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CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

1.1 Understanding Physics


What is physics ?

The word Physics is originated from the Greek word In physics, we study natural phenomena and the properties of matter. The aim of physics is to explain the fundamental nature of the universe by using the concept of physics. Physics involves the conduct of studies and experiments to find answers to the question in relation to the mysteries of the universe. The ma ority of natural phenomena can be explained using the principle of physics ! i" #e cannot see an ob ect behind a wall because light travels in a straight line. ii" The image of the pencil formed by the mirror is due to the reflection of light.

Fields o st!dy i" physics $" Fo#ces a"d p#ess!#e % pressure, pressure in liquids, gas pressure, atmospheric pressure, Pascal principle, &rchimedes principle, 'ernoulli principle. (" Heat % studies the influence of heat on different types of matter. )" Elect#icity a"d elect#o$a%"etis$ % Investigate the interaction of electric and magnetic fields. *" Elect#o"ics % studies the use of electronics devices in various fields. +" Wa&es % understand the properties of different types of waves and their uses. ," 'i%ht % explain the different phenomenon due to light. -" Fo#ce a"d $otio" % investigate the action of force and motion. $.(.$ 'ase .uantities Physical (!a"tities $" & physical quantity is a quality that can be measured. (" & physical quantity can be divided into base quantity and derived quantity. )ase (!a"tities $" 'ase quantities are the qualities that are conventionally accepted as functionally independent of one another. (" It is a quantity that cannot be defined in term of other physical quantity. )" The base quantities and its units are as in the table below !

1.2.2 Derived Quantities

De#i&ed (!a"tities & derived quantity is a Physics quantity that is not a base quantity. It is the quantities which derived from the base quantities through multiplying and/or dividing them. E*a$ple :

0 1peed is derived from dividing distance by time " De#i&ed U"it The derived unit is a combination of base units through multiplying and/or dividing them.

Example 1 Find the derived unit of density Answer :

2nit 3onvertion &rea and 4olume

$.(.) Prefixes Prefixes are the preceding factor used to represent very small and very large physical quantities in 1I units.

Scientific Notation (Standard Form)

1cientific notation 0also known as 1tandard index notation" is a convenient way to write very small or large numbers. In this notation, numbers are separated into two parts, a real number with an absolute value between $ and $5 and an order of magnitude value written as a power of $5. Physical quantities that are very big or very small need to be written in the standard form so that it is neat, simple and easy to read.

1.3 Sca ar and !ector Quantities


1calars are quantities which are fully described by a magnitude alone. 6agnitude is the numerical value of a quantity. 7xamples of scalar quantities are distance, speed, mass, volume, temperature, density and energy. 4ectors are quantities which are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction. 7xamples of vector quantities are displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, and magnetic field.

E*a$ple + 3ategori8e each quantity below as being either a vector or a scalar. 1peed, velocity, acceleration, distance, displacement, energy, electrical charge, density, volume, length, momentum, time, temperature, force, mass, power, work, impulse. 1calar .uantities! speed distance

energy electrical charge density volume length time temperature mass power work

4ector .uantities velocity acceleration


displacement momentum force impulse

1.".# $easurement and %rror E##o# 7rror is the difference between the actual value of a quantity and the value obtained in measurement. There are ( main types of error 1ystematic 7rror 9andom 7rror Syste$atic E##o# 1ystematic errors are errors which tend to shift all measurements in a systematic way so their mean value is displaced. 1ystematic errors can be compensated if the errors are known. 7xamples of systematic errors are $. ,e#o e##o#, which cause by an incorrect position of the 8ero point, (. an incorrect calibration of the measuring instrument. ). consistently improper use of equipment. 1ystematic error can be reduced by $. 3onducting the experiment with care. (. 9epeating the experiment by using different instruments. -e#o e##o# $. & 8ero error arises when the measuring instrument does not start from exactly 8ero. (. :ero errors are consistently present in every reading of a measurement. ). The 8ero error can be positive or negative.

0;< :79< 799<9! The pointer of the ammeter place on 8ero when no current flow through it."

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:79< 799<9! The pointer of the ammeter does not place on 8ero but a negative value when no current flow through it."

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:79< 799<9! The pointer of the ammeter does not place on 8ero but a negative value when no current flow through it." Ra"do$ e##o#s $. 9andom errors arise from unknown and unpredictable variations in condition. (. It fluctuates from one measurement to the next. ). 9andom errors are caused by factors that are beyond the control of the observers. *. 9andom error can cause by ! personal errors such as human limitations of sight and touch. lack of sensitivity of the instrument! the instrument fail to respond to the small change.

natural errors such as changes in temperature or wind, while the experiment is in progress. wrong technique of measurement.

<ne example of random error is the parallax error. 9andom error can be reduced by!

taking repeat readings find the average value of the reading.

Pa#alla* e##o# & parallax error is an error in reading an instrument due to the eye of the observer and pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale.

$.*.$ 3onsistency, &ccuracy and 1ensitivity P#ecisio" $.Precision is the ability of an instrument in measuring a quantity in a consistent manner with only a small relative deviation between readings. (. The precision of a reading can be indicated by its relative deviation. ). The relative deviation is the percentage of mean deviation for a set of measurements and it is defined by the following formula!

Acc!#acy $. The accuracy of a measurement is the approximation of the measurement to the actual value for a certain quantity of Physics. (. The measurement is more accurate if its number of significant figures increases. ). Table above shows that the micrometer screw gauge is more accurate than the other measuring instruments.

*. The accuracy of a measurement can be increased by taking a number of repeat readings to calculate the mean value of the reading. avoiding the end errors or 8ero errors.

taking into account the 8ero and parallax errors. using more sensitive equipment such as a vernier caliper to replace a ruler.

+. The difference between precision and accuracy can be shown by the spread of shooting of a target 0as shown in =iagram below".

Se"siti&ity $. The sensitivity of an instrument is its ability to detect small changes in the quantity that is being measured. (. Thus, a sensitive instrument can quickly detect a small change in measurement. ). 6easuring instruments that have smaller scale parts are more sensitive. *. 1ensitive instruments need not necessarily be accurate. $.*.( 4ernier 3aliper http!//www.youtube.com/watch>feature?player@embeddedAv?BvPC2pD1B+* http!//www.youtube.com/watch>feature?player@embeddedAv?kTChmptE&Pc $.*.) 6icrometer 1crew Gauge

Ra"%e a"d Acc!#acy The range of a micrometer is ./01$$. The accuracy of a micrometer is up to .2.+$$.Ho3 to Use a 4ic#o$ete#? $. Turn the thimble until the ob ect is gripped gently between the anvil and spindle. (. Turn the ratchet knob until a FclickF sound is heard. This is to prevent exerting too much pressure on the ob ect measured. ). Take the reading. &o' to (ead the (eading) 9eading ? 9eading of main scale G 9eading of thimble scale. 9eading of main scale ? 5 % (+ mm 9eading of thimble scale ? 5 % 5.*Dmm 7xample !

9eading of main scale ? +.+mm 9eading of thimble scale ? 5.(Hmm &ctual 9eading ? +.+mm G 5.(Hmm ? +.-Hmm P#eca!tio" Steps $. The spindle and anvil are cleaned with a tissue or cloth, so that any dirt present will not be measured. (. The thimble must be tightened until the first click is heard. ). The 8ero error is recorded. $.*.* 9uler, Thermometer, 1topwatch, &mmeter and 4oltmeter R!le# & metre rule has sensitivity or accuracy of $mm

Precaution to be taken when using ruler $. 6ake sure that the ob ect is in contact with the ruler. (. &void parallax error. ). &void 8ero error and end error. The#$o$ete#

There are ( types of mercury thermometer $. Thermometers of #a"%e /+.oC / ++.oC with acc!#acy +oC. (. Thermometers of #a"%e .oC / 56.oC with acc!#acy 0oC. Precaution to be taken when using thermometer $. 6ake sure that the temperature measured does not exceed the measuring range. (. #hen measuring temperature of liquid

immerse the bulb fully in the liquid stir the liquid so that the temperature in the liquid is uniform do not stir the liquid vigorously to avoid breaking the thermometer

Stop3atch

There are ( types of stopwatches $. analogue stopwatches of sensitivity 5.$s or 5.(s (. digital stopwatches of sensitivity 5.5$s. The sensitivity of a stopwatch depends on the reaction time of the user. A$$ete# a"d 7olt$ete#

&mmeters are measuring instrument used to measure electric current. &n &mmeter is always connected in series with the load 0resistor" in a circuit. 4oltmeters are measuring instrument used to measure potential difference 0voltage". & voltmeter is always connected parallel to the load 0resistor" in a circuit. +21 Scie"ti ic I"&esti%atio" The scientific method is a systematic method in doing their work. & report of the investigation must include! $. <b ective of the experiment, (. Inference, ). Eypothesis, *. Three types of variables! manipulated variable, responding variable and fixed variable, +. =efined operational variables, ,. Cist of apparatus,

-. Procedure, H. Tabulation of data, D. &nalysis of data, $5. 3onclusion. I" e#e"ce: Inference is a statement to state the relationship between two visible quantities observed in a diagram or picture.Hypothesis: Eypothesis is a statement to state the relationship between two measurable variables that can be investigated in a lab.The 7a#ia8les & variable is a quantity that can vary in value. There are ) types of variable! $. 4a"ip!lated 7a#ia8les! 6anipulated variables are factors which changed for the experiment. (. Respo"di"% 7a#ia8les! 9esponding variables are factors which depend on the manipulated variables. ). Co"sta"t 7a#ia8les! 3onstant variables are factors which are kept the same throughout the experiment. Ta8!lati"% Data & proper way of tabulating data should include the following! $. The name or the symbols of the variables must be labelled with respective units. (. &ll measurements must be consistent with the sensitivity of the instruments used. ). &ll the values must be consistent to the same number of decimal places. The 9#aph Graphs are used to make a relationship between variables. Gradient value and extrapolation of a graph are used to analyse a graph. & well%plotted must contain the following features! $. & title to show the two variables under investigation, (. two axes labelled with the correct variables and their respective units, ). the graph drawn is greater than +5 I of the graph paper, *. appropriate scales 0$!$ x $5x, $!( x $5x and $!+ x $5x" +. all the points are correctly plotted, ,. a best fit line is drawn