You are on page 1of 73

Sam Dolgoff

The Cuban Revolution: A Critical Perspective


Chapter 1 - The Cuban Revolution: Introduction Chapter 2 - Castro's riendl! Critics Chapter " - The Character of the Cuban Revolution Chapter # - The Ideolog! of Spanish $narchism Chapter % - $narchism in Cuba Chapter & - The 'atista (ra Chapter ) - The Revolution in *erspective: (conomic 'ac+ground Chapter , - $non!mous -eroes of the Revolution Chapter . - The Cuban Revolution: (!e/itness Reports Chapter 10 - 1h! the $narchists 'ro+e /ith Castro's Regime Chapter 11 - The *osition of the Cuban $narchists: Selected Documents 21.&0-1.)#3 45issing6 Chapter 12 - Cuba in the 7ate 1.&0's and the 1.)0's 45issing6 Chapter 1" - The Structure of *o/er in Cuba

Chapter 1 - The Cuban Revolution: an Anarchist Perspective

'et/een reactionar! 8pro-'atistianos8 and 8revolutionar! Castroites98 an ade:uate assessment of the Cuban Revolution must ta+e into account another9 largel! ignored dimension9 i;e;9 the histor! of Cuban $narchism and its influence on the development of the Cuban labor and socialist movements9 the position of the Cuban anarchist movement /ith respect to the problems of the Cuban Revolution9 and libertarian alternatives to Castroism; Toda!'s Cuban 8socialism8 differs from the humanistic and libertarian values of true socialism as does t!rann! from freedom; There is not the remotest affinit! bet/een authoritarian socialism or its Castro variet! and the libertarian traditions of the Cuban labor and socialist movements; The character of the 7atin $merican labor movement -- li+e the Spanish revolutionar! movement from /hich it derived its orientation -- /as originall! shaped9 not b! 5ar<ism9 but b! the principles of anarchos!ndicalism /or+ed out b! 'a+unin and the libertarian /ing of the International 1or+ingmen's $ssociation -- the 8 irst International8 -- founded in 1,&#; The 7atin $merican labor movement /as9 from its inception9 greatl! influenced b! the ideolog! and revolutionar! tactics of the Spanish anarcho-s!ndicalist movement; (ven before 1,)09 there /ere organi=ed anarchist and anarcho-s!ndicalist groups in 'uenos $ires9 $rgentina> 5e<ico9 Santiago9 Chile> 5ontevideo9 ?rugua!> Rio de @aneiro and Sao *aulo9 'ra=il; In 1,.19 a congress of trade unions in 'uenos $ires organi=ed the ederacion Abrera $rgentina /hich /as in 1.01 succeeded b! the ederacion Abrera Regional $rgentina 2 AR$-Regional 7abor ederation of $rgentina3 /ith #09000 members9 /hich in 1.", reached "009000; The anarcho-s!ndicalist La Protesta9 one of the best anarchist periodicals in the /orld9 founded as a dail! in 1,.)9 often forced to publish clandestinel!9 is still being published as a monthl!; In *aragua!9 anarcho-s!ndicalist groups formed in 1,.2 /ere in 1.0& organi=ed into the ederacion Abrera Regional *aragua!a; The anarcho-s!ndicalist unions of Chile in 1,." published the paper El Oprimido 2The Appressed3; In the late 1.20s the Chilean $dministration of the I11 numbered 209000 /or+ers; 'efore then9 man! periodicals /ere published and the labor movement flourished; The Bournal Alba9 organ of the Santiago ederation of 7abor9 /as founded in 1.0%; The anarchist and anarchos!ndicalist groups and their publications /ere ver! popular /ith the /or+ers in San Salvador9 Cuatemala9 Dicaragua9 and Costa Rica 2/here the anarchist paper Renovacion first appeared in 1.113; To illustrate the scope of the anarcho-s!ndicalist movement in 7atin $merica9 attention is called to the organi=ations participating in the s!ndicalist groupings9 convened b! the AR$ of $rgentina in 'uenos $ires; 'esides the AR$9 there /ere represented *aragua!9 b! the Centro Abrera *aragua!a> 'olivia9 b! the ederacion 7ocal de 7a *a= and the groups 7a $ntorcha and 7u= ! 7ibertad> 5e<ico9 b! the *ro$ccion Sindical> 'ra=il9 b! the trade unions from seven constituent provinces> Costa Rica9 b! the organi=ation9 -acia la 7ibertad> and the Chilean administration of the I11; These e<amples give onl! a s+etch! idea of the e<tent of the movement; 2sources: The $narchist historian 5a< Dettlau's series of articles reprinted in Reconstruir9 Roc+er's Anarcho-Syndicalism9 India edition9 pgs; 1,"-1,#> no date3 Insofar as the histor! of anarcho-s!ndicalist movements in $rgentina9 Chile9 ?rugua!9 'ra=il9 and other 7atin $merican lands are concerned9 there is a voluminous literature in Spanish9 and some9 though b! no means enough9 /or+s in (nglish; ?nfortunatel! there is scarcel! an!thing9 in an! language9 about the histor! of Cuban $narcho-S!ndicalism;

The anarcho-s!ndicalist origins of the Cuban labor movement and its influence is substantiated b! the Report on Cuba9 issued b! the conservative International 'an+ for Reconstruction and Development: ;;; in the colonial da!s9 labor leadership in Cuba came largel! from anarcho-s!ndicalists of the 'a+unin school; $ strong thread of their ideolog! /ith its emphasis on 'direct action'9 its contempt for legalit!9 its denial that there can be common interests for /or+ers and emplo!ers9 persists in the Cuban labor movement in modern times ;;; it must be remembered that nearl! all popular education of /or+ing people on ho/ an economic s!stem /or+s and /hat might be done to improve it9 came first from the anarchos!ndicalists ;;; 2:uoted in Background to Revolution !evelopment o" #odern Cuba> De/ Eor+9 1.&&9 p; "19 "23 (ven the communist historian 'oris Di+irov concedes that ;;; the labor movement of Cuba has had a long tradition of radical orientation; $narcho-S!ndicalist influence /as important from the late 1,.0's to the 1.20's 2:uoted ibid; p; 1"%3 4$narcho-S!ndicalist influence certainl! spans a longer period;6 (ven less is +no/n about the anarcho-s!ndicalist roots of the *uerto Rican labor movement9 /hich as in Cuba9 traces bac+ to the latter half of the centur!; The editor of the e<cellent antholog! of labor struggles and socialist ideolog! in *uerto Rico9 $;C; Fuintero Rivera as+s: ;;; /ho even in *uerto Rico +no/s about readers in tobacco /or+roomsG 4as in Cuba and lorida9 /or+ers paid readers to read /or+s of social and general interest to them /hile the! made cigars6 1ho +no/s that *uerto Rican stud! groups in the first decade of this centur! studied the /or+s of the 4anarchists6 'a+unin9 Hropot+in9 Reclus and the histor! of the irst International 1or+ingmen's $ssociation ;;; that as earl! as 1,.09 'a+unin's $ederalism and Socialism /as published b! anarchist groups in *uerto Rico and /idel! read b! the /or+ersG ;;; Fuintero informs the reader that in 1,.)9 the anarchist9 Romero Rosa9 a t!pographer9 /as one of the 8principal founders of the first nation/ide union in *uerto Rico -- the ederacion Regional Abrera;8 Together /ith ernando Come= $costa9 a carpenter9 and @ose errer ! errer9 also a t!pographer9 Romero Rosa founded the /ee+l! Ensayo Obrera to spread anarcho-s!ndicalist ideas among the /or+ers; 7ouisa Capetillo9 the (mma Coldman of *uerto Rico9 /hom Fuintero calls a 8legendar! figure in the histor! of the *uerto Rican labor movement98 /as a gifted spea+er and organi=er /ho addressed countless meetings all over *uerto Rico in the late 1,.0s and earl! 1.00s; She championed /omen's rights and preached free love 2further def!ing convention b! /earing pantaloons3; $ prolific /riter9 7ouisa Caprtillo /rote -- in Spanish -- such libertarian essa!s as: %umanity in the $uture& #y 'ie( o" $reedom& Rights and !uties o" )oman as Comrade* #other and $ree %uman Being; She also /rote and spo+e e<tensivel! on art and the theater and carried on an e<tensive correspondence /ith foreign anarchists; 'et/een the !ears 1.10 and 1.209 anarchist and s!ndicalist periodicals /ere published in *uerto Rico and s!ndicalists carried on an intense agitation and militant action in labor struggles; 2source: Lucha Obrera en Puerto Rico> 2nd edition9 1.)#9 pgs; 19 1#9 "#9 1%"9 1%&9 1&1;3 The e<ample of *uerto Rico illustrates ho/ little is +no/n about the anarcho-s!ndicalist origins of the labor and socialist movements in the Caribbean area; This /or+ tries to trace the remar+able influence of

anarchism in the development of the Cuban revolutionar! movement and to present the anarchist vie/ of the Cuban Revolution;

Chapter 2 - Castro's Friendl Critics

Fro! "aldo Fran# to Rene $u!ont The repercussions of the Cuban Revolution are still being felt in 7atin $merica and throughout the /orld; The character of the Revolution is being passionatel! debated; 5an! of Castro's original leftist and liberal supporters /ho have /itnessed the gradual degeneration of the Revolution into a totalitarian dictatorship have been forced9 much against their inclinations9 to accept this disappointing realit!; In the process of accounting for the degeneration9 these friendl! critics clarif! certain crucial facts about the Cuban Revolution /hich confirm the libertarian position9 although most of them vehementl! den! that this is indeed the case; Still others9 the more fanatical pro-Castroites9 in tr!ing to e<plain the dictatorial measures of the regime9 fall into the most glaring contradictions -- /hich serve onl! to emphasi=e the unpleasant facts the! tr! to camouflage; $ fe/ t!pical e<amples are arranged chronologicall! to illustrate the progression of events; 1aldo ran+'s Cuba A Prophetic +sland 2De/ Eor+9 1.&13 is particularl! disappointing because he had al/a!s been a consistent anti-state communist9 strongl! influenced b! libertarian ideas9 /hich he ampl! demonstrated b! his s!mpathetic attitude to/ards the CDT 2anarcho-s!ndicalist union confederation of Spain3; That ran+ /ith #0 !ears stud! of Spanish and 7atin $merican histor! should have allo/ed his pro-Castro euphoria to becloud his Budgement to the point /here he could not recogni=e the obvious earmar+s of a dictatorship in the ma+ing is unpardonable; $lthough ran+ /as granted a t/o !ear subsid! b! the Cuban government to /rite his boo+9 he insists that his 8onl! obligation /as to see+ the truth as I found it8 2*reface3; Devertheless ran+'s 8unbiased8 evaluation of Castro's personalit! and achievements rivals the tributes heaped upon Stalin b! his s!cophants; Thus: ;;; the Chevrolet rolled into the first streets of 5atan=as ;;; the cro/d bloc+ing Castro's /a! had9 someho/9 the shape of Casto ;;; and /hat /as the shape of CastroG 1as it not Cuba itselfG 2p; ).3 ;;; in his e<:uisite sensibilities ;;; Castro is less the poet and the 7AI(R ;;; to call Castro a dictator is dishonest semantics ;;; 2p; 1#19 ran+'s emphasis3 In the ver! ne<t paragraph ran+ un/ittingl! marshalls crushing arguments against himself; Castro /ill not tolerate criticism: ;;; he li+es to have intellectuals around him9 not so much to discuss ideas as to fortif! his actions and ideas ;;; 2p; 1#13 4in other /ords9 Castro must9 li+e Stalin9 surround himself /ith fa/ning flatterers6 Castro is not a dictator9 4but6 ;;; there al/a!s comes a time9 /hen leaders must dare9 for the people's sa+e9 to oppose the people ;;; 2p; &23 ;;; there are times of nation ferver /hen an opposition press becomes a nuisance ;;; 4Bust because there are no elections in Cuba6 ;;; the opposition slanders Castro; 4-o/ dare the! call him6 8'totalitarian' 'communist'JG8 2p; 1&3 ;;; 4In spite of ran+'s pro-Castro obsession9 traces of anarcho-s!ndicalist influence come through6 ;;; the Cubans do not +no/ that mere natiuonali=ation of their industries is no goal9 that it ma! enthrone a bureaucrac! even more rigid than capitalist posession; Dationali=ation is not necessaril! true sociali=ation9 an end /hich demands 4that there be /or+ers in each industr! to run these industries in coordination /ith the other sectors of the econom!6; 2p; 1"#3

Does ran+ indict Castro for instituting nationali=ationG '! no meansJ An the contrar!9 he considers that Castro summar! ;;; act of nationali=ation /as an intelligent9 courageous deed ;;; to defend the Cuban Republic against those hostile forces that /ould destro! it ;;; 2p; 1"#3 4 ran+ is even afraid6 that ;;; technicians from the Soviet ?nion /ill bring /ith them the communist ideolog! ;;; e:uall! alien9 e:uall! un/elcom ;;; 2p; 1"&3 4'ut ran+ hastens to dispel such fears6 ;;; the leaders are CAAD and /hat the! are attempting to do is CAAD ;;; the! /ill tell !ou in plain /ords that the! have not overthro/n the overlordship of the ?nited States in order to submit to a ne/ master ;;; the Soviet ?nion or an!one else ;;; 2p; 1"&3 2 ran+'s emphasis3 ?nfortunatel!9 it turns out that the 8good8 men destined to save Cuba from totalitarian domination are themselves authoritarian communists: $rmando -art9 Carlos Rafael Rodrigue=9 and iron! of ironiesJ Castro himself9 a fe/ da!s after the $merican publication of ran+'s boo+9 confessed that 8I am a 5ar<ist7eninist and /ill remain one until the last da! of m! life;8 In spite of Castro's o/n statement that the so-called peasant cooperative farms 2granBas del pueblo3 are modeled after the Russian st!le 8Hol+ho=es98 ran+ still nurtures the forlorn hope that the: ;;; cooperative farms and industries of Cuba could /ell become the nuclei of a radical s!ndicalism9 developed from the tradition of anarcho-s!ndicalism9 /hich has long appealed to Spanish and -ispanic /or+ers ;;; far more than the crude +ol+ho= /ithin communism9 libertarianism might flourish /ithin a revived s!ndicalism ;;; 2p; 1,&3 In earl! 1.&"9 members of the Cuban 7ibertarian 5ovement in (<ile 2C75(3 addressed a letter to *ablo Casals9 a co-sponsor of the Spanish Refuge $id Committee9 informing him that 1aldo ran+9 also a cosponsor9 had been commissioned b! the Cuban Covernment to /rite a boo+ in /hich he eulogi=ed Castro; In its Bulletin for $pril 1.&"9 the C75( published Casals' repl!: ;;; li+e !ou9 I too believe that all lovers of freedom ;;; must condemn all dictatorship9 8right98 8left8 or /hatever the name ;;; I feel strongl! the anguish of the unfortunate people of Cuba9 /ho9 having suffered under the dictatorship of 'atista9 are no/9 ane/9 being subBected to the dictatorship of his successor9 idel Castro ;;; as to the attitude of 1aldo ran+ and his support of the Castro regime9 I /ill immediatel! re:uest the Spanish Refugee $id Committee to order a thorough investigation of !our charges9 and if -- as it seems -- 1aldo ran+ violates the ideals of the organi=ation9 he be removed as member and cosponsor ;;; 1ith best /ishes9 *ablo Casals; In 1.&# #onthly Revie(9 a 5ar<ist-7eninist Bournal9 published a special .& page essa!9 +nside the Cuban Revolution9 /ritten b! $dolfo Cill!9 a fanatical 8left /ing8 pro-Castro $rgentine Bournalist /ho lived among the Cuban people for more than a!ear; $lthough Cill! ac+no/ledges the deformation of the Cuban revolution9 he is 8;;; still unconditionall! on the side of the Revolution;8 2preface9 p; vii3 Cill! /as nevertheless bitterl! denounced b! Castro; The follo/ing e<cerpts from his essa! best illustrate the +ind of muddled thin+ing /hich leads to the most glaring contradictions b! 8leftist8 Castroite critics: Statement: 8the State defends the position ;;; and concrete economic interests of the functionaries9 the State itself9 the *art! and the union bureaucrac! ;;; the people have no direct po/er ;;; the State creates and defends positions of privilege;8 2p; #23 Contradiction: 8The State is the /or+ers' ver! o/n8 2p;#&3 Statement: 8@ust as there has not appeared in the Cuban leadership an! tendenc! that proposes selfmanagement9 neither has there appeared an! /hich loo+s to the development of those bodies /hich in a socialist democrac! e<press the /ill of the people> soviets9 /or+ers' councils9 unions independent of the

State9 etc; ;;;8 2p; #0-#13 Contradiction: 8;;; in Cuba the masses feel that the! have begun to govern their o/n lives ;;;8 2p; ),3 Statement: 81hen it comes to decisions of the government9 it never allo/s dissent or criticism or proposals for change ;;; nothing can be published /ithout permission ;;;8 2p;2,3 Contradiction: 8There is no countr! toda! /here there is greater freedom and democrac! than in Cuba;8 2ibid;3 7i+e Cill!9 the editors of the #onthly Revie(9 7eo -uberman and *aul S/ee=!9 also combine e<travagant praise /ith /hat adds up to a devastating indictment of the Castro regime: ;;; the success achieved b! the Cuban Revolution ;;; the upsurge of mass living standard to create a :uantit! and :ualit! of popular support for the Revolutionar! Covernment ;;; and its supreme leader idel Castro ;;; has fe/9 if an!9 parallels 2Socialism in Cuba> D;E;9 De/ Eor+9 1.)09 p; 20"9 20#3 ;;; there have been remar+able achievements in the economic field and there /ill be even more remar+able ones in the future ;;; 2p; &%3 -uberman and S/ee=! then inadvertantl! den! their o/n statements: nearl! ever!thing is scarce in Cuba toda! 2p; 12.3 ;;; there is the continuing difficult economic situation; Dail! life is hard9 and after ten !ears man! people are tired ;;; tending to lose confidence in the leadership's abilit! to +eep its optimistic promises ;;; the ties that bind the masses to their paternalistic government are beginning to erode ;;; 2p; 21)-21,3 1hile the e<amples of the alleged economic 8achievementes8 are indeed rare9 the catastrophic collapse of the econom! and the mass discontent for /hich the 8Revolutionar! Covernment8 is directl! responsible are over/helmingl! documented; 2see pgs; )#9 ,19 ,29 ,&9 10"9 10)9 2009 20%-20)9 21)-2203 To create material incentives and reduce absenteeism the Revolutionar! leadership9 to its everlasting credit ;;; has at no time committed the foll! of restoring the capitalist /age s!stem in /hich ;;; /hoever /or+s harder gets more ;;; Castro is :uoted: 8to offer a man more for doing his dut! is to bu! his conscience /ith mone!;8 2p; 1#%3 $ fe/ pages later9 -uberman and S/ee=! again refute themselves; The Revolution can be saved onl! if the capitalist /age s!stem is restored; Do/9 the 8;;; Revolution cannot afford to rel! e<clusivel! on political and moral incentives8> it /ill even have to resort to semi-militari=ation of /or+J8 2p; 1%"3 The assertion that the 8;;; Cuban Revolution has resorted to ver! little regimentation is refuted in the same paragraph: ;;; there are doubtless evidences of this in the large-scale mobili=ations of voluntar! labor ;;; indeed9 there are alread! signs of this regimentation in the gro/ing role of the arm! in the econom! bringing /ith it militar! concepts of organi=ation and discipline ;;; an e<ample of this is the Che Cuevara Trail 'la=ers 'rigade9 organi=ed along strictl! militar! lines 4/hich6 has been clearing huge amounts of land ;;; 2p; 1#&3 Cuba's s!stem is clearl! one of bureaucratic rule ;;; 4nor has the government /or+ed out6 an alternative ;;; 2p; 21.-2203 or -uberman and S/ee=!9 the reali=ation of socialism is9 in effect9 based upon the omnipotence of the State; The people are not the masters but the servants of the 8revolutionar!8 leadership /ho graciousl! grant them the privilege of sharing 8in the great decisions /hich shape their lives;;;8 2p; 20#3

Toi ignore the lessons of histor! and e<pect rulers to voluntaril! surrender or even share po/er /ith their subBects is -- to sa! the least --- incredibl! naive; -erbert 5atthe/s -- foreign correspondent and later a senior editor of the ,e( -ork .imes9 no/ retired -/as granted his sensational intervie/ /ith idel Castro in the Sierra 5aestra on ebruar! 1)9 1.%); 5atthe/s has since then been /elcomed to Cuba and granted intervie/s /ith Castro and other leaders; -is attitude to/ards the Castro dictatorship resembles that of the doting parent /ho inflates the virtues of his offspring and invents e<cuses for the child's transgressions; ;;; idel's personalit! is over/helming; -e has done man! things that enraged me; -e has made colossal mista+es ;;; but /e must forgive him9 he has to deal /ith difficult problems /hich no man could have tried to solve /ithout ma+ing errors and causing harm to large sectors of Cuban societ!;;; 2p; #3 Dot the least of the privileges accorded to despots is the right to ma+e mista+es at the e<pense of ordinar! mortals; -o/ Castro9 /ho is 8;;; a great orator ;;; the greatest of his times98 is 8not able to e<press his emotions8 2p; ##3 is a peculiar failing that 5atthe/s does not deem it necessar! to e<plain; $lthough his latest /or+ 2a big #,& page volume9 Revolution in Cuba> De/ Eor+9 1.)%3 contains a great deal of valuable information about the situation in Cuba9 it suffers from his clums! efforts to reconcile his unabashed admiration for Castro /ith the brutal9 bitter facts; Aut of the chaotic mass of contradictions9 absurdities and distortions9 startling facts about the degeneration of the Cuban Revolution emerge; $ fe/ e<amples: Castro is a dictator; -is revolution is 8autocratic98 but it is still -- strangel! enough -- 8;;; a government b! consensus9 based upon popular support ;;;8 The support comes from the members of the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution 2CDR3 comprising 8almost ever! able bodied adult in Cuba ;;; ever!one *$RTICI*$T(S in the Cuban Revolution;;;8 'ut this grass-roots consensus /hich is not 8a democrac! ;;; has nothing to do /ith civil liberties ;;;8 2p; 1%9 5atthe/s' emphasis3 It should be obvious that a regime that has 8nothing to do /ith civil rights8 is b! definition a dictatorship; It soon becomes apparent that this is indeed the case; 5atthe/s notes that 8;;; man! Cubans are uneas! over the fact that the CDR 4this model of participator! democrac!6 ;;; is no/ completel! under the control of the Communist *art! of Cuba ;;;8 2p; 1%9 5atthe/s' emphasis3 ;;; /e $mericans thin+ of the Rights of 5an in civic terms: e:ualit! before the la/9 non-discrimination9 freedom of the press9 sacredness of the home ;;; In Cuba9 as in 7atin $merica9 individual rights are cherished too 2p; )3 'ut on page 12.9 5atthe/s reverses himself: 8;;; I do not believe that the Cubans cared enough about civic freedoms to fight for them ;;; the emphasis is not on civil liberties but on personal attributes: personal dignit!9 perservation of famil! life;;; 5atthe/s9 ho/ever9 tries to camouflage the fact that personal attributes cannot be e<ercised in Cuba because the State regiments the life of the individual from the cradle to the grave; -e unintentionall! documents this fact in his chapter on the Cultural Revolution; An the flims! and insulting prete<t that the 8;;; Cuban people do not have the $nglo-Sa<on mania for privac! ;;;8 5atthe/s tries to minimi=e the fact that 8Cuba is a goldfish bo/l;8 2p; 1%3

8Castro made the mista+e at his 5oncada trial in 1.%" and in the Sierra 5aestra in 1.%)9 of promising to implement the liberal democratic constitution of 1.#0;8 2p; #03 Castro did not ma+e a mista+e; -e +ne/ full /ell and later openl! confessed 2in his 8I am a 5ar<ist-7eninist8 speech9 Dec; 19 1.&13 that 'atista could be overthro/n and his cli:ue come to po/er9 onl! on the basis of a democratic program acceptable to the anti-Castro bourgeoisie9 The Church and other non-radical forces; 8;;; in the circumstances 4comments 5atthe/s6 to get them to accept revolution /as an ;;; impossibilit! ;;;8 2p; 12%3 Castro is an astute politician; -e did not ma+e the mista+e of antagoni=ing these elements b! prematurel! intiating e<propriation of propert! and other radical measures; -e /aited until his regime /as strong enough to neutrali=e9 and if necessar!9 smother the opposition; 5atthe/s even tries to condone Castro's atrocities; or him the crimes committed b! the Castro regime in the first ten !ears of the Revolution -- 1.%.-1.)0 -- 8has onl! historic meaning toda! ;;; the! /ere in idel's breathta+ing /ord 4G6 an apprenticeship ;;;8 2p; 23 In short9 the Dictator /as learning his trade at the e<pense of his victimsJ In connection /ith the restoration of the death penalt! and the e<ecution of prisoners /ithout a fair trial9 5atthe/s asserts that 8;;; I /as in Cuba t/ice /hile e<ecutions /ere going on and I did not then9 nor ever9 hear or read of an innocent man being condemned ;;;8 2p; 1"#3 'ut 5atthe/s himself un/ittingl! presents over/helming evidence to the contrar!: ;;; I felt critical over the summar! nature of Cuban trials; -erman 5ar+s9 a native of 5il/au+ee9 reportedl! /ith a criminal record9 /as the e<ecutioner at the Cabanas fortress in -avana ;;; he became a captain in Che Cuevara's column; -e /as used to avoid +illing b! Cubans; -e /as li+e a butcher +illing cattle in an abatoir ;;; 2p; 1"%3 ;;; ordinar! courts lost much of their authorit!; 7a/!ers /ho defended those accused of being counter-revolutionaries ran the danger of prosecution themselves ;;; 2p; 1#"3; -abeas corpus /as suspended in 1.%.; 2p; 1#23 ;;; the evidence in the 5atos case 4see belo/6 could not stand up in a 1estern court of la/ ;;; but /e must not blame the dictators ;;; this /as a Cuban court of la/ in the midst of a perilous revolution ;;; the vilification of Castro in the 5atos case is unBustified ;;; 2p; 1#23 The prisons /ere filled to overflo/ing; The interrogation rooms of the C29 Castro's secret police9 /ere scarcel! less vile than the torture chambers of 'atista's SI5 ;;; there /ere more prisonaers no/ than 'atista ever had ;;; 2-ugh Thomas :uoted b! 5atthe/s9 p; 1#23 It is impossible to understand ho/ 5atthe/s9 in vie/ of his o/n evidence9 could den! that such atrocities did ta+e place and then reverse himself; -is attitude is all the more incomprehensible9 /hen in respect to the 5atos case9 he9 at the re:uest of 5atos' famil!9 tried to intercede /ith Castro on their behalf and his plea /as ignored; 2see p; 1#23 Castro's refusal to honor 8his repeated promises to hold elections for a multi-part! democratic government8 is Bustified on the prete<t that this outrageous violation of elementar! rights /ould cr!stalli=e a 8strong congressional opposition to Castro's revolutionar! policies at ever! step;8 'ut Castro is a better dictator than ranco /as because 8he never perpetuated the h!pocris! of a plebiscite as in ranco Spain ;;;8J 2p; 1#)3 $fter revealing that 8-avana ?niversit! /as stripped of /hatever autonom! remained to it in @ul! 1.&0 and purged ;;; and t/o thirds of the professors /ent into e<ile ;;;89 5atthe/s tries to condone these crimes because 8;;; as /ith somuch happening9 unscupulous means had to be used to achieve desirable ends ;;;8 $s is means can ever be separated from endsJ 5atthe/s himself admits that the 8?niversit! became an

organ of the 5ar<ist-7eninist government9 but it also became a disciplined9 serious9 center of learning9 /hich in the 1.)0s is undergoing an e<traordinar! rebirth ;;;8 2p; 1,"3 1ith respect to the criminal mismanagement of the econom! and the proliferation of a ne/ bureaucrac!9 5atthe/s gives e<amples: ;;; the Central *lanning 'oard 2@ucesplan3 /as created to control the econom! as a /hole but it did little of practical value ;;; idel9 Che9 and a fe/ others had the real authorit! /hich the! failed to coordinate or use s!stematicall! ;;; There /as a decline in the national income ;;; too man! cattle /ere slaughtered in 1.&19 bringing severe shortages from 1.&2 on/ards ;;; rationing of foodstuffs /as instituted in the summer of 1.&1 ;;; somthing had gone seriousl! /rong /ith the econom!; (ven in 1orld 1ar II9 there /as no need for rationing ;;; Che Cuevara9 the 5inister of Industr!9 reported man! errors ;;; much of /hat the! /ere planning /as impossible; Daturall! a huge bureaucrac! evolved ;;; 2pgs; 1&)-1&.3 Reasonable people9 ta+ing into account the accumulating mountain of evidence9 naturall! came to reali=e that the Cuban Revolution /as over; Dot 5atte/s; -is faith remains undimmed: 8;;; the! /ere all so !oungJ The group had an! amount of faith ;;; honest! and energ! ;;;8 5atte/s comes to the ridiculous conclusion that although the 8econom! /as failing ;;; the Revolution /as succeeding ;;;8 The blundering despots /ho are largel! responsible for the collapse of the Revolution 8;;; put the Revolution on the roc+!9 unevenl! advancing path it has follo/ed since then ;;;8 2p; 1&)-1&.3 Revie/ing all the vast literature about the Cuban Revolution is be!ond the scope of this /or+; 1e center out discussion on Rene Dumont's anal!sis because it is b! far9 the most profound9 and especiall!9 because it is9 in important areas9 relevant to the position of the Cuban anarchists and anarcho-s!ndicalists -- a position formulated long before Dumont's t/o boo+s /ere published; 2see his Cuba Socialism and !evelopment> De/ Eor+ 1.)09 and +s Cuba Socialist/ De/ Eor+ 1.)#3 1e /ill summari=e Dumont's criti:ue of Castro and his policies> the libertarian content of his constructive proposals> and ho/ he departs from the libertarian implications of his /or+ and contradicts himself; $u!ont's Criti%ue rom the Bac+et blurb of +s Cuba Socialist/ /e gather that the significance of Dumont's boo+ lies not so much: ;;; in his richl! detailed ;;; devastating portrait of economic disorder and militari=ation but 4primaril! because it6 comes from a friend of the Revolution9 /ho at earlier times praised Castro's efforts to create a socialist nation ;;; Dumont9 a distinguished agonomist9 a veteran 4pro-communist6 activist9 /ho in the 1.&0's paid 4on Castro's invitation6 several long visits as an e<pert adiser to9 and s!mpathi=er /ith9 Castro's Cuba;;; The boo+ 8created a sensation throughout (urope8 because for Dumont to dispute the infallibilit! of Castro9 or even dare den! the socialist nature of the Cuban Revolution9 is9 for the Castroites9 a heres! comparable to a papal enc!clical :uestioning the e<istence of Cod; The phrasing of the chapter headings alone9 constitutes a devastating indictment of the Castro regime: ST$TIST: C(DTR$7IK$TIAD: -(R(TIC$7 R(IA7?TIAD C(DTR$7IK(D *7$DDIDC 1IT- '?R($?CR$CE: 1.&1-1.&, T-( *$RTE: D(SICD$T(D R$T-(R T-$D (7(CT(D T-( ST$T(: S?'ARDID$T(D TA T-( *$RTEG

CA55?DIS5: $ 5I7IT$RE SACI(TE AR *(RSAD$7 *A1(R $D $CR$RI$D DRI77 I(7D: T-( C?(I(R$ 'RIC$D( T-( D($T- A T-( $R5 T-( $R5E $**R$IS(S *A(TS D(1 5$D AR 5AD(RD SA7DI(RG R(-ST$7IDIK$TIAD: *RIII7(C(S $DD T-( D(1 '?R($?CR$CE *RATA-SACI$7IS5 1IT- $ D(1 $C( IS C?'$ SACI$7ISTG That the ans/er is a resounding DAJ9 can be gathered from the te<t9 /hich also e<plains /h! both Dumont and his boo+s are banned in Cuba; 1hat follo/s is a representative selection of Dumont's critical remar+s; 2?nless other/ise noted9 all :uotations are from +s Cuba Socialist/3 "or#ers and &nions ;;; note should be ta+en of the diminishing role of the unions /hich are due to disappear entirel! since the state is -- in principle -- supposed to be the State of the /or+ers ;;; 2p; %23 The government's decisions seem to be intended $OR the people9 but it /as not government B- the people ;;; the! used to have a capitalist boss9 and no/ the! have another boss ;;; the State; 2p; 229 Dumont's emphasis3 Dumont :uotes $rmando -art9 a member of the political bureau of the *opular *eople's 2Communist3 *art! /ho speculated hopefull! that it /ould be a good idea: ;;; if all the labor force /ere in encampments9 li+e columns of soldiers ;;; the development of the Cuban econom! /ould be accelerated b! the militari=ation of the labor force ;;; it is to/ard this that /e must /or+ ;;; 2p; .#3 In mid-1.&.9 ;;; the 5inister of 7abor /arned that severe measures /ould be ta+en against ;;; undisciplined /or+9 absenteeism9 and negligence ;;; a month later9 in September9 the government promulgated a la/ under /hich each ne/ /or+er must have a dossier and /or+ boo+ in /hich /ill be noted the places in /hich he /or+s9 his comings and goings9 etc; 2p; 11#3 The 'oss ;;; the number one man in Cuba is Castro; Castro is *rime 5inister of the Revolutionar! Covernment9 Commander in Chief of the $rmed orces9 and irst Secretar! of the Cuban Communist *art! ;;; $s an official9 one's Bob depends upon Castro's confidence and on personal conections ;;; leadership of the essential agencies is placed in the hands of men in /hom the 'oss 4Castro6 has confidence 2p; %13 ;;; Cuban societ! remains authoritarian and hierarchi=ed> idel maneuvers it as he sees fit; The result is a militaristic societ! ;;; 2"#3 In public ever!bod! is for Castro; In private his partisans are less numerous; (ver!bod! goes to the demonstrations in the *la=a de la Revolucion; It is obligator! 2p; %.3 ;;; Castro has confidence onl! in himself; -e is no longer content /ith claims to militar! and political fame; -e has to feel himself the leader in both scientific research and agricultural practice 4about /hich he +no/s ne<t to nothing6 2p; 10)3 Dobod! dares oppose him if he /ants to hold his Bob; 2p; 10,3 ;;; /hen he thro/s his beret on the ground and flies into one of his rages9 ever!bod! :ua+es and fears reprisals ;;; 2p; 1113 Censorship and (p in)

There e<ists vigilance 4sp!ing6 /ith the increasing control of neighborhoods b! the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution 4CDRs6 standing in for and helping the police; (ver!bod! belongs to the CDRs9 unless he /ants to miss out on man! advantages;;; Capitalism robs the /or+er of his dignit! ;;; *olice in:uisition in the Cuban Revolution again denies it to the poorest /or+er ;;; 2p; 11.3 4In e<posing press censorship9 Dumont :uotes 5ar<6 8;;; the censored press CADST$DT7E lies;8 I challenge 0ranma to publish this 45ar<'s6 sentence ;;; 40ranma is the official organ of the Communist *art! of Cuba;6 Dumont cites the case of -eberto *adilla9 the reno/ned Cuban poet and former editor of 0ranma; *adilla had been relieved of his editorial post because he commented favorabl! on the /or+ of Cuillermo Cabrera Infante9 a prominent poet9 /ho /as at that time out of favor /ith the *art!; In 1.&, *adilla /as a/arded the Casa de la $mericas literar! pri=e for his collection of critical poetr! Aut of the Came 2t/o e<amples are reprinted belo/3; The 1riters ?nion published the boo+9 including their disclaimer9 charging that the poems /ere against the Revolution; *adilla's verses /ere Budged CounterRevolutionar! b! Cranma and the /ee+l! ne/spaper of the Cuban $rm!9 'erde Olivo 2Alive Creen -color of the uniform3; An 5arch 2)9 1.)19 *adilla /as Bailed for ") da!s; -e /as also denied /or+ for a !ear; -is case aroused a /orld-/ide storm of protest b! prominent pro-Castro and other intellectuals and /riters; Dumont in true Stalinist fashion confesses that he /as guilt! of adopting 8counter-revolutionar!8 attitudes and in the /ords of Dumont 8;;; providing information to CI$ agents li+e m!self and H;S; Harol 2p; 120ff;> Harol is a friendl! critic of Castro9 /as li+e Dumont invited to visit Cuba b! Castro9 and author of 0uerillas in Po(er3; Aut of the Came The poet9 get rid of him -e has nothing to do around here -e does not pla! the game lac+s enthusiasm -e does not ma+e his message clear does not even notice the miracles; -e spends the /hole da! thin+ing al/a!s finds something to obBect to That fello/9 get rid of him Remove the part! pooper the summer malcontent /ho /ears dar+ glasses in the ne/ da/n of time /ithout histor! -e is even out of date -e li+es onl! the old 7ouis $rmstrong -umming9 at most9 a song of *ete Seeger -e sings 'Cuantanamera' through clenched teeth Do one can ma+e him tal+ Do one can ma+e him smile each time the spectacle begins Instructions for $dmission into a De/ Societ!

In the first place: optimism; Secondl!: be correct9 circumspect9 submissive; 2-aving undergone all the sports tests3 and to finish9 march as do all the other members: one step for/ards t/o or three bac+/ards: but al/a!s aplauding *ducation ;;; the ne/ man is a model soldier9 ever obedient to his leaders ;;; children are enrolled in organi=ations as soon as ten !ears old ;;; !oung teachers are subBected to programs that smac+ of the convent and the barrac+s: '1ARH $DD Shut ?pJ' 'The 7eaders $re $l/a!s RightJ' ' idel Doesn't $rgueJ' 2p; 1223 Technological training /as under the control of the Iice-5inister of the $rmed orces; 5ilitar! training /as given at all levels; '! the time the! are eight9 !oung people are marching in step ;;; 2p; .23 Cuba: A +ilitar $ictatorship ;;; In Cuba the militar! are ta+ing over command of the econom! ;;; 2p; 1).3 ;;; it is becoming clearer and clearer that the arm! is transforming Cuban societ!; 2p; ,#3 5ilitari=ation /as urged not onl! to eliminate inefficienc! and disorgani=ation9 but to cope /ith the passive resistance of a gro/ing number of /or+ers; 2p; 1003 ;;; it became increasingl! difficult to distinguish bet/een the Communist *art! and the arm!9 since the! both /ore uniforms and carried revolvers ;;; This sort of Cuban communism is devilishl! close to arm! life ;;; This militar! societ! ;;; follo/s a path leading a/a! from participation of the people> it leads to a hierarchi=ed societ! /ith an authoritarian leadership headed b! Castro /ho decides all problems9 political9 economic and technical ;;; 2p; 112-11"3 A)riculture is +ilitari,ed ?nder the heading $grarian Reform 7a/ and Cooperatives9 Dumont deplores that the ;;; estates confiscated in 1.&0 /ere cooperatives in name onl! ;;; the! /ere state farms ;;; b! $ugust 1.&09 after m! second visit9 the cooperative formula /as definitivel! set aside /ithout those involved being advised or consulted 2p; 223 4Dumont :uotes la/ #"6: 8the IDR$ 4Dational Institute of $grarian Reform6 /ill $**AIDT their administrators ;;; and the /or+ers /ill accept and respect 4/hatever commands the IDR$6 /ill dictate;8 2p; #)3 4Dumont remar+s that6 8the /or+ers have the mentalit! of paid emplo!ees ;;; their boss is the state;8 2p; 223 4Dumont concludes that6 8Cuban agriculture is certainl! becoming more and more militari=ed ;;; all important Bobs are entrusted to the arm!9 headed b! a 5aBor9 Captain or a irst 7ieutenant;8 2p; .&3 $u!ont's -ibertarian (ocialist Proposals The t!pical attitude of the 5ar<ist-7eninist left to/ard the Cuban Revolution /as perhaps best summari=ed in one of its /ell +no/n organs the ,e( Le"t Revie( 2issue L"9 1.&03 in the course of an ecstatic revie/ of Cuba Anatomy o" a Revolution b! -uberman and S/ee=!9 editors of the 5ar<ist7eninist #onthly Revie(:

;;; as a result of the final period of nationali=ation completed this past Actober9 Cuba has become a sovereign socialist state ;;; the first nation to have achieved socialism /ithout benefit of 5ar<ist-7eninist orientation;;; Dumont reBects this brand of 8socialism;8 -e does not e:uate socialism /ith nationali=ation; $lthough a professed 5ar<ist-7eninist9 Dumont touches on anarchist themes insofar as he advocates a decentralist voluntaristic variet! of socialism9 not onl! because it is desirable9 but also because it is eminentl! more practical than nationali=ation and other authoritarian alternatives; $s an e<pert agronomist9 Dumont concentrates on the problems of the agrarian revolution; 'ut his general conclusions are applicable to the /hole economic setup; -e insists that 8;;; socialism demands true popular participation at all levels of decision ma+ing;;;8 2p; 1#03 ;;; an agrarian socialism does not re:uire collectivi=ationfrom above ;;; I sought a solution that /ould tend to more decentrali=ation9 more responsibilit! at the base ;;; self-management of basic units ;;; 2p; .)3 4To stimulate the creativit! of the individual and encourage him to ta+e the initiative in the self-management of a cooperative societ!6 ;;; socialism must learn to be more respectful of his dignit! and therefore of his autonom!; 2Cuba Socialism and !evelopment9 p; 1&13 ;;; the moreal incentive /ould be respect for his individualit! as a /or+er9 the irreplaceable feeling on the part of the /or+er that he is *$RTICI*$TIDC in the management of the enterprise9 that he *(RSAD$77E contributes to the decisions about the nature and :ualit! of his /or+ ;;; more initiative9 more autonom!9 more repsonsibilit! ;;; 2+s Cuba Socialist/ p; 1")> emphasis Dumont's3 In Russia the anarchists bitterl! critici=ed the 'olshevi+s because the! e<tirpated the grass-roots voluntar! organi=ations and set up a state dictatorship; Dumont9 too9 does not thin+: ;;; it is a good idea to suppress pre-revolutionar! cooperatives /hich are useful for the training of management personel 4and believes that6 the cooperative formula ;;; applies to hand/or+9 distribution9 small-scale industr!9 shops9 services9 etc; 4/here6 the /or+ers ta+e better care of the material belonging to the group than that /hich belongs to the state ;;; 2Cuba Socialism and !evelopment9 p; 1&"3 ?nder headings li+e 8$n $grarian Socialism 1ith 7ittle 1or+ Collectives>8 8$ 5ultiplicit! of Socialist *atterns of Change8 2Cuba Socialism and !evelopment9 p; 1&0-1)03 Dumont's proposals read almost li+e e<cerpts from Hropot+in's anarchist classic9 $ields* $actories and )orkshops: ;;; in 1.&0 I suggested that the h!pertrophied cit! of -avana be surrounded /ith a 'green belt' of mar+et gardens and fruit farms as far as the adaptabilit! of land and availabilit! of /ater allo/ed; I urged a second concentric belt for the production of s/eet potatoes9 potatoes9 plantains9 etc; and that a dair! farm should be established; Ather cities could have adopted the same plan ;;; I even suggested a plan b! /hich each maBor agricultural unit could suppl! itself /ith a significant portion of its food suppl!; The prolongation and aggravation of scarcities onl! emphasi=ed the value of this proBect /hich /as never underta+en; 2+s Cuba Socialist/ p; ""3 ;;; if ever! famil! that /anted to had been able to have a small garden plot9 it could have raised a good portion of its o/n food ;;; 2p; &&;3 The /or+ers /ould organi=e their o/n /or+ themselves; The farm groups /ould evolve not so much as giant cooperatives as TA1$RD $ (D(R$TIAD A S5$77 CAA*(R$TII(S; ;;; 2Socialism and !evelopment9 p; 1&0> emphasis Dumont's3 $u!ont: (purious -ibertarian

?nfortunatel!9 Dumont's modifications negate his libertarianism and render his /or+ useless to arrest the deformation of the Revolution and guide it in a libertarian direction; -e ma+es this unmista+eabl! clear: ;;; Democratic Centralism /hich else/here has too often been the cover 4read conse:uences6 for totalitarianism9 /hich /ould ta+e on a ne/ meaning 4bac+ to 7enin the architect of 8communist8 t!rann!6; 1ithin this structure 4cooperatives6 the top echelon 4i;e; the state6 /ould be responsible for the economic plan ;;; for the allotment of state funds 4/hich gives the state life and death po/er over the cooperatives simpl! b! granting or /itholding funds6 ;;; the heads of cooperatives /ould be $**AIDT(D 4until6 such time as the! /ere elected /ithin a cooperative frame/or+ 4until as in Russia the State 8/ill /ither a/a!8G6 2Cuba Socialism ;;; p; 1&0> our emphasis3 "anted: A -ibertarian Caudillo Dumont un/ittingl! endorses de facto paternalism on the part of Castro; or e<ample: ;;; if Castro could rid himself of his m!stics and utopians and surround himself /ith real representatives of the people9 he 4Castro the savior6 CA?7D 7($D the Cuban *eople to prosperit! ;;; 2p; 122> our emphasis3 ;;; 4Since Castro6 ;;; /ould not accept control from belo/ because he enBo!ed personal po/er too long to CII( IT ?* CR$D?$77E ;;; it is therefore up to the countr!'s political leaders9 especiall! Raul Castro9 Dorticos9 Rafael Rodrigue=9 $rmando -art and 'las Roca9 to advise Castro to do so I T-(E -$I( T-( CA?R$C( $DD I T-(E R($7IK( T-$T T-( *R(S(DT *(RSAD$7 DICT$TARS-I* ma! lead to catastrophe ;;; 2p; 1#0-1#19 Dumont's emphasis3 Since the! have neither 8the /ill nor the courage8 to ta+e Dumont's advice9 the situation is hopeless; Is it at all li+el! that these hardened9 c!nical politicians /ho ma+e up the 8innermost ruling group98 /ould9 no more than Castro himself9 8accept control from belo/98 since the! too 8enBo!ed po/er too long to give it up graduall!8G Is it at all li+el! that this 8communist bourgeoisie ;;; /hich clings to po/er b! flattering Castro98 /hose ver! lives depend on Castro's good /ill9 /ould summon up 8the courage8 to correct CastroG 2p; 1#13 That a realistic observer li+e Dumont could entertain the faintest hope that these puppets /ould /illingl! sacrifice themselves9 is hard to understand; (speciall!9 /hen Dumont himself cautions us 8not to forget that despotism and its paternalistic variet! has al/a!s been badl! enlightened ;;; and po/er corrupts ;;;89 and in the ver! ne<t paragraph flatl! contradicts himself be suggesting that the remed! for Castro's de facto 8;;; absolute monarch! is a more modern version of /hat I /ill simplif! in calling ;;; 7I5IT(D I DAT CADSTIT?TIAD$7 5AD$RC-E ;;;8 2p; 1#19 our emphasis3 Disregarding contrar! evidence such as: the massacre of the Hronstadt sailors> the e<ile9 persecution and murder of political prisoners b! 7enin's secret police and other crimes for /hich 7enin is directl! responsible> Dumont9 nevertheless asserts that the 8;;; freedom of discussion and popular control advised 4but never practised6 b! 7enin has been forgotten b! the Castroites ;;; 7enin's theor! of democratic centralism has been interpreted to Bustif! the unlimited dictatoship of personal po/er ;;;8 2p; 11&3 Dumont9 li+e the other 5ar<ist-7eninists9 /hite/ashes 7enin's crimes; -e ignores the incontestable fact that it /as 7enin himself /ho set the precedent follo/ed on a /ider scale b! his successor Stalin; Dumont's remed! for the chronic afflictions of the Castro regime does not even begin to measure up to his e<cellent diagnosis; 7i+e his colleague H;S; Harol9 Dumont assumes a similar self-contradictor! attitude in respect to the Chinese Revolution9 oscillating bet/een e<travagant praise and severe criticism:

;;; developing countries /ill most certainl! find in China the basis for a ne/ faith in 5an and in his possibilities for progress; Socialist consciousness has attained a ver! high level ;;; the people are almost e<clusivel! concerned 4not /ith personal affairs but6 /ith the general interest ;;; Dumont then contradicts himself devastatingl! e<posing the true character of 5ao's despotism: ;;; fundamental decisions9 such as foreign polic! and the economic plan are all made b! the top hierarch! and a small minorit! of managers ;;; /ithout consultation or intervention of the famous 'popular' control called for 4but never practiced6 b! 7enin ;;; Dumont then immediatel! proceeds to Bustif! these outrageous violations of elementar! rights b! pointing to the 8;;; h!pocris! of the false friends of democrac! ;;;8 $s if one evil automaticall! Bustifies another Dumont: ;;; salutes the devotion of the Chinese rulers to the /elfare of the nation and the /or+ers ;;; if /e prefer for A?S(7I(S more freedom of information and onl! formal democrac!9 IT IS S?R(7E DAT AR ?S TA *R(SCRI'( 1-$T IS '(ST AR T-( C-ID(S( ;;; 2above :uotes from L12topie ou la #ort> *aris9 1.)"9 pgs; 1%&-1%,> Dumont's emphasis3 If Dumont /ere consistent9 he /ould at least add that the totalitarian despots /ho rule China also have no right to 8prescribe /hat is best for8 T-( C-ID(S( *(A*7(; 7i+e Dumont9 the other lo!al leftist critics of the Cuban Revolution do not reali=e that their o/n anal!sis leads inevitabl! to the conclusion that DA ST$T( C$D (I(R *7$E $ R(IA7?TIAD$RE RA7(; It is their inabilit! to grasp this fact; It is their orientation that enmeshes the 5ar<ist-7eninists in a series of massive and insoluble contradictions; Their /ritings proBect a distorted9 utterl! false image of the Cuban Revolution> the! are never a guide to meaningful alternatives;

Chapter . - The Character o/ the Cuban Revolution

A 0on-(ocial Revolution The m!th9 induced b! the revolutionar! euphoria of the pro-Castro left9 that a genuine social-revolution too+ place in Cuba9 is based on a number of maBor fallacies; $mong them is the idea that a social revolution can ta+e place in a small semi-developed island9 a countr! /ith a population of about eight million9 totall! dependent for the uninterrupted flo/ of vital supplies upon either of the great superpo/ers9 Russia or the ?;S; The! assume falsel! that these voracious po/ers /ill not ta+e advantage of Cuba's situation to promote their o/n selfish interests; There can be no more convincing evidence of this tragic impossibilit! than Castro's s!cophantic attitude to/ard his benefactor9 the Soviet ?nion9 going so far as to applaud Russia's invasion of C=echoslova+ia in 1.&,9 a crime certainl! on a par /ith the militar! coup in Chile9 /hich Castro rightfull! condemned; To assume9 furthermore9 that the Cuban social revolution can be miraculousl! achieved /ithout simultaneous uprisings in 7atin $merica and else/here9 is both naive and irresponsible; 0ationali,ation 1ersus (ocialis! To e:uate nationali=ation of the econom! and social services instituted from above b! the decree 8revolutionar! government8 or a caudillo9 /ith true socialism is a dangerous illusion; Dationali=ation and similar measures9 under the name of 8/elfareism98 are common; The! are /idespread9 and in man! cases deep-going programs9 instituted b! democratic 8/elfare8 states or 8benevolent8 dictators as an antidote to revolution9 and are b! no means e:utvalent to socialism; Russia and Cuba: T2o Revolutions Co!pared $nother fallac! about the nature of the Cuban Revolution can perhaps be best illustrated b! contrasting the earl! stages of the Russian Revolution of 1.1) /ith the Cuban events; $nalogies bet/een the Russian and Cuban Revolutions--li+e analogies in general--fail to ta+e into account certain important differences: C=arism /as AI(RT-RA1D b! the spontaneous revolts of the peasant and proletarian masses onl! after a prolonged and blood! civil /ar; In Cuba9 the 'atista regime CA77$*S(D 1IT-A?T $ STR?CC7( for lac+ of popular support; There /ere no peasant revolts; Do general stri+es; Theodor Draper 2and man! other observers3 argues persuasivel! that since there /ere at least 8%009000 agricultural /or+ers in Cuba8 there could not have been man! peasants in a ; ; ; guerrilla force that never amounted to more than a thousand; ; ; there /as nothing comparable in Cuba to the classic peasant revolution led b! Kapata in 5e<ico in 1.10; ; ; there /as no national peasant uprising; Autside the immediate vicinit! of the guerrilla forces9 revolutionar! activit!9 in the countr! as a /hole9 /as largel! a middle class phenomenon9 /ith some /or+ing class support9 but /ithout /or+ing class organi=ations;;;2Castroism: Theor! and *ractice> De/ Eor+9 1.&%9 p; )#-)%3 4This ta+es on added significance /hen /e consider that the unions comprised AD( 5I77IAD out of a total population of about si< million /hen the Revolution began9 @an; 19 1.%.;6 In Russia9 the masses made the social revolution '( AR( the establishment of the 'olshevi+ government; 7enin climbed to po/er b! voicing the demands of9 and legali=ing the social revolutionar! D((DS of the /or+ers and peasants: 8$ll *o/er to the Soviets98 8The 7and to the *easants98 8The

actories to the 1or+ers98 etc; In Cuba9 Castro9 for fear of losing popular support9 carefull! avoided a social-revolutionar! platform--assuming that he had one; ?nli+e 7enin9 he came to po/er because he promised to put into effect the bourgeois-democratic program; -istor! is full of une<pected t/ists and turns; Ironicall! enough9 these t/o different revolutions had similar results: 'oth 7enin and Castro betra!ed their respective revolutions9 instituted totalitarian regimes and ruled b! decree from above; The /ell-+no/n anarcho-s!ndicalist /riter and activist9 $ugustin Souch!9 ma+es a cogent comparison bet/een the Spanish Revolution 21."&-1.".3 and the Cuban Revolution 2both of /hich he personall! /itnessed3: ; ; ; /hile in Spain9 the confiscation of the land and the organi=ation of thc collectives /as initiated and carried through9 b! the peasants themselves> in Cuba9 social-economic transformation /as initiated9 not b! the people9 but b! Castro and his comrades-in-arms; It is this distinction that accounts for the different development of the t/o revolutions> Spain9 mass revolution from the bottom up> Cuba9 revolution from the top do/n b! decree ; ; ; 2see Cuba; $n (!e/itness Report9 belo/3 1hich brings to mind the celebrated phrase of the 8$postle8 of Cuban independence @ose 5arti: 8To Change the 5aster Is Dot To 'e ree;8 Revolution the -atin A!erican "a The Cuban Revolution dra/s its specific character from a variet! of sources; 1hile not a 7atin $merican 8palace revolution8 /hich produced no deep seated social changes9 it nevertheless relates to the tradition of miltarism and bogus paternalism of 7atin $merican 8Caudillismo98 the 85an on -orsebac+;8 8Caudillismo8--8right8 or 8left98 8revolutionar!8 or 8reactionar!8--is a chronic affliction in 7atin $merica since the /ars for independence initiated b! Simon 'olivar in 1,10; The 8revolutionar! caudillo8 @uan *eron of $rgentina9 catapulted to po/er b! 8leftist8 arm! officers9 /as deposed b! 8rightist8 militar! officers; 5aurice -alperin calls attention to the 8; ; ; e<propriation of vast properties in *eru in 1.&, and in 'olivia in 1.&. b! the ver! generals /ho had destro!ed Cuban supported guerrilla uprisings in their respective countries; ; ; 8 2The Rise and all of idel Castro> ?niversit! of California9 1.)29 p; 11,3 The militari=ation of Cuban societ! b! a revolutionar! dictatorship headed b! the 8Caudillo8 of the Cuban Revolution9 idel Castro follo/s9 in general9 the 7atin $merican pattern; 7i+e other revolutionar! 7atin $merican 8Caudillos9 8 Castro /ould come to po/er onl! on the basis of programs designed to /in the indispensable support of the masses; (d/in 7ieu/en marshalls impressive evidence: ; ; ; In Chile in 1.2#9 5aBor Carlos Ibane= established a militar! dictatorship 4that6 /as notabl! successful in combining authoritarian rule /ith policies aimed at meeting popular demands for greater social Bustice; Successful but short lived revolutions too+ place during 1."& under the leadership of radical !oung officers inspired b! ideas of social reform and authoritarian nationalism; ; In 'olivia a cli:ue of radical !oung officers came to po/er; 5aBor David Toro and Colonel Cerman 'usch successfull! headed regimes that had social revolution as their goals; ; ; the! catered to the do/ntrodden and pledged to build a ne/ nation; Toro and 'usch based their dictatorial regimes on attempts to /in mass support ;;; 2$rms and *olitics in 7atin $merica> De/ Eor+9 1.&19 pgs; &09 &29 ),9 ).3

1hen in 1.&,9 a 8revolutionar!8 militar! @unta sei=ed po/er in *eru9 the ne/ militar! government proclaimed the fundamental principle underl!ing all 8radical8 militar! regimes8: ; ; ; the final aim of the State9 being the /elfare of the nation> and the armed forces being the instrument /hich the State uses to impose its policies9 therefore9 ; ; ; in order to arrive at collective prosperit!9 the armed forces have the mission to /atch over the social /elfare9 the final aim of the State;;; 2:uoted9 5odes of *olitical Change in 7atin $merica9 ed; *aul Sigmund9 De/ Eor+9 1.)09 p; 2013 Dr; Carlos Delgado9 Director of the Information 'ureau of the Revolutionar! Covernment of *eru9 after stressing that the revolution /as 8 ; ; ; initiated from above8 b! decree9 boasted that the dictatorship in 8;;;the last four and a half !ears8 accomplished more for the betterment of the people than in the 8/hole epoch of Republican rule;8 The revolution /as hailed9 boasted Delgado9 even b! the rench 5ar<ist thin+er9 -enri 7efebvre9 as one of the most important historical events of the contemporar! /orld;;;8 2see Reconstruir9 anarchist bi-monthl!9 'uenos $ires9 Dov;-Dec; 1.)#3 There is an umbilical connection bet/een militarism and the State9 full! compatible /ith9 and indispensable to9 all varieties of State 8socialism8--or more accuratel! State Capitalism; Ceorge *endle 2and other observers3 /ith respect to *eron's social and /elfare programs initiated to /oo mass support concludes that: ;;;*eron's Dational Institute of Social Securit!;;;converted $rgentina to one of the most advanced countries in South $merica; ; ; it /as not surprising that the maBorit! of /or+ers preferred *eron to their traditional leaders;;;the! felt that *eron accomplished more for them in a fe/ !ears than the Socialist *art! achieved in decades;;;2$rgentina> A<ford ?niversit! *ress9 7ondon9 1.&%9 pas; .)9 ..3 ; ; ; In -avana *remier idel Castro proclaimed three da!s of mourning and Cuban officials termed *eron's death a blo/ to all 7atin $merica; ; ;2De/ Eor+ Times9 @ul! 29 1.)#3 This c!nical proclamation /as not made solel! for tactical reasons9 but in recognition of the affinit! bet/een the Casro and *eron regimes; $s earl! as 1.&19 there /ere alread! informal contacts bet/een Che Cuevara and $ngel 'orlenghi 8;;; a number t/o man in *eron's government and his 5inister of the Interior for eight !ears ;;; Che told 'orlenghi that there's no :uestion about it that *eron /as the most advanced embodiment of political and economic reform in $rgentina ;;; and under Che's guidance a rapport /as established bet/een the Cuban Revolution and the *eronist movement ;;; Che has in his possession a letter from *eron e<pressing admiration for Castro and the Cuban Revolution and Che had raised the :uestion of inviting *eron to settle in -avana ; ; ; 8 2:uoted b! -alperin9 from Ricardo RoBo's /or+9 5! riend Che> ibid; p; "2.-""03 -erbert 5atthe/s supplements RoBo's revelations:;;;the $rgentine Bournalist @orge 5assetti /ho /ent into the Sierra 5aestra in 1.%,9 became friends /ith Cuevara; -e /as trained for guerrilla /arfare in the Sierra 5aestra and in 1.&# /as +illed in a guerrilla raid in $rgentina ; ; ; 5assetti /as credited /ith convincing Cuevara that *eronism appro<imated his o/n ideas; -ilda Cadea--Cuevara's first /ife--/rote that for (rnesto Cuevara9 the fall of *eron Sept; 1.%% /as a heav! blo/; Che and 5assetti blamed it9;;;'on Dorth $merican Imperialists';;;2ibid; p; 2%,3 4Carmelo 5esa-7ago notes the connection bet/een State Socialism and militarism; Castro enthusiasticall! hailed6 8 ; ; ; the *eruvian Social Revolution as a progressive militar! group pla!ing a revolutionar! role; ; ;8 2Cuba in the 1.)0s: ?niversit! of De/ 5e<ico *ress9 1.)%9 p; 1163 In an intervie/9 Castro emphaticall! maintained that social revolution is compatible /ith militar! dictatorship9 not onl! in *eru9 but also in *ortugal and *anama;

41hen the militar! Bunta in *eru6 too+ po/er;;;the first thing the! did /as to implement agrarian reform /hich /as 5?C- 5AR( R$DIC$7 than the agrarian reform /e initiated in Cuba; It put a much lo/er limit on the si=e of properties> organi=ed cooperatives9 agricultural communities> ; ; ; the! also pushed in other fields--in the field of education9 social development9 industriali=ation; ; ; 1e must also see the e<ample of *ortugal /here the militar! pla!ed a decisive role in political change; ; ;and are on their /a! to finding solutions; ; ; /e have *eru and *anama--/here the militar! are acting as catal!sts in favor of the revolution; ; ; 2Castro :uoted b! ran+ and Hirb! @ones9 1ith idel> De/ Eor+9 1.)%9 p; 1.%-1.&3 4The evidence sustains Donald Dru=e's conclusion that6 ; ; ; the programs of modern 'caudillos' embodies so man! features of centralism and Dational Socialism9 that it almost inevitabl! blends into communism;;; 27atin $merica: $n interpretive -istor!> De/ Eor+9 1.)29 p; %)03 5ilitarism flourishes in Cuba as in latin $merica; Castro proBected militarism to a degree une:ualled b! his predecessor9 'atista: total domination of social9 econonmic and political life; In the Spring of 1.%.9 a fe/ months after the Revolution of @anuar! 1st9 Castro9 /ho appointed himself the 87ider 5a<imo8 28Caudillo83 of the Revolution and Commander-in-Chief of the $rmed orces9 promised to cut the si=e of the arm! in half and ultimatel! to disband and replace it b! civilian militias and police; 8The last thing I am98 said Castro9 8is a militar! man ; ; ; ours is a countr! /ithout generals and colonels; ; ; 8 1ithin a !ear after the disintegration of the 'atista $rm!9 Castro turned Cuba into a thoroughl! militari=ed state9 /ith the most formidable armed force of an! in 7atin $merica; or the first time in Cuban histor!9 compulsor! militar! service /as instituted; Do/9 Cuba has adopted the traditional hierarchical ran+ing s!stem of conventional armies; The Cuban arm! differs in no essential respect from the armies of both 8capitalist8 and 8socialist8 imperialist po/ers; 3Co!!unis!3 a la Castro Insofar as relations /ith the communists are concerned9 Theodore Draper notes the stri+ing resemblance bet/een the policies of 'atista and Castro: ; ; ; 'atista paid off the communists for their support9 b! among other things9 permitting them to set up an official trade union federation9 the Confederacidn de TrabaBadores de Cuba 2CTC3 /ith 7a=aro *ena as its Secretar!-Ceneral; In 1.&19 Castro paid off the communists for their support9 b!9 among other things9 permitting 7a=aro *ena to come bac+ officiall! as Secretar! Ceneral of the CTC;;;2ibid; p; 20#3 If /e accept at face value Castro's conversion to 8communism98 his 8communism8 embodies the 7atin $merican version of Stalinism9 absolute personal dictatorship; 'ut 8Caudillos8 are not primaril! ideologues; The! are9 above all9 political adventurers; In their lust for po/er9 the! are not guided b! ethical considerations9 as the! claim; In this respect9 there is no essential difference bet/een capitalist states and 8revolutionar! socialist states;8 $ll dictators conceal their true visage behind the facade of a political part!9 pa!ing lip service to goals supposedl! popular /ith the masses; Castro became a 8communist8 because he considered that his survival in po/er depended on cementing cordial relations /ith his saviors9 the 8socialist8 countries 2former enemies3 and b! e<tension /ith 'atista's former allies9 the domestic 8communists;8 To promote his ends9 Castro established relations /ith ranco Spain and the Iatican; Dor did he hesitate to side /ith the $rab oil magnates--lords over their impoverished subBects--in the mid-east disputes9 or to endorse the Russian invasion of C=echo-Slova+ia; The Real Revolution 4s 5et To Co!e $lbert Camus observed:

; ; ; the maBor event of the t/entieth centur! has been the abandonment of the values of libert! on the part of the revolutionar! movement9 the /ea+ening of 7ibertarian Socialism9 vis-a-vis Caesarist and militaristic socialism; Since then9 a great hope has disappeared from the /orld9 to be replaced b! a deep sense of emptiness in the hearts of all /ho !earn for freedom;;; 2Deither victims Dor (<ecutioners3 1hether Castro is /or+ing out his o/n uni:ue brand of 8Cuban Socialism8 is a relativel! minor :uestion; (ven if Castro had no connection /ith the communist movement9 his mania for personal po/er /ould lead inevitabl! to the establishment of an 8independent8 totalitarian regime; 1hat is decisive is that the Cuban Revolution follo/s the pattern established in this centur! b! the aborted Russian Revolution of 1.1); This pattern is the counter-revolution of the State;

Chapter 4 - The 4deolo) o/ (panish Anarchis!

To understand the character of Cuban anarchism it is first necessar! to summari=e the main principles of Spanish anarcho-s!ndicalism from /hich the Cuban revolutionar! movetnent derives its orientation; These principles /ere formulated b! 'a+unin and the libertarian sections of the old 8 irst8 International 1or+ingmen's $ssociation 2I15$3 founded in 1,&#; rancisco Tomas9 one of the organi=ers of the Spanish Region of the I15$9 reported that 8;;;relations /ith the Cuban sections /ere fre:uent after 1,,1;;;8 25a< Dettlau: Reconstruir> @an; 1%9 1.)%3 The Declaration of *rinciples of the International $lliance of Socialist Democrac!9 drafted b! 'a+unin in 1,&, could be called the 85agna Carta8 of Spanish $narchism; The most relevant paragraph reads: ; ; ; The $lliance see+s the complete and definitive abolition of classes and the political9 economic9 and social e:ualit! of both se<es; It /ants the land and the instruments of labor li+e all other propert! 4not personal belongings6 to be converted into the collective propert! of the /hole societ! for the utili=ation 4not o/nership6 b! /or+ers: that is9 b! agricultural and industrial societies 4unions6 and federations; It affirms that e<isting political and authoritarian states9 /hich are to be reduced to simple administrative functions dealing /ith public utilities9 must eventuall! be replaced b! a /orld/ide union of free associations9 agricultural and industrial;;; 'a+unin stressed that the organi=ation of the free societ! must be based on the 8 ; ; ; various functions of dail! life and of different +inds of labor ; ; ; organi=ed b! professions and trades; ; ; 8 2*rogram of The International9 1,)13 -e envisioned that the 8free productive associations''' /hich /ill include members of cooperatives9 communit! and neighborhood groups9 cultural associations etc;9 /ill voluntaril! organi=e 8according to their needs and s+ills;8 The! /ill eventuall! 8;;; transcend all national boundaries and form an immense /orld-/ide federation;;;8 2Revolutionar! Catechism 1,&&3 Thc Resolution of the 'asel Congress of the I15$ 21,&.3 after repeating that the /age s!stem must be replaced b! the 8federation of free producers ; ; ;8 s+etched out a form of organi=ation9 /hich9 in the main9 corresponded to the structure of the libertarian econom! established in /ide areas during the Spanish Revolution of 1."&-1.".: ;;;the structure of the ne/ econom! /as simple: (ach factor! organi=ed a ne/ administration manned b! its o/n technical and administrative /or+ers; actories in the same industr! in each localit! organi=ed themselves into the local ederations of their particular industr!; $ll the local ederations organi=ed themselves into the local (conomic Council of the territorial communit! in /hich all the /or+ places /ere represented 4coordination9 e<change9 sanitation9 culture9 transportation9 public utilities and the /hole range of public services including distribution of commodities b! consumer cooperatives and other associations;6 'oth the 7ocal ederations of each industr! and the 7ocal (conomic Councils /ere organi=ed regionall! and nationall! into parallel Dational ederations of Industr! and Dational (conomic ederations;;; 2Diego $bad de Santillan9 anarchist /riter9 5inister of (conom! of Catalonia during Spanish Revolution; *or Fue *erdimos la Cuerra> 'uenos $ires9 1.#09 p; ,23 $dapting 'a+uninist conceptions to Spanish conditions the Spanish anarcho-s!ndicalists bet/een the founding Congress of the ederation of the Spanish Region of the I15$ 2'arcelona9 1,)03 and the 5adrid Congress of 1,)#9 /or+ed out the basic principles and organi=ation of Spanish anarchos!ndicalism; 2ReBecting the artificial national boundaries imposed b! capitalism and the State to segregate and divide the /or+ers into hostile camps9 the I15$ designated its affiliated organi=ations of different

countries as 8Regional ederations of the I15$83 'riefl! stated9 the leading principles could be formulated in the follo/ing manner: The /or+ing class must build a ne/ /orld based on /or+ers' self-management of the econom!9 collective o/nership and administration of social /ealth9 full individual9 se<ual and cultural freedom based upon the principle of federalism; ederalism means coordination through free agreement9 locall!9 regionall!9 nationall! and internationall! constituting a vast coordinated net/or+ of voluntar! alliances embracing the totalit! of social life; ?nder federalism the associated groups and organi=ations reap the benefits of unit! /hile still e<ercising autonom! /ithin their o/n spheres; Through federation the people e<pand the range of their o/n freedoms; This can be accomplished onl! b! the Social Revolution /hich /ill forever do a/a! /ith private propert! in the means of production and distribution> abolish the State and its satellite institutions9 the armed forces; thc church9 the bureaucrac! and all forms of domination and e<ploitation of man b! man; 8; ; ;on the ruins of capitalism9 the State and the Church /e /ill build an anarchist societ!> the free association of free /or+ers' associations ;;;8 *arliamelltar! action9 collaboration /ith an! form of the State is reBected: ; ; ; all governments are evil; To as+ a /or+er /hat +ind of government he prefers is to as+ him /hat e<ecutioner he prefers; ; ; the great ?nited States Republic is an e<ample; There is no +ing nor emperor9 but there are the giant trusts: the +ings of Cold9 of Steel9 of Cotton;;; 1hile the means of production9 2land9 mines transportation9 etc;3 must become the propert! of the /hole societ!9 8 ; ; ; onl! the /or+ers' collectives /ill have the use of these facilities;;;8 In this respect differing from true communism /here goods and services /ill be distributed according to D((D; In such a societ! the authoritarian institutions /hich foster the 8 ; ; ; spirit of nationalism and brea+ the natural solidarit! of man+ind;;;8 /ill disappear to be replaced b! the /orld-/ide common/ealth of labor; The free societ! /ill 8; ; ; harmoni=e freedom /ith Bustice and achieve solidarit!;;;8 2:uotes are from $nselmo 7oren=o's (l *roletariado 5ilitante9 pgs; ,09 ,19 1),9 1).9 1.2; 5e<ico Cit!9 (diciones Iertice9 no date3 The revolutionar! 8direct action8 tendenc! in the Spanish labor movement has al/a!s reBected parliamentarianism and class collaboration /ith the emplo!ers and the State in favor of direct action on the economic front; The tactics of the general stri+e9 partial stri+es9 passive 8folded arms8 stri+es9 the bo!cott9 sabotage and insurrections /ere developed b! the /or+ers in the course of bitter class struggles long before the founding of the I15$; The I15$ itself arose in response to the need for international solidarit! in stri+es; Clara (; 7ida and other historians trace the ideas and tactics of revolutionar! s!ndicalism in Spain from the earl! 1,00s to the revolution of 1,%# and the great Catalonian general stri+e a !ear later9 filteen !ears before the organi=ation of the I15$ in Spain; 2$nar:uismo ! Revolucion en (spana9 5adrid9 1.)23 The lessons learned in the course of bitter class struggles made the Spanish proletariat receptive to the ideas of 'a+unin; The! /ere inspired b! the great /atch/ord of the I15$: 8The emancipation of the /or+ing class is the tas+ of the /or+ers themselves;8 'a+unin formulated a fundamental principle of anarcho-s!ndicalism: that in the process of stuggling for better conditions /ithin e<isting capitalist societ! and 8stud!ing economic science;;; the /or+er's organi=ations bear /ithin themselves the living seeds of the ne/ social order /hich is to replace the

bourgeois /orld ;;; the! are creating not onl! the ideas9 but also the facts of the future itself;;;8 2:uoted9 Rudolf Roc+er9 $narcho-S!ndicalism9 p; ,, India edition3 $t the 'asel Congress of the I15$ the Spanish delegates 2and the other libertarian sections3 also emphasi=ed the t/ofold tas+ of anarcho-s!ndicalism: the unions of the /or+ers must not onl! carr! on the dail! struggle for their economic9 social and cultural betterment /ithin the e<isting e<ploitative s!stem; The! must prepare themselves to ta+e over the self-management of social and economic life and become the living cells of the ne/9 free societ!; The structure of the ederation of the Spanish Region /as designed to assure the greatest possible amount of freedom and autonom! commensurate /ith indispensable and effective coordination; To prevent the gro/th of bureaucrac! there /ere no paid officials; $ll union affairs /ere coordinated after /or+ing hours; 1hen this /as not possible delegates /ere paid onl! for the time lost a/a! from /or+; The po/er of the ederal Commission and the Ceneral Congresses /ere strictl! limited onl! to carr!ing out the instructions of the membership never to set polic!; Decisions had to be ratified b! the maBorit! of the membership; The agenda for conferences9 congresses of local9 provincial and national assemblies /ere prepared and thoroughl! discussed months in advance; In line /ith this tradition the CDT 2Dational Confederation of 7abor3 /ith over a million members in 1."&9 had onl! one paid official--the Ceneral Secretar!; The 5adrid Congress of the CDT 2Dec; 1.1.3 unanimousl! adopted an anarchist-communist Declaration of *rinciples stating that 8;;;in accord /ith the essential postulates of the irst International 2I15$3 the aim of the CDT of Spain is the reali=ation of Comunismo 7ibertario;;;8 2@ose *eirats: 7a CDT en la Revolucion (spanola-Toulouse9 1.%19 p; %3 The Declaration of *rinciples of the I15$ reorgani=ed b! the anarcho-s!ndicalists in 1.22 also proclaimed tnat 8;;;its goal is the reorgani=ation of social life on the basis of ree Communism; ; ; 8 Strongl! influenced b! the ideas of *eter Hropot+in /ho /or+ed out the sociolog! of anarchism the anarchist Isaac *uente 2+illed on the Saragossa front during the Spanish Civil 1ar--1."&-1.".3 envisaged the structure of an anarchist societ! on the basis of 8 rom each according to his abilit!> to each according to his needs;8 ;;; 7ibertarian Communism is the organi=ation of societ! /ithout the state and /ithout capitalism; To establish 7ibertarian Communism it /ill not be necessar! to invent artificial social organi=ations; The ne/ societ! /ill naturall! emerge from 8the shell of the old;8 The elements of the future societ! are alread! planted in the old e<isting order; The! are the ?nion 4in (uropean usage9 the S!ndicate6 and the ree Commune 4sometimes called 8free municipalit!86 /hich are old9 deepl! rooted9 non-statist popular institutions9 spontaneousl! organi=ed9 and embracing all to/ns and villages in urban and rural areas; 1ithin the ree Commune9 there is also room for cooperative associations of artisans9 farmers and other groups or individuals /ho prefer to remain independent or form their o/n groupings to meet their o/n needs 4providing9 of course9 that the! do not e<ploit hired labor for /ages6;;;8 8;;; the terms 'libertarian' and 'communism' denote the fusion of t/o inseperable concepts9 the indispensible prere:uisites for the free societ!: collectivism and individual freedom;;;8 2(l Communismo $narchico3 $lthough the impact of Spanish anarchist ideas on Cuban labor /as indeed great it is not to be inferred that the! /ere artificiall! grafted to the Cuban revolutionar! move/ent; These ideas /ere adapted to Cuban conditions; $narcho-s!ndicalist principles /ere accepted9 not because /ere imported from Spain

2the masses did not +no/ /here these ideas came from3 but because the! corresponded to the asperations and e<periences of the Cuban /or+ers on Cuban soil;

Chapter 6 - Anarchis! in Cuba: the Forerunners

'oth anarchist ideas and the development of the Cuban labor movement trace bac+ to the middle of the nineteenth centur!; (ven toda!'s Cuban communists recogni=e that: ;;;in spite of the efforts of *aul 7afargue 25ar<'s son-in-la/9 stationed in Spain3 and other mar<ists9 the proletariat of the peninsula 2Spain and *ortugal3 /ere strongl! influenced b! anarchist and anarchos!ndicalist ideas; $nd these ideas carried over to Cuba in the last :uarter of the and first :uarter of the 20th centur!9 decisivel! influencing the Cuban labor movement /hich /as invariable anarchist; ; ; 8 2Serge $guirre> Cuba Socialista--a Castroite monthl!--September9 1.&%;3 ; ; ; During the /hole epoch 2from the 1,.0s until after the Russian Revolution3 it /as the anarchos!ndicalists /ho led the class struggles in Cuba9 and the anarchist ideological influence that prevailed; ; ;38 2@ulio de Riverend9 Cuba Socialista9 eb; 1.&%3 Anarchis! in the Colonial Period In Cuba the anarchist movement did not9 as in some countries9 develop independentl! of the labor movement; The! gre/ so closel! together that it is impossible to trace the histor! of one /ithout the other the forerunners and organi=ers of the Cuban labor movement /ere the Spanish anarcho-s!lldicalist e<iles /ho in the 1,,0s came to Cuba; It /as the! /ho gave the Cuban labor movement its distinct social revolutionar! orientation9 spreading the anarcho-s!ndicalist ideas of 'a+unin and the Spanish internationalists--men li+e (nri:ue 5essinier9 (nri:ue Roig San 5artin9 and (nri:ue Cresci; Ane of the earl! labor organi=ations /as the Sociedades (conomicos de $migos del *ais 2(conomic Societ! of the riends of the Countr!3; 1e lac+ detailed information about the ideolog! of the $ssociation of Tobacco 1or+ers of -avana organi=ed in 1,&&--but it /as vaguel! s!ndicalistic; The /or+ers /ere passionatel! interested in self-education; The tobacco /or+ers of -avana 2li+e their countr!men in lorida3 paid readers to read /or+s of general interest to them /hile the! /or+ed; During the reader's rest period the! avidl! discussed /hat the! had learned; $n emplo!er rash enough to interfere /ith these proceedings /ould be unceremoniousl! escorted from his premises; In 1,,%9 an informal federation of unions9 Circular de TrabaBadores de la -abana 2/or+ers' clubs3 /as organi=ed; T/o !ears later9 it held a Congress in /hich t/o opposing groups9 8reformists versus radicals8 heatedl! debated the future orientation of their organi=ation; The anarchist propaganda groups stressed the necessit! for organi=ation along anarcho-s!ndicalist lines9 reBecting 5ar<ian ideas on the necessit! for parliamentar!-political action b! social-democratic political parties; In 1,,&9 the 1or+ers' Center /as founded to spread the ideas of anarcho-s!ndicalism through its organ (l *roductor9 2The *roducer3 founded and edited b! the anarchist (nri:ue Roig San 5artin; In 1,.29 the first 1or+ers' Congress celebrated the irst of 5a! b! demonstrations for the independence of Cuba9 /hich provo+ed the premature closing of the Congress b! the Spanish authorities; The resolutions for the independence of Cuba /ere drafted b! the anarchists (nri:ue Cresci9 (nri:ue Suare= and (duardo Con=ale=; The congress approved a resolution stating that 8 ; ; ; the /or+ing class /ill not be emancipated until it embraces revolutionar! socialism9 /hich cannot be an obstacle for the triumph of the independence of our countr!; ; ;8 2:uoted b! 5aurice -alperin: The Rise and all of idel Castro9 ?niversit! of California 1.)29 p; #3

$round 1,)# the revered 8apostle8 of Cuban independence9 @ose 5arti9 fre:uentl! referred to anarchist groups named for ermin Salvochea9 'a+unin and others; In his paper9 7a *atria9 he printed articles b! the anarchist (lisee Reclus and others; 5arti /rote: 8; ; ; /e live in a period of struggle bet/een capitalists and /or+ers; ; ; a militant alliance of /or+ers /ill be a tremendous event; The! are no/ creating it; ; ; 8 2:uoted -alperin9 ibid; p; &-)3 The anarchist Carlos 5; 'alino9 active among the tobacco /or+ers of lorida9 /as an associate of @ose 5arti; $nd the (nri:ue Roig Club included the anarchist and socialist supporters of 5arti; 1e cite these facts to demonstrate the social-revolutionar! character of the independence movement /hich /as not merel! nationalistic; (nri:ue 5essenier became the first president of the 7iga Ceneral de TrabaBadores9 organi=ed b! the anarchists in the 1,.0s; This period also mar+ed general stri+es of longshoremen in Cardenas9 Regla and -avana; The 7iga conducted the first general stri+e for the eight hour da!9 /hich /as brutall! suppressed b! the government; $ contemporar! intimate account of the state of the Cuban anarchist movement during the crucial !ears preceding independence can be gleaned from the report of *edro (steve9 a pioneer of the 20th centur! anarchist movement /hich flourished in the ?nited States; 2$ 7os $nar:uistas de (spana ! Cuba> Reported to the International $narchist Congress9 Chicago 1,."> published b! (l Despertar9 *aterson9 De/ @erse!9 1.00;3 (steve /as in close touch /ith the Cuban anarchists in Cuba and /ith the Spanish anarchist e<iles in Cuba; The follouing remar+s /ere based upon a frustrated propaganda tour cut short b! the police after a three month sta!; The authorities tried to cripple9 and if possible9 e<tirpate our movement9 not b! outright violence--/hich /ould have aroused a storm of protest--but b! a no less effective9 persistent and devilishl! clever campaign of pett! harassments 2landlords /ere pressured not to rent premises for our meetings;3 1hile not resorting to open censorship9 our /ee+l! 7a $larma /as forced to suspend publication; It reappeared under the name $rchivo Social and /as again suppressed; Aur Circulo de TrabaBadores 1or+ers' Center /as closed do/n on false charges concocted b! the 8sanitation inspectors8 etc;9 etc;3 The attentats of (mil -enr! and other anarchist terrorists /hich precipitated the brutal persecution of the anarchist movement in (urope9 li+e/ise became the prete<t for the Cuban government's crac+do/n on our movement;;; (steve recounts the effects of racism on the health! development of the Cuban labor and socialist movements9 for9 in spite of the abolition of slaver! and proclamation of e:ual rights9 rampant racial discrimination /as still common; ; ; ; not even the e<emplar! conduct of the anarchists /ho unfailingl! /elcomed the negroes on e:ual terms at meetings9 schools and all other functions on a person to person basis9 sufficed for a long time to sha+e the belief that all /hites /ere their natural enemies;;; Devertheless /e continued our agitation /ith dedication and attracted to our ran+s genuine proletarian elements; 1e held meetings in various -avana neighborhoods and in other cities and villages; 1e /ere invited to e<plain our ideas in non-academic popular schools9 and in our Center9 /e gave popular courses in sociolog! and other subBects;;;/e also initiated other proBects of /or+ers' education;;;at the invitation of /or+ers in the 7a Rosa de Santiago cigar factor!9 I gave a /ell received tal+ on anarchism ; ; ; these are onl! a fe/ e<amples;;;little b! little9 anarchists /ho had been inactive for a long time returned9 and ne/ adherents came to us ; ; ; our movement revived slo/l!9 but on firmer foundations;;;

(tru))le /or 4ndependence: 1787-1796 1,&, mar+ed the beginning of the ten-!ear guerrilla /ar for independence from Spanish colonial domination9 8(l Crito de Eara; 8 An Actober 109 1,&,9 Carlos 5anuel de Cespedes9 a /ealth! sugar plantation o/ner in Ariente province attac+ed the village of Eara /ith less than #0 men; The attac+ /as repulsed and onl! 12 men survived; 8(l Crito de Eara98 28The Call To Rebellion83 became the s!mbol and /atch/ord of the struggle for independence; 5ore than 2009000 militants /ere +illed in the ten-!ear /ar9 uncounted thousands /ere /ounded; Total casualties could not be estimated; The most prominent militar! leaders of the independence movement /ere Ceneral 5a<imo Comei= and $ntonio 5aceo; In 1,&. Cespedes /as elected *resident of the *rovisional Republic; This9 and (l Crito de Eara earned him the title 8 ather of Independence;8 Spain sent Ceneral Ialeriano 1e!ler9 8The 'utcher98 to e<tirpate the independence movement; -e loc+ed hundreds of thousands of men /omen and children into concentration camps; In -avana alone9 %29000 people perished; In rebel areas9 cattle and crops /ere destro!ed to starve out the freedom fighters and their families; The peasants retaliated b! burning do/n vast Spanish o/ned sugar plantations; 1e!ler /as recalled to Spain in 1,).; $fter the abolition of slaver! in 1,,09 the big landlords e<pected the Spanish government to compensate them for the losses entailed b! the emancipation of the slaves; 'ut the condition of the /or+ers remained practicall! unchanged; The Revista de $gricultura /rote: ; ; ; $ /or+er in a sugar mill camp a/o+e at 2 a;m;9 dran+ a glass of hot /ater for brea+fast9 /or+ed till 11 a;m; $fter a t/o hour lunch brea+ the /or+er /ent bac+ and /or+ed till & p;m;9 ate supper and then /or+ed several hours more; ; ; 2:uoted in Castro organ Cuba Socialista clipping--no date3 Anarchists in the (tru))le /or 4ndependence The most militant elements in the insurrections of 1,.% for the independence of Cuba /ere primaril! the peasants 2and to a relativel! Iesser e<tent thc numericall! inferior urban /or+ers3; rom the beginning to the end of the /ar for independence the international anarchist movement supported the revolts9 and man! !oung anarchists came to Cuba to fight /ith the Cuban people; 5an! anarchists /ere in the forefront of these struggles9 among them Rafael Carcia9 $rmando $ndre 2one of the commanders of the rebel arm!9 later murdered b! the 5achado assassins3 and (nri:ue Cresci; $narchist participation in the independence struggles /as based upon the follo/ing considerations: or the e<ploited9 oppressed masses9 bourgeois independence /as of secondar! importance; or them9 abolition of colonial despotism also signified the end of their age-long servitude9 and /ith it9 the inauguration of a ne/ era of economic e:ualit!9 social Bustice and personal freedom; The people's struggle for independence simultaneousl! too+ on a social-revolutionar! character; $narchist propaganda9 and above all $CTIAD9 encouraged the masses to turn the struggle for political independence into the struggle for the Social Revolution; Cuban 4ndependence: The *9pansion o/ &:(: 4!perialis! The ?;S; imperialists feared the social-revolution of the Cuban people as much as their Spanish colonial and domestic e<ploiters; In this connection the vie/s of t/o /ell :ualified historians are /ell /orth :uoting:

; ; ; during the negotiations for the treat! of peace after the victor! over Spain 4in the Spanish-$merican 1ar9 1,.,6 Spain e<pressed fear that if left to itself the island;;;might be pre! to fre:uent revolutions /ith the result that neither propert! nor personal rights /ould be protected; To save Cuba from the possible conse:uences of 'premature' independence9 Spain /ished to have the ?nited States +eep at least a degree of control sufficient to insure order; ; ; 2Chester 7lo!d @ones> :uoted in 'ac+ground to Revolution9 De/ Eor+9 1.&&9 p; &"3 *rofessor @ones points out that the ?nited States shared Spain's fear of Revolution in Cuba and agreed to 8;;;discharge its obligations under international la/; ; ; 8 2p; &#3 $nd *rofessor 1illiam $ppleton 1illiams sums up the true motivations of ?;S; imperialism in respect to Cuban independence: ; ; ; the ?nited States sought the prompt and permanent pacification of the island; ; ; to insure militar! control; ; ; and facilitate and safeguard ?nited States economic predominance ;;; the ?nited States thereb! set itself in opposition to the Cuban revolutionaries as /ell as the Spanish government ;;; Cuba /as to be reconstructed along lines satisfactor! to the ?nited States9 and onl! finall! handed over to the Cubans after such vital limits on their freedom of action and development had been established to insure indefinite $merican predominance ;;; 2:uoted in antholog! 'ac+ground to Revolution> pgs; 1,,-1.03 4ndependence to the ;utbrea# o/ "orld "ar 4: 1797-1914 1ith the defeat of Spain in the Spanish-$merican 1ar9 Cuba became an independent republic; It /as the revolutionar! masses of Cuba9 the humble peasants and urban /or+ers9 /ho b! their heroism undermined Spanish rule and made possible the eas! victor! of the ?nited Statcs; 'et/een 1,., and 1.029 the $merican militar! occupied and governed Cuba on the prete<t that a transition period /as necessar! to prepare Cuba for self-rule; The $merican troops left after the first presidential election; 'ut the *latt amendment of 1.01 granted the ?;S; the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and permanentl! occup! the Cuantanamo 'a! naval base; 2The administration of the Isle of *ines /as revo+ed in 1.2%;3 Tomas strada *alma /as elected *resident of the ne/ republic in 1.02; -is fraudulent re-election in 1.0& and the 8liberal8 coup /hich deposed him created the prete<t for the second intervention of ?;S; troops; The administration of *alma's successor @ose 5iguel Come= 21.0.-1.123 /as incredibl! corrupt; -e boasted9 8;;;in all m! life9 I have heen Bovial in spirit9 /ith a smile on m! lips; ; ;8 -ubert -erring remar+s: 8 ;;/ith a smile9 Come= emptied the treasur! and allo/ed his Cuban and $merican cronies to fatten on concessions; ; ; 8 2-istor! ol 7atin $merica> De/ Eor+9 1.%%9 p; #013 The ne/ independent republic turned out to be Bust9 or almost as reactionar! as the deposed colonial despotism of Spain; Scarcel! less bitter /as the struggle bet/een the oppressed people of Cuba and the corrupt ne/ State /ith its bureaucrac! and its militar! and police forces; In the Spring of 1.009 during the ?nited States occupation9 the group publishing (l 5undo Ideal 2The Ideal Societ!39 invited the /ell +no/n anarchist (rrico 5alatesta to tour Cuba and spea+ to the /or+ers and peasants; 'ut the Covernment e<pelled him; ?pon leaving Cuba 5alatesta /rote a fare/ell letter to his Cuban comrades9 from /hich /e e<cerpt the follo/ing passages: 8; ; ; ?pon leaving this countr! for /hich I harbor a strong affection permit me to salute the valiant Cuban /or+ers9 blac+ and /hite9 native and foreign9 /ho e<tended me so cordial a /elcome ;;;

8; ; ; I have9 for a ver! long time9 admired the self-sacrifice and heroism /ith /hich !ou have fought for the freedom of !our countr!; Do/ I have learned to appreciate !our clear intelligence9 !our spirit of progress and !our trul! remar+able culture9 so rare in people /ho have been so cruell! oppressed; $nd I leave /ith the conviction that !ou /ill soon ta+e !our place among the most advanced elements in all countries fighting for the real emancipation of humanit! ; ; ; 8 8; ; ; I assume that the libertarians fighting against the e<isting government /ill not put another government in its place> but each one /ill understand that if in the /ar for independence this spirit of hostilit! to all governments incarnated in ever! libertarian9 /ill no/ ma+e it impossible to impose upon the Cuban people the same Spanish la/s9 /hich mart!rs li+e 5arti9 Cresci9 5aceo9 and thousands of other Cubans died to abolish;;;8 2Solidaridad Castronomica--$narcho-S!ndicalist food /or+ers union organ9 $ug; 1%9 1.%%3 In 1.029 -avana tobacco /or+ers9 organi=ed b! Con=ales 7o=ana and other anarchists9 called a general stri+e9 the first under the Republic; This action9 the famous 8stri+e of the apprentices98 sought to end the e<ploitation of apprentices9 /hose status had been9 in effect9 that of indentured servants bound to their emplo!ers for a given period; The tobacco /or+ers /ere Boined b! the -avana port /or+ers; The government tried to brea+ the stri+e b! force9 provo+ing a violent battle in /hich t/ent! /or+ers /ere +illed; ?sing the threat of ?;S; intervention9 the government finall! bro+e the stri+e; The period bet/een 1.0" and 1.1# /as mar+ed b! man! stri+es in /hich the anarchist activel! participated; $mong the more important /e list: 1.0"; During a maBor stri+e of sugar /or+ers9 the anarchists Casanas and 5ontero ! Sarria /ere murdered b! order of the then Covernor of 7as Iillas *rovince9 @ose 5iguel Come=9 later *resident of Cuba; The long 5oneda Ceneral Stri+e9 led b! the anarchists 2 eb; 20th to @ul! 1%th3 /as called because the /or+ers refused to accept pa!ment in devalued Spanish pesetas; The! demanded pa!ment in $merican dollars /orth more in purchasing po/er; $lso in 1.0)9 the anarchist /ee+l! TierraJ /as severel! persecuted for inciting a rail/a! stri+e for the eight hour da! and other demands; The Tobacco /or+ers again /ent on stri+e9 this time for 1#% da!s; The! /ere Boined b! maritime9 construction and other /or+ers; 1.10-1.12; $narcho-s!ndicalists pla!ed an important part in the stri+e of -avana and Cienfuegos se/er /or+ers of @une 1.10; The bitter 1.12 restaurant and cafe /or+ers stri+e also involved anarchist militants; Ane of the most active stri+ers /as -ilario $lonso; Ather stri+es of the period included the bric+la!ers stri+e for the eight hour da!> the rail/a! /or+ers' stri+e> the violent -avana tunnel /or+ers stri+e and the deportation of Spanish anarchists and s!ndicalists /ho /ere particularl! militant; During these !ears the anarchist movement flourished; The /ee+l! TierraJ /ith its e<cellent articles from the pen of the most distinguished Cuban and Spanish /riters> the libertarian Bournal9 (l Ideal9 and the /idespread circulation of /or+s b! (lisee Reclus9 Hropot+in and other anarchists in popular priced editions; This period also mar+ed the significant gro/th of the /or+ers' cooperative movement in /hich the anarchists /ere ver! active; *a!ment of a moderate monthl! fee gave /or+ers the use of recreation and cultural facilities9 medical services and other benefits; The movement reached a total of 2009000 members; In spite of the opposition of industrialists9 the /or+ers organi=ed producers' and consumers' housing and other cooperatives;

The anarchists also spearheaded the organi=ation of agrarian cooperatives9 a movement /hich the Castro government crushed in favor of State farms; The libertarian movement of Cuba had al/a!s given top priorit!9 not onl! to the organi=ation of urban /or+ers9 but also to peasant struggles; The! built up peasant organi=ations throughout Cuba--in San Cristobal9 7as *lacios9 *inar del Rio--/herever there /as the slightest opportunit!; In Realengo 1,9 !entas de Casanova9 Santa 7ucia and (l Iinculo anarchist militants li+e 5arcelo Salinas9 5odesto 'arbieto9 $lfredo *ere= and man! others fought bravel!; Aur unforgettable comrades Sabino *upo 5illan and Diceto *ere= /ere militant peasant revolutionaries in the immense sugar plantations of Santa 7ucia9 and in Camague!; During this period9 and at least up to 1.2%9 anarchists /ere the onl! militants influential among sugar /or+ers; 5illan /as murdered Actober 209 1.#%9 b! paid assassins of the 5onati Sugar Compan! for stirring peasant resistance and organi=ing peasant cooperatives; *ere= /as also assassinated> the *easant ederation of Cuba commemorated the date of his murder as 8The Da! of the *easant: a da! of struggle for the demands of the hungr! and e<ploited agricultural /or+ers;8 Russian Revolution to the +achado $ictatorship: 1917-1926 The termination of 1orld 1ar I and the Russian Revolution fired the imagination of the advanced sections of the labor and radical movements around thc /orld; 5an! anarchists e<pected an immediate revolution and the reali=ation of the Bust societ! /orld/ide; In 1.1. a number of Cuban anarchists9 succumbing to the revolutionar! euphoria9 issued a manifesto in favor of Boining the communist Third International9 dominated b! the 'olshevi+ *art!; 'ut /ith more complete and reliable information9 and a more sober obiective anal!sis of Russian events9 the Cuban anarchist movement entered a ne/ phase; (nthusiasm for the Russian Revolution died out as the dictatorial outrages of the 'olshevi+s became obvious and as critical comments from Hropol+in9 Ioline9 'er+man and other anarchist refugees in (urope and else/here reached Cuba; The !ears bet/een 1.1) and 1."0 mar+ed bitter and /idespread class struggles: local and national stri+es for more /ages9 the eight hour da!9 union recognition9 campaigns against obligator! militar! service> tremendous demonstrations against scarcit! and the high cost of living9 etc; $ll these manifestations of popular rebellion called forth government persecution of the radical movement; Spanish anarchists /ere deported9 halls closed do/n one da! b! the police /ere reopened the ne<t> papers suspended one da!9 reappeared the ne<t da! under another name; In spite of the repressions9 hundreds of !oung men and /omen Boined the anarchist organi=ations; The anarchists /ere feverishl! active9 above all in the labor unions among the tobacco /or+ers9 bric+la!ers and masons9 g!psum /or+ers9 ba+ers9 engineers9 railroad /or+ers9 factories etc; The libertarians published the /ee+lies9 Dueva $urora and 7abor Sana> the maga=ines9 (l *rogreso9 Io= del Dependiente 2cler+s39 (l *roductor *anadero 2ba+ers39 Dueva 7u= 2De/ 7ight39 *roteo9 (l 7ibertario9 and other periodicals; This agitation and stri+e activit! resulted in the organi=ation of the -avana ederation of 7abor9 and much later9 the Dational 7abor ederation of Cuba; 'oth these organi=ations adopted anarcho-s!ndicalist forms of struggle and organi=ation; -ere is a partial listing of the main events: 1.1,--'lood! stri+e of the -avana construction /or+ers; Invo+ing the 1,." anti-anarchist la/9 the government tried to e<tirpate the anarchist influence in labor organi=ations b! imprisoning anarchist organi=ers and activists on trumped-up charges of sedition and conspirac! to overthro/ the state; The police opened fire on a demonstration called b! /or+ers9 unions against the high cost of living;

1.20--In $pril a national congress /as called under the auspices of the -avana and *inal del Rio ederation of 1eavers9 in /hich man! anarchists held important posts; Corruption in government /as rife; 2In 1.219 for e<ample9 $lfredo Ka!as9 nic+named 8the *eseta Snatcher8 b! his victims9 /as elected *resident of Cuba;3 1.2#--$ congress of anarchist groups united all the anarchist tendencies into the ne/l! organi=ed ederacion de Crupos $nar:uistas de Cuba; The tin! scattered papers /ere consolidated into one reall! ade:uate9 /ell edited9 /ell produced periodical; The ne/ Bournal TierraJ 27and3 attained a /ide circulation9 until forced to suspend publication b! the 5achado dictatorship; 2TierraJ continued publication intermittentl! till the late 1."0s3; Anc of Tierra's most brilliant collaborators9 *aulino Dia=9 too+ a ver! prominent part in a /or+ers' congress held in Cienfuegos9 /hich laid the basis for /hat later 21.",3 became the Confederation of Cuban 1or+ers 2CTC3; 'ut the anarchists never controlled the CTC9 /hich became9 and remains to this da!9 a :uasi-governmental agenc!9 dominated successivel! b! the Crau San 5artin9 'atista9 and Castro governments; The first Ceneral Secretar! of the Dational Confederation of Cuban 1or+ers 2CDAC3 /as the anarchist t!pographer9 $lfredo 7ope=; There /ere also socialist and communist groups in the CDAC; The gro/th of the anarchists had been severel! curtailed as a result of the struggles under the regime of *resident 5enocal9 b! deportations to Spain9 and b! police repression; Recogni=ing the need for a better organi=ed and more efficient labor movement9 the anarchists reorgani=ed the craft unions on an industrial basis-based on factories and industries--regardless of crafts; The anarchists and anarcho-s!ndicalists practicall! controlled one of the strongest unions in Cuba9 Sindicato de la Industria abril 2're/er! ?nion--SI 3; 1ith the cooperation of the anarchist groups9 the anarcho-s!ndicalists also organi=ed sugar cane and rail/a! /or+ers' unions in the province of Camague!; 1.2%--$ vicious campaign to obliterate preponderant anarchist influence in the SI /as launched b! the 5achado government /hich accused the anarchist militants (duardo Iivas and 7uis Fuiros of poisoning the beer in a stri+e against the *olar 're/ing Compan!; The Subse:uent scandal prepared the /a! for an all-out offensive against the union and the anarchist movement; $ll of the organi=ers /ere persecuted; Some anarchist organi=ers /ent into hiding; Athers /ere Bailed and foreign-born anarchists deported; $ fe/ /ere driven to commit suicide; 'ut in spite of all the atrocities9 the great mass of /or+ers9 /ho during the !ears still retained their libertarian spirit and approach to problems9 continued to organi=e and spread anarcho-s!ndicalist ideas; 1hen in 1.2%9 at the Congress of the Cuban Dational Confederation of 7abor 2CDAC39 in Camague!9 some agents of the emplo!ers proposed the e<pulsion of the anarcho-s!ndicalists9 the Congress9 far from approving e<pulsion9 e<pelled those /ho made the motion for e<pulsion of the anarcho-s!ndicalists; In the same !ear 21.2%39 paid assassins of the emplo!ers shot and +illed the anarchist (nri:ue Iarone9 the most effective organi=er of sugar and rail/a! /or+ers in Camague! and Ariente provinces; The anarchists also organi=ed the peasants and rural industrial /or+ers into the Sindicato Ceneral de TrabaBadores de San Cristobal9 *rovince of *inar del Rio; The $ictatorship o/ +achado: 1926-19..: An 5a! 20th 1.2%9 Ceneral Cerardo 5achado9 a semi-literate po/er-mad despot 2later +no/n as the notorious 8'utcher of 7as Iillas83 became *resident of Cuba; -is election campaign /as a /ell organi=ed brain/ashing publicit! stunt; *osing as a paternalistic9 benevolerlt democrat9 he /as9 at first9 immensel!

popular; Scarcel! a dissenting note marred the chorus of universal acclaim; 'ut the anarchist /ee+l! TierraJ publislled a magnificent editorial ending /ith the /ords: ;;; 1e go /ith the common people9 /ith the masses> but /hen the! follo/ a t!rant: then /e go aloneJ (rectJ 1ith e!es raised high to/ard the luminous aurora of our idealJ In conBunction /ith the agitation in the ?niversit! of -avana9 ten people founded the Cuban Communist *art!; The *art! attracted intellectuals9 students9 and fe/ /or+ers; ?ntil the mid-1."0s it had little influence in labor circles; The *art! /as temporaril! outla/ed in 1.2); The 5achado regime formed a government-sponsored union9 ?nion ederativa Abrera Dacional 2?nited Dational ederation of 7abor--? AD3 and forced all the legitimate labor organi=ations underground; The anarchist labor movement /as sadisticall! suppressed; $lfredo 7ope=9 the Ceneral Secretar! of the CDAC 2mentioned above3 /as thro/n into the sea to be devoured b! shar+s; The long struggle for control of thc CDAC ended in 1."0-"19 /hen the communists9 in league /ith the 5achado government9 connived b! the foulest means to sei=e Control of the CDAC and the labor movement; Devertheless' throughout the man! popular upheavals of the 1.20s and 1."0s9 the anarchists and anarchos!ndicalists pla!ed a significant role; $fter the government suppression of the CDAC the! /ere among the principal organi=ers of the independent and militant Confederacion Ceneral de TrabaBadores 2Ceneral Confederation of 7abor;3 The blood! dictatorship of 5achado /as overthro/n b! a general stri+e and insurrection; The stri+e began /ith the /al+out of the trolle! and bus unions; 1hile the communists controlled the bus union9 the trolle! /or+ers' union /as strongl! influenced b! the anarcho-s!ndicalists; The -avana ederation of 7abor called a meeting of all unions to organi=e the general stri+e and elected a number of anarchists to the stri+e committee9 among them Dicosio TruBillo and $ntonio *enichet; Da! b! da! the stri+e gre/ into a formidable threat to the government; In a last ditch attempt to sta! in po/er and brea+ the stri+e9 5achado gained the support of the Communist *art! and in e<change for its cooperation 5achado promised to legali=e the *art! and allo/ its bureaucrats to control several labor unions; The communists accepted 5achado's offer and tried to brea+ the stri+e; The! failed; The stri+e precipitated the fall of 5achado in spite of the efforts of the communists and their leader Cesar Iilar9 to help him sta! in po/er; The ederation of $narchist Croups issued a manifesto e<posing the treason of the communists and urging the /or+ers to stand fast in their determination to overthro/ the t!rant and his lieutenants; 1e reprint e<tracts from the manifesto as translated in the organ of the Industrial 1or+ers of the 1orld9 The Industrial 1or+er9 Chicago9 Actober "9 1.""; +ani/esto to the Cuban "or#ers and the People in <eneral The $narchist ederation of Cuba9 conscious of its responsibilit! in these times of confusion9 feels obliged to e<pose before the /or+ers--and public opinion--the base actions of the Communist *art!; ; ; 1e believe that the truth is the most po/erful /eapon9 and that is the /eapon /e use; 1e /ant ever!bod! to +no/ the truth; -ere it is;;; An $ugust )th 21.""39 /hen the general stri+e against 5achado and his regime had the /hole island in its grip9 5achado /as frightened and foresa/ his imminent fall;;;$t this Buncture9 the so-called 8Central

Committee8 of the communist part! controlled puppet union9 Dational 7abor Confederation 4CDAC6 ; ; ; /ith the full authorit! of its Communist leaders offered and arranged an agreement /ith the 5achado government; ; ; The da! after the machine gun massacre of unarmed people b! the 5achado assassins the Communist labor fa+ers /ere transported in lu<urious cars provided b! the militar! officers and 5achado's Secretar! of 1ar to a ban:uet /ith 5achado in the most e<pensive lu<ur! restaurant in -avana--(l Carmelo; $t the ban:uet9 5achado agreed to recogni=e the Communist *art! legall!9 and grant other re:uests; ; ; The communists made frantic appeals to the /orhers to go bac+ to /or+ beause the emplo!ers granted their demands 'ut the /or+ers 2including even the -avana bus and transportation union9 controlled b! the communists3 refused; The! decided to obe! onl! their o/n conscience and to continue resistance until the 5achado regime is overthro/n or forced to flee; 5achado and his communist allies retaliated; Do labor union /as allo/ed to meet; The -avana ederation of 7abor 4 A-9 founded b! the anarcho-s!ndicalists69 to /hich the largest number of non-political labor unions /ere affiliated9 could not meet because it did not have a signed authori=ation from the government; Anl! the communists9 than+s to their betra!al9 /ere allo/ed to meet; $rmed /ith revolvers /hile all others /ere forbidden to hold or carr! arms and constitutional rights /ere suspended9 the communists held meetings9 rode in automobiles burning gasoline supplied b! the arm! because the filling stations /ere closed b! the stri+e;;; ; ; in conclusion /e /ant the /or+ers and the people of Cuba to +no/ that the rent for the offices of the communist part! labor front the CDAC is paid b! the 5achado regime9 that the furniture /as forcibl! ta+en a/a! from the -avana ederation of 7abor offices /ith the permission and active help of 5achado's Secretar! of 1ar;;;

Chapter 8 - The 'atista *ra

An $ugust 129 1.""9 Carlos 5anuel de Cespedes9 former $mbassador to 1ashington became *resident of Cuba 2he bore the same name as his father /ho the /as the first *resident of the *rovisional Republic of Cuba in 1,&.--see above3 In spite of the all out support of the ?;S;9 his regime collapsed after being in office onl! 21 da!s; Cespedes /as overthro/n b! the famous 8sergeants revolt8 2Sept; #9 1.""3 led b! the then un+no/n ulgencio 'atista ! Kaldivar; ulgencio 'atista /as born in 1.02 in Ariente *rovince; -is father /as a peasant laborer on a sugar plantation; In 1.219 he enlisted as a private in the Cuban arm!9 /here he learned t!ping and stenograph!; In 1."2 'atista became a militar! court stenographer /ith the ran+ of sergeant ; 'atista's Revolutionar! @unta too+ po/er on the basis of a democratic program summed up in the follo/ing e<tract: 1; (conomic reconstruction of the national government and political process on the basis of a Constitutional Convention to be held immediatel!; 2; Immediate elimination from public life of parasites and full punishment for the atrocities and corruption of the previous 5achado regime; "; Strict recognition of the debts and obligations contracted b! the Republic; #; Immediate creation of ade:uate courts to enforce the measures above mentioned; %; ?nderta+e all measures necessar!;;;to/ards the creation of a ne/9 modern9 democratic Cuba; 'atista promoted himself to the ran+ of Colonel and Commander in Chief of the $rmed forces; 'atista /as the de facto dictator of Cuba and ruled through a succession of puppet presidents 2seven in all3; The civilian9 Dr; Ramon San 5artin 2a professor of medicine39 /as appointed *rovisional *resident of Cuba b! 'atista's Bunta; -is administration in line /ith 'atista's democratic program9 enacted a number of reforms 2eight hour da!9 /omen's suffrage9 repeal of the notorious *latt $mendment9 legali=ing ?;S; intervention in Cuban affairs9 etc;3 'atista lost the 1.## presidential election to Crau San 5artin's $utentico *art! and /ith the millions stolen from the Cuban treasur! retreated to his lorida (state in 1.%0; *residential elections in Cuba /ere scheduled for @une 1.%2; The favorite candidate to /in /as Roberto $gramonte9 *rofessor of Sociolog! in the ?niversit! of -avana; $gramonte belonged to the Artodo< *art! 2*artido del *ueblo Artodo<o3; The Artodo<os /anted a return to the original principles of the $utentico *art! /hose leaders /ere *residents Crau San 5artin 21.##-1.#,3 and Carlos *rio Socarras 21.#,-1.%23; 4 idel Castro /as an active member of the Artodo<o *art!9 /hose leader (duardo Chibas9 in despair over the failure of the reform program and the corruption of Cuban institutions--in the midst of a radio program -- committed suicide9 $ugust 1.%16 In the meantime 'atista prepared the ground for his return to Cuba and sei=ure of po/er> he spent huge sums to get himself elected Senator from 7as Iillas *rovince> he planted his men in the mass organi=ations 2some of them /ere communists /ho /or+ed /ith him previousl!3; -e organi=ed support in the arm!9 the governmental bureaucrac! among the landlords9 industrialists9 and the ban+ers; -e cleverl! too+ advantage of the /idespread venalit! and colossal corruption of former administrations and promised democratic reforms; 2 or e<ample9 Bust before *resident Crau San 5artin /as about to be tried for misappropriation of M1)#90009000 in public funds during his administration9 thieves bro+e into the -avana Court -ouse and stole the records;3 The presidential elections scheduled for @une 1.%2 /ere never held; An 5arch 10 1.%29 'atista staged his coup d'etat and sei=ed po/er;

The Co!!unists and 'atista In @anuar! 1.#09 the Comintcrn sent representatives to purge and Stalini=e the Cuban Communist *art!; rancisco Caldero9 2a self-educated cobbler9 /ho rose to prominence in the Cuban *art! and in the Castro regime9 under the name of 'las Roca3 became the ne/ secretar! of the *art!; $fter the Seventh Congress of the Comintern 2Third International3 decreed the 8popular united front8 alliance /ith bourgeois organi=ations9 the Cuban Communist *art! established close relations /ith 'atista; In Dovember 1.#09 the communists supported 'atista's candidates in the elections to the Constituent $ssembl!; In return for their support9 'atista allo/ed the communists to organi=e and control the government sponsored union9 Cuban Confederation of 7abor 2CTC Confederacion de TrabaBadores de Cuba3 The first Secretar! Ceneral of the CTC /as 7a=aro *ena--/ho9 ironicall!9 enough9 held the same post in the Castro regime; In e<change for these favors the communists guaranteed 'atista labor peace; In line /ith the Communist *art!'s 8*opular ront $gainst ascism8 polic!9 the alliance of the Communist *art! /ith the 'atista /as officiall! consumated /hen the *art! Boined the 'atista government; The Communist *art! leaders Carlos Rafael Rodrigue= and @uan 5arinello 2/ho no/ hold high posts in the Castro government3 became 5inisters 1ithout *ortfolio in 'atista's Cabinet; To illustrate the intimate connections bet/een the communists and 'atista9 /e :uote from a letter of 'atista to 'las Roca9 Secretar! of the Communist *art!: @une 1"91.## Dear 'las9 1ith respect to !our letter /hich our mutual friend9 Dr; Carlos Rafael Rodrigue=9 5inister 1ithout *ortfolio9 passed to me9 I am happ! to again e<press m! firm unsha+eable confidence in the lo!al cooperation the *eople's Socialist *art! 4the then official name of the Communist *art! of Cuba6 its leaders and members have given and continue to give m!self and m! government; ; ; 'elieve me9 as al/a!s9 Eour ver! affectionate and cordial friend9 ulgencio 'atista In the electoral campaign the Communist candidates /on ten seats in the Cuban parliament and more than a hundred posts in the 5unicipal councils; In line /ith their pro-'atista polic! the communists Boined 'atista in condemning idel Castro's attac+ on the 5oncada 'arrac+s 2@ul! 1.%" -- the anniversar! of the attac+ is a national holida! in Castro Cuba3 ; ; ; the life of the *eople's Socialist *art! 2communist3; ; ; has been to combat ; ; ; and unmas+ the putschists and adventurous activities of the bourgeois opposition as being against the interests of the people; ; ; 2reported in Dail! 1or+er9 ?;S organ of the Communist *art!9 $ugust 109 1.%"3 Throughout the 'atista period the communists pursued t/o parallel policies: overtl! the! critici=ed 'atista and covertl! the! cooperated /ith him; The Crisis o/ the -abor +ove!ent and the Anarchists: 1944-1962

The anarcho-s!ndicalist militant (rnesto 'arbieto outlined the problems of the Cuban 7abor 5ovement and the position of the anarchists in an article9 7os 7ibertarios Iuelvan 2The 7ibertarians Return: (studios--anarchist monthl!---avana9 5arch9 1.%03 $fter the blood! repression of the 5achado dictatorship9 the libertarian militants most active in the labor movement /ere severel! persecuted or forced into e<ile9 and the anarchist influence /as conse:uentl! considerabl! /ea+ened; $nother maBor reason for the decline /as state intervention9 de facto control of the labor movement; The e<clusion of the anarchists left the field open for Stalinists9 reformists and professional politicians to /iden and tighten their grip on the unions; The democratic phraseolog! of the politicians gave the proletariat the illusion that the! /ere actuall! masters of their destin!; This illusion /as further fostered b! granting certain immediate demands9 obtained /ithout struggle or sacrifices; The /or+ers did not reali=e that a coalition of emplo!ers9 the state and the labor politicians made these concessions onl! to stave off militant action b! the /or+ers and above all9 to strengthen their o/n positions and influence in the unlons; or these concessions the proletariat paid a ver! high price> direct interferencc and de facto state control of their unions9 the virtual destruction of legitimate9 independent labor organi=ations li+e the Ceneral Confederation of 1or+ers 4CCT6; $nd the vehicle for this monopol! /as the state sponsored Cuban Confederation of 7abor 4CTC6 4controlled b! the Communist-'atista coalition6; It /as this threat that galvani=ed the militants of the 7ibertarian $ssociation of Cuba 4$7C6 and other independent labor organi=ations to rall! the /or+ers in defense of the autonom! and independence of the labor movement9 to e<pel the labor politicians and arouse the revolutionar! consciousness of the /or+ing class; The Third Dational 7ibertarian Congress /as called 25arch 11-229 1.%03 to reorgani=e the libertarian labor movement and adopt concrete radical measures enabling its militants to again orientate and pla! a decisive part in the regeneration of thc Cuban labor movement; The Congress approved the follovving resolutions: $3 fight against the control of the labor movement b! bureaucrats9 political parties9 religious sects9 and class-collaborationists '3 e<tend the influence of the libertarians b! activel! articipating in the dail! struggles of the urban and rural /or+ers for better /ages and /or+ing conditions; C3 encourage /or+ers to prepare themselves culturall! and professionall! not onl! to better their present /or+ing conditions9 but also to ta+e over the technical operation and administration of the /hole econom! in the ne/ libertarian societ!; D3 educate the /or+ers to understand the true meaning of s!ndicalism9 /hich must be apolitical9 revolutionar! and federalist9 /hich /ill help prevent authoritarian elements to institute a t!rannical t!pe of unionism9 actuall! becoming an agenc! of the state; An tactical problems the Congress resolves to /or+ activel! /ith the /or+ers of the CCT9 the onl! legitimate national labor orgalli=ation /ith s!ndicalist tendencies9 and /hich is most responsive to the real needs of the /or+ers; To /arn the /or+ers that the CTC is a state-sponsored union9 supported b! the Stalinite faction and allied labor fa+ers> that the CTC is a pseudo-proletarian organdi=ation /ithout a trace of revolutionar! ideas9

spirit or practice> that the CTC is entirel! dominated b! dictatorial political parties and a corrupt leadership; 2signed3 (rnesto 'arbieto *artial 7isting of 7ibertarian $ctivities in Cuba in the 1.%0s 2$rticle in Iie/s and Comments9 organ of 7ibertarian 7eague9 De/ Eor+9 Spring 1.&%3 In the mid and later %0s9 the 7ibertarian $ssociation of Cuba 2$7C3 had functioning local groups 2delegations in -avana; *inar del Rio9 San Cristobal9 $rtemisea9 Ciego de $vila9 and 5an=anillo9 as /ell as a heav! scattering of members else/here3; Their s!mpathi=ers and influence /ere in complete disproportion to their actual membership; $narcho-s!ndicalist groups consisted usuall! of a fe/ members and a larger number of s!mpathi=ers e<isted in man! local and regional unions as /ell as in other organi=ations; The follo/ing is s partial listing 2from one e<iled comrade's memor!3 of the libertarian activities and influence in the si< provinces of Cuba; The listing is b! provinces and municipalities from /est to east; Province o/ Pinar $el Rio Cit! of *inar del Rio--There /as a delegation of the $7C that coordinated the activities in the province and /hich on occasion ran local radio programs; In addition9 our comrades influenced and participated in the leadership of the follo/ing unions: tobacco /or+ers9 food /or+ers9 electricians9 construction /or+ers9 carpenters9 transport /or+ers9 ban+ emplo!ees and medical /or+ers; The maga=ines of the tobacco9 ban+ /or+ers and electricians unions /ere edited b! libertarians; San @uan ! 5artibe=--7ibertarians influenced and led the tenant farmers union /hich covered a large agricultural =one; Iinales--$ comrade pharmacist personall! influenced various activities of local civic institutions; San Cristobal--There /as a delegation of the $7C /hose members influenced and led the 5unicipal $grarian $ssociation9 the Sugar 1or+ers ?nion and the $ssociation of Tobacco -arvesters9 e<erting also some influence among metal /or+ers and commercial emplo!ees; $rtemisa--There /as a delegation of the $7C; The libertarians influenced and led the Tobacco 1or+ers ?nion 2one of the strongest in Cuba3 having also some influence in Transport9 sugar and food industries as /ell as among high school students; The group also had occasional radio programs; Province o/ -a =abana Cit! of 7a -abana--Seat of the Dational Council of the $7C9 /hich also functioned as the 7ocal Delegation; (dited the ne/spaper (l 7ibertorio 2formerl! Solidaridad3 /hich had been able to appear /ith but fe/ interruptions since 1.##; There /ere occasional radio programs and some boo+s and pamphlets /ere published; There /ere /ee+l! forums at the head:uarters and public mass meetings /ere occasionall! held in 7a -abana and other points throughout the countr!; Aur comrades influenced and participated in the leadership of the follo/ing unions: (lectricians9 food /or+ers9 transport9 shoema+ers9 fishermen9 /ood/or+ers9 medicine9 metal and construction; To a lesser degree their influence /as felt amoing the doc+ers9 slaughterhouse /or+ers9 movie industr!9 graphic arts9 and Bournalists9 as /ell as in the Daturist

$ssociation and the Spanish Republican Circle; In the food /or+ers sector9 the libertarian group published a monthl! periodical Solidaridad Castronomica for over eight !ears /ithout interruption; 7ibertarians /rote regularl! for the publications of the unions of other industries imparting /hat doctrinal orientation the! could; Sporadicall!9 it /as possible to influence various professional and student organi=ations; $rro!o DaranBo--In this to/n our comrades influenced and led the *arents9 Deighbors and Teachers $ssociation9 the *rogressive Cultural $ssociation and the Consumers Cooperative; Santiago de las Iegas---ere our members spar+ed the 85as 7u=8 7ibrar!9 and the Cultural 7!ceum; San $ntonio de los 'anos--Influence in the 1or+ers Circle and among the tobacconists; Province o/ +atan,as Cit! of 5atan=as--Some influence in the te<tile9 graphic arts and ban+ emplo!ees unions as /ell as in the Spanish Republican Circle; 7imonar--Strong influence in the Sugar 1or+ers ?nion; Cardenas--Some influence among commercial emplo!ees and in the Sccondar! School; Colon--Influence in the tobacco /or+ers union; Itato--Intluence and leadership in salt /or+ers union; Province o/ -as 1illas Santa Clara--Some influence in the electricians union; CamaBuani--Influence in the tobacco selectors union; Ka=a del 5edio--Some influence in the $ssociation of Tobacco -arvesters; Isabela de Sagua--Some influence in the doc+ers union; Sancti Spiritus--Influence in the unions of construction /or+ers and medicine9 and also in the $ssociation of Secondur! School Students; Province o/ Ca!a)ue Camague!--Strong influence in the $grarian ederation and some in the rail/a! /or+ers union and Bournalists; @atibonico--Strong influence in the Sugar 1or+ers ?nion and in the peasants8 association; Ciego de $vila--There /as a delegation of the $7C /hich for a time maintained a dail! radio hour; Influence in the peasants association9 medical /or+ers union and among the sugar /or+ers of the Ste/ard and (strella Centrals; Santa Cru= del Sur--Influence in peasant organi=ations and in the Santa 5arta sugar central;

5oron--Influence in the sugar central Iioleta; $ctive among the tobacco harvesters of Tamarindo and in the $gricultural ?nion of lorencia; Duevitas--Traditionall! this =one has al/a!s had strong libertarian tendencies; Together /ith 5oron it can be considered the cradle of the strong anarcho-s!ndicalist movement of the 20s; or decades there /as no other socio-political movement in the region; In the #0s there /as an active $7C delegation in Duevitas that too+ the initiative in the formation of various unions and of the local peasants association /hich /as the best +no/n peasants' organi=ation of the island; It sei=ed a large e<tension of uncultivated farmland establishing the Cooperative of Santa 7ucia; In the ensuing struggle /ith the landlords and the Covernment9 there /ere +illed and /ounded on both sides including one $7C member; The peasants /on and retained possession of the land; Province o/ ;riente Santiago de Cuba--Strong influence in the food /or+ers union and some in te<tiles and transport; Iictoria de las Tunas--Some influence in the sugar /or+ers union; -olguin--$t one time there had been a delegation of the $7C--some influence remaining in local unions; 'a!amo--Some influence among electricians and in the *easants $ssociation; *alma Soriano--Influence in the ?nion of Commercial (mplo!ees; 5an=anillo--Delegation of the $7C /ith influence among food /or+ers and carpenters; Contramaestre--The 5iners union here had been organi=ed and /as still influenced b! the libertarians; San 7uis--Some influence among ba+ers9 commercial emplo!ees and sugar /or+ers; Cuantanamo--5an! !ears ago the Coffee *roducers Cooperative of 5onte-Rus /as organi=ed b! libertarians and since then the anarchist influence has remained strong in the area9 especiall! among the sugar /or+ers and peasants; During the struggle against 'atista those of our comrades not then in prison or /ho had not been forced into e<ile b! being too /ell +no/n as enemies of the t!rann!9 /ere in the forefront of the struggle in man! localities; 1hen 'atista collapsed9 there /ere in the *rovince of *inar del Rio attempts b! several peasant groups under libertarian influence to establish agricultural collectives; These /ere set up b! the local people /ho sei=ed the land the! had been /or+ing; -o/ever the Covernment of idel Castro promptl! sa/ the danger to itself of such action and crushed the collectives b! force; State farms have been established in their place; 'ig 'rother felt he +ne/ bestJ The Role o/ the -ibertarian +ove!ent in the Anti-'atista (tru))le This is the title of an article published in (l 7ibertario 2organ of the anarcho-s!ndicalist 7ibertarian $ssociation of Cuba 4$7C6 @ul! 1.9 1.&0 Scarcel! a !ear later9 the anarchist press and groups /ere suppressed b! the Castro 8revolutionar! government;8

; ; ;The $7C /as from the ver! beginning in the midst of the battle against The 'atista regime; An 5arch 109 1.%29 /hen 'atistats hordes staged their 'coup d'etat' to sei=e Cuba9 the $7C proposed the full fighting solidarit! of all revolutionar! organi=ations to reorgani=e armed resistance and repulse the 'atista troops; 'ut the co/ardice and demorali=ation of the Socorras government--8It is too late; 1e must avoid bloodshed8--gave 'atista an eas! victor!; 7ater the blood flo/ed in torrentsJ Dot for an instant did the $7C rela< in the struggle to topple 'atista; In 1.%&9 the $7C published a pamphlet *roBecciones 7ibertarias denouncing the disastrous policies of the 'atista government and stating our position; In a speech delivered to the CTC Cuban Confederation of 7abor Dational Council 21.%)3 our comrade 5oscu on behalf of the $7C openl! attac+ed the top-heav! leaders /ho controlled the CTC9 accusing them and their lieutenants of outrageous corruption; -is speech /as /idel! reported in the Cuban press; 7ater that !ear 21.%)3 the $7C published a manifesto--%09000 copies--publicl! e<posing the filth! maneuvers and corruption of the labor movement9 clearl! e<plaining the position of the $7C; The $7C at all times /elcomed and made its premises available to the underground militants and rebel organi=ations; Thus9 on December "19 1.%,9 /e hid in our hall--in spite of the ris+s--a !oung man hunted b! the police for allegedl! violent acts committed in 5arionao against the 'atista regime; 5ost of our comrades /ere active in the insurrectionar! movement: The Directorio9 Abrera Revolucionario9 The ederation of ?niversit! Students9 etc;9 etc; Aur hall /as often the gathering place for man! rebels belonging to other organi=ations; It /as even used b! the Castro 2&th of @ul! 5ovement to train men in the proper use of firearms; $nd our hall became a distribution center for mountains of anti'atista literature; 7iterall! hundreds of our comrades /ere persecuted9 tortured9 driven into e<ile9 murdered; -ere are a fe/: 'oris Santa Coloma> +illed @ul! 2&9 1.%" in the celebrated Castro-led attac+ on the 5oncada 'arrac+s; $:uila Iglesias> e<iled; $lvare= ! 'arbieto9 e<iled; 5iguel Rivas> disappeared; Roberto 'retau> prison; 5anuel Cerona> prison; Rafael Serra> tortured; 5odesto 'arbieta9 5aria *inar Con=ale=9 Dr; *ablo 5adan9 *lacido 5ende=9 (ulegio Reloba and his sons9 $belardo Iglesias9 5ario Carcia and his son: all of them in prison9 tortured and in some cases barel! escaping assassination; Isidro 5oscu> imprisoned and left for dead after brutal tortures; 1ith 5oscu9 a numerous group of comrades /ere also imprisoned and tortured for preparing an armed insurrection in the province of *inar del Rio; Aur hall /as raided man! times b! the 'atista police; Shootings too+ place; Comrades /ere arrested and brutall! beaten; 'oo+s and organi=ation records /ere confiscated; 'ut in spite of all these atrocities9 our movement9 after trul! heroic sacrifices9 survived to carr! on the struggle /ith undiminished dedication;;; $s 'atista became more and more t!rannical9 more and more people Boined the opposition9 until b! far the bul+ of all classes 2each for reasons of their o/n3 rose against him and his corrupt regime; 1hen 'atista could no longer depend even on the armed forces /hich had al/a!s sustained him9 his regime collapsed; An @anuar! 1st9 1.%.9 he and his entourage fled Cuba; The Cuban anarchists /ere Bailed9 tortured9 driven into e<ile b! successive governments; The 8communists8 and the corrupt politicians po/erfull! bac+ed b! 5achado and 'atista9 too+ advantage of the persecutton of the anarchists to sei=e control of the labor movement; Do/9 again hounded and outla/ed b! the Castro dictatorship9 the ran+s of the anarcho-s!ndicalists have been reduced to a mere handful of dedicated militants; The Cuban anarcho-s!ndicalist movement has in a centur! of struggle

/ritten a glorious9 indelible page in the histor! of the revolutionar! movement9 from /hich ne/ generations of fighters /ill continue to dra/ inspiration; 2Dote on sources--$side from references noted in the te<t9 information for this chapter /as derived from a series of po/erful articles b! the Cuban anarchist9 @usto 5uriel9 printed in an the organ of the 7ibertarian ederation of $rgentina9 Reconstruir> 'uenos $ires9 numbers ".-#1 Dec;-$pril 1.&&> articles in various issues of Solidaridad Castonomica--organ of the anarcho-s!ndicalist food and cafe /or+ers union9 (l 7ibertario9 organ of the 7ibertarian $ssociation of Cuba9 -avana9 the anarchist papers $hora and Combat9 published in Cuba in the 1.#0s and 1.%0s> conversations /ith Cuban anarchists> files in the Centre International de Recherches sur l'$narchisme9 Ceneva9 and some data from the International Institute for Social Research9 $msterdam;3

Chapter 7 - The Revolution in Perspective:

The *cono!ic 'ac#)round To arrive at an obBective assessment of the character of the Cuban Revolution9 and the validit! of the claims made both for and against it9 it is first necessar! to e<amine the economic bac+ground; The information here assembled is meant to dispel /idespread misconceptions and establish the facts; Cuba9 the largest of the Caribbean islands9 /ith an area of ##921, s:uare miles9 is greater in area than $ustria9 -ungar!9 'elgium9 Israel9 Israel9 Iceland9 or Ireland; Its population in 1.&1 /as &9.009000 /ith an annual birth rate of 2;"N as against the ?;S; rate of 1;)N; '! the 1.)0's Cuba's population reached ,9#009000; $bout )"N of the population is /hite> 12N blac+ and 1%N mesti=o; Densit! of population /as 1%" inhabitants per s:uare mile in the 1.&0s; The island /as densel! populated9 but because of the high proportion of arable land9 /as not overcro/ded; To better understand the social-economic bac+ground of the Cuban Revolution it is necessar! to ta+e into account class differences in rural Cuba; In this connection the vie/s of Ramiro Cuerra are /ell /orth :uoting: ; ; ; Cuba /as precisel! DAT a peasant countr!; ; ; to tal+ of Cuba's 8peasantr!8 as if the population /ere an undifferentiated mass of impoverished peasant lando/ners is to miss entirel! the comple<it! of rural 7atin $merica; *easants /ho b! a s/ift process of sugar plantation developments have been transformed into rural proletarians are no longer *($S$DTS;;;there /ere9 in 1.%"9 #,.9000 agricultural /age /or+ers in Cuba and onl! &)9000 unpaid famil! laborers /ho /ere the /ives and children of the small-scale land o/ners9 the highland peasantr!9 7os CuaBiros of Cuba; ; ; the big sugar plantations are an urbani=ing force /ithin /hich the rural population must concentrate itself densel!; ; ; b! standardi=ing /or+ practices9 the plantations create a factor! situation--albeit a rural one; $nd factories in the field are urban in man! /a!s9 even though the! are not in cities; $ rural proletariat /or+ing on modern plantations inevitabl! become culturall! and behaviorall! distinct from the peasantr!;;;its members have no land; Their special economic and social circumstances lead in another direction; The! prefer standardi=ed /age minimums9 ade:uate medical and educational services9 increased bu!ing po/er9 etc;;;/hen it is noted that there /ere more than #,.9000 agricultural laborers in Cuba in 1.%";;;a gross indication of the difference bet/een peasantr! and rural proletariat is provided us; ; ; 2:uoted b! Sidne! 1; 5int= in the antholog! 'ac+ground to Revolution> De/ Eor+9 1.&&9 p; 1,2-1,"3 These vie/s are confirmed b! the fact that the agricultural laborers9 primaril! in the sugar plantations9 constituted one of the strongest and most numberous federations affiliated to the Cuban Confederation of 7abor 2CTC3; Cuba9 the 8*earl of the $ntilles98 though b! no means a paradise9 /as not9 as man! believe9 an economicall! bac+/ard countr!; Castro himself admitted that /hile there /as povert!9 there /as no economic crisis and no hunger in Cuba before the Revolution; 2See 5aurice -alperin: The Rise and all of idel Castro9 ?niversit! of California9 1.)29 pgs; 2#9 2%9 ")3 $rmando -art9 a member of Castro's innermost ruling group9 made the e<tremel! significant observation that:

; ; ; it is certain that capitalism had attained high levels of organi=ation9 efficienc! and production that declined after the Revolution; ; ; 2@uventud Rebelde9 Dovember 29 1.&.> :uoted b! Rene Dumont9 Is Cuba SocialistG9 p; ,%3 *aul $; 'aran9 an ardent pro-Castroite in the e:uall! ardent 5onthl! Revie/ pamphlet9 Reflections on the Cuban Revolution 21.&13 substantiates /hat ever! economist9 as /ell as amateurs li+e Castro9 has been sa!ing: ;;;the Cuban Revolution /as born /ith a silver spoon in its mouth; ; ;the /orld reno/ned rench agronomist9 Rene Dumont9 has estimated that if properl! cultivated as intensivel! as South China9 Cuba could feed fift! million people; ; ; the Cuban Revolution is spared the painful9 but ineluctable compulsion that has beset preceding socialist revolutions: the necessit! to force tightening of people's belts in order to la! the foundations for a better tomorro/; ; ;2p; 2"3 Theodore Draper :uotes $nial (scalante9 2before he /as purged b! Castro3 one of the leading communists9 /ho admitted that: ;;;in realit!9 Cuba /as not one of the countries /ith the lo/est standard of living of the masses in $merica9 but on the contrar!9 one of the highest standards of living9 and it /as here /here the first great ; ; ; democratic social revolution of the continent burst forth; ; ; If the historical development had been dictated b! the false a<iom 4revolutions come first in poorest countries6 the revolution should have been first produced in -aiti9 Colombia or even Chile9 countries of greater povert! for the masses than the Cuba of 1.%,; ; ; 2:uoted in Draper's Castro's Revolution: 5!ths and Realities> De/ Eor+9 1.&29 p; 223 The follo/ing statistics indicate the rate of production before the Revolution 2@an; 191.%.3; 2Sources are t/o ?nited Dations publications: (conomic Stud! of 7atin $merica9 1.%)9 and the Statistical $nnual9 1.&1; The third source is The ?niversit! of 5iami Cuban Studies9 reported in the Bournal (ste ! Aeste9 Caracas9 @an; 1.&.3 A)ricultural Production
1949-1951 1957-1958 % of increase

raw sugar ............ 11 plantains ............ 30 rice ................ 120 leaf tobacco ......... 50 potatoes ............ 28 flour ............... 114

4ndustrial Production--non-(u)ar
% of increase cement ................ 55.5 fertilizer ............ 48.8 cotton ................ 33. sulfuric aci! ......... 32.3 artificial sil" ....... 18.1 rubber goo!s .......... 5.5 construction ......... 120.8 gas an! electric ..... 157.5

manufactures ......... 118.7

2source9 ?niversit! of 5iami Cuban Studies reported in (ste ! Aeste3 ;;;according to the ood and $gricultural Argani=ation of the ?nited Dations9 total agricultural production in 1.&.9 10 !ears after the Revolution9 /as )N belo/ that of 1.%,;;;2Carmelo 5esa-7ago9 Cuba in the 1.)0s> ?niversit! of De/ 5e<ico *ress9 1.)#9 p; %&3 $s for sugar production9 -alperin /rites that /hile it is true that: ; ; ; in 1.&19 b! harvesting uncut sugar cane left over from previous !ears9 Cuba produced close to seven million metric tons of sugar9 the largest crop in histor!; *roduction9 ho/ever9 fell sharpl! in the follo/ing eight !ears9 averaging /ell belo/ the !ields in the decade preceding the Revolution 41.#.-1.%.6; ; ;per capita production of sugar in 1.#% /as about "0N higher than in 1.&"; ; ; In the 1.%0s9 on the average9 a labor force of %009000 /or+ing three months produced %0090009000 tons of sugar9 fort! tons per man !ear; In the 1.)0 harvest9 %009000 persons /or+ing t/elve months producd ,;% million tons of sugar9 or onl! seventeen tons per man !ear; ; ; 2ibid; p; &29 2#19 our emphasis3 Cuba /as DAT a one crop countr!; In 1.%)9 sugar represented onl! 2)N of total agricultural income; Cro/ing crops /ere onl! *$RTI$77E listed above; Cattle raising9 2per 100 head3 increased from ",,# to &000 in 1.%, 2?niversit! of 5iami Studies3 ;;;before Castro9 Cuba /as one of the richest underdeveloped countries in the /orld9 /ith Cross Dational *roduct9 per-capita income in the mid 1.%0s of M"&09 Cuba /as /ell ahead of @apan 2M2%# per-capita3 and Spain 2M2%# per-capita3;;; 2Robert 'lac+burn9 :uoted in the antholog! idel Castro's *ersonal Revolution: 1.%"-1.)"> De/ Eor+9 1.)%9 p; 1"#3 Cuba had one automobile for ever! ". inhabitants9 compared /ith $rgentina's one for ever! &0 and 5e<ico's one for ever! .1 people; Cuba had one radio for ever! % people9 second in 7atin $merica onl! to $rgentina /ith one for ever! " inhabitants; the /age rate for industrial /or+ers in Cuba /as the highest in 7atin $merica 2as of 1.%)3 and .th highest in the /orld; agricultural /ages /ere the highest in 7atin $merica Cuba's mortalit! rate of ) per thousand /as the lo/est in 7atin $merica; Its infant mortalit! rate /as b! far the lo/est; Cuba had one doctor for ever! 19000 inhabitants9 e<ceeded onl! b! ?rugua! /ith one for ever! ,009 and $rgentina for ever! )&0 people; Cuba ran+ed fifth in 7atin $merican manufacturing; Though living standards /ere much lo/er than in the ?;S;9 Canada and 1estern (urope9 Cuba's /as the third highest in 7atin $merica9 and almost as high as Ital!'s; Cuba had more railroads per s:uare mile than an! other countr! in the /orld; Its one telephone for ", persons /as e<ceeded onl! b! the ?;S; /ith one for ever! " and $rgentina /ith one for ever! 1"> /a! ahead of Russia's /ith one for ever! %,0 people; It must be borne in mind> ho/ever9 that statistics can be misleading and conditions /ere b! no means as ros! as implied; avorable comparison /ith the alread! lo/ living standards of 7atin $merica does not mean that the Cuban uns+illed /or+ers 2and far less the peasants3 enBo!ed a S$TIS $CTARE standard of living; To be a little better off than the 1ARST does not signif! that it is the '(ST; There is another9 dar+er side to this picture; Compared to $merican standards9 Cuba's per-capita income /as 1O% of the average ?;S; income: far lo/er than in an! of the Southern states;

The big minus sign of the Cuban econom! is that it is not self-sustaining in the indispensable paraphernalia of modern life; Cuba is totall! dependent for the uninterrupted flo/ of vital supplies> oil9 coal9 iron and steel9 truc+s and buses9 cars9 chemicals9 sophisticated machiner! etc; $nd it /as precisel! this hopeless and impossible attempt to ma+e Cuba a highl! industriali=ed countr! /ithout these vital resources9 that Bust about /rec+ed the Cuban econom!; Cuba has not !et recovered from this catastrophic9 totall! unpardonable miscalculation9 ta+en against the advice of :ualified economic e<perts; Castro and his staff of fumbling amateurs9 /ere forced to abandon this suicidal polic!9 but the! still persist in meddling /ith things the +no/ absolutel! nothing about; These serious dra/bac+s not/ithstanding9 Cuba is far from being a totall! undeveloped countr! /ith a primitive econom!; Civen intelligent use of its natural /ealth of resources9 the potential for raising the living standards of its population is almost limitless; An this point there is no doubt; That the Castro 8revolutionar!8 regime9 far from developing these potentials9 has not even e:ualled the admittedl! inade:uate standards attained before the revolution9 is unfortunatel! also true; Distribution of the national income /as not balanced; The lo/er standard of living of the agricultural laborers /as particularl! atrocious9 especiall! during the 8dead season8 bet/een sugar harvests: ; ; ; the standard of living of the privileged classes of the cities 4/rites Dumont6 /as in violent contrast /ith the miser! of the peasants ; ; ; /ho /ere unemplo!ed an average of 1", da!s a !ear ; ; ; the unemplo!ed numbered 2%09000 even in the middle of the harvest season on the sugar plantations; ; ;2Cuba: Socialism and Development9 p; 1#3 $nd C; 1right 5ills informs us ; ; ; 8that onl! "N of peasant ''ohios' 4huts6 had indoor toilets; T/o thirds of the children /ere not in an! elementar! school and most of those that /ere9 dropped out ; ; ; in 1.%09 1,09000 children began first grade9 less than %000 reached eighth grade; ; ;8 27isten Ean+eeJ> De/ Eor+9 1.&09 p; ##-#%3 It is /ell /orth noting9 as one observer remar+ed9 8 ; ; ; that a substantial fraction of the to/n population /ere 4li+e the rural proletarians6 also ver! poor; ; ; s:uatters /ere living in shac+s9 and there /ere slum tenements; In 1.%"9 no less than one fifth of families lived in single rooms and the average si=e of these families /as five; ; ; ta+ing the urban and rural population together9 &2N of the economicall! active population had incomes of less than M)% a month; ; ; 8 2Dudle! Sears in 'ac+ground to Revolution9 ibid; p; 21"3 The Castro government is directl! responsible for the a/ful economic situation of the Cuban people; The rising standard of living is a m!th; Rene Dumont9 the distinguished agronomist and economist9 marshalls over/helming evidence that Castro and his bumbling amateurs /rec+ed the econom! of Cuba; There is no serious disagreement on this point: ; ; ;Cuba's shortages of food and other necessities are to a large e<tent due to the dogmatism of its leaders; ; ; in 1.&"9 the harvests /ere 2%N lo/er than in 1.&0 although the number of da!s /or+ed had been rising rapidl!; ; ; The standard of living in Cuba remained stationar! in 1.&19 and /ith strict rationing9 /ent do/n perhaps 1%N to 20N in 1.&2; ; ; There are still9 as I had seen in Santa Clara in 1.&09 no recognition of the difficulties involved in managing an econom! ; ; ; the! /ere not trained and badl! prepared; ; ; professors at the Institute of Technolog! did not even +no/ the names of the most common plants or their re:uirements;;;the government is increasingl! calling for more effort and sacrifices as /ell as the acceptance of increased authorit!;;;despite constant reorgani=ation9 it is unable to put its house in order;;;2Is Cuba SocialistG pp; 1009 209 .29 1#.9 2.9 20&;3

The economic conse:uences of transforming reasonabl! productive cattle and dair! farms and other agricultural enteprises into notoriousl! inefficient 8people's8 farms /as predictabl! catastrophic;;;to the thousands of la/-abiding families evicted /ithout /arning9 it appeared to be an arbitrar! act of brutalit!; ; ; 4The peasants retaliated> -alperin /rites that:6 the impression obtained in usuall! /ell-informed government circles that over a period of several !ears9 some %09000 troops /ere engaged in li:uidating peasant disaffection;;;a si=eable militar! effort had been under /a! to put do/n the uprising9 /hich /as not finall! li:uidated until /ell into 1.&#;;;Castro reminisced about 8the uprisings that occurred mainl!9 but not e<clusivel!9 in the (scambra! 5ountains; ; ; organi=ed groups e<isted all over the island;;;there /ere 19000 bandits in the (scambra! 5ountains alone;8 2-alperin9 ibid; p; 2,"9 2,#; -alperin credits the Castro :uote to Cranma9 @une 1"9 1.)13 5aurice -alperin also reports that: 8;;;food riots occurred in a number of to/ns in the /estern provinces9 including Cardenas9 a si=eable urban center and seaport about 100 miles east of -avana; -ere at a mass meeting9 @une 1)9 1.&29 *resident of Cuba Dorticos had to be protected b! tan+s during a speech he made to calm the inhabitants;;;8 2The Rise and Decline of idel Castro> ?niv; of California9 1.)#9 p; 1&23 In addition to the Cardenas riots9 the 'ulletin of the Cuban 7ibertarian 5ovement in (<ile 25iami9 @une 1.&23 reports that: ; ; ; in (l Cano9 a little to/n in -avana *rovince9 violence /as so great that the authorities did not even tr! to suppress it; 'ut after/ards9 the authorities too+ revenge b! e<propriating furniture and personal belongings ; ; ; ood riots also occurred in Cienfuegos;;;4in vie/ of the fact that these6;;;sacrifices have been going on since 1.&1 and have been unbearable for the Cubans 4Dumont as+s:6 To /hat e<tent has a ruling class the right to impose its singleminded conceptions of the future--and to impose it in so disorgani=ed a manner--that the results are further aggravatedG 2ibid; p; )0-)13 Dumont9 /e are sure9 /ill agree9 in vie/ of his o/n anal!sis9 that economic disaster is not the cause9 but onl! a s!mptom of the inner degeneration of the Cuban Revolution;

Chapter 7 - Anon !ous =eroes o/ the Revolution

An a par /ith the vulgar displa! of 7enin's embalmed corpse9 the deliberate deification of Castro and his tin! band of disciples in the Sierra 5aestra obscures the e<ploits of the mass of anon!mous heroes and almost forgotten resistance groups /ho brought about the do/nfall of 'atista; $fter Castro's deservedl! celebrated9 ill-fated attac+ on the 5oncada 'arrac+s 2@ul! 2&9 1.%"3 the 5atan=as garrison /as stormed b! a group of heroic !oung militants from the $utentico *art! 2$pril 1.%&3; $ll the attac+ers /ere massacred and man! have not !et been identified; There /ere man! other incidents; Do/9 Castro bra=enl! and falsel! ta+es credit for the daring assault of the Revolutionar! Student Directorate on the *residential *alace to +ill 'atista 25arch 1"9 1.%)3 in /hich all the raiders 2including the leader9 @ose $ntonio (cheverria3 /ere massacred; -erbert 5atthe/s; the pro-Castro Bournalist9 reveals that: ; ; ; idel /as not consulted and did not approve 2he heard about it indirectl!3; Castro called it a useless e<penditure of blood;;;he /as afraid that (cheverria /ould become a rival hero and revolutionar! leader;;;the issue of 'ohemia for 5a! 2,9 1.%)9 in /hich Castro e<pressed his criticisms9 /ould be embarassing for him if resurrected9 because (cheverria and other victims became mart!rs of the Revolution; 5arch 1" is commemorated ever! !ear as a glorious landmar+ of Castro's revolution;;;4Those /ho survived the attac+ on the palace set up an independent guerrilla force in the (scambra! 5ountains9 the 8Second (scambra! ront86 2Revolution in Cuba> De/ Eor+9 1.)%9 p; ,.> our emphasis3 Ane of the bloodiest battles of the anti-'atista rebellion too+ place on September %9 1.%); The Daval 'ase of Cienfuegos9 200 miles from -avana9 /as captured b! nav! mutineers and civilian underground group members; The sailors distributed /eapons to the people in the area; There /as supposed to be a simultaneous uprising in -avana9 /hich miscarried probabl! for lac+ of coordination 2although a do=en bombs /ere e<ploded3; $ir and ground reinforcement finall! dispersed the rebels after bitter door-to-door fighting; $n e!e/itness reported that 8;;;a common grave /as dug b! a bulldo=er in the cemeter! and I sa/ %2 bodies dumped into it; Afficials said the! /ere bodies of men +illed in battle; ; ; 8 The revolt /as crushed9 but a second front had been opened near Sierra de Trinidad9 onl! &0 miles from the vital communications center of Santa Clara; The same observer graphicall! depicts the e<ploits of the spontaneousl! organi=ed underground movement that blan+eted Cuba /ith an intricate net/or+ of militant activities: ; ; ;the rebel underground stepped up its sabotage and terroristic activities throughout the countr!9 including -avana; -omemade bombs /ould e<plode intermittentl! at different points in the Capital and people /ould be driven from motion picture 8heaters and other places of amusement; ire bombs /ere also emplo!ed9 and sho/ /indo/s of stores suffered from the impact of the e<plosions; Rebel bands harassed arm! outposts and even ventured into to/ns to capture arms; 4-avana /as /ithout /ater for three da!s and the airport /as completel! gutted b! fire;6 ; ; ; buses9 both in cities and on high/a!s9 truc+s carr!ing freight and merchandise9 passenger and freight trains9 railroad and high/a! bridges9 public buildings and homes and businesses of 8'atistianos8 /ere blo/n up or burned as part of the agitation and terror designed to maintain a constant state of alarm; ; ; Real terror /as ans/ered b! the government /ith tenfold reprisals; 'odies of men and bo!s /ere found hanging from trees or lamposts or l!ing lifeless in automobiles /ith grenades on their persons9 to conve!

the impression that the! /ere caught in terrorist acts ; ; ; there /as hardl! a communist among those detained;;; 2@ules Dubois: idel Castro> Indianapolis9 1.%.9 p; 1,29 1,"3 1hile Castro's guerrilla group /as occupied "00 miles a/a!9 the Directorio Revolucionario opened the independent Second (scambra! ront in the (scambra! 5ountains 5$DE 5ADT-S before 'atista fled Cuba 2@an; 19 1.%.3; The cit! of Cienfuegos /as this time besieged for /ee+s b! the Second (scambra! ront; This time the attac+ succeeded; The 'atista troops surrendered Cavo 7oco Daval 'ase and the rebels too+ over the /hole cit! 2population &090003; $ll Cuba /as in the flames of revolt; *o/erfull! reinforced b! massive e<penditionar! landings of /ar materiel9 financed and manned b! e<iled Cuban militants9 the fall of -avana9 and all of Cuba /as inevitable 1IT-A?T the intervention of Castro's little group of rebels; Castro's campaign undoubtedl! e<pedited the fall of 'atista9 but his efforts /ere b! no means the decisive factor; The reasons are obvious; Aut of ,2 Castro guerrillas /ho landed from the Cranma on Dec; 29 1.%&9 onl! about 20 escaped to the Sierra 5aestra mountains; *rofessor 5aurice -alpern9 an e<pert on Cuban affairs /ho spent si< !ears in Castro's Cuba 21.&2-1.&,3 sums up the situation: ; ; ;$s idel himself e<plained on @anuar! 1,9 1.&09 as late as @une 1.%, his 'arm!' consisted of "00 men> and /hen he began his final offensive in $ugust he had ,00 men; ; ; In fact /hat are termed 'battles' in the reminiscences of rebel leaders /ere s+irmishes /ith rarel! more than a score or t/o guerrillas involved and fre:uentl! fe/er; This does not detract from the; ; ; heroism displa!ed b! the men in combat9 but does provide perspective on the 4degree6 of involvement; ; ; 2The Rise and Decline of idel Castro> ?niversit! of Calfornia9 1.)29 p; ")-",3 $nd H;S; Harol demonstrates the insignificant role of Castro's tin! band in the anti-'atista resistance as contrasted /ith the decisive role pla!ed b! the great masses of the Cuban people: ; ; ; the urban front /as b! far the most important and the 'guerilleros'; ; ; pla!ed a subordinate part; It /as the cities /hich supplied the 'guerilleros' /ith arms9 mone!9 information and provisions> and from start to finish the vast maBorit! of 'guerilleros' /ere recruited in the to/ns; It /as the to/ns /hich9 in ebruar! 1.%)9 launched a great publicit! campaign in favor of the 'sierra' 4mountain fighting bands6 inflicting serious blo/s to 'atista's prestige; ; ;and /aged an efficient political and militar! campaign of their o/n; ; ; 2Cuerrillas in *o/er> De/ Eor+9 1.)09 p; 1&#-1&%3 '( AR( Castro landed in Cuba9 Dec; 29 1.%&9 /hile his boat9 the Cranma9 /as still at sea en route to 5e<ico9 the 2&th of @ul! 5ovement led b! ran+ *ais9 /ith little resistance9 virtuall! too+ over Santiago de Cuba; Revolt flared all over Cuba; In $pril 1.%&9 there /as a 'atista arm! uprising led b! the 'atista 5inister of (ducation9 5aBor @ose ernande=9 a captain in the regular arm!9 and Colonel Ramon 'ar:uin9 5ilitar! attache to 1ashington; @ulio Comacho $:uilar and @orge Soto assisted b! three $mericans9 staged a fora! at the eastern end of the Sierra 5aestra near the ?;S; Cuantanamo naval base; There /ere alread! groups of rebels scattered in the Sierra de Cristal before Raul Castro arrived; The! Boined him later; 5atthe/ tells that 8;;;Che Cuevara had the tas+ of imposing Castro's authorit! over three or four groups of Cuerrillas fighting on their o/n in the mountains south of -avana; ; ;8 The Cuerrillas /re alread! fighting the 'atista troops before Cuevara 8arrived to impose Castro's authorit! over them;8 In 1.%,9 8; ; ; Roman Catholic priests and leaders /ere sho/ing s!mpath! for Castro and opposition to 'atista; The church hierarch! came out for 'atista's resignation; 'oth idel and Raul had priests and protestant ministers /ith them; ; ; 8

Raul Castro encountered no opposition /hen he came to the Sierra de Cristal in 5arch 1.%,> bands of Cuerrilla fighters /ere alread! there; $nd ver! effective groups from the Student Directorio /ere fighting in the Sierra de Trinidad; 2Source: 5atthe/s9 ibid; pp; )"9 )#9 )&9 1009 1029 10)3 'arel! able to survive in the Sierra 5aestra /ilderness9 Castro's isolated group could even /ith the greatest difficult! function onl! on the peripher! of the vast popular resistance movement convulsing Cuba; $lmost entirel! shut off from the outside /orld9 there could be no direct contact /ith the other anti'atista organi=ations: not even /ith Castro's 8o/n8 2&th of @ul! 5ovement9 a fact /hich Castro's secondin-command (rnesto Che Cuevara repeatedl! deplores: ; ; ; /e /anted closer contact /ith the 2&th of @ul! 5ovement; Aur nomad e<istence made it practicall! impossible to contact the members; ; ; 2p; "%3 idel did not have a radio then and he as+ed a peasant to lend him his; ; ; 2p; %13 *easants /ere not !et read! to Boin the struggle9 and communication /ith the cit! bases /as practicall! none<istent; ; ;2p; 1,--all :uotes from (pisodes of the Revolutionar! 1ar> -avana9 1.&)3 It is necessar! to correct the erroneous impression that either Castro's 2&th of @ul! 5ovement or the anti'atista organi=ations9 constituted a unified bod! based upon a clearl! defined program and a common ideolog!; The fact is that Castro did not control the ran+ and file membership9 and certainl! deserves no credit for their achievements; 1hat Theodore Draper /rites about the composition of the 2&th of @ul! 5ovement is also true in respect to the rest of the anti-'atista opposition: ; ; ;The 2&th of @ul! 5ovement /as never homogeneous9 and the larger it gre/ in 1.%) and 1.&,9 the less homogeneous it became; It included those /ho merel! /ished to restore the bourgeois constitution of 1.#0 and those /ho demanded a 'real social-revolution;' It attracted those /ho admired and those /ho detested the ?nited States; It too+ in fervent anti-communists and ardent fello/-travelers;;; 2Castro's Revolution>De/ Eor+9 1.&19 p; )%3 Cuevara not onl! deplores 8 ; ; ; the lac+ of ideological 4but also6 lac+ of moral preparation of the combatants; ; ; the men /ho /ould find the flimsiest e<cuses to Bustif! their demand to be released9 and if the ans/er /as in the negative9 desertion /ould follo/; ; ; in spite of the fact that deserters 4/ould be immediatel!6 ;;;e<ecuted and desertion meant death;;;2p; &13;8 In another place9 Cuevara complains that Castro's Sierra 5aestra combatants 8;;;had neither ideological a/areness nor 'esprit-de-corps';;;8 2p; "%9 2"3 8;;;due to the lac+ of discipline among the ne/ men; ; ;it /as necessar! to establish a rigid discipline9 organi=e a high command and set up a Staff;;;2p; .13 idel addressed the troops urging a more strict discipline; ; ;he also announced that crimes of insubordination9 desertion9 and defeatism /ere to be punished b! death; ; ; 8 2p; 2"3 These9 and similar remar+s scattered throughout Cuevara's boo+9 reveal a great deal about the true nature of Castro's $R5E; 1e emphasi=e the /ord $R5E to demonstrate that an allegedl! voluntar! association of dedicated idealists9 in /hich a member /ho avails himself of his right to resign is called a 8deserter8 and shot on sight differs in no essential respect from an! other traditional arm! of disciplined conscripts; Castro's militar! conduct is /holl! consistent /ith his domineering personalit!; Commandante 2no/ Ceneral3 Castro and his officers9 true to form9 have turned Cuba itself into a 5I7IT$RE ST$T(; 1ith the flight of 'atista9 Castro moved s/iftl! to consolidate his o/n po/er and neutrali=e or eliminate the other revolutionar! organi=ations /ith /hom he did not /ant to share po/er; The other rebel groups anticipated this and acted accordingl!; 'efore Castro arrived in -avana from the Sierra 5aestra9 the Revolutionar! Directorate9 /ith %00 rifles9 % machine guns and armored tan+s ta+en from the San $ntonio de 7o's 'anas $rsenal near -avana9 occupied the ?niversit! of -avana Campus and turned it into an

armed camp; 2See the e!e/itness account of @ules Dubois9 idel Castro9 p; "%"3 Together /ith the fighters of the Second (scambra! ront9 the students also occupied the *residential *alace--the seat of government; 1hen Castro and his escorting force arrived in -avana9 the rebels refused to evacuate the *alace and turn it over to his ne/l!-appointed *resident of the Republic9 5anuel ?rrutia; The! /ere outraged because Castro had set up his o/n 8*rovisional Covernment8 in Santiago de Cuba /ithout consulting and /ithout the consent of other revolutionar! groups /hich had been fighting against 'atista; The! did not trust Castro; -is verbal assurances that he /ould not sei=e po/er and /ould respect the rights of other anti'atista groups and tendencies /ere not enough; Castro made united front agreements /hen it suited his purposes9 and bro+e them /hen he sa/ fit; In spea+ing of the *act9 based on the Sierra 5anifesto9 Cuevara contends that Castro /as Bustified in brea+ing it because some of the provisions /ere reBected b! the other groups; The *act /as bro+en onl! five months after it /as signed because the other organi=ations 2/hich Cuevara calls the enem!3 8 ; ; ; bro+e the *act /hen the! refused to ac+no/ledge the authorit! of the Sierra 4of the Castro band68 2ibid; p; ,,3; $ccording to Cuevara and Castro the phrase 8;;;here in the Sierra 5aestra /e /ill +no/ ho/ to do Bustice to the confidence of the people9 meant that idel and onl! idel +ne/ ho/; ; ; 8 2ibid; p; ,,3 Cuevara c!nicall! ac+no/ledges that Castro P Co; did not intend to honor the agreement in the first place; 2p; ,&3 Castro bra=enl! arrogated e<clusive monopol! of po/er to his o/n 2&th of @ul! 5ovement 2/hich Castro identified /ith his o/n person3: 8 ; ; ; Iet it be +no/n9 4he proclaimed6 that the 2&th of @ul! 5ovement /ill never fail to guide and direct the people from the underground and the Sierra 5aestra; ; ;8 2Dubois9 p; 20&3 $fter he came to po/er9 Castro li:uidated all resistance groups /hich he could not control; -e disbanded the Directorio and the Second (scambra! ront b! persecuting its members or mollif!ing some of its leaders; 2Castro appointed aure Chomon9 one of the leaders of the Directorio9 $mbassador to Russia and later other posts3 -e disbanded the Civic Resistance 5ovement9 headed b! his once close friend 5anuel Ra!9 /ho later left his post as 5inister of *ublic 1or+s in Castro's Covernment; Through his stooge9 Rolando Cubela9 Castro dominated all groups /ho :uestioned his dictatorship9 accusing them of 8counterrevolution;8 Castro finall! ended b! purging 8his8 o/n part!9 the 2&th of @ul! 5ovement; Ane of Castro's vociferous apologists at that time9 the rench /riter Simone de 'eauvoir9 e<plained that Castro purged his o/n part! 8 ; ; ; because it /as pett! bourgeois and could not +eep pace /ith the Revolution after Castro too+ po/er; ; ;the part! had to go9 to be replaced b! reliable elements; ; ; 8 2See Eves Cuilbert: Castro 7'Infidele> *aris9 1.&19 p; 1)03 These elements9 of course9 /ere the Communist *art! and Castro's entourage of s!cophants; The mass e<odus from Cuba9 before emigration almost /as cut off9 reached the staggering figure of more than half a million and included tens of thousands of anti-'atista /or+ers and peasants; Thousands of political prisoners /ho fought against 'atista overflo/ the Bails of Cuba; $bsenteeism9 slo/do/ns on the Bob9 sporadic protests9 instantl! s:uelched9 and other manifestations of popular discontent9 demonstrate that the revolt of the obscure anon!mous masses against t!rran! cannot be permanentl! stamped out b! 'atista9 or his successor9 idel Castro;

Ingrained legends are e<ceedingl! hard to dispel; 'ut historic Bustice should still be accorded to the neglected and persecuted fighters fought and continue to struggle so valiantl! for the freedom of Cuban people;

Chapter 1> - "h the Anarchists 'ro#e 2ith Castro's Re)i!e

(tran)lin) the ;pposition Press .o e3plain (hy the anarchists (ere "orced to break (ith Castro it is "irst necessary to depict the cruel* unbearable harassments (hich made it impossible "or any o" the opposition groupings to "unction4 .he situation is graphically sketched out by a consciencious eye(itness report in the "ollo(ing e3tract 2Eves Cuilbert> Castro l1+n"idele9 *aris9 1.&19 pp; 1)#-1,03 4S;D;6 4 idel Castro said on television9 $pril 29 1.%.6 81hen one ne/spaper is closed do/n9 no ne/spaper /ill feel safe> /hen one man is persecuted because of his political ideas9 no one can feel safe;8 Afficiall! there is still freedom of the press in Cuba; There is no la/ limiting the right of e<pression; -o/ever9 Castro's dictatorship could not tolerate the e<istence of a press not entirel! devoted to him;;; Shortl! after the beginning of the 4@anuar! 19 1.%.6 Revolution9 Castro re:uisitioned the ne/spapers Alerta9 Pueblo9 Ata5o9 El Comercio de Cien"uegos9 El !iario de Cuba of Santiago9 and also closed do/n the Bournal El Camagueyano9 founded in 1.02;;; $lthough Castro pretends that the press is not being shac+led9 there is a great deal of unofficial9 but no less harmful9 harassment and sabotage ; ; ; To create a subservient press9 Castro subsidi=ed Revolucion 4former organ of the @ul! 2& 5ovement69 Combate9 !iario Libre9 La Calle o" %avana9 Sierra #aestra9 etc; @ournals that he could not9 for the 11. moment9 entirel! suppress /ere neutrali=ed b! an ingenious s!stem of camouflaged censorship; The ne/spaper /or+ers' union tried to nullif! the impact of articles that did not strictl! echo Castro's part! line b! printing a coletilla;;; a sort of disclaimer /arning the reader that the article is 8counter-revolutionar!;8 It usuall! reads9 8'! virtue of the freedom of e<pression /hich e<ists in this countr!9 this article has been printed according to the /ill of the o/ners of this publication; 'ut9 b! virtue of this same freedom of e<pression9 /e9 the emplo!ees of this Bournal9 alert the public that this article is contrar! to the truth;8 $nother tactic has been to shut do/n an obstreperous publication b! cutting off its suppl! of paper or other necessar! materials; Castro /as not at all pleased /ith coletillas9 /hich had the opposite of the intended effect9 leaving the government open to the accusation of censorship; (arl! in 1.&09 he therefore launched an all-out offensive to li:uidate9 once and for all9 the independent press; 4for e<ample6 ; ; ; the editors of Prensa Libre9 savagel! attac+ed b! the Castroites9 reali=ed that it too /ould soon be compelled to cease publication9 and sounded the alarm in a hard-hitting article titled 8The -our of ?nanimit!;8 4Cuilbert here :uotes from the article6 8'?nanimit! reigns supreme in Cuba-totalitarian unanimit!;;; there must be no discordant voices9 no possibilit! of criticism; The control of ever! avenue of e<pression /ill facilitate the brain-/ashing of the public; Dissident voices /ill be bulldo=ed into silence: the silence of those /ho C$DDAT spea+ out or the silence of those /ho D$R( DAT spea+ out;;;8 The great illustrated /ee+l! maga=ine9 Bohemia9 of -avana9 one of the most /idel! read Cuban maga=ines in 7atin-$merica9 /as edited b! 5iguel $ngel Fuevado; ?nder 'atista9 Bohemia constantl! fought for freedom and democrac!9 and denounced the dictator's outrageous violations of human rights;

Castro considered Fuevado one of his close friends; In the columns of his maga=ine9 Fuevado 4initiall!6 bac+ed Castro and the Revolution to the limit; 'ut he could not tolerate the increasing totalitarianism of Castro's government; 4Bohemia9 the onl! non-censored maga=ine after 1.&09 /as preparing its 87ibert! (dition98 /ith a painting of Castro on its cover over the inscription 8-onor and Clor! to the Dational -eroJ8 /hen6 ; ; ; -e closed do/n Bohemia and9 on @ul! 1,9 1.&09 left Cuba; Fuevado e<plained /h! he had to do so in a fare/ell message to the readers: 4Cuilbert :uotes6 8 ; ; ; a diabolical9 s+illfull! prepared plot to impose a Communist dictatorship on the $merican continent has been organi=ed under the close supervision of 5osco/; $fter listening to the declaration of Di+ita Hhrushchev9 there can no longer be an! doubt that Cuba is being used as a tool to promote the foreign policies of the ?;S;S;R;;; Cuba is being pictured as a /ea+ little nation /hose ver! e<istence is being safeguarded b! the guns of revolutionar! Russia9 the 120 greatest militar! po/er in the /orld; $fter Castro's enthusiastic pledge of solidarit! /ith the ?;S;S;R; and the 8socialist countries98 Castro's part in this attentat against freedom has become obvious;;; ; ; ; 8In ma+ing our o/n revolution9 it is not necessar! to subBect our people to the oppression and vassalage of Russia; To ma+e a profound social revolution9 it is not necessar! to implant a s!stem /hich degrades people to the lo/l! level of state serfdom9 to /ipe out the last vestige of freedom and dignit!; This is not a genuine revolution;;; 8These lines should have appeared in the pages of Bohemia9 but this is no longer possible; 'arred from publishing this message in our o/n maga=ine9 acutel! conscious of its moral obligation to the people9 to /hom Bohemia has al/a!s been honest and faithful9 the editor of Bohemia has made the onl! decision /hich these circumstances permit: to proclaim in these lines the sad truth of /hat is happening to Cuba9 and to go into e<ile; ; ;8 5an! other collaborators of Bohemia also left /ith Fuevado; The maga=ine /as immediatel! ta+en over b! a gang of Castro Communists--/hile Castro h!pocriticall! deplored 8the e<ile of Fuevado as one of the hardest blo/s to our Revolution;8 The $narchist *ress ights 'ac+ Cuilbert is perhaps the onl! /itness /ho not onl! mentions the Cuban anarchists9 but appreciates their unflinching dedication to the principles of freedom and Bustice; ; ; ; in the Cuban night some light still flic+ers; $s far as circumstances over /hich the! have no control permit9 the little anarchist Bournals still valiantl! defend freedom to the utmost; Their papers9 El Libertario and Solidaridad 0astronomica 2Argan of the $narcho-S!ndicalist food and restaurant /or+ers union3 still courageousl! proBect their gleam of hope that Castro fears; The!9 too9 /ill soon be suppressed;;;2ibid; p; 1),3 In the face of the gro/ing oppression9 the libertarian movement /hile constrained to modulate its criticism so as not to be confused /ith the counter-revolutionar! reactionaries or the more liberal bourgeoisie9 nevertheless succeeded in ma+ing its position unmista+abl! clear; or e<ample9 both papers prominentl! displa!ed provocative headline slogans: 1( $R( $C$IDST $77 I5*(RI$7IS5SJ *RII$T( *RA*(RTE IS T-( SE5'A7 A S7$I(REJ SACI$7IS5 1I77 '( R(( AR T-(R( 1I77 '( DA SACI$7IS5J

T-( 7$DD $DD T-( IDD?STRI(S TA T-( SEDDIC$T(SJ AR R(( CA77(CTII(S $DD CAA*(R$TII(SJ The anarchist papers /ere compelled to cease publication about t/o !ears after the revolution; Since Solidaridad 0astronomica appeared monthl! and El Libertario 2organ of the 7ibertarian ederation of Cuba -- $7C3 irregularl!9 the follo/ing e<cerpts from the more important articles9 though fe/9 should nevertheless give a fair idea of ho/ the anarchists vie/ed events during this short period; The $narchists and the Revolution rom the 7ibertarian $ssociation of Cuba to the International $narchist 5ovement -avana9 @une 1.%. Dear Comrades: 1hat follo/s are our first tentative impressions of the situation in Cuba on the morro/ of the Revolution; 1ith the triumph of the Revolution9 man! of our comrades released from prison have been Boined b! $77 our e<iled comrades9 /ho have returned to participate in the revolutionar! reconstruction of the ne/ Cuba; It is still too earl! to predict /hat orientation the Revolution ma! ta+e in our countr!; 'ut there can be no doubt--in vie/ of the ade:uate measures ta+en--that the murderous 'atista dictatorship /ill never again be restored to inflict itself upon our people; The Revolution is preeminentl! a true people's revolution; The thousands of armed men fighting in the mountains9 through their audacit! and courage9 demolished the dictatorial fortress; Aur armed militants enBo!ed the full moral and material bac+ing of the masses; The /idespread clandestine propaganda and militant actions and uprisings of popular movements all over Cuba9 and the fighting solidarit! of all groups9 undermined the morale and /ill to fight of 'atista's arm! and his civilian allies; 1e feel that a ne/ epoch in the life of Cuba has been opened; 'ut /e have no illusions about the character of the institutional changes no/ ta+ing place; or the time being--ho/ long nobod! +no/s--/e still possess civil rights9 as /ell as the possibilit! of reorgani=ing our forces and ma+ing our ideas and ideals +no/n to the people; In a /idespread revolutionar! movement such as this9 all sectors are represented> different groupings9 often /ith conflicting aims9 strive to e<ert ma<imum influence; $nd it is not al/a!s those helping libertarian conceptions that e<ert the greatest influence; The doctrine of state centrali=ation has9 in Cuba as in so man! other countries9 had the most harmful effects; 5an! /ho sincerel! desire a 122 regeneration of societ! are unfortunatel! obsessed /ith the notion that a successful revolution is possible onl! under a rigid and authoritarian regime; $mong these are the e<treme nationalists and fanatical patriots -- a ver! dangerous tendenc! /hich could facilitate degeneration of the revolution into a sort of Da=ism and ascism9 particularl! here in 7atin-$merica; The formidable Catholic influence is e:uall! dangerous for the Revolution; The duplicit! of the top of the Church hierarch! has been ampl! demonstrated in recent !ears; In return for supporting 'atista9 the Church /as subsidi=ed /ith donations of hundreds of thousands9 even millions of pesetas;;; Devertheless9 man! Catholics fought heroicall! against 'atista9 and the lo/er 8ran+ and file8 priests and other clerg! fought bravel! on all fronts to topple the 'atista regime; 1hen normal life has been restored9 the Church /ill surel! ta+e advantage of this fact to curr! favor /ith the ne/ regime;

The Communist *art! of Cuba is Bust as dangerous for the Revolution as are the e<treme nationalists and the upper echelons of the Church; ortunatel!9 their influence is limited because the! are discredited b! their association /ith 'atista and their servilit! to the Russian totalitarian dictatorship; -iding behind the banner of liberalism9 patriotism9 mutual tolerance and the coe<istence of all anti-'atista forces9 the! have been able to infiltrate a number of organi=ations and some sectors of the labor movement; Though small in number9 the Communists are s+illful connivers9 /ell-organi=ed and totall! unscrupulous> their counterrevolutionar! potential must not be underestimated; The role the labor movement is to pla! in revolutionar! reconstruction is a particularl! crucial problem; rom the fall of the 5achado dictatorship in 1."" to the present9 the unions have been the tools of9 and one of the main pillars supporting9 the government; The fact that the ne/ Revolutionar! government is moving to consolidate the labor movement into a single rigidl! dominated centrali=ed organi=ation has fortunatel!--at least for the time being--not /ea+ened the determination of the /or+ers to fight for the autonom! and integrit! of their o/n organi=ations against dictatorship; The Communists9 naturall!9 are striving to recon:uer their controlling position in the labor movement9 /hich the! enBo!ed for so man! !ears under 'atista and the others; 'ut the circumstances are not the same> the! are not favorable9 and /e hope that9 in spite of their efforts9 the Communists /ill not succeed in dominating the labor movement; Despite these and other obstacles9 /e /ill continue to struggle for the ma<imum reali=ation of our libertarian alternatives--in accordance /ith the realities of the situation and /ith unflagging dedication-and against Statism and the deformation of the Cuban Revolution; 12" 5anifesto to the 1or+ers and the *eople in Ceneral As early as 6anuary 78* 79:9* only a "e( (eeks a"ter the Revolution* the Libertarian Association o" Cuba already detected the "irst signs o" the authoritarian character o" the ne( regime and sounded the alarm in its #ani"esto to the )orkers and the People in 0eneral4 .he #ani"esto reads in part 444 In this historic moment of the nation and the /or+ing class9 the $7C is obliged to call attention to certain fundamental problems;;; The Revolution that recentl! freed the people of Cuba from the blood! t!rann! of 'atista is a people's revolution for libert! and Bustice9 made b! the people; The labor movement of our countr! /as captured b! the t!rants9 /ho used it to promote their o/n sinister purposes; The voices of the rebels and the nonconformists /ere stilled b! the prison officer9 the persecutor and the assassin; ?nions /hich dared :uestion the authorities /ere immediatel! ta+en over b! the Secretar!-Ceneral of the 4collaborationist6 Confederation of Cuban 1or+ers 2C;T;C;3 andOor the 5inistr! of 7abor; Their freel! elected representatives /ere ousted 4or even arrested6 and replaced b! hand-pic+ed faithful servants of the dictatorship9 /ho /ere imposed upon the membership /ithout the least semblance of democratic procedure; The /or+ers themselves must see to it that such atrocities are never again revived in Cuba ;;; 1e are alarmed that the allegedl! 8temporar!8 administrations of the unions and their officials are being installed /ithout consultation or agreement of the membership or of the various organi=ations that made the Revolution ;;; In the midst of the revolutionar! turmoil9 /e do not e<pect ever!thing9 including the labor organi=ations9 to function normall! in so short a time; 'ut it is our dut!9 and the dut! of all the /or+ers9 b! militant action9 to see to it that the democratic procedures9 the freedoms9 and the rights gained b! us /ith the triumph of the Revolution are respected ;;;

1e must immediatel! hold free elections in the unions9 /here the /or+ers /ill freel! choose their representatives ;;; It is absolutel! necessar! that general membership meetings be called immediatel! to freel! discuss and deal /ith the great and urgent problems ;;; It is absolutel! necessar! that the /or+ers themselves elect9 dismiss or reinstate their officials; To permit an! other procedure /ould be to allo/ the ver! same dictatorial practices /hich /e fought against under 'atista ;;; 1e9 the people /ho fought a bitter /ar against the old dictatorship9 must no/ ma+e sure that the Revolution /ill built a ne/ social order that /ill guarantee libert! and Bustice for all9 /ithout e<ception;;; 1e /or+ers9 /ho felt on our o/n bodies the blo/s inflicted b! the old t!rann!9 must no/9 again9 defend our fundamental rights; R(SA7I( D(I(R $C$ID TA IDSTIT?T( $ R(CI5( A S?'5ISSIAD $DD S7$I(REJ $rom Solidaridad 0astronomica T-( 1ARH(RS 5?ST '( $7(RT DAT TA $77 IDTA T-( S$5( (RRARS T1IC(J The heroic fighters /ho9 /ith so much effort and sacrifice9 defeated the 'atista t!rann!9 merit the eternal gratitude of the Cuban people; Dever again must the Cuban people be subBected to horrors such as the 'atista t!rann!; 1e are tremendousl! disturbed to see s/arms of adventurers and other phonies ta+ing advantage of the victorious Revolution9 and9 b! strong-arm methods9 ta+ing over control of the unions;;; ar from signif!ing a real revolutionar! change9 these methods onl! repeat the institutionali=ed violence of the 'atista dictatorship;;; The Communists /ait in the /ings9 all too an<ious to repeat their betra!als of the /or+ers--as /hen the! collaborated /ith 'atista to subBugate them; Do/9 /ith the triumph of the Revolution9 is precisel! the time for the /or+ers to be doubl! alert and /atchful not to repeat the same errors9 not to allo/ the democratic assemblies to be destro!ed b! tolerating decrees from above9 edicts converting the unions into agencies of the all-embracing state; The destructive po/er of the state is the s/ord of Damocles hanging over the heads of the /or+ers; 1e must avoid centrali=ation; 1e must impede the surge of ne/ hierarchies /hich are no better than the old ones; 1e must have free and open assemblies /here the /ill of the maBorit! of the /or+ers can determine the future of our class and its organi=ations; 2@an; 1%9 1.%.3 The 7abor Rac+eteers and the Cangsters Return--'e/areJ 'arel! t/o months after the Revolution overthre/ the dictator 'atista and his faithful lieutenant9 (usebio 5uBal 4fascist thug and Secretar!-Ceneral of the 'atista 8labor front98 the C;T;C;69 the ne/ dictators are alread! conniving to sei=e control of the unions9 and9 li+e their predecessors9 rule the /or+ers b! decrees from above; These t!rants are pac+ing the union meetings /ith their stooges--strangers /ho are not even members-brought in to vote for 12% the labor rac+eteers; The /or+ers are being intimidated b! the presence of armed militiamen; These and other practices constitute flagrant violations of the elementar! rights of the /or+ers;

The Revolution must guarantee and defend the right of the /or+ers to freel! conduct their affairs /ithout intimidation or interference; The fate of the Revolution is in our hands> the destin! of our class is in our o/n handsJ 25arch 1%9 1.%.3 1arningJ @uan 5arinello Is 5osco/'s Stooge and 'atista's riendJ It is reported in the press that 8;;;!esterda! afternoon9 in a simple ceremon!9 Dr; @uan 5arinello /as appointed to the facult! of the Department of 7anguages and 7iterature in the (scuela Dormal de la -abana 4-avana School of (ducation69 the same position from /hich this /ell-+no/n /riter and political leader had been ousted b! the 'atista 5inistr! of (ducation;;;8 This announcement deliberatel! gives the one hundred per cent $7S( impression that 5arinello consistentl! fought the 'atista dictatorship; The phon! comrades 4of the Communist *art!6 /ho no/ enBo! such great influence in the ne/ revolutionar! government /ere the staunchest and most faithful friends and supporters of the 'atista dictatorship and /ere re/arded for their services b! being appointed to ver! good posts in 'atista's corrupt government; To den! this incontestable fact is absurd; Is there a single Cuban /ho does not !et +no/ that @uan 5arinello head of the Communist *art! of Cuba 2*;S;*;3 /as instructed to collaborate /ith 'atista b! his masters the Russian Communist *art! officialsG rom (l 7ibertario .he "ollo(ing article (as published in El Libertario* 6une ;<* 79:9 shortly a"ter the promulgation o" the Agrarian Re"orm La(4 +t accurately predicted the disastrous conse=uences o" massive sei>ures o" land by the state* (hich led to the establishment o" state "arms ?gran5as@ and the total domination and sub5ugation o" the agricultural (orkers and peasants4 AS4!4B *lo/s Tractors and the CuaBiro ?nder the /atch/ords 87and and 7ibert!8 and 8The 7and to Those 1ho 1or+ It98 the anarchists pioneered the organi=ation of agricultural /or+ers; Such men as Diceto *ere=9 Sabino *upo9 Casanas and 5ontero /ere in the struggle for the emancipation of the agricultural /or+ers and peasants; In contrast to the 5ar<ist bias for the urban industrial /or+ers 4based on the fatalistic theor! that the reali=ation socialism /ill depend e<clusivel! on the technical-scientific development of industr!669 our conviction that the /ill of man to create his o/n social structures is paramount9 leads us to attach special importance to the struggles of the rural masses; The fact that the t/o greatest upheavals of our centur! have ta+en place in predominantl! agrarian countries9 leads us to place our greatest hope for social change in the vast peasant masses; $nd it is precisel! because it is too often forgotten that the rural masses have al/a!s been the most do/ntrodden victims that /e passionatel! encourage and sustain all measures /hich promote their rights; $ll these considerations lead ?S to regard them not as passive automatons and lifeless pa/ns but on the contrar! as d!namic human beings /ho are capable of great revolutionar! achievements /hen inspired b! a Bust and noble cause; 1e have been dedicated champions of agrarian reform /hich /e have been demanding for man! !ears; Devertheless /e vie/ /ith increasing alarm the $grarian Reform 7a/ /hich gives priorit! to the purel! mechanical as opposed to the human factors; 1e vie/ /ith alarm the government's mistrust of the

peasants the enactment of measures /hich inevitabl! lead to the creation of a state superstructure ruinous to the creative self-activit! spontaneit! and initiative of the agricultural /or+ers and a certain tendenc! to dismiss the small peasant proprietor as a conservative-minded 8+ula+8; 1e must reali=e that for ever! machine and ever! technical blueprint to /or+ there must be human beings read! and /illing to ma+e the necesssar! tr! sacrifices for the triumph of our cause; If /e lose sight of this fact our cause is lost; 1e must reali=e that the /orst possible danger to the Revolution is the bureaucrati=ation induced b! the deification of technolog! and the conse:uent do/ngrading of the peasants; 1ithout underestimating the importance of huge cooperative farms to meet the need for agricultural products it must be stressed that the small peasant proprietors can also contribute greatl! to agricultural production b! organi=ing themselves into collectives for the intensive cultivation of the land in common;;; 2The reader /ill note ho/ closell! El Libertario anticipated the constructive recornmcndations of the agricultural scientist Rene Dumont--see introduction;3 Concentration Camps Cenerall! spea+ing9 those /ho no/ demand that political prisoners be tortured and loc+ed in concentration camps became 8revolutionaries8 onl! $ T(R the Revolution; 5an! ot these ''@ohnn!-comelatelies8 /ere a short time ago humble lac+e!s of the 'atista dictatorship; These vindictive sadists are far more severe than are the humane9 magnanimous revolutionar! veterans /ho fought on the Sierra 5aestra and (scambra! fronts; The fact that the Revolution must defend itself against the most vicous and intractable counterrevolutionaries does not mean that it should become a blind9 vindictive nemesis9 totall! impervious to human +indness; The Revolution must not be sullied9 corrupted and ultimatel! undermined b! toleration of the concentration camps and the forced labor characteristic of the odious regimes of -itler and StalinJ 2@une 209 1.%.3 Children in ?niform In the streets of -avana9 in to/ns and villages9 all over Cuba teenagers9 and even children9 are on parade: goose-stepping li+e *russian soldiers9 strutting9 puffed up /ith their o/n conceit that the! are training to 8defend the countr!;8 $nd their commanders boast about ho/ 8revolutionar!8 the! are; -o/ vain their pretensions that the! are reall! defending the RevolutionJ -o/ far removed the! are from the road to freedomJ These Buvenile patrols remind us of 5ussolini's $asci Combatini9 and the parades of ranco's 'lue Shirts; In no /a! do these little bo!s resemble the valiant fighters of the mountains9 or the brave underground fighters of the rench #a=uis; or a future of oppression and servitude the! are needed: but never to forge a tomorro/ of fraternit! in a free and happ! communit!; The! represent the militari=ation of the future9 the poisonous herb of the barrac+s--that /hich the Revolution must abolish forever;

It is one thing to train the masses in the use of arms for self-defense; 'ut it is a grievous error to militari=e and corrupt the minds of !outh9 to inhibit the unfolding of their personalities and to turn them into a herd of mindless animals; $re professional armies reall! better e:uipped to meet the ha=ards of /ar and invasionG -istor! demonstrates that a people determined to defend its rights has been able to defeat regular armies; 1e /ho boast of 8militar! glor!98 remember the Cerman! of the Haiser and -itler--their pompous9 corseted9 goose-stepping generals committing their most odious crimesJ Remember the rance of 7aval and *etain betra!ed b! the militaristsJ R(5(5'(RJ 2Dov; 2%9 1.%.3 Is There Real reedom Af The *ress in CubaG 5ore than t/o /ee+s ago the C;D;T; e<ile organi=ation in Cuba received an urgent appeal from the C;D;T; underground in Spain9 as+ing for internationa solidarit! on behalf of .. imprisoned anarchos!ndicalist militants no/ facing ver! heav! sentences for opposing ranco-fascism; 4The C;D;T;-ConfederaciQn Dacional del rabaBo9 Dational Confederation of 7abor--/as the anarcho-s!ndicalist confederation /hich fought in the Spanish Revolution and Civil 1ar9 1."&-".;6 C;D;T; comrades here in Cuba personall! delivered topics of the appeal to the dail! ne/spapers of -avana9 as /ell as the radio stations9 re:uesting publication and announcement; 'ut not a single /ord has thus far been published or broadcast; Is this freedom of the pressG Isn't the nonsectarian revolutionar! press maintained b! the public obliged to print something of general interest9 to serve all the people /ithout discriminationG Ar arc the libertarians not li+ed b! those /ho control the pressG Those /ho rightl! condemn capitalist monopoliers of the press for their partisan9 reactionar! policies9 must not sin+ to their level; The! must not impose their o/n brand of 8revolutionar!8 monopol! and go so far as to renounce all moral obligation and refuse to help those /ho are fighting fascist barbarism9 onl! because the! do not li+e their revolutionar! ideas;;; It /ould indeed be criminal to den! freedom of the press to a movement li+e ours9 /hose struggles for the emancipation of the oppressed have been une:ualed in the histor! of the Cuban Revolutionar! movement; 'ut if this sabotage and bo!cott continues9 /e /ill have to as+9 IS T-(R( R($7 R((DA5 A T-( *R(SS ID C?'$G 2 @ul! 1.) 1.&03 Declaration published in the Bulletin o" the #ECE> 5iami9 @ul!-$ug; 1.&2; ; ; ;$ll militant Cuban libertarians fought for the do/nfall of 'atista and enthusiasticall! hailed and assisted the Revolution; 1e hoped that the Revolution /ould bring more libert! and social Bustice to the men9 /omen and children of Cuba; 1e tried to help the people's voluntar! organi=ations 2cooperatives9 cultural groups9 peasant and student groups9 etc;3 assume a decisive part in the construction of the ne/ l;ibertarian Cuba; 7ittle b! little9 /e sa/ our hopes dissipated as the ne/ rulers became more and more arrogant9 ruthless and dictatorial; 1hile /e sa/ the outrages and bestialities committed dail! b! the members of the revolutionar! oligarch!9 /e remained silent because /e did not /ant the people to confuse our revolutionar! criticism /ith the criticism of reactionar! elementsG /ho attac+ed the regime onl! to safeguard their economic and political priveleges; 1e critici=ed the Castro-Communist dictatorship9 not because it /as TAA R(IA7?TIAD$RE9 but because it /as DAT R(IA7?TIAD$RE (DA?C-; 'et/een the spring and the summer of 1.&09 /e e<posed ourselves to the persecution of the regime b! attempting to initiate a /idespread discussion /hich /ould have given us the opportunit! to e<pose before

the Cuban people the ideological ban+ruptc! of rhe ne/ dictatorsllip and present our constructive solutions to the problems of the Cuban Revolution; The rulers made a free and open discussion of issues and principles impossible; 1e /ere accused b! 'las Roca 4leader of the Communist *art!9 e<-friend of 'atista6 of hiding behind the mas+ of e<treme revolutionism9 the better to serve the interests of the $merican State Department; ) 2In $ugust9 1.&039 he said9 8Toda! in Cuba /e have anarcho-s!ndicalists /ho publish Declarations of *rinciples9 that are of /onderful assistance to counter-revolution;;;the! help counterrevolution from e<tremist positions /ith phraseolog! and arguments that loo+ leftist;86 1hen /e /rote a fift!-page pamphlet repl!ing to these slanders and outlining our vie/point9 the State *ublishing -ouse refused to publish it9 and private publishers /ere strictl! /arned not to do so; 1e9 and other non-conformist groups9 /ere not allo/ed to print an!thing; Aur paper Solidaridad 0astronomic /as so hounded b! the authorities that it ceased publication 5arch 209 1.&1; The best e:uipped print shops confiscated from the bourgeois press /ere opened to the Communists; $ veritable flood of 5ar<ist boo+s and pamphlets /ere used to brain-/ash the /or+ers and peasants of Cuba; This9 together /ith appointing Communists to +e! posts in the government9 the unions9 the schools9 peasant and cultural organi=ations9 etc;9 convinced us that the Revolution /as lost; R his /as the bitter end of our hopes9 and from that time on our opposition to the increasingl! brutal totalitarian regime began; 4The 'ulletin also published the follo/ing notice dispatched from Cuba:6 -avana9 $ugust 1&9 1.&2 Through this little note9 /e are letting !ou +no/ that9 for reasons too long and too complicated to e<plain at this time9 the (<ecutive Committee of the 7ibertarian $ssociation of Cuba has decided to suspend publication 4of its Bournal and other activit!6; raternall! !ours9 T-( S(CR(T$RI$T 'ehind these fe/ lines of lie shattered hopes9 the despair and the traged! of the aborted Cuban Revolution; $narchists in Castro's *risons .his is a partial list o" anarchists imprisoned because they re"used to serve the Castro totalitarian regime* 5ust as they "ought its predecessor the Batista tyrannt* remaining al(ays "aith"ul to their ideals44 ?$room Boletin +n"ormacion Libertaria--#ovimiento Libertaria de Cuba En E3illioo #iami* 6uly-August 79C;@ AS4!4B PlDacido #ende>: 'us driver9 delegate for routes 1&9 1)9 and 1,; or man! !ears9 fought against the 'atista t!rann! and at various times imprisoned and brutall! tortured; In 1."S he /as forced to go into e<ile9 returning secretl! to Cuba to fight in the Cuban underground movement against 'atista in the Sierra (scambra!; 1ith the do/nfall of 'atista9 he resumed his union activities refusing to accept the totalitarian decrees of the so-called revolutionar! government; Comrade 5ende= is serving his sentence in the Dational *rison on the Island of *ines9 built b! the blood! dictator 5achado; 5ende= has been condemned b! 2 Castro's Revolutionar! Tribunal to t/elve !ears at hard labor; -is famil! is in desperate economic difficulties;

Antonio !egas: 5ilitant member of the glorious Dational Confederation of 7abor of Spain 2CDT3: living in Cuba since the termination of the Spanish Civil 1ar9 /or+ing in the motion picture industr!; This comrade conspired against the 'atista t!rann! and /ith the triumph of the Revolution9 unconditionall! placed himself at the service of the ne/ Castro regime; 'ecause of his activities against the communist usurpers of the Revolution9 he /as imprisoned b! the lac+e!s of Castro /ithout trial; $ntonio Degas is imprisoned in the dungeons of Cabana ortress and subBected to inhuman treatment; -is /ife and children9 under conditions of at-o/ing povert!9 must also find /a!s of helping him in prison /here he is under medical treatment; Alberto #iguel Linsuain: Comrade 7insuain is the son of a /ell-+no/n Spanish Revolutionist9 /ho died in $licante to/ards the end of the Spanish Civil 1ar; 7insuain /as e<tremel! active against the 'atista dictatorship and Boined the rebel forces in the Sierra Cristal9 under the command of Castro s brother9 RaTl Castro; or his braver! in battle he /as promoted to 7ieutenant in the Rebel $rm!; 1ith the end of the armed struggle9 he left the arm! and dedicated himself to the union movement of his industr!; -e /as elected b! his fello/ /or+ers as Ceneral Secretar! of the ederation of ood9 -otel and Restaurant 1or+ers of the *rovince of Ariente; 1hen the communists subtl! began to infiltrate and ta+e over the organi=ed labor movement9 Comrade 7insuain fought the communist connivers; This aroused the hatred of the communist leaders in general and Rau'l Castro9 in particular he had violent :uarrels /ith RaTl Castro even /hen he had first met him in the Sierra Cristal /hile fighting against 'atista; Comrade 7insuain has been in Bail for over a !ear /ithout trial; -is famil! has not heard from him for months and fears for his life; 2$ later 'ulletin reported that 7insuain /as either murdered or died in Bail;3 Sondalio.orres: Eoung s!mpathi=er of libertarian ideas9 /ho9 inspired b! our comrades9 fought bravel! in his native Cuba9 against 'atista; 1ith the triumph of the Revolution9 Torres thre/ himself9 bod! and soul9 into the consolidation and constructive /or+ of the Revolution9 moving to -avana on government construction proBects; An the Bob9 he openl! voiced his fears that the Castro government /as graduall!9 but surel!9 becoming a ferocious dictatorship; or this9 the stool-pigeon members of the local Committee for the Defense of the Revolution 2CDR3 accused him of counter-revolutionar! activities; Sondalio /as sentenced to ten !ears imprisonment; To force him to falsel! accuse other fello/-/or+ers of counterrevolutionar! acts9 Sondalio /as subBected to barbarous torture; our times he /as dragged out to face the firing s:uad and four times he /as retrieved Bust as he /as about to be shot; Torres is serving his sentence in the *rovincial prison of *inar del Hito; 6osE Acena: Ieteran libertarian militant> emplo!ed in the 7a *olar bre/er!> *rofessor 2at one time3 at the Instituto de la Iibora; or thirt! !ears $cena carried on an uninterrupted struggle against all dictatorships9 including the first as /ell as the second periods of 'atista s t!rannical regimes; or his braver! in the underground revolutionar! struggles of the 2&th of @ul! 5ovement9 he /as made treasurer of the *rovince of -avana; 1ith the triumph of the Revolution9 $cena collaborated full! /ith the ne/ Castro regime9 particularl! in the labor and political movements; $cena soon reali=ed that a totalitarian 5ar<ist-7eninist s!stem /as being established in Cuba and :uarreled violentl! /ith the ne/ rulers9 denouncing Castro personall! and telling him plainl! /h! he hated his regime; rom that time on9 he /as hounded and persecuted b! Castro s henchmen and imprisoned various times; inall!9 after a !ear /ithout trial9 he /as accused of counter-revolutionar! acts and sentenced to t/ent! !ears imprisonment; This9 in spite of the fact that he still bears on his bod! the scars of /ounds inflicted on him b! 'atista s Bailers; -e is desperatel! ill and in need of surger!; Alberto 0arcia: Comrade $lberto Carcia9 li+e so man! other militants of our movement9 fought against 'atista in the ran+s of Castro s 2&th of @ul! 5ovement; 'ecause of his /ell-earned prestige earned in the course of hard underground struggles9 Carcia9 after the fall of 'atista9 /as elected b! the /or+ers of his industr! to be Secretar! of the ederation of 5edical 1or+ers; or his uncompromising opposition to the

super-authoritarian conduct of the communists9 he /as arrested and sentenced to thirt! !ears at hard labor9 flasel! accused of 'counter-revolutionar!' activitiees; Comrade Carcia is one of the most valiant !oung militants in the Cuban 7iberation 5ovement;

(tructure o/ Po2er in Cuba

In the first phase of authoritarian revolutions9 the revolutionar! elite 2sometimes commanded b! a personal dictator3 sei=es and consolidates po/er on the prete<t that it is acting in the 8name of the people;8 'ut in order to govern the countr! and carr! out the decrees of the leadership9 ever! regime must eventuall! institutionali=e its po/er b! creating a permanent9 legall! established bureaucratic administrative apparatus; To implement institutionali=ation9 Castro9 in 1.)09 launched the reorgani=ation of his government and the drafting of a ne/ constitution9 proclaiming that the Revolution had no/ come of age and the people could no/ be trusted to more self-rule; Castro promised the enactment of measures to e<pedite the decentrali=ation of his adminstration> e<pand local autonom! and /or+er's self-management of industr!9 democrati=e the mass organi=ations and create ne/ state agencies designed to encourage more participation of the people in local and national affairs; 21e list the more important changes and our comments under appropriate headings;3 Reor)ani,ation o/ the <overn!ental (tructure In 1.)" the top governmental structure /as reorgani=ed in the follo/ing manner: 13 The division of the government into legislative9 e<ecutive9 and Budicial sections /as reBected as 8bourgeois;8 The functions of the three branches are concentrated into the Council of 5inisters9 8;;; the supreme ;;; organ of State po/er ;;;8 In addition to the Council of 5inisters9 there are a number of affiliated national agencies such as $griculture and -usbandr! Development9 the ishing and orestr! Institute9 the Dational *oultr! 'oard and a number of cultural bodies 2the Institutes of Cinema9 7iterature9 the Dational Council of Culture and similar groupings3; 23 $ctuall!9 the real po/er is e<ercised b! the (<ecutive Committee of the Council of 5inisters 2e:uivalent to a Cabinet3 composed of ten Deput! *rime 5inisters /ho control and coordinate their respective departments and agencies; These departments include: basic industr! and energ!> consumer goods industries and domestic trade> the sugar industr!> non-sugar agriculture> construction> transportation and communications> education and /elfare; 8;;; The (<ecutive Committee of the Council of 5inisters /as created pursuant to the orientation of the *olitical 'ureau of the Communist *art! of Cuba ;;;8 "3 $t the intermediate levels9 Coordinating *rovincial Councils appointed b! the Deput! *rime 5inisters of the (<ecutive Committee in 8;;; coordination /ith the *rovincial Delegates of the *olitical 'ureau of the Communist *art! /ill carr! out ;;; the directives issued from above ;;; b! the corresponding central authorit! ;;;8 2i;e;9 the Deput! *rime 5inisters of the (<ecutive Committee of the Council of 5inisters;3 #3 8;;; the *rime 5inister of the Council of 5inisters9 idel Castro Ru=9 /ho also presides over the (<ecutive Committee of the Council of 5inisters /ill be directl! in charge of the follo/ing agencies: 5inistr! of the Revolutionar! $rmed orces 2 $R39 5insitr! of the Interior9 Dational Institute of $grarian Reform 2IDR$3 and 5inistr! of *ublic -ealth ;;;8

Since Castro is also the irst Secretar! of the Central Committee of the Communist *art! of Cuba 2C*C3 and since ever! maBor ministr! and agenc! head is a member of the C*C and is appointed b! Castro9 -erbert 5atthe/s 2a Castro s!mpathi=er3 reluctantl! concludes that: 8;;; all the organs of state po/er are under Castro's direct command; -e is all-po/erful and it is his Revolution ;;; Castro does not /ant -- or dare -- to create a self-governing administration9 a managerial apparatus9 an autonomous political part!9 a po/erful militar! elite> because an! one of them could threaten his po/er ;;;8 219 for continuit! of the te<t all notes for this chapter have been placed at the end of this chapter3; ollo/ing the Stalinist pattern9 the Cuban State is a structured p!ramid in /hich absolute po/er is ultimatel! e<ercised b! an individual 2Castro3 or b! a collective dictatorship as in post-Stalin Russia; The ?udicial ( ste! There is no independent Budiciar!; 8;;; the courts 4reads the la/6 receive instructions from the leadership of the Revolution /hich are compulsor!;;;8 The Budicial s!stem is onl! an agenc! of the Council of 5inisters9 /hich regulates and controls all courts and legal agencies; The highest Budicial administrative bod! is the Council of 5inisters of the Supreme *eople's Court9 /hich transmits to the lo/er courts the 8;;; instructions of the leadership of the Revolution /hich are compulsor!;;;8 223 The s!stem centrali=es all four Budicial branches: ordinar!9 militar!9 political9 and the *eople's Courts for minor offenses; The Budges of the *eople's Courts are la!men; The *resident of the Republic9 the 5inisters9 and the members of the *olitical 'ureau of the C*C are e<empt from the Burisdiction of the courts and can be tried onl! b! special *art! courts; 2"3 *rivate la/ practice is prohibited; Defendants in court cases can be represented onl! b! state appointed la/!ers even /hen the State itself is being sued; @udges9 Buries9 and other Budicial personnel must be ideologicall! reliable; 2#3 8;;; +no/ledge and stud! of 5ar<ism-7eninism9 5ar<ist sociolog!9 and the materialist interpretation of histor! are indispensible prere:uisites for the true integral education of a revolutionar! Budge;;;8 2%3 The Co!!unist Part o/ Cuba @CPCA ?nder the name 8*eople's Socialist *art!8 2*S*3 the Communist *art! /as organi=ed in 1.2%; ?nder Castro9 it /as +no/n as Integrated Revolutionar! Argani=ations 2ARI3> the ?nited *art! of the Socialist Revolution 2*?RS3 and9 since 1.&%9 as the Communist *art! of Cuba 2C*C3; The Communist *art! /as never on good terms /ith Castro9 not onl! because of its collaboration /ith 'atista9 but also because it ridiculed Castro's historic @ul! 2&th9 1.%"9 attac+ on the 5oncada 'arrac+s 2no/ commemorated as a national holida!3; The communists called the attac+ a 8bourgeois putschist adventure;8 5oreover9 the communists too+ no part in the fight against 'atista and sabotaged Castro's call for a general stri+e to unseat 'atista; The communists came to Castro onl! a fe/ months before the overthro/ of 'atista9 /hen the! sa/ that Castro /as going to /in; The revolution /as made in spite of the opposition of the *art!; Since the *art! did not9 as in Russia9 initiate revolutionar! action and sei=e po/er9 it /as in no position to dictate terms to Castro in e<change for its collaboration; The *art! /as accepted onl! on condition that it ac+no/ledged Castro's leadership and accepted /ithout :uestion all his ideological9 political and economic policies; Castro dominates the C*C9 much li+e Stalin; The members of the Communist *art!'s Central Committee belong to Castro's cli:ue; Castro himself 2as alread! noted3 is the irst Secretar! of the *art! and his brother Raul ran+s ne<t; There is9 of course9 no democrac! /ithin the *art!; Thus9 /hen $nibal (scalante /as accused of 8micro-factionalism8 2a crime that is not even listed in the penal code39 because he tried to subordinate Castro to the discipline of the Communist part!9 he /as sentenced to 1% !ears at hard labor;

8;;;(scalante and his la/!ers /ere deprived even of the right to address a single /ord in self-defense to the court and the public documents contain no defense pleas of an! +ind;;;8 2&3 The C*C does not ma+e polic!; Its function is to carr! out government orders9 not to govern9 or9 as 5aurice -alperin puts it: 8;;;the function of the C*C is to mobili=e the population for goals set b! Castro himself;;;8 2)3 In Cuba9 the C*C fulfulls the same preponderent role as in Russia and the other 8socialist countries;8 The e<panding role of the C*C in the reorgani=ation process is manifested in its gro/ing membership9 /hich increased from %%9000 in 1.&. to 2009000 in 1.)%; The estimated membership of the ?nion of Communist Eouth is about "009000; ,%N of armed forces officers also belong to the C*C; $n interesting sidelight: according to Ierde Alivio 2organ of the $rmed orces3 the composition of the Central Committee of the C*C /as &)N militar! 2including %) 5aBors39 2& professionals and onl! )N /or+ers; In addition to the & secretariats of the C*C in the provinces9 there /ere in 1.)"9 &0 district secretariats9 #01 in the municipalities and 1#9"&0 part! cells in mass organi=ations9 factories and rural areas; The Communist *art! governs Cuba and Castro rules the Communist *art!; The Stalinist subservience of the C*C to Castro /as stressed b! $rmando -art 2in 1.&.9 Argani=ing Secretar! of the C*C3 in a speech at the ?niversit! of -avana: ;;;can an!one anal!=e or stud! theoretical :uestions9 raised9 for instance9 b! philosoph!9 the roads to Communism> or an! field of culture9 mainl! those of social science and philosoph!9 /ithout ta+ing into account the ideas and concepts of idel 4Castro6 and Che 4Cuevara6G;;;2,3 The first post-Castro Congress of the C*C 2Dec;9 1.)%3 ratified the ne/ constitution dra/n up b! the veteran communist leader 'las Roca and the Buridical committee of the *art! Central Committee; The C*C /as proclaimed as the 8;;; supreme leading force of Cuban societ! and the State;8 The national program of the *art! /as approved and the tentative first five !ear economic plan for 1.)&-1.,0 inclusive /as also recommended; *ending implementation of the ne/ directives of the Congress9 the C*C is headed b! a 100 member Central Committee; 'elo/ the *rovincial Committees are the Regional and 5unicipal Committees do/n to the factor! and farm cells; $t ever! level of this complicated9 autocraticall! centrali=ed organi=ation9 the orders of the high command 2Castro's cli:ue3 are faithfull! carried out; Driven b! the necessit! to remain on good terms /ith his saviors9 the 8socialist countries8 upon /hom his survival depends9 Castro falsifies the histor! of his relations /ith the Cuban communists9 affirming no/ /hat he vehementl! denied before; -is mouthpiece9 Cranma 2$ugust 1&9 1.)%3 h!pocriticall! stressed that: ;;; throughout its histor! our nation's first communist part! performed tremendous /or+ disseminating 5ar<ist-7eninist ideas> fought the local oligarch! and against imperialism and selflessl! defended all democratic demands of the /or+ing class ;;; 2.3 People's $e!ocrac and $ecentrali,ation In the summer of 1.)# an e<periment in democrac! and decentrali=ation /as initiated in 5atan=as *rovince; 5unicipal9 district and provincial Argani=ations of the *eople's *o/er 2**A3 /ere established; %9%.) production and service units /ere handed over to the **A; The **A performs the combined functions of cit! council and local administration9 and also ta+es on certain functions of the Committees

for the Defense of the Revolution 2CDR3 etc; .0N of the people voted in the elections9 but 8&0N of the deputies are communists and !oung communist members ;;;8 2103 $n intervie/ /ith a high official of the **A proves that the much publici=ed 8decentrali=ation98 8democrac!98 and 8people's self-management of affairs8 allegedl! being instituted in Cuba is a bra=en fraud: F3 Is the establishment of self-governing Argans of *eople's *o/er 2**A3 to promote mass participation in local and provincial administration part of the process of reinforcing the Dictatorship of the *roletariatG $3 $ctuall! the establishment of the **A -- being tried out as an e<periment in 5atan=as -- is part of the process; F3 An /hat principles are the **A basedG $3 The Communist *art! is the principal9 the indispensable organism for the construction of socialism in our countr! and9 as such9 directs as it deems best all the organi=ations and organisms9 including of course the Argans of *eople's *o/er; 2113 This s!stem9 patterned after the fa+e Russian 8soviets98 actuall! reinforces the dictatorship; The Co!!ittees /or the $e/ense o/ the Revolution @C$RA 8;;; 1hat 4as+ed H;S; Harol6 has become of the man! ran+-and-file organi=ations that /ere once so d!namicG ;;; these organi=ations have ceased to e<ist on an!thing but paper; The! became puppets ;;; for e<ample9 the CDR ;;; spring into action /hen it comes to trac+ing do/n bad citi=ens and small traders; The CDR has been reduced to mere appendages of the 8Seguridad8 4Dational *olice orce6 ;;;8 2123 $nd -erbert 5atthe/s /riting five !ears later in 1.)% states flatl! that the CDR is no/ completel! 8;;; under the control of the Communist *art! ;;; 'esides sp!ing the CDR also performs certain functions such as helping to organi=e vaccinations for polio9 diptheria and measles9 and sees to it that parents send their children to school9 that food and other rations are fairl! handled9 etc; ;;;8 21"3 The CDR is actuall! a vast9 intricate net/or+ reaching into ever! neighborhood9 ever! home and even into the personal life of ever! man9 /oman and child in Cuba; The follo/ing verbatim conversation /ith a native Cuban tells more about the operations of the Cuban *olice State and the total obliteration of individual freedom than an! number of abstract academic dissertations or statistical tables: ;;; I ran into a hurricane of a /oman named 5rs; S; 8The famous literac! campaign98 she stormed9 8/as indoctrination; There /as no dissent ;;; It /as li+e a ne/ Dar+ $ge in Cuba; These spies of the CDR +no/ /ho visits me and /hom I visit ;;; ?nder 5r; Castro9 it is suddenl! m! neighbor's dut! to +no/ ho/ I live; (ver!bod! +no/s that in a civili=ed countr! !our home is !our fortress ;;; -ere in Cuba9 ever! Bac+ass is +noc+ing on !our door to give !ou advice on /ho is dangerous ;;; The! /ant to ta+e the loc+ off m! door ;;; Eou thin+ I e<aggerateG 1ell9 !ou don't live here ;;; Aur deepest need is to be our o/n selves9 different9 non-conformist ;;; 5! motto is 'leave people alone' ;;; It is intolerable to have onl! one po/er in the State ;;; even a righteous po/er ;;; because human beings have a perverse desire to sa! DA -- even to righteousness -- to disagree; 4$ medical student told the visitor:6 1e all +no/ /ho are the self-appointed spies; Co and tal+ to 5rs; 'lanco; 4The visitor :uotes her:6 ;;; Ees9 I +no/ /hat ever!bod! sa!s about me9 but I have to see that people do not do certain things -- li+e being absent from /or+; Do absenteeism on T-IS bloc+ ;;; 4$n absentee /ho claimed sic+ness -- 8Stress8 he called it -- /as actuall!9 unbe+n/n to his /ife9 visiting his girlfriend; 1hen 5rs; 'lanco threatened to e<pose him to his /ife>6 ;;; he /as all right for t/o da!s 4she said6 -- I chec+ed /ith his /or+ place -- T/o da!s9 and then more 8stress8 ;;; -e /as hungr! for his girlfriend ;;; I felt li+e follo/ing him one da! and catching him out ;;; because9 after all9 it IS 5E '?SID(SS ;;; -e is a parasite letting do/n m! bloc+ ;;; I /ondered if I should not tal+ to his girlfriend ;;;

/arn her to +eep a/a! from him9 brea+ relations ;;; I am not sa!ing an!thing ;;; but I am /atching from here /hat is happening ;;; but /hat a pain if his /ife finds outJ ;;; 21#3 Rene Dumont tells that in the barrac+s of the 8machateros8 2cane cutters3 /or+ing a/a! from home: 8;;; there are sometimes little signs that read: 'Sleep :uietl!; The Revolution is /atching over !our /ife;' $s a matter of fact9 if a 'machatero's' /ife is visited b! a man9 the husband gets a telegram from the local CDR ;;;8 21%3 Cuban 5outh Rebels In the spring of 1.)29 @aime Crombat9 Secretar! of the Eoung Communist 7eague9 complained that among the !outh there /as a 8;;; bac+/ard minorit! /ho neither stud! nor /or+ --- or do so onl! under pressure -- those /ho9 permeated b! the old ideolog! ;;; maintain a conduct contrar! to socialist morals ;;;8 21&3 5esa-7ago's painsta+ing research unearths the true situation; -e deserves to be :uoted at length: 8;;; in spite of the remar+able progress in education9 i;e;9 reduction in the illiterac! rate ;;; serious deficiencies /ere reported; In $pril9 1.)19 out of the number of school-age !oungsters 1# to 1& !ears old9 there /ere "009000 /ho neither /or+ed nor studied: 2"N among 1# !ear olds9 ##N among 1% !ear olds9 and &0N among 1& !ear olds; The dropout rate /as /orse -- more in rural areas 2,,N3 than in urban areas 2&&N3; In elementar! schools9 &.N of those /ho attended classes in 1.&% did not finish in 1.)1 ;;; students sho/ed a lac+ of concern for socialist propert! ;;;8 $ccording to the 5inister of (ducation9 %0N of the boo+s sent to school /ere lost ever! !ear due to carelessness; Castro e<ploded in indignation: 8;;; there is something /rong /hen /e have to educate our !oung people in the need to care for socialist propert! ;;; loafers9 people /ho don't /or+9 criminals are the ones /ho destro! ;;;8 ;;; in the same speech Castro denounced the !outh for /earing 8e<travagant8 foreign fashions 4Too tight pants and long hair in the case of bo!s; Too short mini-s+irts in the case of girls;69 li+ing 8decadent literature;8 In some cases9 8;;; the !outh /ere used b! coutner-revolutionaries against the Revolution ;;;8 Castro found 8residual manifestations8 of prostitution and homose<ualit!; In 1.&)9 minors participated in #1N of all crimes committed in the nation; our !ears later the percentage rises to %0N;;; 21&3 ;;; in 1.)29 @oe Dicholson9 @r;9 a s!mpathetic Bournalist /ho visited Cuba9 as+ed Cuban officials /h! bo!s are not allo/ed to /ear long hair; The official ans/ered that if one bo! is allo/ed to be different in hair9 dress or behavior9 the rest might re:uest the right to be different9 too; This in turn9 /ould create controvers!9 something that /as considered incorrect;;; 21)3 5easures to correct this situation included compulsor! militar! service9 militar! units to aid production9 and to /or+ in construction9 irrigation and other proBects; Devertheless9 it /as reported that the number of !oungsters in the 1" to 1& !ear brac+et /ho committed offenses remained unchanged; Castro alleged that the high Buvenile delin:uinc! rate /as due to the fact that the! /ere e<empt from criminal punishments b! the courts; In 5a! 1.)"9 legal liabilit! /as reduced from 1, to 1& !ears and tough penalties up to life imprisonment /ere imposed for crimes against the econom!9 abnormal se<ual behavior and other offenses; ;;; The drop-out problem /as partiall! solved through the S5A 2compulsor! militar! service3 and the Eouth Centennial Columns; The S5A recruits numbered "009000 in 1.)2 2about one third of all !oungsters bet/een 1& and 1)3; In 1.)" both these !outh organi=ations /ere merged into the Eouth $rm! of 1or+ 2(@T3 ;;; 21,3 Pli)ht o/ the "or#ers

The promised abolition of house rents and increasing /ages of the lo/est paid /or+ers /as not +ept; 7i+e/ise9 full pa! for sic+ and retired /or+ers /as eliminated; There /as no lessening of the severe food rations in 1.)"; Ane of the main resolutions of the 1"th Congress of the Cuban Confederation of 7abor 2CTC39 Dov;9 1.)"9 restored the /orst features of the capitalist /age s!stem -- pa!ment according to output9 instead of according to need; In this speech to the closing session of the Congress9 Castro tried to Bustif! this polic!: 8;;; pa!ing the same /age for the same t!pe of /or+ /ithout ta+ing into account the effort re:uired to do it9 is an e:ualitarian principle /e must correct ;;; pa!ment should be measured in ph!sical terms according to the comple<it! and s+ill re:uired to do the Bob ;;;8 In line /ith this polic!9 1"2 million pesos /ere allotted to raise /ages for technicians in order to spur them to 8increase their productivit!;8 21.3 $t the irst Congress of the Communist *art! of Cuba 2Dec; 1.)%39 the motto 8 rom each according to his abilit!> to each according to his 1ARH;8 /as displa!ed in huge red letters; 1ages are lin+ed to /or+ :uotas; (ver! /or+er is given a :uota; If the :uota is not fullfilled9 /ages are proportionall! reduced; *urchase of scarce appliances 2television sets9 refrigerators9 /ashing machines9 etc;3 are allotted not according to the /or+er's need but according to his correct attitude 2obe!ing orders9 patriotism9 overfullfillment of /or+ :uotas9 etc;3 The faithful /age slave /ill be allo/ed to spend his vacation at the better resorts and be granted first access to housing; 2203 $ctuall!9 the 1"th Congress of the CTC reBected the right of the ?nions to defend the interests of the /or+ers; $ccording to the resolutions9 there are no conflicts; The State9 the Communist *art!9 and the unions are partners cooperating al/a!s to produce 8more and better products and services> to promote punctual attendance at /or+> to raise political consciousness> to follo/ the Communist *art! directives ;;;8 2213 To get a Bob9 ever! /or+er must carr! an identit! card and a file /ith a full /or+ record of his 8merits8 and 8demerits;8 85erits8 include voluntar! unpaid labor9 overfullfillment of /or+ :uotas9 /or+ing overtime /ithout pa!9 postponing retirement to +eep on /or+ing9 defense of State propert!9 and a high level of political consciousness; 8Demerits8 are 8activities that negativel! affect production9 disturb discipline9 lo/er the level of political consciousness ;;;8 2223 In the Spring of 1.)19 the government proclaimed a la/ against 8loafing98 compelling all able-bodied men bet/een the age of 1) and &0 to /or+; 1or+er absenteeism /as 20N in late 1.)0; *enalties for the 8crime of loafing8 fluctuate bet/een house arrest and one or t/o !ears of forced labor; 22"3 &nion 3$e!ocrac 3 In September9 1.)09 Castro announced that /e 8;;; are going to trust the /or+ers to hold trade union elections in ever! local ;;; the elections /ill be absolutel! free ;;;8 Castro the bra=enl! contradicted himself9 ma+ing it clear that 8;;; onl! /or+ers /ho /ould unconditionall! follo/ government9 management and part! orders /ould be elected ;;;8 22#3 The election procedure prohibited candidates from electioneering or advertising their candidac!; Anl! the election committee had the e<clusive right to advertise the 8merits8 of the candidates; 5ore than half the /or+ers refused to participate in the rigged electoral farce9 because the! did not e<pect an! real changes9 or because there /as onl! one candidate on the ballot; 1hen the CTC /as discussing election proceedings9 some union members strongl! critici=ed the methods of conducting the elections and the choosing of the candidates; The 5inister of 7abor interrupted the discussion9 calling the critics 8counterrevolutionaries8 and 8demagogues8 and /arning them that their 8negative attitude8 had to be 8radicall! changed;8 22%3

The 1"th Congress of the CTC 2Dov;9 1.)"3 /as the first in seven !ears 21.&&3; The Congress /as attended b! 292"0 delegates allegedl! representing 192009000 /or+ers; The main business /as automaticall! ratif!ing or modif!ing details of the 8thesis8 submitted b! the organi=aing commission 2over ..N3 in favor3; The number of national s!ndicates /as increased from 1# to 22; 22&3 "or#ers' Control and (el/-+ana)e!ent The Castro government never seriousl! intended to allo/ meaningful participation of the /or+ers in management 2to sa! nothing about full self-management of industr!3; H;S; Harol reveals that in 1.&,: 8;;; Castro himself confessed to me that he sa/ no chance of granting the /or+ers the right to selfmanagement in the near future -- let alone of introducing a trul! socialist mode of production ;;;8 22)3 @orge Ris:uet9 the 5inister of 7abor9 declared that: 8;;; the fact that idel Castro and I suggested that the /or+ers be consulted9 does not mean that /e are going to negate the role that the Communist *art! must pla! ;;; decision and responsibilit! fall to the management ;;; one thing that is perfectl! clear is that management should and does have all the authorit! to ma+e decisions and act ;;; management represents the organi=ation of the State and is charged /ith the planning and fulfillment of production and services ;;;8 22,3 In his famous speech of @ul! 2&th9 1.)09 Castro made it clear that: 8;;; /e must begin to establish a collective bod! in each plant ;;; but it must be headed b! one man and also b! representatives of the $dvanced 1or+ers 5ovement 2The Cuban e:uivalent of the Russian Sta+hanovites9 /ho e<celled all other /or+ers in speed and output -- model /or+ers; 7ater Sta+hanovism became the protot!pe for the Socialist (mulation 5ovement;39 the Eoung Communist 7eague9 the Communist *art! and the 1omen's ront ;;;8 22.3 $ 1.&% la/ established 7abor Councils 2ConseBos de TrabaBo3; The 7abor Council is composed of five /or+ers elected for a three !ear term; 'ut the Council does not manage9 administer9 or even partiall! control production; Its functions are to settle /or+ers' grievances9 e<pedite the orders and directives of management9 enforce /or+ discipline and process transfers; The transfer of a /or+er must be approved b! both the 5inistr! of 7abor and the Communist *art! nucleus; 2"03 The unions are actuall! transmission belts for the administration and implementation of production; Raul Castro declared that the 8;;; unions are supposed to be autonomous9 but must be politicall! guided b! the *art! and must follo/ its policies ;;;8 The 1"th Congress of the CTC declared that: 8;;; the functions of the unions are to cooperate in improving management performance> strengthen labor discipline> assure attendance at /or+9 increase production9 and eradicate absenteeism9 malingering and carelessness ;;;8 2"13 The union could participate in the administration of the enterprise through t/o institutions9 *roduction $ssemblies and 5anagement Councils 2ConseBos de Direccion3; These t/o institutions are the top administrative bodies at all /or+ centers ;;;8 8;;; each 5anagement Council is composed of an administrator9 his or her top assistants9 the /or+er elected union representative9 the Communist *art! nucleus and the local branch of the Communist Eouth Argani=ations ;;;8 2""3 8;;; the $ssembl! could ma+e recommendations but the manager could accept9 reBect9 or modif! the recommendations as he sees fit ;;; unions are not allo/ed to intervene in the determination of salaries9 hiring or firing9 dismissal of managers9 or in planning ;;;8 2"#3 (uropean9 $merican and man! 7atin $merican /or+ers actuall! e<cercise more /or+ers' control than do the Cuban /or+ers; There /as9 in fact9 more /or+ers' control before Castro's regime came to po/er;

H;S; Harol9 commenting on the massive militari=ation of labor9 /hich reached a high point in the 1.&, 8Revolutionar! Affensive98 tells ho/ 8;;; the /hole countr!9 /as9 in fact9 reorgani=ed on the model of the arm! ;;; Command *osts /ere set up ;;; in ever! province ;;; 7abor 'rigades /ere turned into batallions9 each divided into three s:uads9 led b! a 5aBor and a Chief of Aperations ;;; the Che Cuevara 'rigade 4on the agricultural production front6 ;;; /as under the direct control of the arm! ;;;8 2")3 +ilitari,ation o/ -abor $ccording to Cerald -; Reed /ho studied the Cuban educational s!stem during his long visit to Cuba: 8;;; the plan for the Technological Instruction Institutes converted these institutions into militar! centers; The students live under strict militar! discipline and complete their draft obligations /hile the! stud! ;;;8 2"%3 The Eouth $rm! of 1or+ 2(@T3 is a branch of the regular arm!9 commanded b! Commandante 2e:uivalent to 5aBor Ceneral3 Ascar ernande= 5ell; 5ell is also Iice 5inister of the Revolutionar! $rm! and a member of the Central Committee of the Communist *art!; The (@T /as founded $ug; "9 1.)"9 in the *rovince of Camague!; An its first anniversar!9 a message of congratulations grandilo:uentl! signed 8 idel Castro9 irst Secretar! of the Communist *art! and irst *rime 5inister of the Revolutionar! Covernment8 than+s the (@T for: ;;; !our decisive help in the sugar harvests of 1.)#; Eour formidable /or+ in fulfilling agricultural plans9 in the construction of schools9 factories9 housing and ferries surpasses even the e<traordinar! achievements of preceeding organi=ations;;; $nd Castro's brother9 /ho signs himself9 8Raul Castro Ru=9 Commander of Division and 5inister of the $rmed orces8: ;;; sends our most fraternal greetings to all soldiers9 officers9 under officers 4non-commissioned sergeants9 corporals9 etc;6 and political commissars of the Eouth $rm! of 1or+9 and e<horts them to perfect themselves politicall!9 and ideologicall! for combat ;;; as /e have alread! said on other occasions9 /e are certain that this arm! /ill become a true bastion of prodcution and defense of the Revolution;;; 2"&3 The Ar!ed Forces $t the Inception of the Revolution Castro /as acclaimed b! the people /hen he vo/ed to curb the po/er of the militar!9 reduced the highest ran+ in the rebel arm! to 5aBor and eventuall! abolished the arm! entirel! in favor of the *eople's 5ilitias; The process of compulsor! militar! service9 begun in 1.&"9 culminated in 1.)" /ith the abolition of the vaunted 5ilitias9 8The *eople in $rms;8 8;;; the 5ilitia has been replaced b! civil defense organi=ation under direct arm! control; Dor is there an!thing of a '*eople's $rm!' about the ne/ organi=ation ;;; after each e<cercise9 the guns are safel! loc+ed a/a! in the barrac+s -- a far cr! from the da!s /hen idel declared that he /as prepared to distribute arms 'even to cats';;;8 2",3 Cuba boasts the most po/erful arm! in 7atin $merica; Russia and 8the socialist countries8 supplied Cuba /ith massive armaments and militar! technicians; -undreds of !oung officers in the Revolutionar! $rmed orces 2 $R3 /ere trained in Russia; 2".3 $s earl! as 1.&"9 the militar! e<pert -anson 'ald/in considered the Cuban air force to be the 8most modern and potentiall! the most po/erful in 7atin $merica;8 2#03

It has been greatl! strengthened since /ith Russian 5ICs and other e:uipment; Cuba has a 8formidable arra! of anti-aircraft missiles9 coast artiller!9 radar stations98 2#13 long range cannons9 the latest light and heav! tan+s9 and other modern /eapons; 1ith the cooperation of Soviet militar! e<perts9 Raul Castro transformed the Cuban armed forces into a highl! disciplined9 highl! stratified militar! machine differing in no essential respect from the modern conventional armies of the great militar! po/ers; Raul Castro is a far more capable militar! organi=er and strategist than is his brother idel; Raul9 and not idel9 devised the strateg! and organi=ed the Cuerrilla 1ar in the Sierra 5aestra and in the Sierre de Cristal9 /hich precipitated the do/nfall of 'atista; Raul has since then capabl! commanded the Cuban arm!; 2#23 Dearl! all the commanders /ho served under Raul became high officers in the Cuban arm! and government9 and became members of the Central Committee of the Communist *art!; It /ould be a mista+e to assume that Raul Castro is a mere figurehead in the regime; -e not onl! shares po/er /ith his brother idel9 but also /ields considerable po/er on his o/n account; 1hen Castro travels abroad9 Raul rules Cuba in his place until idel returns; $nd 5atthe/s emphasi=es that if idel Castro should for an! reason disappear9 Raul /ould easil! succeed him as ruler of Cuba9 because he /ould be in a position to rall! all the most formidable po/er blocs to support him; 8;;; Raul /ould have /ith him a po/erful militar! and police force9 a strong administration9 the governmental bureaucrac! and the allpo/erful *olitburo of the Communist *art! ;;;8 2#"3 $lthough Raul Castro cut the si=e of the Cuban arm! in half 2from "009000 to 1%0900039 it is still five times greater than 'atista's "09000-man arm!9 nav! and air force; 'etter organi=ed9 better trained9 and better e:uipped /ith the most advanced /eapons9 the numericall! reduced arm! had been reorgani=ed into a far more formidable fighting force; So much so9 that9 at this /riting9 the Cuban government has9 in collusion /ith Russia9 been able to send thousands of troops to fight in $ngola /ithout noticeabl! impairing the combat po/er of the Cuban arm!; The hierarchical ran+ing s!stem of the armed forces has been reorgani=ed to conform /ith the prevailing traditional ran+ing s!stems of all militar! po/ers9 8capitalist8 or 8socialist;8 8;;; 7a/ 12%) leaves idel as Chief 5inister of the $rmed orces; Raul Castro9 as 5inister of the $rmed orces 2directl! under idel39 becomes the onl! Division Commander /hose e:uivalent in other countries is 7ieutenant Ceneral; 2Raul is in fact no/ called '7ieutenant Ceneral' in Cuba;3 our 'rigade Commanders /ere named /ho are the e:uivalent of 5aBor Cenerals ;;; a number of irst Commanders9 or Colonels9 /ere also appointed; 'elo/ the ran+ of Commander 27ieutenant Colonel39 the titles of irst 7ieutenant and Sub-7ieutenant are used as in other armies;;; Similar changes are made for the Revolutionar! Dav!; 2Ship Commander9 for $dmiral9 do/n to Covrette Captain9 for the e:uivalent of Commander as in other navies;;;8 2##3 In Bustif!ing counter-revolutionar! militari=ation9 Castro said that the armed forces 8;;; had been distinguised in the past for their modest! of ran+ and uniform 4plain9 shabb! olive-green9 but that no/ the6 Revolution had become more mature and so had the armed forces;;;8 2#%3 Increasing militari=ation signifies revolutionar! progressJ This remar+ alone signifies the degeneration of the Revolution -- even /ithout additional incontrovertible evidence; Concludin) Re!ar#s 1hile Castro is at present the undisputed ruler of Cuba9 institutionali=ation is eventuall! bound to undermine his personal dictatorship;

It is a<iomatic that no State can possibl! rule /ithout an administrative apparatus; The reconstruction of the Cuban government therefore necessitates the creation of an enormous bureaucratic administrative machine; The Communist *art!9 the armed forces9 the educational establishment9 the economic agencies9 the unions9 the local9 regional9 provincial and national governmental branches9 etc;9 relentlessl! compete for more po/er; $s these formidable po/er blocs e<pand and become more firml! entrenched9 Castro's machine /ill increasingl! be obliged to share po/er /ith them; *ersonal rule /ill give /a! to a collective dictatorship and t!rann! /ill be perpetuated; The institutionali=ation of the Cuban Revolution is9 ho/ever9 still in its earl! stages; Thus far9 the first attempts in this direction indicate that the institutionali=ation of the Revolution serves onl! to re-inforce the personal dictatorship of idel Castro and his faithful lieutenants; *o/erfull! abetted b! the massive support of the Soviet bloc of 8socialist countries8 and its o/n massive internal apparatus9 the Castro regime is still po/erfull! entrenched; The Cuban people9 unable to revolt b! force of arms9 are /aging a relentless guerilla /ar of passive resistance against the *olice State; The! have9 in the course of their struggles9 developed ingenious /a!s of harassing and even seriousl! frustrating the plans of their t!rants 2loafing9 slo/do/ns9 evading la/s9 sabotage9 sporadic acts of violence9 ridicule9 etcetera3; The rebellion could provide a solid base for a mass underground movement comparable to the anti-'atista resistance movements; An the other hand9 the abilit! of modern totalitarian regimes -- both 8right8 and 8left8 -- to survive mass discontent indefinitel! for generations -- must not be underestimated; 5an! hard battles /ill have to be fought9 man! lives lost9 before victor! /ill have at last been achieved; 0;T*( There /ere so man! notes in this chapter that /e felt it /ould read best if /e included them here;

13 -erbert 5atte/s9 Cuba in Revolution> De/ Eor+9 1.)%9 p; "). 23 Carmelo 5esa-7ago9 Cuba in the 1.)0s> ?niversit! of De/ 5e<ico9 1.)#9 p; &, "3 ibid; p; &, 2unless other/ise noted9 5esa-7ago's sources are from Cranma9 the official organ of the Communist *art! of Cuba3 #3 5esa-7ago> ibid; p;&, %3 Cranma> @an; &9 1.)# &3 H;S; Harol9 Cuerillas in *o/er> De/ Eor+9 1.)09 p; #)2 )3 The Rise and Decline of idel Castro> ?niversit! of California9 1.)#9 p; 1"" ,3 Cranma9 Sept; 2,9 1.&. -- :uoted9 -alperin9 ibid; p; 1) .3 International $ffairs 5onthl!> 5osco/9 Dov; 1.)%9 p; 1) 103 ibid; p; 1) 113 Cranma9 5a! 2,9 1.)# 123 Harol9 ibid; p; #%) 1"3 5atte/s9 ibid; p; 1% 1#3 'arr! Rec+ord9 Does idel (at 5ore than Eour atherG> De/ Eor+9 1.)19 pgs; &0-&. 1%3 Rene Dumont9 Is Cuba SocialistG De/ Eor+9 1.)#9 p; 1") 1&3 5esa-7ago9 ibid; pgs; ."-.& 1)3 5esa-7ago9 ibid; pg; .) 1,3 5esa-7ago9 ibid; pg; .& 1.3 5esa-7ago9 ibid; pg; #" 203 5esa-7ago9 ibid; pgs; ##-#%

213 5esa-7ago9 ibid; pg; " 223 5esa-7ago9 ibid; pg; ,)9 ,, 2"3 Cranma9 @an; 1)9 1.)1 2#3 Resumen Cranma Seminal9 Act; 109 1.)0 2%-2&3 5esa-7ago9 ibid; ))-,, 2)3 Harol9 ibid; p; %#& 2,3 Speech to closing session of the 1"th Congress of the CTC 2.3 :uoted b! $ndre/ Kimablist9 paper presented to 2nd annual Congress on 1or+ers' Self5anagement> Cornell ?niversit!9 @une 1.)% "03 Kimbalist9 ibid; "13 5esa-7ago9 ibid; p; ,29," "23 5esa-7ago9 ibid; p; ,# ""3 Kimbalist9 ibid; "#3 5esa-7ago9 ibid; p; ,# "%3 Comparative (ducation Revie/> @une 1.)09 pgs; 1"&9 1#" "&3 Cranma9 $ug; 1,9 1.)# ")3 Harol9 ibid; p; ###-##% ",3 Harol9 ibid; p; #%)> also Cranma9 $pril 229 1.)" ".3 5atte/s9 ibid; p; 1,) #0-#13 5atte/s9 ibid; p; 102 #23 5atte/s9 ibid; p; 102 #"3 5atte/s9 ibid; p; #0) ##3 5atte/s9 ibid; p; #0) #%3 Cranma9 $pril 229 1.)"