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3.1 Tutorial Overview
This chapter is intended to familiarize new users with major components of the FLOW-3D Graphical User Interface (GUI) and to walk through the setup and running of various simulations. A brief section on the Philosophy for Using CFD is followed by an introduction to the Simulation Filenames and ways to run simulation ﬁles. After those introductions follows a discussion of how to preprocess and postprocess simulations. The problems in this chapter are intended to cover the basics of using FLOW-3D. New users are advised to work through all of the problems and the variations. The tutorial problems were chosen to illustrate a variety of topics and address a number of questions that might be encountered. This tutorial should be used while you are sitting at your computer running FLOW-3D.
3.2 Philosophy for Using CFD
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a method of simulating a ﬂow process in which standard ﬂow equations such as the Navier-Stokes and continuity equation are discretized and solved for each computational cell. Using CFD software is in many ways similar to setting up an experiment. If the experiment is not set up correctly to simulate a real-life situation, then the results will not reﬂect the real-life situation. In the same way, if the numerical model does not accurately represent the real-life situation, then the results will not reﬂect the real-life situation. The user must decide what things are important and how they should be represented. It is essential to ask a series of questions, including: • What do I want to learn from the calculation? • What is the scale and how should the mesh be designed to capture important phenomena? • What kinds of boundary conditions best represent the actual physical situation? • What kinds of ﬂuids should be used? • What ﬂuid properties are important for this problem? • What other physical phenomena are important? • What should the initial ﬂuid state be? • What system of units should be used? It is important to ensure that the problem being modeled represents the actual physical situation as closely as possible. We recommend that users try to break down their complex simulation efforts into digestible pieces. Start with a relatively simple, easily understandable model of your process and work it through before moving on to add more complicating physical effects on an incremental basis. Simple hand calculations (Bernoulli’s equation, energy balance, 37
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wave speed propagation, boundary layer growth, etc.) can give the user conﬁdence that the model is set up correctly and that the program is running accurately.
3.3 Simulation Filenames
The FLOW-3D input or “simulation” ﬁle is generally called prepin.ext where ext can be any character string which allows you to easily identify the input ﬁle. The prepin ﬁle contains all of the information necessary to describe a unique FLOW-3D simulation. The default name for the simulation input ﬁle is prepin.inp. When the prepin ﬁle has this default name, all output ﬁles will have the sufﬁx .dat. When you give the prepin ﬁle an extension different than .inp,, as when you name the simulation in the GUI, then all of the output ﬁles will have the same extension as the input ﬁle, allowing you to keep track of which output ﬁles and input ﬁle go together. The main output ﬁle that contains solution results that are saved at various times during the simulation is called flsgrf. Users should be careful not to delete prepin and flsgrf ﬁles. Plots can be generated from any flsgrf ﬁle at any time during or after a simulation. For a restart simulation, the flsgrf ﬁle from a previous run must be available for data initialization in the solver. Note: Starting from a prepin ﬁle similar to the problem you intend to model can greatly simplify setup and is recommended whenever possible. Just open an existing input ﬁle and then save it to another directory and start working. The prepin ﬁle for a simulation can be recovered from its flsgrf ﬁle. The prepin ﬁle is written at the end of the ﬁle g_flsgrf which is created after the flsgrf is processed by the postprocessor or opened in the GUI’s Analyze tab.
3.4 Setting up Simulations
There are two ways to create simulations: (1) using the graphical user interface (GUI) and (2) manually by editing the prepin ﬁle. If you are curious about the contents of the prepin ﬁle, refer to the Input Variable Summary and Units, which contains a general description of the prepin ﬁle and its variables. Most FLOW-3D variables have default values, so not all variables used by the simulation need to be speciﬁed in the ﬁle. These tutorials will focus on using the GUI to create and edit simulations.
3.5 Tutorial - Running an Example Problem
In this exercise, you will learn how to create a new workspace and add an existing project ﬁle from the Examples directory. The example problem represents ﬂow over a sharp-crested weir. You will learn how to view the setup, run the simulation, and then visualize the simulation results. Finally you will create a simulation copy and perform a restart. Along the way, other methods you can use to create simulations and view results will also be described. Numbered items are instructions to follow to complete the tutorial.
3.5.1 Using the FLOW-3D Graphical User Interface
This section shows how to use the GUI to open a simulation ﬁle and execute FLOW-3D.
3.3. Simulation Filenames
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3.5.2 Starting the FLOW-3D Graphical User Interface
To start the GUI on a Windows machine, click on the FLOW-3D icon on the desktop or ﬁnd FLOW-3D in the program listing in the Start menu. To start the GUI on a Linux machine, type, “ﬂow3d” at the command prompt and hit the Enter key. The picture below shows the opening screen of FLOW-3D. 1. Launch FLOW-3D by double-clicking the FLOW-3D icon on your desktop.
At the very top of the GUI is a Menu Bar which includes the following menu headings: File, Diagnostics, Preference, Physics, Utilities, Simulate, Materials and Help. Below the menu bar is a row of tabs: Simulation Manager, Model Setup, Analyze, and Display. Each of these tabs corresponds to speciﬁc steps in a FLOW-3D simulation. When FLOW-3D is opened, the Simulation Manager tab is presented. This is where the user can create, save, copy, delete, and queue simulations to run. This tab also displays useful information on simulations that are running or have been previously run. Simulations are grouped into Workspaces, which are like folders and may represent individual projects or users of the program. For example, simulations related to the same design project can be organized into one workspace for ease of their setup. All simulations in a workspace can be run sequentially at a click of the mouse.
3.5.3 Create a Workspace and Add an Example Simulation
Create a New Workspace When FLOW-3D is opened, a default workspace is automatically created. 3.5. Tutorial - Running an Example Problem 39
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1. On the Simulation Manager tab, create a new workspace by selecting File → New Workspace. 2. Enter a name for your workspace. Type in “Hydraulics Examples”. It is recommended that the Create subdirectory using workspace name checkbox be selected so that all the ﬁles associated with this project are in their own directory. Click OK to create the workspace.
Add the Flow Over a Weir Example Simulation 1. Your FLOW-3D installation includes several dozen pre-built simulations, called Examples. Add one to this workspace by selecting File → Add Example from the menu bar. The dialog below will appear. Select Flow Over a Weir from the list. Select the Open button to import the project and click OK to accept the default creation options.
More Ways to Manage Simulations in Workspaces New or existing simulations can be added to a highlighted workspace containing other simulation using the File menu. To start a simulation from scratch, go to File → Add New Simulation. To work with an existing simulation (an alreadycreated prepin ﬁle and associated geometry ﬁles), select Add Existing Simulation instead. A simulation can be removed from the workspace by selecting the simulation and pressing the Delete key or selecting Remove Simulation from the File menu at the top or the pop-up menu that appears by right-clicking a simulation.
3.5. Tutorial - Running an Example Problem
Middle-button – Zoom: Click and hold the middle-mouse button while moving the mouse vertically in the window. Move the slider from left to right and you will observe that the weir structure becomes more transparent as you continue to move the slider to the right.5. To run a simulation that has been set up on another machine. 2.Chapter 3. which drives the FLOW-3D solver. the user will not be able to run them with FLOW-3D on their own machine. Release 10. The selections made in the Model Setup tab are recorded in an input ﬁle called the prepin ﬁle.5. Mouse Modes and Display Functions in the Meshing & Geometry Tab Mouse Modes Familiarize yourself with the three functions of the mouse buttons: 1. 3. Left-button – Rotate: Click and hold the left-mouse button and move the mouse in the Meshing & Geometry window. The Model Setup tab has another row of tabs corresponding to various input sections for a FLOW-3D simulation. all of the selections or entries the user needs to make are executed in the Model Setup tab.4 Examine the Simulation Whether starting a new simulation or modifying an existing one. The model will move with the mouse. Moving the mouse toward the top of the screen zooms in and moving the mouse downward zooms out.Running an Example Problem 41 .1. 1. the user must ﬁrst copy the input ﬁle and any associated geometry ﬁles to the local hard disk. Select Flow Over A Weir by clicking on it. The Transparency slider in the toolbar controls the transparency of ALL objects in the Meshing & Geometry display window. When a simulation is selected in Simulation Manager.0 Note: Although it is possible to locate and open ﬁles located on other machines on the network. Tutorial . Right-button – Move: Click and hold the right-mouse button and move the mouse in the window. The model will rotate accordingly. 2. Later you will learn how to select transparency for individual objects in the display. Select Model Setup → Meshing & Geometry tab. Display Functions Global Transparency 1. 3. the Model Setup tab becomes active. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. 3.
Make sure the Show option is checked so the mesh is displayed. Release 10.1. One way is to run the preprocessor but this can be time-consuming. Click the same icon (now -X) to change the view to the opposite pole. Assessing Mesh Resolution One of the most important aspects of simulation setup is choosing an appropriate computational mesh. 2. FAVORize embeds the geometry in the current computational mesh and displays the result in the Display window.5. Tutorial . Mesh Viewing Options 1. 4. This view is shown at lower right. select Mesh → View Mode → Outline. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. To display only the outline of the mesh (domain extents). This can be accomplished by selecting one of the axes from the toolbar: Select the +X icon to position the view so that the geometry is viewed along the X-axis. the runtime may be unnecessarily long. Due to the complexity of three dimensional simulations. looking along the X-axis in the positive direction. display all the gridlines in the mesh by selecting Mesh → View Mode → Grid Lines. Click the Mesh menu item at the top of the display (above the simple geometric shapes toolbar). If the mesh is too coarse. The goal of mesh setup is to use just enough cells to resolve the geometry and the ﬂow features of interest.0 View Model Along Axes 1.Running an Example Problem 42 . If the mesh is too ﬁne. The resulting geometry is called the FAVORized geometry. 3. There are two ways of judging how well a computational mesh resolves the geometry. A quicker way is to FAVORize the geometry. 5. portions of the geometry may not be resolved and the simulation will not represent the actual problem. 3. The icon now changes to -X. it is often necessary to view objects in 2-D. looking toward the negative X pole. select Mesh → View mode → Mesh Planes. Finally.Chapter 3. 2. To display all user-speciﬁed gridlines (but not automatically generated gridlines).
Running the preprocessor helps to ensure that the problem is set up correctly before the solver is run. The FAVOR dialog will appear. select the Solid radio button. Preprocessing a simulation generates more information than FAVORize and allows a user to determine essential information such as adequacy of mesh resolution.1. 2. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation.0 1.Running an Example Problem 43 . 4. 3. Click the FAVORize icon ( ) in the Meshing & Geometry window toolbar. The user can examine the preprocessor output ﬁles in the Diagnostics menu and visualize the geometry and initial conditions by loading the prpgrf ﬁle into the Analyze tab. Tutorial . These checks are described in the application-speciﬁc tutorials. The Preprocess Simulation command runs the preprocessor in the preview mode. the tri-directional aspect ratio of individual cells and the uni-directional aspect ratio between neighboring cells should be examined. To display the solid geometry. 3. and produces both printed and plotted output. For example. creates the grid and geometry. Select Return to Model Building. The image above on the right shows the weir structure. 2-D plots would be required to assess mesh resolution. Additional methods of checking the mesh resolution should also be used. which can save time. if there were some internal structure within the weir. In particular. especially when multiple mesh blocks are used. Release 10. 3. Click Render to display the solid geometry as in the image below.5. Select Simulate → Preprocess Simulation from the menu bar. These steps are described below.5 Preprocess the Simulation Portions of the geometry may be hidden from view in simulations with complex geometries and may require more information than what is provided by FAVORize in order to be assessed.Chapter 3. In later exercises you will use the FAVORize function to evaluate mesh resolution. The sharp crest of the weir is visible and it appears to be adequately resolved.5. It veriﬁes the problem speciﬁcations. 1.
5. 2.0 2. It will have a clock-like icon: . the project extension is “Flow Over A Weir”. Once the solver begins to preprocess the simulation. Switch to the Simulation Manager tab. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. Select the Custom radio button to display the full output ﬁles generated by the solver and select how you want to visualize the data. Select prpgrf. The Analyze tab is now displayed. you will see the Analyze tab. 4.***. FLOW-3D will take you directly to the FLOW-3D Results dialog described below. First. Select the Open Results File button. select Yes. 3.1.Running an Example Problem 44 . select the Analyze tab.Flow_Over_A_Weir from the dialog box. followed by OK. 1. Although the full capabilities of the Analyze panel are available.Chapter 3. 3. typically only 2-D and 3-D plots are necessary to validate the model setup. Tutorial . If you are prompted to Save. The Flow Over A Weir simulation has been added to the Simulation Queues pane. 3.6 Display the Preprocessed Results in 3-D and 2-D The preprocessor generates a results ﬁle named prpgrf. To display the results contained in the prpgrf. Release 10. Select the Analyze → 3-D sub-tab.5. a status bar will ﬁll above the dashboard and the clock icon will also ﬁll. 5. It should complete (100%) within a few seconds. you will generate the same display that was generated by the FAVORize function. In this case. The next step is to display the preprocessor results.Flow_Over_A_Weir ﬁle. If no other results ﬁle is loaded. Scroll over the icon to display a note indicating that it is running and connected. 3. If another results ﬁle is already loaded.
Choose the X-Z radio button. select Complement of Volume Fraction in the Iso-surface dropdown and select None from the Color Variable dropdown. 8.Chapter 3. The next step will be to generate 2-D plots with the mesh overlayed.5.1. The object will be to generate a 2-D display of pressure in the X-Z plane at Y = 0. Select the Analyze → 2-D sub-tab. You will see the image shown below. Select the Mesh checkbox to overlay the mesh on the results. Move both Y-direction limits sliders to the left-most position (J = 2. Release 10. 11. 10. 7.Running an Example Problem 45 . Y = 0. Click Render to generate the graphics.0 6. 12. 3. A 3-D display of Complement of Volume Fraction shows the same image as you saw when you FAVORized.25). Select Render. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. 9. Tutorial . On the 3-D tab. You will see the same image in the Display window as you saw in the FAVORize display.
Chapter 3. On the right-hand side of the General tab you will see a group box named Units. which is the centerline of the weir). This plot. Pressure is shown in this plot.0 This is the ﬂuid and solid conﬁguration at the ﬁrst simulation time step. you want to: • Check the Simulation Units (to allow output unit labels) • Request Hydraulic Data (to record additional data of interest) • Specify Selected Data output (to record some data more frequently than by default) Check the Simulation Units 1. Tutorial . The sharp crest of the weir can be seen indicating the mesh resolution is probably adequate for resolving the geometry features of interest. they could be checked here as well by selecting them in the Contour Variable dropdown list. also in units of mass/length/time2 . In the next section. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. you will check which unit system is being used.Running an Example Problem 46 . with the maximum vector value in the upper right. and others like it. The initial velocity is shown. Release 10. 3. Select the Model Setup → General tab.1. If other ﬂow quantities such as density or scalar concentration were initialized. looking at the cell centers of the X-Z plane at Cartesian Y = 0 (this location is the the minimum Y-extent of the domain. allow the user to determine the correctness of the setup before running the simulation.7 Modify the Simulation Before running the simulation. 3. The initial ﬂuid conﬁguration is also shown. The units of the vector are length/time in whatever consistent units the simulation is set up in.5.5.
and the unit of time is the second.5. and the length/mass/time units must be the same for all geometric and ﬂuid properties (such as density.Chapter 3. ﬂuid depth.1. Release 10. Selected data is useful for creating smooth animations without making excessively large output ﬁles. Fluid Velocities. Any temperature units may be used. Any unit system is acceptable. On the Output tab. Froude number. but the imported geometry must have matching units of length. and depth-averaged velocity to be computed and stored in the results ﬁle. select the checkbox for Hydraulic Data as shown below. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation.) Temperature is not selected because there is no thermal calculation in this model. Selected data is output at default intervals of 1/100th of the simulation time and includes only variables of interest whereas Restart data is output at default intervals of 1/10th of the simulation time and includes all variables necessary to solve the ﬂuid ﬂow equations. Select the Model Setup → Output tab. select the following data: Fluid Fraction. 1. Hydraulic data. 2.0 2.Running an Example Problem 47 . This will cause the ﬂuid elevation. as long as they are also uniformly applied to all model parameters. Note that CGS is selected in the dropdown box. Additional Output data will not be computed unless it is selected on the Output tab before running the simulation because it is secondary data (derived from other primary quantities). and Pressure as shown below. Tutorial . 3. This means that the geometry and ﬂuid unit of length is the cm. the unit of mass is the gram. In the Additional Output section. etc. dynamic viscosity. Specify Selected Data Output Selected data is data chosen by the user to be output more frequently than Restart data. Request Hydraulic Data 1.
3. the simulation will need to be re-run with this output speciﬁed. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. as well as any warning or error messages generated. will appear in the Runtime Messages window below the plot.0 Selected data output should be chosen with care since only the speciﬁed variables will be written more frequently to the results ﬁle during the simulation. 3. When the solver is terminated.5. it will write a ﬁnal data plot to the output ﬁle before shutting down. Switch to the Simulation Manager tab. so select Yes when prompted to save. which is the typical usage. If you determine later that you need a variable which was not speciﬁed in the Selected Data list.Chapter 3. 3. Tutorial .5.Running an Example Problem 48 . from the top menu will shut down the preprocessor or solver. 2. This example will launch the solver from the GUI. The right side of the Simulation Manager tab can be thought of as a dashboard for the simulation. Start the simulation by selecting Simulate → Run Simulation from top menu bar. The simulation must be saved before running. Either option launches the solver program called hydr3d. The Terminate icon: or Simulate → Terminate Simulation. This space also allows the user to interact with the solver while it runs.. See Also: Running FLOW-3D from the Command Line The menu selections for running simulations are located in the Simulate menu at the top of the GUI window: 1.1. Release 10. Select Preference → Show Simulation Text in Navigator from the top menu. Launching the solver from the command line may be useful during debugging and in other special cases.8 Run the Simulation There are two ways to run FLOW-3D: (1) from the graphical user interface (GUI) and (2) from the command line.. The efﬁciency and accuracy of the simulation are indicated by the runtime diagnostics plots and the runtime messages. The status of a FLOW-3D simulation. 4.exe.
Volume of ﬂuid 1: The ﬂuid volume within the domain over time. Stability limit & dt: Provides a comparison of the time step stability limit (largest time step allowable) and dt.0 5. and can be used to estimate if a simulation has reached steady state. droplets. or rapid solid (moving object) motion. Fill fraction: The total volume of ﬂuid divided by the total open (non-solid) volume in the domain.Chapter 3.Running an Example Problem 49 . 3. Release 10. particularly with mesh aspect ratio. Each selection shows a different graph. If a pressure iteration failure occurs. A near-constant value is one indication that the ﬂow is nearly steady. the max residual plot will be above the Epsi plot. volume error (% lost): Represents the amount of ﬂuid gained (negative value) or lost (positive value) due to advection errors. Different pressure solvers have different values that may be considered ‘high’. Pressure iteration count: The number of pressure iterations. excessive ﬂuid break-up. The max residual represents the actual value of the criteria after the pressure iteration has either converged or the iteration count has reached the maximum allowable value. waves. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. Indicates if the domain is ﬁlling or draining. or ﬁlling/draining. Typically much less than 1%. Scattered values indicate sloshing. Epsi & max residual: Epsi represents the pressure iteration convergence criteria. Time-step size: The solver time step. Conv.1. Familiarize yourself with the various runtime diagnostic plots available in the drop-down list above the plot. Low values indicate good pressure convergence. Fluid 1 surface area: The free-surface area of Fluid #1 is the domain. the actual time step being used.5. Tutorial . Ideally the time step dt is the same as the stability limit but it may be smaller due to various factors such as excessive pressure iteration or splashing. values larger than 1%-3% may indicate problems with the simulation.
* contain plots automatically created by the postprocessor as well as plots pre-speciﬁed in the input ﬁle.9 Introduction to Results Analysis The graphical results of a simulation can be viewed while the simulation is running or after the simulation is complete. In this example.Running an Example Problem 50 . and are not re-generated at the inlet. while ﬁles with the name flsplt. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. Particle count: The number of Lagrangian particles in the domain. 2. Tutorial . Select flsplt. Select Continue and the FLOW-3D Results dialog will be presented. particles are used to visualize ﬂow paths. If no message appears (the Analyze tab opens). It is often useful to visualize the 2-D and 3-D results while a simulation is running to check that it is running correctly. select Load Results File to open the same dialog.1. which was generated during the Preprocess phase. so the total number of particles decreases over time.5. Click on the Analyze tab. Files with the name prpplt. is deleted when the simulation is run.0 Mass-avg mean kinetic energy: Provides a measure of the average mean kinetic energy of ﬂow. if present. A list of available plots appears at the right. This is a good indicator of the steadiness of the ﬂow.* contain plots created automatically by the preprocessor.Flow_Over_A_Weir and click OK. Select plot 26. The prpgrf ﬁle. This will cause the Display tab to open automatically. 3.5. Release 10. A particular plot may be viewed by clicking on the name of that plot in the list. 4. 3. A message appears indicating that the prpgrf ﬁle no longer exists. Two types of ﬁles will be shown in the data ﬁle path box.Chapter 3. View Existing Plots 1. Select the Existing radio button. if they exist. 3.
Click on the Analyze tab.1.0 Viewing Custom Plots 1. A message appears indicating that the prpgrf ﬁle no longer exists. Since the simulation has been run.Chapter 3. the preprocessor output ﬁle has been deleted and incorporated into the flsgrf ﬁle. which was generated during the Preprocess phase. Select the flsgrf. The prpgrf ﬁle. If no message appears (the Analyze tab opens).Running an Example Problem 51 . Tutorial . Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. select Load Results File to open the same dialog. Select Continue and the FLOW-3D Results dialog will be presented. Select the Custom radio button to see full output ﬁles.* ﬁles and flsgrf. Full output ﬁles include prpgrf. 3.Flow_Over_A_Weir ﬁle in the dialog and click OK. 3.* ﬁles. Release 10.5. 2. is deleted when the simulation is run.
2-D: Cell data can be viewed in X-Y. components. Additional information such as velocity vectors. and Solidiﬁcation data can be written to text ﬁles. FSI TSE: Output speciﬁc to the ﬁnite-element ﬂuid/solid interaction and thermal-stress evolution physics package. Y-Z. Default output frequency = 1/100th of the simulation time. Default output frequency = 1/10th of the simulation time. Tutorial .0 The Analyze tab will now be displayed. Release 10. 3-D: Surface plots of both ﬂuid and solid can be generated and colored by cell data. Selected: Only user selected ﬂow variables. Neutral File: Restart and Selected Data can be output for user-speciﬁed interpolation points. Plot limits can be applied both spatially and in time. and domain-wide (global) parameters. Default output frequency = 1/100th of the simulation time. or X-Z planes. Text Output: Restart. Probe: Displays output data for individual computational cells. not used in this example. General History: Time-dependent data such as time step and kinetic energy. particles (if present). and streamlines can be added. The available plot types are: Custom: Can be used to write an output ﬁle using the output codes in the Customized Postprocessing section of this manual. There are six sources of data in FLOW3D: Restart: All ﬂow variables. the next step is to choose the data source. Plot limits can be applied both spatially and in time. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. There are many ways to visualize the results of the simulation. 3. 1-D: Cell data can be viewed along a line of cells in the X.Chapter 3.5. Data Sources Once a plot type has been selected.1. Y. Mesh Dependent: Variables (such as ﬂow rate) computed or speciﬁed at boundary conditions. Plot limits can be applied both spatially and in time. Selected.Running an Example Problem 52 . boundaries. or Z direction. Velocity vectors and particles can be added.
The surface is drawn through all cells that meet the Contour Value criteria for the selected Iso-surface variable.5.0 and 1. FSI TSE: Additional output options for deformable solids. or double-click a time frame to display it. In a previous step. Select Color variable = pressure. Examples of some of the available plot types will be generated in the next section. 7. 5. 3. you did this by selecting Complement of volume fraction as the iso-surface. 3. This is the variable that is used to draw a surface. Move the Time frame sliders to the min and max positions (0 to 1. and will show the ﬂuid surface. There are 11 plots because Restart data was selected. Select Iso-surface = Fraction of ﬂuid.1. 6. but this option allows simultaneous plotting of both the ﬂuid and solid surface.0 Solidiﬁcation: Only available if the solidiﬁcation model is active. The ﬁrst and last time frames should look like the following: 3. This selection determines which variable is used to color the iso-surface (in this case.5. Click Next to step between the time frames. Select the Analyze → 3-D tab. Click the Render button to switch to the Display tab and generate a series of 11 plots between t = 0. Tutorial . Release 10.10 Introduction to Custom 3-D Graphic Output 1.25 seconds which show the weir structure along with ﬂuid surfaces colored by pressure. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. The available plots are listed in the Available Time Frames list.Running an Example Problem 53 . Select Component iso-surface overlay = Solid volume. 2.Chapter 3.25 seconds). Solid Volume will display the solid components along with the ﬂuid. Fraction of ﬂuid is the default. 4. the ﬂuid surface will be drawn colored by pressure).
5.5. Release 10. 3. For presentation purposes. 10. Within a few seconds the view will switch to the Display window and 101 plots will be listed in the Available Time Frames list. only half of the weir structure is being simulated and displayed. Go back to the Analyze → 3-D tab and select the Open Symmetry Boundaries checkbox. Tutorial . Click the Render button.0 8.11 Show Symmetric Flow Since the simulation was set up with a symmetry plane down the center of the weir. Notice that both sliders in the Time Frame selector are at the right now so that only the last time frame will be generated. Return to the Analyze → 3-D tab and choose the Selected data radio button from the Data Source group. Move the left-hand slider to Time Frame Min = 0 to render all available time frames. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation.Chapter 3. it is often more useful to show both halves of a symmetric model. 3. 1.1. This is done automatically by the interface when Selected data is chosen since there are many time frames available and it could take a long time to render them. 9.Running an Example Problem 54 . as shown below. Click Next repeatedly to step between the time frames.
5. Select the Y direction checkbox in the dialog to mirror the results across the Y = 0 plane. 3. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. 5. Tutorial . The display shows a full weir structure as shown below.1. 4. Release 10.0 2. 3. Select Apply and Close. Select Tools → Symmetry from the toolbar menu above the display. Select the ﬁnal time frame.Chapter 3. Click Render.Running an Example Problem 55 . 6. The ﬂuid surface should now appear open at the symmetry boundary on the Display tab.
5. Animations are movies created from the frames in the Available Time Frames list. 2.Running an Example Problem 56 . 3. Click and hold the left mouse button while dragging to select the portion of the screen to animate. 4.12 Create a 3-D Animation The next step will be to create an animation of the 3-D ﬂuid surface.Chapter 3.5. 1. Select both Global radio buttons in the Contour Limits group box. it is recommended that a common color scale be applied to all frames. Tutorial . Return to the Analyze → 3-D tab. To improve the visual effect of animations. A selection box will appear around the region you selected.0 3. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation.1. Release 10. Repeat your selection of Tools → Symmetry → Y direction → Apply to mirror the results across the Y = 0 plane. Click Render to re-draw and return to the Display tab. 3. Select Tools → Animation → Rubberband Capture as shown below.5. and select OK after reading the message that appears. 6.
the following dialog will appear. so enter 5 instead and press OK. This might be too fast. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation.25 seconds.avi. The default frame rate is 10 frames per second. Once this process is complete.1. A more descriptive name is recommended as shown below. and 100 plots at regular time intervals. 3.5. This simulation has a ﬁnish time of 1. The default name for animations is out. 9. 8. Select the Capture button. Each time frame will be rendered to the Display window and bitmap ﬁles will be written in the simulation directory. A dialog will appear to start the animation.Chapter 3. Release 10.Running an Example Problem 57 . so the ‘real-world’ rate is 80 frames/second.0 7. Tutorial .
When the compression is complete. 16. Unselect the Data Rate checkbox so that the quality of animations is not limited by the data rate. the following dialog will appear. 2. Click OK. The solid geometry is displayed automatically with all 2-D plots. Choose the X-Z plane radio button.5.avi ﬁle in Windows Explorer is to select the Simulation Manager tab and click on the link labeled Simulation Input File.0.5.1. The default compression for animations is uncompressed.13 Introduction to Custom 2-D Graphic Output 1. or Cinepak if using Linux.avi ﬁle. The animation process is now complete. so it does not need to be activated like in 3-D plotting. 14. which is located at the plane Y = 0. 15. The ﬁrst cell is outside of the mesh. The fasted way to ﬁnd the . Tutorial . Drag both Y limit sliders to Y = 0. The default selection for contour variable is pressure and plain velocity vectors are selected by default. This is not recommended for most animations since the ﬁle size can be too large to load in a viewer. 12.0). Click OK to begin the compression process.25 (the cell center y-coordinate closest to Y = 0. Select the the Analyze → 2-D tab. Click the OK button to begin the next step of the process. Release 10. The most useful plane to view results for this simulation is the X-Z plane at the weir centerline. indicating that the cell in question is the second in the domain. and what will be available on the machines you use to display the video. The selection here depends on what video codecs your computer has available. 3.Running an Example Problem 58 . Select Microsoft Video 1 if using Windows. Play the animation by double clicking on the . Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. 11. 13. 3.0 10. and is used for computing boundary condition properties. You will also note that the same location is identiﬁed as J = 2. 3.Chapter 3.
Graphics similar to following will appear. Click Render to generate a time sequence of 2-D plots of pressure in the Y = 0 plane.Running an Example Problem 59 . 3. Select OK to accept the vector options. Tutorial . Select the Format button in the upper right-hand corner of the Display screen. vector lengths and arrowhead sizes. When you are done. Select Apply to see your changes.125 seconds (middle). 7. Click Vector Options and enter X = 2 and Z = 2. 6.25 seconds (right).0 seconds (left). Vectors will now be plotted every other cell. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. T = 0. Experiment with the various options such as changing line colors. select Reset and OK to return to the default settings and close the dialog.5.Chapter 3. where T = 0. you may save them by selecting the Save button. and T = 1.1. 5. Release 10.0 4. If there is a set of options you prefer for all plots.
Tutorial . 3. Move the Y-direction slider to 0. 2. 6.25 seconds. A series plots from t = 0. By default the entire X range will be displayed. Click Render.25 (J = 2) so that the cells nearest the ﬂow centerline in the Y-direction are displayed.Chapter 3.0 3. and velocity along a row of cells at one or more plot times. 4.25s will be listed in the plot list on the Display tab.1. Pick Selected as the Data Source. There 3. The available variables now show only those selected for more frequent plotting.5. 5.5.y location. ﬂuid depth. You may move the X-direction sliders if you wish to limit the extents of the plot.0 to t = 1. 7.14 Introduction to Custom 1-D Graphic Output 1. Select the the Analyze → 1-D tab. Select free surface elevation as the Data Variable. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. The location of the Z-direction slider will not matter since only one free-surface elevation is recorded for each column of z-cells in a given x. The Time frame sliders should be at 0 and 1. Select X-direction because the ﬂow direction in this simulation is primarily parallel to the x-axis. Hydraulic data is available since it was selected on the Output tab.Running an Example Problem 60 . This tab allows line-chart plots of calculated (spatially-varying) quantities such as pressure. ﬂuid elevation. Release 10.
The default mode is the Single mode and is shown in the dropdown box below the Format button.Running an Example Problem 61 .5.25 s).0. 13. To compare plots of ﬂuid surface elevation at various times. Select the Write button to create the image ﬁle. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. The plot names also show the times at which they were recorded: (t = 0.15s. 3. Click to select plots 1. 13. Tutorial .Chapter 3. Check the Plots on Screen checkbox to capture the overlay plot (and make only a single output ﬁle). The output appears as shown below. 9. and 1.1. select the Overlay mode from the dropdown box. The resulting image ﬁle will be located in the simulation directory (remember how to ﬁnd this from the Simulation Manager tab) and will be named plots_on_screen. To save this plot to a bitmap or Postscript ﬁle.0 are a number of modes in which to view these plots. 12. 11. 8. 10. Release 10. 0. select the Output button.bmp. and 101 in the right-hand pane.
This data type also includes all data from speciﬁed measurement locations (bafﬂes. or consolidated with a moving average (in time). 3. y. Values can be integrated with respect to time. and Z Data point sliders turn gray. General history data: Global quantities which vary only with time. Time-dependent values of a single x. Notice that the X. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. Mesh-dependent data: Time-dependent quantities (computed or user-speciﬁed) at mesh boundaries. Tutorial . Select the Analyze → Probe tab. z cell center coordinate will be plotted.Running an Example Problem 62 .5. There are three types of time-dependent data in FLOW-3D. time step. and convective volume error.0 3. history probes) as well as integrated output for moving or stationary solids and springs/ropes.15 Introduction to Custom Probe Plots 1. Release 10. Y.1. sampling volumes.5. 2. Typical quantities are ﬂow rate at a boundary and speciﬁed ﬂuid height at a boundary.Chapter 3. Select mass-averaged ﬂuid mean kinetic energy from the list. differentiated with respect to time. time. 3. which are selected from the Data Source group. Spatial data: Restart and Selected data sources. when those options are selected on the Model Setup –> Meshing and Geometry tab. Typical quantities are mean kinetic energy. Time history plots are created from this tab as line-graphs or text output of a variable vs. Select the General History radio button under Data Source. This is because General history data is not associated with any speciﬁc cell.
1. Select Show units on plots. CGS. 5.5. Showing and converting units requires that a unit system was selected on the Model Setup –> General tab. Select SI.Running an Example Problem 63 . You checked this in an earlier step. Tutorial .0 4. the geometry and ﬂuid properties were speciﬁed in the centimeters/grams/seconds system. 6. 3. Release 10. Select Units to open the Plotting Units dialog.Chapter 3. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. or pounds/inches/seconds to convert and output the results in the unit system of your choice. slugs/feet/seconds.
1. Tutorial . As the oscillations become smaller. Select Render to generate a graphical output of the data. 3. Select OK to close the Plotting Units dialog. with unit labels based on your selection in the previous step.0 7.Running an Example Problem 64 . Release 10. The output shows mass-averaged mean kinetic energy for all of the ﬂuid in the domain over time. The plot will appear as shown.5. 8.Chapter 3. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. The plot indicates that the total kinetic energy is oscillating around some mean value. the simulation approaches steady-state ﬂow.
This helps keep simulations organized in separate folders. The output can be saved to a text ﬁle by selecting the Save As button in the text dialog that appears. or global data). Text output works the same way as the Probe tab. 3. Select the simulation Flow Over a Weir in the workspace “Hydraulics Examples”.6 Copy and Modify a Simulation The next example problem shows how to copy the simulation just run and add an additional downstream structure.5. Enter the name Weir Structure in the dialog as shown below. Copy and Modify a Simulation 65 . Right click on the simulation and choose the option Add Simulation Copy in the pop-up menu. Select Continue to close the output window.1. It is recommended that the Create subdirectory using simulation name checkbox be selected so that the simulation copy has its own folder in the same workspace directory as the original simulation “Flow Over a Weir”. Select the Analyze → Text Output tab. 11.0 9.1 Add Simulation Copy 1. 3. 3. Cells are selected in 3-D blocks using the sliders. Release 10. 3.Chapter 3. Up to 10 quantities can be output at a time. 3. Return to the Analyze → Probe tab. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. and more than one cell can be selected to output data for each plot time. 2. Output the graph as text data by selecting Text in the Output Form group and then re-select Render.16 Introduction to Custom Text Output 1. Experiment with outputting text data on your own. measurement-station. The default spatial extents are set to the entire domain.6. 10.6. 12. 2. Select the Simulation Manager tab. except that only cell-data (Restart or Selected) can be output (no component.
Release 10.6. Click the menu bar heading Subcomponent (above the display pane) and select the option Cylinder.1.0 4. Select the Model Setup → Meshing & Geometry tab. This opens the Cylinder subcomponent dialog box. 3. 3.2 Add an Elliptical Downstream Structure 1. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. Click OK to create a new folder on the computer and in the Portfolio.Chapter 3. Copy and Modify a Simulation 66 .6. The weir is exactly the same as in the original simulation. The simulation copy has now been imported into the workspace “Hydraulics Examples”. 2.
Release 10. 4.0. 6.5 so that the cylinder is stretched 3.6. as shown in the ﬁgure below.1. By default. Click Transform to open the dialog box shown below.0. Tranlsate X = 10 so that the cylinder is centered downstream at x = 10 cm.Chapter 3. Z low=-20. Enter Rotate X = 90 (degrees) so that the cylinder becomes parallel to the Y axis. and then Magniﬁcation X = 2. Select Add to component = New Component (2) as shown below. Enter the dimensions of the cylinder: Radius = 2. Copy and Modify a Simulation 67 . 5.0 and Z high = 20. The name is optional. the cylinder object is created vertically around the z-axis. so it must be rotated and moved (translated) to the desired position. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation.0 3.
5.3 Analyze Old and New Results Simultaneously Displaying two sets of results in the same display window helps when comparing two similar cases. Click OK to apply the transformation to the cylinder object. and then click OK again to accept the ﬁnal subcomponent deﬁnition. Return to the Simulation Manager tab and select the new Weir Structure simulation. click OK to accept the component type as a standard Solid. 3. which will render the output to the ﬁrst available display. 2. Finally.0 in the X direction and becomes elliptical. 3. Copy and Modify a Simulation 68 . and ﬁnally the (t)ranslation. Select the original Flow Over a Weir simulation. Open results ﬁle flsgrf.Chapter 3.Weir_Structure. A new elliptical structure should now be created at the downstream of the weir and displayed as below. Practicing what you’ve already learned. which is accessible from the icon: and appears as a window pane pinned to the left side of the GUI by default. select all the Time frames using the sliders. Switch to the Simulation Manager tab to view the running simulation progress. Additional changes or corrections can be made in the Geometry window. select the 3-D sub-tab. and repeat the setup steps in item 2 above (do not Render yet). The cylinder was deﬁned with original center at z=0 to eliminate the need for additional translations. then the (r)otation. Render the original simulation results. and active Component iso-surface overlay = Solid volume. Open results ﬁle flsgrf. By default. 9. Release 10. These transformations are applied in alphabetical order: ﬁrst the (m)agniﬁcation. 4. Start the simulation by selecting Simulate → Run Simulation from the menu bar. the display option in the above steps is Display 1. pick Selected data with Global contour limits. Use the menu option File → Save Simulation to keep your changes. 3.6. 1. 7.Flow_Over_A_Weir.6. 8.1. Go to the Analyze → 3-D tab. go to the Analyze tab. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation.
properties. Release 10. and the one from the original simulation is hidden. physical models. or numerical options. select Nearest time frame under Lock frames. 10. a restart simulation is created with a ﬁner mesh. as Display 2. This gives the required detail while saving on runtime to reach steady state. In this case. 9. After the original simulation reaches steady state.0 6. 8. Select Display 2 under Display options. The view in the interface will automatically switch to the Display tab. Perform a Restart Simulation 69 .7. 3. due to the elliptical obstruction. the most obvious consequence of the change is that more water is trapped downstream next to the weir. Only the pressure contour from the new copy will now be shown in the graphic window. Click Render. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. Select Next to step through the simulation results simultaneously. The available solution times 3. 7. On the left. such as the mesh. A user might choose to run a restart to continue a terminated simulation or to change certain parameters of the problem. Select View → Side by Side Layout to show both results next to each other. The restart simulation uses the solution data from an existing flsgrf output ﬁle to generate the initial ﬂuid conﬁguration of the new simulation (and interpolate velocities at Grid Overlay boundaries). A common example of when a restart simulation is useful is when a detailed (high-resolution) solution of a steady-state problem is required.1.7 Perform a Restart Simulation A restart is a continuation from a previous FLOW-3D simulation. boundary conditions.Chapter 3.
Select the simulation Flow Over A Weir in the workspace “Hydraulics Examples”. Right click the simulation and select Add Restart Simulation in the pop-up menu.* of the original run and in the Restart options dialog in the GUI. Name the simulation Weir Gate. shown as ‘restart and spatial. It is based on the example simulation “Flow Over A Weir” and has a different type of upstream boundary to mimic a gate closing after t = 1.1. The name and location of this ﬁle is automatically deﬁned in the Restart dialog.0 are the ‘restart’ data writes. 3. 3. the flsgrf ﬁle from the previous simulation must be available to extract the solution data from. To perform a restart. The example below demonstrates the use of a restart simulation to mimic the change of the boundary condition after a certain time.1 Add Restart Simulation To create a restart simulation from an existing simulation. Creating a restart simulation copies the original and activates the Restart dialog to deﬁne the restart parameters and the results ﬁle to restart from.7.. 3. ‘ data edits in the solver messages ﬁle hd3msg. you create a copy of the original simulation to restart from. Select the new simulation to begin setting up the problem.7. 1. 4.25s. Select the Model Setup → General → Restart dialog (shown below) and examine the options. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. The Activate restart options button is checked to indicate that the initial conﬁguration of the ﬂuid will come from a previous results ﬁle. 2. Perform a Restart Simulation 70 . Release 10..Chapter 3. Select the Simulation Manager tab.
Perform a Restart Simulation 71 . On Model Setup → General set Finish Time = 2. Save the change.Chapter 3.5 seconds.7. 6.1. Release 10. 3.0 5.2 Change Upstream Boundary Condition and Run the Restart 1. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. Select OK to close the dialog. Switch to the Model Setup → Meshing & Geometry tab.7.25 seconds. This is because the new simulation will begin at 1. 3. which was the last time step of the original. 7.
5.0 2. Open the Mesh – Cartesian → Mesh Block 1 → Boundaries tree.1. Previously a pressure boundary with a ﬂuid height was applied at the x-min boundary. Release 10. and it needs to be changed to a wall boundary to represent the instantaneous closing of an upstream gate after t = 1. Select Wall as the Boundary type and click OK to close the dialog box. This opens the X Min Boundary dialog box. Windows can be moved around the screen. Each provides access to an element of model setup. 3.7. Click the P button next to X Min.25s. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. There are a number of windows that can be shown or hidden.Chapter 3. 4. 3. Perform a Restart Simulation 72 . Activate the Show Mesh Window button: to open the mesh window.
3. Release 10. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. 4.plt in the next Create plot ﬁle dialog box. Select flsgrf. Click the Write button to write the list of plots to the ﬁle gate. Perform a Restart Simulation 73 .1.0 6. Select Quit Create and then Close to close the dialog boxes.7. Click Render to plot the pressure contours in the Y = 0. Save and Run the simulation. The pressure contours at all available restart time frames will be listed on the Display tab.7. Concatenate 2-D Graphics 1. Click OK when prompted that the write is complete. Click the Create button in the dialog box and give the name gate.25 plane. 3.3 Concatenate and Analyze the Results This section explains the steps to concatenate two results ﬁles to create continuous animations of both 2-D and 3-D displays. Switch to X-Z plane view and slide both Y Limit sliders to the left. 3.Chapter 3. 2. Go to the Analyze and click the Open results ﬁle button. Click the Files button in the upper right of the Display tab to open the File options dialog box.Weir_Gate from the Results dialog. Select the 2-D sub-tab.plt in the simulation directory.
it is required that both ﬁles are stored in the same directory. Click Render to plot the pressure contours.0 5.Flow_Over_A_Weir.] to move one directory up.25 repeats twice. Select [. and select the ﬁle flsgrf. 8. Go back to the Analyze → 2-D tab and click the Open Results File button. Concatenate 3-D Graphics To concatenate the results ﬁles for 3-D display purposes. including the transitional moment t = 1. 3.0s to 2. Release 10.5s.1. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation. Browse to the directory where the original simulation “Flow Over A Weir” is stored. switch to X-Z plane view and select only the Y = 0.Flow_Over_A_Weir ﬁle. Select the Analyze → 3-D tab → Open results ﬁle button.Chapter 3.25 plane.25s when the upstream gate is closed.7. The Display tab should now show a list of 22 time frames from 0. Browse to the directory where the restart simulation Weir_Gate is stored and Open the ﬁle gate. Again. Select the [Flow_Over_A_Weir] directory and open the original flsgrf. 7. Click the Files button and then Open (append) in the next File options dialog box. 1.. Perform a Restart Simulation 74 .plt. Note that the frame for t = 1. 6. Click Close on the File options dialog box.
select Yes to All.25s when the upstream gate is closed. The pressure contours from the original simulation will now be shown on the Display tab. and make sure that the Time frame range is 0. and the checkbox Render frames to disk.Chapter 3. back up one folder level and select Flow Over A Weir and then Select Folder. Perform a Restart Simulation 75 . When prompted to over-write ﬁles. 4. which includes a single instance of the transitional moment t = 1.1. 8.0s to 2. 7.0 2. Select the checkbox Append to existing output.5 seconds (to eliminate duplicate frames).0 to 1. Activate the checkbox Render frames to disk and then Render. 3. Release 10. 3. Select the 3-D sub-tab.375 to 2. In the dialog box that opens. Time frames from 1.7. Tutorial FLOW-3D Documentation.5s.Weir_Gate. Select the Analyze → 3-D tab → Open results ﬁle button and browse to open the ﬁle flsgrf. The Display should now have the list of all available restart time frames from 0. 6. FLOW-3D and TruVOF are registered trademarks in the USA and other countries. Click Render. Select the component iso-surface overlay option Solid volume. Activate the component iso-surface overlay option Solid volume. 5.25 seconds.
The nodes are used to store values of the unknowns. there is also the reality of design cycles. This way each cell in a three-dimensional mesh can be identiﬁed by a unique address (i. which combine in forcing the simulation engineers to choose a reasonable size of the mesh. for developing numerical approximations of the ﬂuid motion equations. second-order differential equations. Each ﬂuid parameter is represented in a mesh by an array of values at discrete points. temperature and velocity. such as pressure. of course. The science (and often art) of developing these methods is called computational ﬂuid dynamics. j in the y-direction and k in the z-direction. or reﬁning the mesh. a numerical model starts with a computational mesh. It employs specially developed numerical techniques to solve the equations of motion for ﬂuids to obtain transient. We arrive then at a fundamental property of a numerical approximation: any valid numerical approximation approaches the original equations as the grid spacing is reduced. The FLOW-3D approach is to subdivide the ﬂow domain into a grid of rectangular cells. Since the actual physical parameters vary continuously in space. similar to coordinates of a point in the physical space. Rectangular grids are very easy to generate and store because of their regular. A numerical solution of these equations involves approximating the various terms with algebraic expressions. therefore.CHAPTER FOUR THEORY 4. These cells subdivide the physical space into small volumes with several nodes associated with each such volume.1 Theory Overview FLOW-3D is a general-purpose computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) software. setting boundary conditions and. An array of physical and numerical options allows users to apply FLOW-3D to a wide variety of ﬂuid ﬂow and heat transfer phenomena. three-dimensional solutions to multi-scale. A computational mesh effectively discretizes the physical space. j. for the same physical space results in more elements and nodes and. or cells. The process is called simulation. Fluid motion is described with non-linear. or structured. It provides the means for deﬁning the ﬂow parameters at discrete locations. nature. If an approximation does not satisfy this condition. An outline of the numerical solution algorithms available in FLOW-3D follows the section on the equations of motion. But apart from the physical reality of ﬂuid ﬂow and heat transfer. multi-physics ﬂow problems. computer hardware and deadlines. transient. Reaching a compromise between satisfying these constraints and obtaining accurate solutions by the user is a balancing act that is a no lesser art than the CFD model development itself. k). It consists of a number of interconnected elements. increases the size of the numerical model. 76 . The resulting equations are then solved to yield an approximate solution to the original problem. The computational cells are numbered in a consecutive manner using three indices: i in the x-direction. or grid. Typically. sometimes called brick elements. The mesh is effectively the numerical space that replaces the original physical one. then it must be deemed incorrect. A non-uniform grid spacing adds ﬂexibility when meshing complex ﬂow domains. a mesh with a ﬁne spacing between nodes provides a better representation to the reality than a coarser one. The ﬂuid equations of motion must be employed to solve these equations. Reducing the grid spacing.
The oldest numerical algorithms based on the ﬁnite difference and ﬁnite volume methods have been originally developed on such meshes. accuracy and stability of the numerical solutions. Some physical and numerical models are described in more detail in Flow Science’s Technical Notes: http://users. z ). It consists of three main components: the deﬁnition of the volume of ﬂuid function.1. θ. For cylindrical geometry. In the latter case. 4. FLOW-3D can be operated in several modes corresponding to different limiting cases of the general ﬂuid equations. Theory FLOW-3D Documentation. in FLOW-3D. This approach has an advantage of reducing the computational effort since in most cases the details of the gas motion are unimportant for the motion of much heavier liquid. It is challenging to model free surfaces in any computational environment because ﬂow parameters and materials properties. one mode is for compressible ﬂows. It is the oldest of the methods applied to obtain numerical solutions to differential equations. 4.Chapter 4. In FLOW-3D. These terms are included with a coefﬁcient ξ .2. area and volume fractions are time independent. represented only by uniform pressure and temperature. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is employed in FLOW-3D for this purpose.2. Equations of Motion 77 . A proper deﬁnition of the boundary conditions at the free surface is important for an accurate capture of the free-surface dynamics. For instance. while ξ = 1 corresponds to cylindrical geometry. the ﬂuid density and energy may be assumed constant and do not need to be computed. such as density.ﬂow3d. while another is for purely incompressible ﬂow situations. θ. zero-volume porosity regions are used to deﬁne obstacles.com/tech-notes/default. and the volume occupied by the gas is replaced with an empty space. therefore. ﬁnally. Additionally.1 Coordinate Systems The differential equations to be solved are written in terms of Cartesian coordinates (x. void of mass. This formulation. They form the core of the numerical approach in FLOW-3D. Free surface becomes one of the liquid’s external boundaries. Porosity functions also introduce some simpliﬁcations in the speciﬁcation of free-surface and wall boundary conditions.asp. such that ξ = 0 corresponds to Cartesian geometry. the y-coordinate is transformed to the azimuthal coordinate. Release 10. and z is the axial coordinate. z ) the x-coordinate is interpreted as the radialdirection. These modes of operations correspond to different choices for the governing equations of motion. For example. velocity and pressure experience a discontinuity at it. there are one ﬂuid and two ﬂuid modes. The ﬁnite volume method derives directly from the integral form of the conservation laws for ﬂuid motion and. transparency of the latter with respect to their relationship to the original physical problem and. Generally. these quantities may vary with time when the moving obstacle model is employed.0 Structured rectangular grids carry additional beneﬁts of the relative ease of the development of numerical methods. naturally possesses the conservation properties. which also include examples.2 Equations of Motion 4. However. and the ﬁrst application is considered to have been developed by Euler in 1768. the inertia of the gas adjacent to the liquid is neglected. while area porosities may be used to model thin porous bafﬂes. All equations are formulated with area and volume porosity functions. Free surface can be included in the one-ﬂuid incompressible mode. y . The ﬁnite difference method is based on the properties of the Taylor expansion and on the straightforward application of the deﬁnition of derivatives. additional terms must be added to the Cartesian equations of motion. a method to solve the VOF transport equation and setting the boundary conditions at the free surface. Free surface exists in many simulations carried out with FLOW-3D. For cylindrical coordinates (r. called FAVORTM for Fractional Area/Volume Obstacle Representation Method [Hirt-Sicilian-1985] is used to model complex geometric regions.
2. The velocity components (u. Theory FLOW-3D Documentation. (4. Compressible ﬂow problems require solution of the full density transport equation as stated in Eq.1). (4. the viscosity) and • Sc is a constant whose reciprocal is usually referred to as the turbulent Schmidt number. When Cartesian coordinates are to be used.Chapter 4. RSOR . 1 ∂ ∂ → ∂y r ∂θ This transformation is accomplished by using the equivalent form 1 ∂ rm ∂ = r ∂θ r ∂y where: • y = rm θ and • rm is a ﬁxed reference radius. R is set to unity and ξ is set to zero. • This type of mass diffusion only makes sense for turbulent mixing processes in ﬂuids having a non-uniform density. for example. When cylindrical coordinates are used.e.5) ∂ ∂x υ ρ Ax ∂ρ ∂x +R ∂ ∂y υρ Ay R ∂ρ ∂y + ∂ ∂z υ ρ Az ∂ρ ∂z +ξ ρυρ Ax x (4. v . The last term. The ﬁrst term on the right side of Eq.. The coefﬁcient R depends on the choice of coordinate system in the following way.1) 4. For incompressible ﬂuids.2.1. RDIF = where: • the coefﬁcient υρ is equal to Sc µ/ρ. • RDIF is a turbulent diffusion term. in which µ is the coefﬁcient of momentum diffusion (i. z ) or (r.0 4. • ρ is the ﬂuid density. Ax is the fractional area open to ﬂow in the x-direction. (4. and • RSOR is a mass source. respectively. y derivatives must be converted to azimuthal derivatives. Ay and Az are similar area fractions for ﬂow in the y and z directions. ρ is a constant and Eq. is a turbulent diffusion term. to model mass injection through porous obstacle surfaces. Equations of Motion 78 .2 Mass Continuity Equation and Its Variations The general mass continuity equation is: VF where: • V F is the fractional volume open to ﬂow. RSOR .1) is a density source term that can be used.4) (4.1) reduces to the incompressibility condition ∂ ∂ ∂ uAx RSOR (uAx ) + R (vAy ) + (wAz ) + ξ = ∂x ∂y ∂z x ρ (4. (4. The transformation given by Eq. y .3) is particularly convenient because its implementation only requires the multiplier R = rm /r on each y derivative in the original Cartesian coordinate equations. z ). on the right side of Eq. (4. w) are in the coordinate directions (x. Release 10.3) (4.1).2) ∂ ∂ ∂ ρuAx ∂ρ + (ρuAx ) + R (ρvAy ) + (ρwAz ) + ξ = RDIF + RSOR ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z x (4.
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