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ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

PART A INSTRUCTION: Answer ALL questions. QUESTION 1 Each of the following medical problems involves a disorder in the function of an organelle or other cell structure. In each case, identify the organelle or structure involved. a) A girl inadvertently consumes cyanide and dies immediately because ATP production ceases. Mitochondri b) A smoker develops lung cancer and is told that the cause of the problem is that the population of cells in his lungs that are undergoing mitosis at a much greater rate than is normal for lung cell. Nuc!eus c) A young man learns that he is infertile because his sperms are non motile. Mitochondri d) A young child dies of Tay !achs disease because her cells lack the hydrolase that normally breaks down a membrane component called ganglioside "#$, which therefore accumulated in the membrane of her brain. A"nor# ! ccu#u! tion o$ %!&cos'hin%o!i'id in # ## !i n #e#"r nes e) A young child is placed on a milk free diet because the mucosal cells that line his small intestine do not secrete the en%yme necessary to hydrolyse lactose, the disaccharide present in milk. (es#oso#es

&Total' ( marks)

ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

QUESTION ) +riefly e,plain the factors that determine the activity of an en%yme. &Total' ( marks) Answer : There are several factors that will determine the activity of an en%yme. ' * Te#'er ture Temperature also affects the rate of en%yme cataly%ed react ions. At higher temperatures, molecules tend to move more rapidly and increase the chance of coming into contact with the active sites. Thus, moderately high temperatures will accelerate these reactions and the reverse is also true. -owever, when the temperature is too high the hydrogen bonds that regulate en%yme shape may be broken by the fast moving molecules. .or instance, high temperature disrupts the protein structure of egg albumin changing its appearance and te,ture. "* '+ , !ue #ost en%ymes function at a p- of between / and 0, the level found within cells and in body fluids, with the e,ception of pepsin 1p- $.2). c* S !t concentr tion The salts dissociates into ions that form bonds with the en%yme and destroy its activity. i. Coen-&#e !ome en%ymes are aided by helper molecules called coen%ymes to function. These organic molecules bind to the en%yme and interact with the substrate by weakening the bonds in the substrate thus allowing it to react with the en%yme. #any water soluble vitamins 1e.g. the + comple,es) are essential to humans because they are utili%ed by the body to synthesi%e the coen%ymes. ii. Concentr tion o$ su"str tes iii. A#ount o$ cti,e en-&#e i,. Concentr tion o$ inhi"itor #o!ecu!es ,. Le,e!s o$ !!osteric re%u! tor #o!ecu!es

ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

QUESTION . 3ist five 1() differences between mitosis and meiosis. Answer : Mitosis *. #itosis is a process by which the diploid nucleus 1two sets of homologous chromosomes) of a somatic cell divides to produce two daughter nuclei, both of which are still diploid. $.4ccurs in somatic cells and during replacing damage cells. 5. Involved one cell division only 6. All of the chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate in no particular order and no crossing over occur. $. 4ccurs only in reproductive cells and during the formation of gametes. 5. Involved two cell divisions. 6. The chromosome pairs are aligned on either side of the metaphase plate. It is during this alignment that the chromatid arms may overlap and temporarily fuse, resulting in what is called crossovers. (. 7o synapsis occurs. (. !ynapsis may occurs Meiosis *. #eiosis is a process by which the diploid cell 1having two sets of chromosomes) giving rises to four haploid cells 1having a single set of chromosomes). &Total' ( marks)

QUESTION /

ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

8ompare 85 and 86 plants. Answer : C. *. The leaves of 85 plants have the chloroplasts solely in mesophyll cells. $. 85 plants have ( carbon molecules of ribulose biphosphate 19u+P) 5. 9u+P combines with 4$ instead of 84$, 6. #uch photorespiration occurs under hot, dry conditions. (. 3ittle glucose synythesis. /. 84$ is a product of 9:+P o,idation. C/

&Total' ( marks)

*. 86 plants have them in chloroplasts as well as in bundle sheath cells. $. 86 plants have 5 carbon molecules of phosphoenolpyruvate 1PEP) 5. PEP reacts with 84$ instead of 4$. 6. Almost no photorespiration occurs in hot, dry conditions. (. #uch glucose synthesis occurs /. 84$ is captured with a highly specific en%yme.

;. 9eaction re<uires less energy.

;. 9eaction re<uires more energy.

QUESTION 0 E,plain the importance of water inside and outside of a cell. Answer : &Total' ( marks)

ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

=ater in human body, is distributed in two large compartments, namely the intracellular fluid 1I8.) and the e,tracellular fluid 1E8.). The I8. compartment holds about two thirds of total body water and provides the environment for the cell to' *. #ake, store and utili%e energy> $. 9epair itself> 5. 9eplicate> and 6. Perform special functions. The E8. compartment holds about a third of the total body water and is distributed between the plasma and interstitial compartments. The e,tracellular fluid is a delivery system. It transports to the cell nutrients 1glucose, amino and fatty acids), o,ygen, various ions and trace minerals and a variety of regulatory molecules 1hormones) that coordinate the functions of widely separated cells. In addition, the E8. also removes 84 $ and waste products, as well as to,ic and deto,ified materials, from the immediate cellular environment. The I8. is rich in ?@ and #g$@ and phosphate is the maAor anion. In contrast, E8. have high 7a@ and 8a$@ contents and 8l is the maAor anion. .urthermore, the concentration of glucose is higher in E8. than in the cell while the reverse is true for proteins. The likely cause for this difference was thought to be due to the origin of life from the primordial sea that was rich in ? @ and #g$@. This resulted in en%yme reactions and other biological processes evolving to function best in such an environment and e,plained why there are high concentrations of these ions in cells. As the sea gradually changed to a composition rich in 7a@ and 8a$@, cells became subAected to strong selection pressure. 8ells then developed BbarriersC that are represented by membranes, with their associated pumps to maintain the internal microenvironment. -owever, the barrier is not total and cell membranes are said to be selectively or differentially permeable.

PART 1 INSTRUCTION: Answer ALL questions. QUESTION 1 a) Aerobic respiration, an o,ygen dependant pathway of ATP formation, is the dominant

ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

energy releasing pathway. Each breath that an individual takes provides a fresh supply of o,ygen to the actively respiring cells. i) !tate the three main stages of aerobic respiration and their respective sites in the cell where they occur. Answer : Aerobic cellular respiration is a gradual process that prevents energy loss as heat. Three main steps are' a) Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate> occurs outside the mitochondria. During the transition reaction, pyruvate is o,idi%ed to acetyl 8oA and 84$ is removed> the transition reaction occurs twice per glucose molecule. i) The ?rebs cycle is cyclical series of o,idation reactions that give off 84$ and produce one ATP per cycle> it turns twice per glucose and produces two ATP. ii) The electron transport system is a series of carriers that accept electrons removed from glucose and eventually pass then to o,ygen> release of energy along this electron transport chain results in ATP build up.

ii) 7ame the anaerobic pathway in the humanCs body in which the glucose molecules enter in order to provide energy during times of o,ygen depletion. =hy the anaerobic pathway is considered ineffective in providing energy as compared to the aerobic pathwayE E,plain. Answer : /

ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

The anaerobic pathway in human body is called a lactate fermentation pathway for short periods when they are not getting enough o,ygen. !ome types of animal cells also can switch to lactate fermentation for a <uick ATP fi,. =hen your demands for energy are intense but brief say, during a short race your muscle cells use this anaerobic pathway. This canCt go on for long, too much of glucoseCs stored energy would be thrown away for too little ATP. =hen glucose stores are depleted, muscles fatigue and lose their ability to contract. 3ike aerobic respiration, glycolysis also is the first stage of the fermentation pathways. Also, a glucose molecule is split and rearranged into two pyruvate molecules, two 7AD- form, and the net energy yield is two ATP. -owever, the reactions do not break down glucose completely to carbon dio,ide and water, and they produce no more ATP beyond the yield from glycolysis. The final steps serve only to regenerate 7AD@ pathwayCs operation. b) !cientists see a carbon fi,ing adaptation to desert conditions in cacti. A cactus is one of the succulents> it has Auicy, water storing tissues and thick surface layers that limit water loss. It cannot open stomata on hot days without losing water. It opens them and fi,es 84$ at night. #any plants are adapted this way. These plants are neither 85 nor 86. i. =hat are these plants calledE Answer : These plants are called 8A# Plants. to coen%yme that is central to the

ii. +riefly e,plain their carbon fi,ing adaptation. Answer :

&Total' *2 marks)

They .i, 8arbon through a pathway called 8A#. Plants that use the 8A#

ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

Pathway 4pen their !tomata at 7I"-T and 8lose during the DAF, the opposite of what other plants do. At 7I"-T, 8A# Plants take in 84$ and fi, into 4rganic 8ompounds. During the DAF, 84$ is released from these 8ompounds and enters the 8alvin 8ycle. +ecause 8A# Plants have their !tomata open at night, they grow very !lowly, +ut they lose 3E!! =ater than 85 or 86 Plants. QUESTION ) Every second, millions of cells in your skin, bone marrow, gut lining, liver and elsewhere divide and replace worn out and dead cells. #echanisms control the e,pression of genes that specify en%ymes and other proteins re<uired for cell growth, D7A replication, chromosome movements, and cytoplasmic divisions. The cell cycle has built in checkpoints, where proteins monitor chromosome structure and other aspects of the preceding phase of the cycle. The proteins are products of checkpoint genes, which are the basis of mechanisms that advance, delay or block the cell cycle. #any cancers are known to arise through mutations in one or more checkpoint genes. a) 7ame the mutated gene that has the potential to induce cancer. Answer : Proto oncogene b) !tate two causes of mutation of the checkpoint genes. Answer : *. 8ellular stress due to e,treme temperature. $. D7A alteration due to viral capable insertion gene.

c) +riefly describe the four characteristics of all cancer cells. Answer :

ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

A wide range of changes occur during the transformation of a normal cell to a cell capable of forming a cancerous growth. All cancer cells ac<uire the ability to grow and divide in the absence of appropriate signals andGor in the presence of inhibitory signals. There are also detectable changes in the physical properties of the cells. These changes include the following' C&tos2e!et ! ch n%es3 The distribution and activity of the microfilaments and microtubules may change. These alterations change the ways in which the cell interacts with neighboring cells and alter the appearance of the cells. 8hanges in the cytoskeleton also affect cell adhesion and movement 1motility). Ce!! dhesion4#oti!it&3 The reduction of cell'cell and cell'e,tracellular matri, adhesion allows large masses of cells to form. As described in the chapter on cell division, cancer cells do not e,hibit contact inhibition and are able to continue to grow even when surrounded by other cells. The alterations in cell adhesion also impact on the ability of the cells to move. 8ancer cells must be able to move and migrate in order to spread, and cell adhesion plays a maAor role in regulating cell movement. Nuc!e r ch n%es The shape and organi%ation of the nuclei of cancer cells may be markedly different from that of the nuclei of normal cells of the same origin. This change in appearance may be useful in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. En-&#e 'roduction 8ancer cells often secrete en%ymes that enable them to invade neighboring tissues. These en%ymes digest away the barriers to migration and spread of the tumor cells.

d) 9eferring to .igure *, use the genetic code to translate the D7A se<uence ATA"8"T""A"T88T8T"AT8 to its respective m97A se<uence, followed by its amino acid se<uence. 7otice that the first codon in the frame is ATA. H

ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

&Total' *2 marks) Answer : D7A strand Amino acid 5C ATAG"8"GT""GA"TG88TG8T"GAT8 (C Tyr Arg Thr !er "ly Asp stop

m97A strand (C :A:G8"8GA88G:8AG""AG"A8G:A" 5C

9eferences' *. Topic ; ' 8haracteristic of water. Pg'// /0. $. #athews et.al. +iochemistry. Third Ed. Addison =esley 3ongman.Pg'*$/ *6;.

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ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

5. http'GGwww.te,arkanacollege.eduGImstoreyG*620GnotesGlecture2;.html 6. http'GGwww.wAcc.k*$.va.usGlhsGfacultyGfacultywebpagesGfaheydGchapter20.html (. Purves et al., 3ife' The !cience of +iology, 6th Edition, by !inauer Associates. /. http'GGwww.iadeaf.k*$.ia.usGPhotosynthesisJ$2 alternatJ$5$8.htm
7. http://www.cancerquest.org/index.cfm?page=55

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ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

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ZARIAH BT ABDUL KADIR 710329015210001 CELL BIOLOGY AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY SBBI4103

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