroad. equals In 1942 the station was destroyed by the German f ist a of the clutch during operation of the wind wheel with a fly which acts on the clutch.course of the clutch 2. The flapswwere made of steel pipes with a diameter of 350 mmwere connected by means of a light girder made of iron carbide and iron channels and pipes. 2 m wide at the base and 1 m wide at tip.7 m. _ \ _ station in Crimea (Fig. 321: Characteristic of the power of a wind power installation working in the general circuit without regulation.< amounted to 49. as a function of wind velocity.power 1 . V.ta.1 tons. The wind S..HP The height of the wind engine 23. The cabin of the head o . I IJJ which contained the generator and the electrical apparatus had the length of 13. 322) had a purely experimental value and was constructed with the purpose of investigating the operation of a wind power station in parallel with a thermal power station in the same region. m. The overall weight of the wind engine metal . HighPower Power Stations Connected in Parallel The Crimean wind power station TsAGI D30. The blades had a streamlined Profile. The volume of the foundation was 60 m.: regula.5 m and the height of 3. Krasovski 's.  \ I2 A f __10_ A 4 67.3 m. rim~had a rolling surface which was supported by two steel rolls 3 9 .3 was distance between the legs 6.4 m secured to the flaps by means of bolts. 320: Recording of the course m and the power of about 100 kW at 30 rpm. Key: l. blade was 11 m in length. Kh.0 m.
along with a smooth surface the rim"" has a surface with openings which contain /509 wooden teeth made of hornbeam. carbide.5 kW with worm gearing. The tail girder serves for regulating /510 the wind wheel to the wind during changes in its direction. During changes in direction of the wind.The head of the Fig. The plane of rotation of the wind wheel has an inclination of 120 with respect to the Svertical which is caused by the requirement of decreasing the gap between the wind wheel and the tower. 322: The Crimean TsAGI D30 wind engine is mounted on iron wind station.i J \gear rotating oiball bearings fastened to the girder of the head. The motor moves the carriage around the rail as long as the wind wheel does not stand into the wind and the wind vane does not open the A ladder is used in order to climb the tower and the tail dontact. Connecting of the motor takes place automatically during changes in the direction of the wind. The teeth of the rim are engaged with two cast iron pinions situated inside the wing. For this purpose. addition. of the two gears equals 21 : 4. and iron channels and leans through a spherical pivot on a spherical support secured on top of the tower. The wind wheel with the In &im turn on these rolls. to which a carriage with mot6orand winch are hinged at the lower end. girder. The movement of the carriage on the rail is performed by means of an electrical motor with a power of 1. the wind vane connects one of the rolls of the electromagnetic changeover switch which is found in the circuit of the motor of the tail carriage. The wind engine turns about the vertical axis on this support during adjustment of the wind wheel to the wind. a wind vane with a size of 400 x 700 mm is mounted on top of the cabin. The carriage is supported on a rail which surrounds the tower along a circle with a radius of 20. The pinions are fitted on the two shafts which transmits the rotation to the differential and from the latter to the shaft of the generator. tail girder. The girder of the head is hinged with thefl~0in'd.5 m. 3(60 . The differential gear is used in the transmission for a uniform distribution of the power between the two transmission The overall gear ratio shafts. .
The characteristics obtained in the tests are shown in Fig.. 324. 1.83. it is connected in the 4 AciuXp. . of 6. 325. An aerial line of power transmission _.. The automatic device and the relay protection work with an alternating current Key: 1. the linear current is S220/6oov Sp vA winding of the startet is made by means 300 amperes. 34.242 was obtained at the rapidity Zn = 4. obtained. e . the connection of the of a triangle. The maximal output coefficient of wind energy of the wings E = 0.3PeryaT op 2a. 323. The observed values of the power fed into the circuit at a low level 361 . former of the generator on the side of low Ia. The connecting takes place automatically. power station working with 30 rpm is considerably better. 323: diagram of the D30 wind power station. of automatic connection and protection of the generator is shown in Fig.. transformer voltage is performed by means of a two2. are connected in parallel to a 300 A current of the generator. 3.. as soon as the synchronal' number of revolutions is. cos n 0. Electtical Fig. electromagnetic pole electromagnetic switch of type MSWswitch In the third phase. The weight of the generator is 2040 kg. Tests for exploitation of the wind power station D30 were per. Closing of the switch contact is performed by means of a centrifugal mechanism which is turned by means of one of the intermediate transmission shafts of the wind engine. The characteristics were taken in the following manner. ren p 100 kw The electrical diagram of the unit the basic diagram is shown in Fig. 1Cepmec '/. The voltage of the starter phase is 220 V.M.T. series transAutomatic switching on and off of 220 V.. The nominal power of the generator is 93 kV. a onepole kif&.3 kV with a cross section of the copper 3 x 10 mm and a length of 2600 m passes from the building of the wind power station. slip regulator The contact of each switch is seen. calculated for generator 150 A. "D125 O The asynchronal generator of the anit is a normal 3phase motor of type hp at 600 rpm./511 formed Under two sets of operating conditions: at 19 and 30 rpm of It appears that the operating conditions of a wind the wind wheel. asynchronal p of the circuit breakers. line of electrical transmission and works in parallel with a thermic power station. 4.75 which was in good agreement with the results of tests performed with the D10 model on the tower of the wind power laboratory.
corresponding to the center of the ro. The mast was tation of the wind wheel.T SKA. 327.K. . The cabin of the generator is situated on top of the tower and can turn about its vertical axis during adjustment of the wind wheel to the wind. The recorded power over an interval of 7 minutes is presented in Fig...revealed the entirely adequate operation of the installation and of the automatic device [38]. The performance tests.H. istics of the wings in the D30 00 Izz 2 "the I Z oing i I wind power station. efficiency of the wind energy 2.iiations of the asynchronal generator over this short interval of time did not exceed 30% in the limits of permitted overload. block relay 5. "' 220set and were checked with the recordings of the wattometer. 9_3. contact of the centrifugal mechanism 2. The average wind velocity for the 20 minute time interval was measured on a mast at a height of 25 m.of 48000 kW. The recordings of wind velocity were/512 performed by means of the recording anembmeter with an electric cortact after 500 m of path crossed by the wind. relay of the zero lever 3. Description of the project of wind power station with the D50 m wind engine. Key: 1. rapidity power station is illustrated in Fig. The curve shdws that the power fluct. control block 7. rP values were determined by the difference the counter readings in kilowatt hours 4 Ban. aI'T S were averaged for 20 minutes.1 . T S . circuit breaker 8. to the generator 9. The general view of this wind /513 3'62 A. cuit with a thermic power station 3 67 with a power of 7500 kW and with 2 poxown . Key: 1. These keH tein H .of the step up transformer 220/6300 V Ka. up at a distance of 50 m from the wind engine. key . Worth mentionis the project of the wind / I 2 power station with the D50 m wind / I engine which was intended for parallel operation in the general cirS. to the transformer 4.pene  PSTo 6 SAOK. rz=WR a hydropower station with a power Fig. 324: of automatic connection and protection of the generator. Basic diagram Fig. 326.. 325: Aerodynamic character. switch 6.
328. Sabinin and N. . In addition.of the power station with aerodynamic regulationnof the means of stob.All the remaining electrical equipKey: 1. The threeblade rapid (Zn = 6) wind engine. 1000 kW (project). . Kh. Adjustment of the wind wheel to the wind is performed by means of an electromotor which is mounted on a cramp iron girder in the 36'3 . of the adjustment to the wind and the on/off motor of the wind engine. The cutaway of the of D. 326: Recording of the power' makes 600 rpm. while the generator Fig.c30 wind power station cabin in its general view is shown during operation with asynik Fig.. lated by this system.:. J makes 24 rpm. The project costper kW hnuis 1. kW of power is 425 rubles.8 ko ecks. lq oUse of this type of regulation has enormous advantages in the sense of reliability of operation.l which is known from the practice of oper Fig 327 The TsVEI D50 r)wind ation of the D12 wind engine regupower station. The annual average wind velocity in the region where it is suggested to build the wind installa: ' The tions amounts to 78 m/sec. The voltage of the synchronal generator equals 6300 V and 600 rpm. number of working hours per yeart of the wind power station was calculated to be 2380 hours with the output of 10 D50 units being 2..2 million kW hr per year. minutes ment is situated below under the tower in the substations.ilizers blade tip'rotation was suggested by G..KW 120 The transmission of rotation go o 3 Ii I1from 4 1 the shaft of the wind wheel to I 5 . . Krasovskiy. the cabin chronal generator connected of the wind engine contains the motor in parallel. while the cost of 'steady. the power of the wind power station equals 1000 kW at 14 m/sec wind velocity. . V.HyT 'I the generator is performed through a 2stage reducing gear with a gear /514 The wind wheel ratio of 1 : 25. as well as in the simplicity of construction and /515 low weight of the regulating device.
'' The pulsating nature of wind energy and its lack of constancy with regard'. The height of the tower is 50 m. in that"moment the small wind enIs turned off. The following main elements were elaborated in the general commutation circuit: 1. automatic regulation of voltage by a rapid voltage regulator. whichcontains. 4. 2. 5. 6. ladder and elevator 52 t Overall weight 160 t 3 4 . dimensions of the base 25 x 25 m. limitation of the power at strong windagusts by means of a hydraulic clutch permitting slippnhg of the main shaft.. For the sake of illustration. gine . At the base of the tower a building is situated.lower part of the cabin.th1main distributing installation of the electrical parts. The cabin contains the small wind engines with vertical plane passing through the axis of the shaft which rotates during the changes in wind direction. In addition.I Fig. there is a ladder inrcase the elevator is out of use. as well as the complete automation of the controls were the consequence of complicating the commutation diagram. automatic disconnecting of the wind power station by acdtation of one of the accident protection devices without repeated connection of the automatic device. This motor is connected by means of a worm gearing with two long shafts which carry a second worm gearing. the latter engaged with pins of the rim fastened to the tower. automatic start and stop of the wind power station. automatic synchronization. 3. automatic adjustment of the wind engine to the wind. 11I . j'to velocity and direction. we present the weight of the wind engine parts: Wind wheel 35 t Girder of the head 20 t Mechanical part of the wind engine 63 t Tower. An elevator goes to the upper balcony of the tower. the stq:motor is connected by means of an electrical transmission and it operatbs as long as the wind wheel does not stand into the wind. 328: Cabin of the TsVEI D50 wind power station. determined by the presence or absence of wind.
44 kW. This circumstance was the motive to suggesting a . Tie beams coming from the upper support maintain the tower in vertical position. during thrashing. dicated wind* power station and requires a secondary machine. 329). 1  The wind power station with /516 many wind engines. There are as yet not. Twelveqwiid engins with a diameter of the wind wheel of 20 m each are mounted on the frame. hoist 68. G. A. 1. Here a 3wire system 2 x 230 V 365 .a 5. guide rope to the Key: ground2. The frame with a chessbbardd distribution of the wind wheels is mounted on a girder rotating tower. wind wheel's diameter but rather by means of a large number of wind wheels with relatively small dia/517 meters. G. Ufimtsev and V. 331. . P.. 329: Diagram of a wind power station with many wind engines in the A. Ufimtsev and Prof. A similar power can be given at the indicated wind velocity by a wind engine with a single wind wheel But wvU having a diameter of 70 m. for this purpose a dc generator is used with parallel excitation. mounted on the general tower of " frame construction (fig. wind wheels with a diameter of 20 m are available in practice. while itlis very hard to make 70 m wind wheels.otor power of 45 kW is large Afor t e . . Vetchinkin suggested t a solvelJv the problem of a powerful wind power station not by increasing the dimension of the [ '. The operation of both machines is quite adequate with the diagram shown in Fig. 330 illustrates a wind power station with a power of 30 kW manufactured by the general electricity company. Brief Data on Foe g~:r'Wind Power Stations Fig. S_ :  Fig.2 no'. which is /518 set in motion by means of a reserve engine which is started in parallel with the wind engine during maximal energy comsumption i. with a wind engine of the Kumme system.such wind power stations in practice.i)wind power station containing many wind engines. A. V.e. P. The overall power is about 500 hp at the wind velocity of 8 m/sec. Vetchinkin system.
330: The 30 kW wind power station with wind engine of the Kumme system.. in order to obtain smallest resistance during normal revolutions of the propeller . low power wind charging units with twoblade propellers fitte' directly on the axis of the generator of a special low speed type are widely distributed. these surfaces are deflected under the effect of 366 . in relation to the number of revolutions is illustrated below: Revolutions of the dc 330 generator Fig. As soon as the wind wheel picks up in the number of revolutions and reaches a value above normal.is used with distribution of the voltage through a battery. 332 shows the general view of the "Wincharger" wind chargeing unit with a 32 V dc generator. The dc generator of the "wind charger" low power wind charging unit gives a voltage of 6 V.8 m cannot developethe number of revolutions required for the dc generator at a wind velocity of 8 m/sec.5 to 1. surfaces which have a curvature along the radius of its rotation are secured. Fig. The storage battery contains 240 elements of type AK for the highest power of the charging current of 36 amperes. Amperes 1 /519 370 2 860 12 440 4 1060 14 500 5 600 8 Revolutions of the dc 700 generator Amperes 10 A twoblade propeller with the length 1. The charging unit consists of a model with parallel excitation and a voltage augmenter.8 m can give 300 to 1000 rpm if the width of its blade and the rigging angle are computed for a rapidity Zn > 7. At a certain radius from the axis /520 of rotation. secured to the shaft of the wind wheel. LimitationS Iof the revolutions is achieved by means of an aerial brake. Wind charging units with a power exceeding 100 W are manufactured with a reducing gear since the propeller with a diameter exceeding 1.while the current. The power of the wind charging is 650 W. In the United States. The gear ratio of the revolutions of the dc generator to the revolutions of the propeller equals about 5.
.. I O1 When fully ] .forces Sf their o~n weight. come perpendicular to the di _ _I_a AA I At A( rection of movement and create In the reverse. 331: Diagram of connection of the wind engine and of the reserve model. In recent years. stopped by the force of the spring. d. which is disposed in the plane of rotation of the wind wheel perpendicularly /521 to the propeller. as illustrated in Fig. _ These wind charging units are released with a power 100 W to 5 kW. due to which Fig. These surfaces are fitted with their bushes on the axis. When 4 7 Fig. "WindImpeller" company releases wind charging units (Fig. 333.: reducing gear and of other parts of ig. axis during the movement of the bush along the axis and is stopped by a plane in the direction of movement. resistance.l'" the surface turns about the wind charging unit. The braking surfaces lie in the plane of rotation in normal revolutions (see illustration. IPins c passes through helical cuts a in the bushes. 335).force of the spring hownr in position b. and a resistance is created.centrifugal forces. attentionshas been accorded in the United States to highpower wind power stations.67 . a). 3. the number of revolutions exceeds the normal value under the effect of cent:rifugal. the unit are illustrated in I SThe Fig. The structure of the g 1j J UP4 E . the blades start tohove along 'the radiis arrnTay overcome e T___ /the'. surfacesriare the position. 334) of the same power as the "Wincharger" with the only difference that the aerial brake used for limiting the number of revolutions of the propeller is made of surfaces which rotate in the plane of rotation of the wind wheel (Fig. 322: The "Winchahger. . .
tower of the wind engine is of girder construction.3 m/sec which results in a rapidity of Z = 5. The shaft of the wind wheel is the radial and the head load. of the wings are hinged to the shaft in such a manner that during wind gusts they deviate in the direction of the wind by 200 under the effect of the:impact load. 333: Head of the wind charging unit shown in Fig. 368 . The shaft of the wind wheel has a diameter of 61 cm and rotates on two double roller bearings mounted at a distance of about 3. A4 The circular velocity of the blade tip is 80. voltage 230 V.. of 14 m/sec and 28.periods of 3phase current.72. The twoblade wing wheel with a diameter of 53 m has a blade length Fig.' to maintain it in the plane of rotation of the wind wheel. the J" . of 20 m and a width of 3.seal height of which is about 610 m above level.the increased is voltage the where group current to the transfbermer y electrical the of transmission of line the with dconnection purpose power system. The i foundation at a depth of about 7 m.7 rpm is 1000 kW. \ . while the bearing near the clutch for regulation of revolutions intercepts both loads... has a height of 35 m and is fastened to a steel lattice which is laid in a concrete \. The overall weight of the wind wheel is 20 t.Fig:. /522 Regulation of the revolutions is achieved by rotation of the blade The flaps about the axis of the flap. centrifugal forces of the blade turn.7 m from each other on the supporting frame of the head. The bearing situated directly behind the wind wheel is radial. 60.1 . The electridal wiring from the generator goes down through central openings in the girder of the head and joins the rings. which helps the The revolutions "of the wind wheel. 336 illustrates a 1000 kW wind power station built near the town Sof Rutland innthe state of Vermont on top of the Grantp'ss "Mountain. . 334: The "WindImpeldevelopes a nominal power of 1000 kW ler" wind charging unit. conta6t rings mounted on the hollow shank of the contadt: guide the /524 which cables the join rings contact The brushes on these for. at cos p = 80%. which is uniform throughoutthe length' The " power developed at a wind velocity 332.7 m. The generator Fig.
3Q9 . the generator is directly connected with the exciter. fastened to the upper crown of the tower. which increases the number of revolutions given by the generator t6 600 per minute. The shaft of the second stage of transmission is connected with the shaft of the generator of a hydraulic clutch released by the American Blower Company." "connected to a twostage reducing gear with chevron  o " Smeans gearing. Adjustment of the wind wheel to the wind is performed by means of a hydraulic mechanism which sets in motion the transmission mounted on the girder of the head which is engaged with a large gear wheel.turn under the effect of centrifugal forces. The standard velocity regulator with additional electrical donduct is is set set electrical tonduct tbbtha through motion in gearing from the main shaft of the wind wheel. bbraking surfaces. aat normal number of revolutions. o the * Fig. The connecting and disconnecting of the mechanism of adjastment to the wind is performed by means of a wind vane which is constantly adjusted to the wind. The wind engine is stopped by means of a braking device with frictional transmission which is set in motion by means of an electric motor.ckinematibceconnection of the surfaces. the reVolutions are increased by of teeth which are geared with the notches on wall from each side in one plane which passes through the shaft axis. In the first stage. On the external side. 335: Regulation of "WindImpeller" by changing the position of the braking surfaces of the wind wheel:.
wind direction 370 .1 Hanane:e * sea ' From October 1941 through March 1945. The accident occurred due to the inadequate system 6d regulation. of which the installation worked for 838 hours with an average power of 431 kW while connected in parallel. 1velocity regulator 2reducing gear 3exciter 4generator 5hydraulic clutch 6oil tank Key: 1. the 7 tonize blade of the wind wheel broke during the run. 336: The 1000 kW American wind power station. 000 kW hr. In March 1945. an accident took place inL the wind engine. During this period it worked for 1030 hours. this wind power Z'I 3 station yielded 360. Fig.
37. a document is immediately compiled and sent to the manufacturer for timely completing of the set. If insufficiencies or unserviceable parts are discovered. The first work of the team consists of unpacking and checking the assembly parts of the wind engine which are supplied 'lO~ally During the checking they have to make use of the specifications contained in the instructions on " ' installation which come together with the given set of wind engine. If the axis of the tower does not coincide with the mark of its center on thefoundation. is checked by several rotations about the hub of the wind wheel.from 1 to 15 hp. the head is turned with theaxis fithe. The wind wheel and the mechanism of adjustment of wind engines with a power of up to 10 hp are assembled below at the same time with the assembly of the head. which is assembled in'the head of the wind engine.1 . its axis would correspond exactly with the mark made for the center of the tower at its base. After assemblypf the tower. Subsequently the foreman takes the measurements of the foundation pit under the legs of the tower .inthe place selected for setting up the wind installation. The main angle bars of the legs in one of its panels is laid out on logs in such a manner that after lifting the tower. The installation team usually consists of 5 or 6 workers and one qualified foreman. Detailed instructions on the sequence of installation of various types of wind engines are given in the instructiors compiled either by the manufacturer for each type of wind engine released or by the organization which designed the wind engine. Installation of the wind engine is started with assembly of /526 the tower. Poor fitting of the parts of wind engines during the installation may cause not only poor operation of the wind installation but the latter may become entirely unserviceable. 69. Installation of a LowPower Wind Engine. then considerable labor is required in order to shift the lifted wind engine. the head and the vertical shaft of the wind engine are assembled.CHAPTER :17. If the wind engine is built for the lifting of water."! BRIEF DATA ON THE INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE OF WIND ENGINES /525 The installation of factory made wind engines has an extraordinary importance for the introduction of wind engines in agriculture. The engaging of the upper transmission. then the position of the pit with respect to the vertical axis of the tower is taken into accouht.wind wheel pointing upward. During this operation. Dirty parts of bearings and of the necks df axis and shaft are washed with kerosene and lubricated with fresh grease.
338: Checking the equipment of the. /527  _ Fig. ind engine. 337: Equipment 6d the wind engine with the rigging equipment prior to lifting. Key: 1. the wind engine is intended for lifting the water from a pit. 340 shows the foundation and the pit of the pump equipment for the TV8 wind engine with main installation dimensions. 339. apply load 2. Fig. the walls of the pit are made of brick or rubble walling /529 in cement mortar. . The general aspect of the lifting of'a. TV8 wind engine is illustrated in Fig.. the strength of its rigging is checked. for this purpose the wind engine is lifted to several centimeters above the support by means of the loading winch and. Table 48 presents data of the rigging equipment used in practice for lifting the TV8 wind engine.. an additional load is placed on the head of the wind engine. then an excavation is made under the pit in order to setiaup the pump equipment between the legs of the tower. leaving it in this position. Usually this load is formed of 4 to 5 people who stand on top of the tower (Fig. /528 the fitting and the checking of the equipment takes place since it is in this position that the forces directed along the cable are the largest. 338). 3 72 .The assembled wind engine is lifted in a tilted position and laid with the upper compartment on 'bouncesi (Fig. SIf A . By this means. foundation pit Prior to lifting the wind engine. 337). Fig. and it is supplied with the rigging equipment. For the sake of reference.
[Number in original illegible] 3173 . Steel block cable 24. Support cramp for 16 ro. and then the tail. Stud bolts with nuts 19. " " " 22. Derricks 6. These parts are lifted after the tower is secured to the foundation.5 mm(6x37x0. Z=20 m 1 Steel (6x30xO. anchor cable for cross beam 14. Block rollers under cable 17.8+1) k=8m d=3/4". 3 t 2. Anchor log of lower cross beam 10. 341). Z=120 cm d=15 cm k=6 m 1 4 2 1 4 1 1 8 2 1 More powerful wind engines are also lifted in the assembled form. k = 20 m 1 1 2 2 8 1 1 1 1 1 Steel (6x30x0.5+1)(d=1012mm. " " " 23. Washer 20. =1 m Pine d=25 cm Z=5 m Pine d=25 cm k=3 m d=17.5mm. Loading winch. Yoke of junction 21. 1. Bolts with nuts 25. (6x37x0. Bariron 10x60 mm Roundiron 10x60 mm d=17Y. Log for supporting the legs of the tower 8. Support log for rear guide rope 26.~'5m.Round iron d=32 cm. but without wind wheel and tail.8+1)elb0 m Steel (6x37x0. Singledrop block. Cross log under wind wheel 1 1 2 Pine d=22 cm k:=2mm Pine d=22 cm k=8 m Pine d=25 cm k=6 m Pine d=12 cm 1=5 m Pine 13x13 cm. A cable is thrown around these blocks to which first the wind wheel is secured which is lifted with the winch. Loading steel cable 12.5mmR =15m Steel (6x27 8+1) d=17. Guide rope of cable 16.8+1)d=17.5+l) d=10 to 12 mm. Cross beams 7. Anchor log for rear guide rope 5.for which purpose /530 the girder with two blocks is set up on the head of the wind engine (Fig.5. = mm 1 d=3/4" X= 36 cm Bariron 10x80 mm Roundiron d=3/4". 5 t 3.TABLE14 8!84RIGGING FOR LIFTING OF THE TV8 WIND ENGINE Name of Part and Accessory Dimension of the material Amount 1. Anchor log of winch 11.J=5m.5 mm 4. Axis with nuts 18.k=50m 2 Bariron 100x12 mm 1 Roundiron d=30mm.1ers o 17. Anchor cable of winch 13. Bracing wire 6f cable derrick 15. Foundation pit 9.
The individual parts of the wind engine assembled below are lifted by means of a "derrick" crane. completiennof Upon operation. ulation anhidadjustment to the wind are checked. the installation. hbeam of the regulating spring it is achieved that the wind engine starts to limit kthe revolutions at the required wind velocity. By means of a larger or smaller. 374 . Key: 1. 339: General view of TV8 2520  15. c Wind engines with a power I S_1 . see Section 67). tie . The wind engine has to be regulated in such a manner that the mechanism starts to limit the revolutions at a given wind velocity. 342 illustrates the installation of the D30 m Crimean wind power station by means of the "derrick" crane (for description of the station. 2200 Fig. the wind engine should start limiting the revolutions at a wind velocity of 8 m/sec.m/sec.4 above 25 hp are assembled in The tower is assembled parts. Tower axis /531 Checking the installation and setting up the wind engine for regtransmission. 340: Foundation and pit of the pump equipment. rOm scaffolding.After setting up the wind engine. in regions with an annual average wind velocity of 45.0  I li( i1960 Fig. Fig. the transmission from the wind engine to the power tool is assembled. For example.
1 Checking of the regulation is performed by starting the wind engine. Maintenance and Servicing of Wind Engines. unsatisfactory of a result as time this served during than the detected shortcoming should be removed.'is.. precipunder more difficult conditions of operation. Fig. For this purpose.I.since in the given case the centrifugal regulator starts to operate at a certain number of revolutions which has to be found out during the checking.. than this checking must be performed at wind velocities which vary from 7 and Ab6ve. 70. to the winch Measurement of the wind velocity checking of regulation during the .: 8 m/sec in order to check the wind velocity at which the regulating mechanism is actuated.__  S. At the same time with checking the regulation.. 'is most con~ehienty perfiormed. the wind engine . If the removal of the wind wheel is performed by the pressure of the wind either on the side blade or on the wind wheel which has a certain /532 eccentricity. it is convenient to use an instrument with a voltmeter 'the scale of which is calibrated to wind velocity. gusty winds 375 . Key: 1. If the wind engine is regulated under the action of centrifugal check must be forces. obmechanismsis different the of operation the any imprecision in installation. ' \I lated by removal of the wind wheel from the wind are started under load. the precision of the transmission and of other parts of the wind installation is checked. by means of an anemometer which utains shows the instantaneous fuct in wind velocity. As compared to other engines.. 341: Lifting of the wind wheel and of the tail by means of blocks. f7 . : Those wind engines which are regua . Atmospheric loads variable create storms and itations (ice crust). The installation team releases the wind installation to the If farm after checking its operation in the course of 24 hours. than the performed also at low wind velocities but without load.and only after this can the wind installation be sent to the farm with the document for putting in operation. girder 2.
If the wind engine is regulated by the action of centrifugal forces. 10 kg chisel. bolts and wood screws. The following should also be kept in mind. if a D12 wind engine with a calculated power of 15 hp at 3y6 . The wind wheel must not be tied to the tower. Processed and dirty oil should not be used for lubrication. wind engine by means of the "derrick" crane. 15 kg.\ which acts on its partsboth during operation and during standstill. of the following tools: Fig. the man in charge should be acquadinted with the mechanism and should be able to remove any trouble noted during operation of the engine. fitting can. cold hammer. The oil used for automatic lubrication must be renewed once in six months..the wind engine increasfig proportionally with the cube of.the wind velocity. spanner and adjustable wrenches. can for oil. under these conditions it will be able to operate with a load which corresponds to the power of. ___ __ The same building contains a s6t. then it may be tied only to the tail or to the head. The wind engine should be loaded only to the power for which its transmission wasscalculated. all the places where parts rub against each other must be lubricated. firefighting belt with spring and rope with a length of 4 m and a thickness of 45imm. For example. If it has to be slowed down.hurricane lamp. In order to prevent breakage of the wind wheel and to keep the wind installation infgood condition. an oil lamp . The excess load will lower the increasing number of revolutions. The man ins(charge should not allow any outside people to climb on the tower. The wind wheel may be tied to the tower only in the case that it is adjusted to the wind manually instead of by the tail.and a set of overalls.5 £ oil grease. tightening loosened nuts. SThe duties of the man in charge of the wind installation are compiled in instructions which should be hung up in the building of the installation. then it can be overloaded at high wind velocities. The duties of the man in /533 charge which are common for all wind installations consist. During the examination. in the following. Installation of the 342: Fig. Daily examination of the bolt joints. can for 0.
Maintenance of the wind engine~ as of other machines. At the same time other accessories are repaired including all the operations of the current maintenance. With regard to the organization of maintenance in wind engines. Undoubtedly. Naturally. such an overload wouldcause breakage of the transmission mechanism. consists in repairing old worn or broken parts and their replacement with new No standard has been yet set out for wind engines which wold parts. Technical maintenance is intended for removing insignificant defects in the equipment and is carried out by the servicing personnel without participation of the maintenance workshop or of the maintenance team. current maintenance plays an important role during the service life of the wind engine as is the case for other machines.a wind velocity of 8 m/sec were to be loaded with the increase in wind velocity above 8 m/sec. Major repairs are performed after a certa!n period of operation of the machine when the latter is in a condition that neither the current nor the medium repairs can remove deficienies due to wearing of the machine. this has its own specific features which result from the conditions of operation of these machines. Periodic preventive maintenance is used wherever the intervals after which a certain repair has to be performed can be established in advance and a definite maintenance plan can be set up. allow usage of a knownsystem of periodic preventive maintenance. this includes removal of the wind whee. in order to prevent accidents caused by excessive wearing of parts. replacement of the rods or of pinions. etc. All the parts and accessories are checked and maintenance of the wind engine involves its'knocking down" to the ground. This maintenance system can be divided into current. when wind engines will be introduced at a large scale. like those ~hich are now used in the tractor and automobile business. then at 16 m/sec it could provide for work with a load tcorresponding to 120 hp at an insignificant increase in the number of revolutions. Medium repairs are distinguished from the current repairs by a more advanced dismantling of the machine. medium and maljor maintenance. 377 . the general method of trouble shooting common for all ma"P chines are used in the maintenance practice of wind engines. The current repair includes the repairs of parts which are accessible to examination as well as of parts which require immediate repai or replacement without involving complete dismantling of the machine. and therefore. These repairs should remove any dete ted ideficiency as long as this is not reflected in other parts. For example. In such a manner. anyimproved maintenance system will be intro/534 duced. for the maintenance of the wind engine.
This maintenance includes several preventive measures which make it possible to decrease considerably the wearing of the parts and to reduce to a minumum the various troubles conIn order to performc the maSjor maintenance. the current and the major repairs. the head. examination and current repairs of the wind engine must be performed daily. parts and small maintenance materials. Accidental defectsof the machine are removed either by the medium repairs or the major onesdepending on the degree of the damage and on the general condition of the machine after the accident. Therefore. 7 the preventive (protective) glasses. 3 78 . the hinges in the tail. The truck should contain a store for reserve forging tools. should engine of the wind struction of the nuts and of the mechanisms Consequently. the supportsof the rotating blades etc. The constant action of the wind as well as of atmospheric precipitatior~on the working parts which are usually in the strongest wind flow. 2barriers and 3preventive equipment. 71. field of in the qualified the leader of the maintenance should be wind installations. the support in the constant action of w nd gusts. place the wind engine under quite difficult conditions of operation. In the practice d6fYwind engine maintenance. the wind engine is put out of operation for a long period of time. The wind engine is subjected to wearing not only during its operation when the transmission and the bearings are exposed to /535 wearing but also during standstill of the wind engine as a result of During standing. participation of the entire team is required with rigging equipment and ac mpiplete set of tools which are used in maintenance and installation.In this case. vice. helmets and gloves for electrical welding. be known as well as of the interaction of its parts. two types of repairs are used. During maintenance. The individual protective devices are intended for every worker. the and accidents. a set of fitting and :.. etc. ing boots. life belts and climbing irons for those who work at height. Safety Measures During Installation and Servicing of Wind Engines The devices and structures which provide for the safety of the worker can be divided into: 1individual protective devices. This is a closed truck equipped with all the required mechanical equipment such as wallmounted manual drilling machines. overalls and workhere belong. It is advisable to organize maintenance of the wind engine from mobile installation and maintenance workshops. are being worn out.
Safety of the work debelts should be used on grounds of safety. from giddiness. cardiac epilepsy. sheathing below must be provided for works at heights in order to prevend disabling injuries to someone passing by from an object which might fall from the area. 337) as well as incorrect organization of the installation may be the cause of serious accidents in which apart from the inevitable breaking of the wind engine. holes. The most dangerous moment during the installation of the wind Careless and engine is its lifting from the ground (Fig. and not to the butt. Prior to use. Whereveritit constant areas of sufficient dimensions. the belt and the rope should be tested with a weight of 100 kg which is thrown five timesfrom a height of 2 m. to work at high levels. Preventive structures are intended for signaliigpthe advento of danger or for removing danger in the due moment. hasty assembly of the equipment (Fig. A ladder with hand rails should lead to the area situated at the high level. When used logs are utilized. The foreman of the installation team should strictly observe the following elementary rules for a successful and safe lifting of the wind engine: 1. bidden to allow people suffering is possible. Thesewworks are It is forperformed by people who underwent medical examinations. with rails having a height of no less than 1 m and a continuous. belt and the rope should be preserved in a dry place in the store house. such logs which are weakened by cuts. diseases etc. For work to be performed on the head of the wind engine.of the logs should not be less /537 than the thickness indicated in the specificationsoof the dimensions which refer to the upper end of the log. 37T9 . The thickness. misfortunes involving people may occur. To use logs which correspond to the timber forseen by GOST for the rigging equipment. life. 339). maintenance and servicing of the wind engines. pends on the reliability of the belt and of the rope to which it is attached.fbthe wind engines.) The the length of the rope for tying up the worker should be 2 m.The barriers are used in order to forbid the access of people to the dangerous sites as well as to protect them from dangerous objects and possible falls from high places. /536 Work at a high level takes place mainly during installation. kerfs as well as rotten logs should not be used. Sound climbing irons must be used in work to be performed on telephone poles and on wooden masts .
It is forbidden to have the cable rotate during the winding of the winch on the drum since lasting twists in the wires cause an additional stress which may cause rupture. Lowering of the flyweight by means of the winch is performed by turning the handles to the side/P opposite to the direction of lifting. one has to take care that it is disposed in even rolls without forming bulges. the strength of the equipment must be checked prior to lifting. 8. 3 80 . In order to prevent rupture of the cable or of the knots in the equipment during the lifting. the stress decreases and approaches zero when the tower assumes a vertical position. It is desirable and preferable to do the lifting in calm if there is a wind. since at. then special hempen mats or at least rags. pieces of boards. its velocity should not exceed 5 m/sec. weather. Subsequently an additional load is placed by having 45 people mount on the wind wheel (Fig. since slipping of the cable from the bulge is accompanied by vibrations of the lifted weight with an impact effect on the equipment which may cause breakage of the weakest knot.2. 4. In joining the wooden units of the lifting equipment. should be placed under it. The head of the wind engine is lifted by means of the winch to a height of 10 cm above the supports. This position causes the greatest stress in the equipment. wide washers should be placed under the nut of the bolts. In winter time it is not possible to do the lifting at a temperature below 12150. 3. Under such a load (about 300 kg). the lifting unit is secured and the wind engine is left in the raised position. The loading winch should have frictional brakes. 338). During the winding of the loading cable on the drum of the winch. It is not allowed to have sharp bends in the steel cable If the at the knot where it is fastened to the lifted flyweight. No load is admitted during the lifting or under the tower /538 when the latter is in an inclined position. 6. Winches of It is forbidden to do the. 5. cable lays on sharp angles of the flyweight to be lifted or on its wooden part. the cables of the equipment are tightened and if they do not rupture under these conditions then no rupture will occur during the subsequent increase of the tilt since with the increasecof the angle of inclination between the tower and the wind engine. plywoodetc. 7.Jlow temperatures the equipment becomes brittle and less durable. the old model with band brakes should not be used. lifting or lowering of the flyweight with put off trigger since under these conditions the frictional brakes of the winch cannot operate..
Stopping the wind engine by slowing down the wind wheel of the pinion or pulley by means of a lever is forbidden since an acciL> dent may occur with breakage of parts of the wind engine and j Dossiblg a misfortune.guide rope and the loading cable should be released 10. only after the tower is fully secured. the installation works cost more in the winter and their quality suffers. tions to the workers near the loading winch by means of prearranged signals.pockets Heavy accessories must be lifted or lowered by or hung on the belt. The leader of the lifting operation should give his instruc12. The . When the wind engine is started. examination and lubrication of the wind engine parts when the wind engine is at standstill. no other instructions should be given. Light objects must be placed in the. foreign people and especially children should be prohibited from access to the tower. This requirement can be reduced to the following: a. '. A barrier should be made at the base of the tower which will prevent children from going under the tower to the mobile mechanism. A specially assigned man who is acquainted with the requirements of safety measures should be servicing the wind installation. In order to avoid confusion in the work. for stopping the wind engine. shows that even in the southern regions of the USSR. b. no one should be in the 11. 38 1 . special devices should be used in all cases which are available for this purpose in every wind engine. The workers near the winch are obliged to receive only those signals which are given by the leader of the lifting operation. area on top of the tower. 9. c.Practice. Use of the ladder for both climbing and descending is permitted without any load. means of a rope or cable.
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