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PROP 6033 LEARNING OUTCOME When you complete this module you will be able to...

Discuss the various types of gas sampling procedures. Learning Objectives Here is what you will be able to do when you complete each objective. 1. Describe the various gas sampling methods and the advantages and disadvantages of each method. 2. Understand how to perform each gas sampling procedure. OBJECTI E ONE When you complete this objective you will be able to... Describe the various gas sampling methods and the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Learning Materia! GA" "AMPLING MET#O$" The following methods may be used for gas sampling: 1. Evacuated Cylinder 2. Cycle !urge ". !urge Through #. $i%uid &usually brine' Displacement Table 1 indicates the advantages and disadvantages of each method. (n most cases) the *Evacuated Cylinder +ethod* gives good results for both gas and li%uids. (t is the recommended method to be used by personnel to obtain gas and li%uid samples. The other methods should only be used by lab representatives or company personnel who are well trained and e,perienced in these methods of sampling. Tab!e % Gas "a&'!ing Met()*s Met()* A*vantages $isa*vantages 1. Evacuated Cylinder -ast and simple. +inimum volume of gas vented. .ample will be contaminated with air if vacuum lost. -or low/pressure samples &10001!a') air contamination may result in significant errors even when the analysis has been corrected to airfree by the lab. 2. Cycle !urge

Ensures no air contamination. Ta1es more time than Evacuated Cylinder +ethod. 2e%uires care to ensure no li%uids are trapped in the bomb. -ill slowly and maintain bomb temperature higher than gas temperature. ". !urge Through &not normally recommended' Ensures no air contamination. +ust be done slowly. 2e%uires great care to ensure no li%uids are being trapped in the bomb &very difficult to 3udge'. #. $i%uid displacement &not normally recommended' Ensures no air contamination. !ositive indication that gas is entering the bomb. Ta1es more time than Evacuated Cylinder +ethod. $i%uid sub3ect to free4ing in winter during transport &brine most commonly used'. 2e%uires great care to ensure no li%uid condenses out of the gas. 5omb temperature must be 1ept higher than gas temperature and displacement done very slowly.

OBJECTI E T+O When you complete this objective you will be able to... Understand how to perform each gas sampling procedure. Learning Materia! GA" "AMPLING PROCE$URE" -igure 1 shows various connections and components re%uired for sampling gas from a pipe. ,ig-re % Gas "a&'!ing E.-i'&ent "et/-'

Evac-ate* C0!in*er Met()* 1. 6ently blow down the sample source valve to remove any li%uid or debris. 2. Connect a clean sample hose with evacuated sample cylinder attached. 7 short nipple is best. ". !ressuri4e the sample hose by slowly opening the sample source valve. Chec1 for lea1s. Ensure the sample source valve is fully open. #. !urge the sample hose thoroughly by opening the vent valve slowly. (f air could be trapped at the cylinder connection) loosen to purge. (f ambient temperature is lower than gas temperature) purge %uic1ly to avoid li%uid condensation. 8. Close the vent valve and tighten the cylinder connection if it was loosened. 9. :pen the cylinder valve wide and allow two minutes for cylinder to fill and reach source pressure. ;. Close the cylinder valve and then the sample source valve. <. =ent the sample hose and disconnect the sample cylinder. >. (nstall bull plugs using teflon tape to prevent lea1age through the cylinder valves. Do not overtighten the cylinder valves. 10. 2ecord sample location) date) type of sample) sampling point) name of sampler) pressure) temperature and sampling method on the sample cylinder tag. C0c!e1P-rge Met()* !rior to sampling) the sample cylinder must be heated to a higher temperature than that of the gas to be sampled. 1. -ollow the procedures in steps 1 through 8 of the *Evacuated Cylinder +ethod*. 2. :pen the cylinder valve wide and fill to pressure. 7llow two minutes for cylinder to fill and reach source pressure. ". Close the sample source valve and open the vent valve until the cylinder pressure is almost bac1 to atmospheric. To fill cylinder and avoid li%uids entering) hold it upright. To drain cylinder) hold it down to drain a!! li%uids. #. Close the vent valve) leaving a small positive pressure in the cylinder. 8. 2epeat the purge cycle) following steps 2 to #) according to Table 2.

Tab!e 2 P-rge C0c!es "a&'!e Press-re 3Pa P-rge C0c!es 90/>0 19 >0/120 1" 120/1<0 10 1<0/";8 < ";8/828 8 828/1000 # 1000/"000 " over/"000 2

9. Disconnect the cylinder and record sample information as per the *Evacuated Cylinder +ethod*) steps ; through 10. P-rge T(r)-g( Met()* !rior to sampling) the sample cylinder must be heated to a higher temperature than that of the gas to be sampled. 1. !artially open the cylinder outlet valve to s!)4!0 purge gas through the cylinder. The cylinder inlet valve must be fully open and the outlet valve partially open so that most of the pressure drop occurs in the outlet valve. This will help to minimi4e temperature drop and avoid condensation in the sample cylinder. .ample cylinder temperature must be maintained above the flowing gas temperature throughout this procedure. 2. 7fter several cylinder volumes of gas have passed through) close the cylinder outlet valve. ". Disconnect the cylinder and record sample information as per the *Evacuated Cylinder +ethod*) steps ; through 10. Li.-i* $is'!ace&ent Met()* This procedure is not normally recommended for gas sampling. (f used) the laboratory must be notified) as possible contamination can interfere with analysis. ?ater can also react with @ 2.) giving incorrect analysis.

Learning M)*-!e5 026/3%/37/08 PROP 6033 Assign&ent 9 Print Assign&ent : 1. Describe the *Cycle !urge +ethod* of gas sampling. 2. ?hat number of purge cycles should be used when ta1ing a sample at 1000 1!aA ". .1etch and describe a typical gas sampling arrangement.

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